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Encyclopedia > Jack Warner
Jack Warner

Born Jacob Warner
August 2, 1892(1892-08-02)
London, Ontario
Died September 9, 1978 (aged 86)
Hollywood, Los Angeles, California
Years active 1927–1972
Spouse(s) Irma Solomons (1916–1935)
Ann Page (1936–1978)
This article is about Jack Warner, the head of Warner Brothers. For other people named Jack Warner, see Jack Warner (disambiguation).

Jack Leonard "J.L." Warner (August 2, 1892September 9, 1978), born Jacob Warner in London, Ontario, Canada, was the president and driving force behind the successful development of Warner Brothers Studios in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. Warner's 45-year career was lengthier than that of any other traditional Hollywood studio mogul.[1] Image File history File links Jack_warner. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see London (disambiguation). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Greetings from Hollywood Hollywood is a district of the city of Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., that extends from Vermont Avenue on the east to just beyond Laurel Canyon Boulevard above Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevards on the west; the north to south boundary east of La Brea Avenue... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award is awarded periodically (although not every year) at the Academy Awards ceremonies to Creative producers, whose bodies of work reflect a consistently high quality of motion picture production. ... ©A.M.P.A.S.® The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to artists working in the motion picture industry. ... My Fair Lady is an Academy Award-winning 1964 film adaptation of the stage musical, My Fair Lady, based in turn on the play Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw. ... The Golden Globe Awards are American awards for motion pictures and television programs, given out each year during a formal dinner. ... The Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures has been given annually since 1952 by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association at the Golden Globe Award ceremonies in Hollywood, California. ... People named Jack Warner include: Austin Jack Warner (1944- ), Trinidadian football administrator, businessman and FIFA Vice President Jack Warner (1892-1978), former head of Warner Brothers studio Jack Warner (actor) (1896-1981), British film and television actor John Warner (baseball player) (1872-1943), American baseball catcher Jack Warner (baseball) (1940... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see London (disambiguation). ... “WB” redirects here. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... “Tycoon” redirects here. ...

As co-head of production at Warner Bros. Studios, he worked with his brother, Sam Warner, to procure the technology for the film industry's first talking picture.[2] After Sam's death, Jack clashed with his surviving older brothers, Harry and Albert Warner. He assumed exclusive control of the film production company in the 1950s, when he secretly purchased his brothers' shares in the business after convincing them to participate in a joint sale of stocks.[3] Sam Warner (August 10, 1887 - October 5, 1927) was a co-founder and Chief Executive Officer of Warner Brothers film company. ... Harold (Harry) Morris Warner (born Hirsch Eichelbaum, December 12, 1881 Krasnosielc, Mazovia, Poland - 25 July 1958) was one of the founders of Warner Bros. ... Albert Warner (July 23, 1883 - November 26, 1967) was the one of the founders of Warner Bros. ...

Although Warner was feared by many of his employees and inspired ridicule with his uneven attempts at humor, he earned respect for his shrewd instincts and toughmindedness.[1] He recruited many of Warner Bros.' top stars[4] and promoted the hard-edged social dramas for which the studio became known.[5] Given to quick decision making, Warner once commented, "If I'm right fifty-one percent of the time, I'm ahead of the game."[1]

Throughout his career, he was viewed as a contradictory and enigmatic figure.[6] Although he was a staunch Republican, Warner encouraged film projects that promoted the agenda of Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal.[5] He speedily grasped the threat posed by European fascism and criticized Nazi Germany well before America's involvement in World War II.[7] During the postwar era, however, Warner supported an anti-Communist crusade that culminated in the "blacklisting" of Hollywood directors, actors, screenwriters, and technicians.[8] Despite his controversial public image, Warner remained a force in the motion picture industry until his retirement in the early 1970s.[9] The Republican Party was established in 1854 by a coalition of former Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free Soilers who opposed the expansion of slavery and held a Hamiltonian vision for modernizing the United States. ... The Democratic Party, founded in 1792, is the second-oldest political party in the world (after the Tories of the United Kingdom). ... FDR redirects here. ... This article is about Franklin D. Roosevelts 1930s political reforms in the United States. ... Fascist redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Blacklisted redirects here. ...


Early years

Jack Warner was born in London, Ontario, in 1892, into a Yiddish-speaking family of Jewish immigrants from Poland. He was the fifth surviving son of Benjamin Warner, a cobbler from Krasnosielc, Poland, and his wife, the former Pearl Leah Eichelbaum. Following their marriage in 1876, the couple had three children in Poland, one of whom died at a young age.[10] Their surviving children included Jack's eldest brother, Hirsch (later Harry).[11] The Warner family had occupied a "hostile world", where the "night-riding of cossacks, the burning of houses, and the raping of women were part of life's burden for the Jews of the stetl".[12] In search of a better future for his family and himself, in 1883 Benjamin made his way to Hamburg, Germany, and then took a ship to America.[11] Pearl Warner and the couple's two children joined him in Baltimore, Maryland less than a year later. In Baltimore, the couple had five more children, including Albert and Sam Warner.[13] Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Krasnosielc is a small town in Masovian Voivodship, Poland. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Baltimore redirects here. ...

Benjamin Warner's decision to move to Canada in the early 1890s was inspired by a friend's advice that he could make an excellent living bartering tin wares with trappers in exchange for furs.[14] In Canada, two more children were born, including Jack.[14] After two arduous years in Canada, Benjamin and Pearl Warner returned to Baltimore, bringing along their growing family.[15] In 1896, the Warners relocated to Youngstown, Ohio, following the lead of Harry Warner, who established a shoe repair shop in the heart of the emerging industrial town.[16] Benjamin Warner worked with his son, Harry, in the shoe repair shop, until he secured a loan to open a meat counter and grocery store in the city's downtown area.[17] During this period, two more children "were added to the cramped quarters" of the Warner household.[18] Location within the state of Ohio Coordinates: , Country State Counties Mahoning, Trumbull Founded 1796 Incorporated 1848 (village) - 1867 (city) Government  - Mayor Jay Williams (I) Area  - City  34. ...

Jack Warner, who spent much of his youth in Youngstown, observed in his autobiography that his experiences there molded his sensibilities. Warner wrote: "J. Edgar Hoover told me that Youngstown in those days was one of the toughest cities in America, and a gathering place for Sicilian thugs active in the Mafia. There was a murder or two almost every Saturday night in our neighborhood, and knives and brass knuckles were standard equipment for the young hotheads on the prowl."[19] Warner claimed that he briefly belonged to a street gang based at Westlake's Crossing, a notorious neighborhood located just west of the city's downtown area.[20] Meanwhile, he received his first taste of show business in the burgeoning steel town, singing at local theaters and forming a brief business partnership with another aspiring "song-and-dance man".[21] His older brother, Sam, disapproved of these youthful pursuits, however. "Get out front where they pay the actors," Sam Warner advised Jack. "That's where the money is."[22] John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... A thug is someone who went through alot of things throughout their lives. ... This article is about the criminal society. ... Categories: Weapon stubs | M e weapons ...

Professional career

Early business ventures

In Youngstown, the Warner brothers took their first tentative steps into the entertainment industry. In the early 1900s, Sam Warner formed a business partnership with another local resident and "took over" the city's Old Grand Opera House, which he used as a venue for "cheap vaudeville and photoplays".[23] The venture failed after one summer.[23] Next, Sam secured a job as a projectionist at Idora Park, a local amusement park. He convinced the family of the new medium's possibilities and negotiated the purchase of a Model B Kinetoscope from a projectionist who was "down on his luck".[24] The purchase price was $1,000,[25] and Jack Warner contributed $150 to the venture by pawning a horse, according to his obituary.[26] A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying moving pictures. ... Idora Park (1899 - 1984) was a northeastern Ohio amusement park popularly known as Youngstowns Million Dollar Playground. ... Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet. ...

The enterprising brothers screened a well-used copy of The Great Train Robbery throughout Ohio and Pennsylvania before renting a vacant store in New Castle, Pennsylvania.[27] This makeshift theatre, called the Bijou, was furnished with chairs borrowed from a local undertaker.[28][25] Jack, who was still living in Youngstown at the time, arrived on weekends "to sing illustrated song-slides during reel changes".[28] In 1906, the brothers purchased a small theater in New Castle, which they called the Cascade Movie Palace. They maintained the theater until moving into film distribution in 1907.[29] That year, the Warner brothers established the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement Company, a distribution firm that proved lucrative until the advent of Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company (also known as the Edison Trust), which charged distributors exorbitant fees.[30] In 1909, the Warners sold the family business for "$10,000 in cash, $12,000 in preferred stock, and payments over a four-year period for a total of $52,000".[31] The Great Train Robbery is a 1903 western film. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... New Castle is a city in Lawrence County, Pennsylvania, 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; in 1910, the total population was 36,280; in 1920, 44,938; and in 1940, 47,638. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Edison redirects here. ... The Motion Picture Patents Company (also known as the Edison Trust), founded in December 1908, was a trust of all the major film companies (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig, Lubin, Kalem, American Star, American Pathé), the leading distributor (George Kleine) and the biggest supplier of raw film, Eastman Kodak. ...

Formation of Warner Bros.

In 1910, the Warner brothers pooled their resources and moved into film production.[32] Then, in 1912, the brothers lent their support to filmmaker Carl Laemmle's Independent Motion Picture Company, which challenged the monopolistic control of the Edison Trust. That same year, Harry Warner sent Jack to establish a film exchange in San Francisco, while Sam did the same in Los Angeles. The brothers were soon poised to exploit the expanding California movie market.[33] Their first opportunity to produce a major film came in 1918, when they purchased the film rights for My Four Years in Germany, a bestselling novel that condemned German wartime atrocities. The film proved to be a commercial and critical success.[34] When Warner Bros. was formed that same year, Jack became co-head of production along with his brother, Sam.[35] In this capacity, the two brothers secured new scripts and story lines, managed film production, and looked for ways to reduce production costs.[34] Carl Laemmle Birthplace of Carl Laemmle in Laupheim Carl Laemmle (17 January 1867 – 24 September 1939), born in Laupheim, Württemberg, Germany, was a pioneer in American film making and a founder of one of the original major Hollywood movie studios. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Hollywood movie studios, 1922

In 1919, Warner Bros. followed up the success of My Four Years in Germany with a popular serial titled The Tiger's Claw. That same year, the studio was less successful in its efforts to promote Open Your Eyes, a tract on the dangers of venereal disease that featured Jack Warner's sole screen appearance.[36] In 1920, the Warners relocated their production studio from Culver City, California, to Hollywood, where they purchased a lot on the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Bronson Avenue.[37] The new location and upgraded facilities did not significantly improve the studio's image, which remained defined by its low-budget comedies and racy films on declining morality.[38] Image File history File links Hollywood-Studios-1922. ... Image File history File links Hollywood-Studios-1922. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... Motto: The Heart of Screenland Location of Culver City in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1917-09-07 [2] Government  - City Manager Jerry Fulwood [1] Area  - City  5. ... Sunset Boulevard (officially known as West Sunset Boulevard, except in Beverly Hills) is a street in the western part of Los Angeles County, California, that stretches from Figueroa Street in downtown Los Angeles to the Pacific Coast Highway at the Pacific Ocean in the Pacific Palisades. ...

In 1923, however, the studio discovered an unlikely star in a trained German Shepherd named Rin Tin Tin. The enormously popular canine made his debut in Where the North Begins, a film about an abandoned pup who is raised by wolves and later befriends a fur trapper.[39] According to one biographer, Jack Warner's initial doubts about the project were quelled when he met Rin Tin Tin, "who seemed to display more intelligence than some of the Warner comics".[39] The trained dog proved to be the studio's most important commercial asset until the introduction of sound.[40] Warner Bros. also benefited from the arrival of prolific screenwriter Darryl F. Zanuck, who produced several scripts for Rin Tin Tin vehicles and, during one year, wrote more than half of the studio's features.[41] Between 1928 and 1933, Zanuck served as Jack Warner's right-hand man and executive producer, a position whose responsibilities included the day-to-day production of films.[42] The German Shepherd Dog, also known as the Alsatian (in France and the UK), Schäfer (in other parts of Europe) and by the acronym GSD or simply German Shepherd, is a breed of dog originally bred for herding sheep. ... 1928 movie ad Rin Tin Tin (often billed as Rin-Tin-Tin in the 1920s and 1930s) was the name given to several German Shepherd dogs in film and television. ... Darryl Francis Zanuck (September 5, 1902–December 22, 1979) was a producer, writer, actor and director who played a major part in the Hollywood studio system as one of its longest survivors (the length of his career being rivalled only by that of Adolph Zukor). ...

In 1925, Sam Warner urged his brother, Harry, to sign an agreement with Western Electric to develop a series of "talking" shorts using the newly developed Vitaphone technology.[43] Sam died of pneumonia in 1927 (just before the premiere of the first feature-length "talking" picture, The Jazz Singer),[44] and Jack became sole head of production.[45] Sam's death left Jack unconsolable. One biographer, Bob Thomas, writes, "Throughout his life, Jack had been warmed by Sam's sunshiny optimism, his thirst for excitement, his inventive mind, his gambling nature". Sam had also served as a buffer between Jack Warner and his stern eldest brother, Harry.[46] In the years to come, Jack ran Warners' Burbank studio with an iron hand. Following his brother's death, he became increasingly difficult to deal with and inspired the resentment of many of his employees.[47] Company Masthead Logo Logo until circa 1969, also current logo on company web site Logo 1969–1983 Hi Dan! Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was an American electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995. ... The Warner Brothers Vitaphone logo. ... The Jazz Singer (1927) is a U.S. movie musical and the first feature-length motion picture with talking sequences. ... Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ...

As the family grieved over Sam's sudden passing, the success of The Jazz Singer helped establish Warner Bros. as a major studio. While Warner Bros. invested only $500,000 in the film, the studio reaped $3 million in profits. Hollywood's five major studios, which controlled most of the nation's movie theaters, initially attempted to block the growth of "talking pictures".[48] In the face of such organized opposition, Warner Bros. produced 12 "talkies" in 1928 alone.[48] The following year, the newly formed Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences recognized Warner Bros. for "revolutionizing the industry with sound".[49] Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in Hollywood, California Founded on May 11, 1927 in California, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization dedicated to the advancement of the arts and sciences of motion pictures. ...

Depression era

The studio emerged relatively unscathed from the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and produced a broad range of films, including "backstage musicals", "crusading biopics", "swashbucklers", and "women's pictures". As Thomas Schatz observed, this varied repertoire was "a means of stabilizing marketing and sales, of bringing efficiency and economy into the production of some fifty feature films per year, and of distinguishing Warners' collective output from that of its competitors".[50] Warner Bros. became best known, however, for its hard-hitting social dramas, whose production Jack Warner tended to support. These included gangster classics such as Little Caesar and The Public Enemy as well as the critically acclaimed I Am a Fugitive From a Chain Gang, starring Paul Muni.[51] Some of these films reflected a surprising (albeit temporary) shift in Warner's political outlook. By 1932, despite his longstanding association with the Republican Party, he openly supported Democratic presidential candidate Franklin Roosevelt, staging a "Motion Picture and Electrical Parade Sports Pageant" at L.A. Stadium in Roosevelt's honor. This development foreshadowed an "era in which Warner would recruit the most New Dealish (often simultaneously the most left-wing) writers".[5] In days leading up to Black Thursday the market was unstable. ... This article is about the 1931 film. ... Paul Muni plays a prisoner working on the chain gang I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang is a 1932 movie in which Paul Muni stars as a wrongly accused escapee from a brutal chain gang. ... Paul Muni (September 22, 1895 – August 25, 1967) was an Academy Award-winning and Tony Award-winning American stage and film actor. ... The Democratic Party, founded in 1792, is the second-oldest political party in the world (after the Tories of the United Kingdom). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ...

During this period, Warner took an active role in recruiting talent. To furnish Warner Bros. with much needed "star power", he raided contract players from rival studios, in some cases offering to double their salaries. This strategy yielded three leading stars from Paramount Studios – William Powell, Kay Francis, and Ruth Chatterton.[52] In 1929, Warner persuaded British stage and screen actor George Arliss to play the title role in a remake of the 1921 United Artists film, Disraeli, a project that turned out to be a box-office hit.[53] Then, in 1930, he spotted future stars James Cagney, Joan Blondell, and Frank McHugh in the cast of a New York play called Penny Arcade.[54] Although Cagney turned out to be Warner's greatest prize, he was also the studio executive's biggest professional challenge.[55] During his frequent arguments with Warner, Cagney often resorted to screaming the Yiddish obscenities he learned during his upbringing in the Hell's Kitchen district of New York City.[56][57] According to a 1937 Fortune magazine article, Warner's most intense contract disputes involved Cagney, "who got sick of being typed as a girl-hitting mick and of making five pictures a year instead of four".[57] Look up Paramount on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Paramount can refer to: Paramount, California, a city in Los Angeles County Paramount Pictures, a motion picture company Paramount Records, a record label United Paramount Network (UPN), a television network in the United States, owned by Viacom Inc. ... William Horatio Powell (July 29, 1892 - March 5, 1984) was an American actor, noted for his sophisticated, cynical roles. ... Kay Francis (January 13, 1905 – August 26, 1968) was an American actress who, after a brief beginning on Broadway in the 1920s, moved to film and achieved her greatest success between 1930 and 1936. ... Ruth Chatterton Ruth Chatterton (December 24, 1893 - November 24, 1961) was an American actress. ... George Arliss (10 April 1868- 5 February 1946) was a British actor. ... This article is about the film studio. ... Disraeli is a 1929 film that was adapted by Julien Josephson and De Leon Anthony from a play by Louis N. Parker. ... James Francis Cagney, Jr. ... Blondell in Nightmare Alley (1947) Rose Joan Blondell (August 30, 1906 - December 25, 1979) was an Oscar-nominated American actress. ... Francis Curray McHugh (May 23, 1898 - September 11, 1981) was an American film and television actor. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... View from between 47th and 48th street on Ninth Avenue looking north toward Time Warner Center and Hearst Tower Hells Kitchen, also known as Clinton and Midtown West, is a neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City that includes roughly the area between 34th Street and 57th Street, from... Fortune magazine is Americas second longest-running business magazine after Forbes magazine. ...

In 1933, the studio's executive producer, Darryl F. Zanuck, resigned during a contract dispute.[58] According to a 1933 letter Jack Warner wrote to Will H. Hays, president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, Zanuck had called for a higher salary and "indicated his desire to raise the salaries of the actors and personnel in the motion pictures we were producing".[58] That year, Zanuck established 20th Century Studios, which merged with Fox Film Corporation in 1935.[59] Hal B. Wallis took over as the studio's executive producer. Warner, however, denied Wallis the sweeping powers enjoyed by Zanuck, and the result was a decentralization of creative and administrative control that often created confusion at the studio.[60] Under the new system, each picture was assigned a supervisor who was usually plucked from the ranks of the studio's screenwriters.[61] Although Warner Bros. maintained a high rate of production throughout the 1930s, some pictures showed an uneven quality that reflected "not only the difficulty of shifting to a supervisory system but also the consequences of dispersing authority into the creative ranks".[61] Meanwhile, Jack Warner's role in production became somewhat limited. After acquiring a creative property, he often had little to do with a film's production until it was ready for preview.[62] Nevertheless, Warner could be heavyhanded in his dealings with employees, and he was "merciless in his firings".[1] Film director Gottfried Reinhardt claimed that Warner "derived pleasure" from humiliating subordinates.[63] "Harry Cohn was a sonofabitch," Reinhardt said, "but he did it for business; he was not a sadist. [Louis B.] Mayer could be a monster, but he was not mean for the sake of meanness. Jack was."[63] Cover of Time Magazine (September 13, 1926) William Harrison Hays (November 5, 1879–March 7, 1954) was the namesake of the Hays Code, chairman of Republican National Committee and U.S. Postmaster General. ... MPAA redirects here. ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ... Hal B. Wallis (September 14, 1898 – October 5, 1986) was an American motion picture producer. ... Gottfried Reinhardt (born March 20, 1913 in Berlin, Germany; died July 19, 1994 in Los Angeles, California, USA.) was a German film director and producer. ... Harry Cohn (July 23, 1891–February 27, 1958), sometimes nicknamed King Cohn, was president and production director of Columbia Pictures. ...

Warner's management style frustrated many studio employees. Comedian Jack Benny, who once worked at Warner Bros., quipped, "Jack Warner would rather tell a bad joke than make a good movie".[64] Warner frequently clashed with actors and supposedly banned them from the studio's executive dining room, with the explanation, "I don't need to look at actors when I eat."[65] The studio executive did, however, win the affection of a few film personalities. In later years, actress Bette Davis defended Warner against rumors of sexual impropriety when she wrote: "No lecherous boss was he! His sins lay elsewhere. He was the father. The power. The glory. And he was in business to make money."[26] Davis revealed that, after the birth of her child, Warner's attitude toward her became warm and protective. "We became father and child, no question about it", she said. "He told me I didn't have to come back to work until I really felt like it. He was a thoughtful man. Not many nice things were said about him."[1] Warner also earned the gratitude and affection of Errol Flynn. In 1935, the studio head personally selected Flynn for the title role of Captain Blood, even though Flynn was an unknown actor at the time.[66] In 1936, following the success of another costume epic, The Charge of the Light Brigade, Warner tore up Flynn's contract and signed him to a long-term deal that doubled his weekly salary.[67] Jack Benny (February 14, 1894 in Chicago, Illinois – December 26, 1974 in Beverly Hills, California), born Benjamin Kubelsky, was an American comedian, vaudeville performer, and radio, television, and film actor. ... For the singer, see Betty Davis, for the meteorologist, see Betty Davis (meteorologist). ... Errol Leslie Thomson Flynn (June 20, 1909 – October 14, 1959) was an Australian film actor, most famous for his romantic swashbuckler roles in Hollywood films and his flamboyant lifestyle. ... Captain Blood is a 1935 swashbuckling film made by First National Pictures and Warner Brothers. ... The Charge of the Light Brigade is a 1936 historical film made by Warner Bros. ...

Pre-war and war years

Jack Warner's former estate
Jack Warner's former estate

As the 1930s came to an end, Jack, along with brother Harry, became increasingly alarmed over the rise of Nazism.[68] As Bernard F. Dick observed, the Warners, "as sons of Polish Jews who fled their homeland because of anti-Semitic pogroms. . .had a personal interest in exposing Nazism". Moreover, the brothers' attraction to films critical of German militarism had a long history that predated their production in 1918 of My Four Years in Germany. In 1917, while still in distribution, the Warners had secured the rights for War Brides, a film that featured Alla Nazimova as "a woman who kills herself rather than breed children for an unidentified country whose army looks suspiciously Teutonic".[69] Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Alla Nazimova, born Mariam Edez Adelaida Leventon (May 22, 1879 – July 14, 1945) was an American theater and film actress, scriptwriter, and producer. ...

Beyond this, Jack Warner was shaken by the 1936 murder of studio salesman Joe Kaufman, who was beaten to death by Nazi stormtroopers in Berlin.[70][71] Warner later described the incident in the following terms: "Like many an outnumbered Jew he was trapped in an alley. They [Nazi hoodlums] hit him with fists and clubs and then kicked the life out of him with their boots and left him dying there."[72] Hence, while other Hollywood studios sidestepped the issue, fearing domestic criticism and the loss of European markets, Warner Bros. produced films openly critical of Germany's fascist government. In 1939, the studio released Confessions of a Nazi Spy, starring Edward G. Robinson. The film project, which was recommended to Jack Warner by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, drew on the real-life experiences of agent Leon Turrou, who had worked as an undercover agent.[68] Despite legal ramifications preventing the use of actual names, the studio aimed for an "aura of authenticity", and Hall Wallis initially recommended eliminating credits to give the film "the appearance of a newsreel".[73] Upon its release, Confessions of a Nazi Spy created a firestorm. Critic Pare Lorentz wrote, "The Warner brothers have declared war on Germany with this one." The German ambassador responded by issuing a protest to U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull, and German dictator Adolf Hitler, who screened the film at Berchtesgaden, was outraged.[68] Meanwhile, the studio received stern warnings from U.S. lawmaker Martin Dies about defaming a "friendly country".[74] This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Confessions of a Nazi Spy is a 1939 spy thriller and the first blatantly anti-Nazi film produced by a major Hollywood studio prior to World War II. [1] The film stars Edward G. Robinson, George Sanders, and a large cast of German actors, including some who had immigrated from... Edward Goldenberg Robinson (born Emanuel Goldenberg, Yiddish: עמנואל גולדנברג; December 12, 1893 – January 26, 1973) was an American stage and film actor of Romanian origin. ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ... Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871–July 23, 1955) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... Martin Dies, Jr. ...

Initially, the studio bowed to pressure from the Roosevelt Administration, the Hays Office, and isolationist lawmakers to desist from similar projects. Jack Warner announced that the studio would release no more "propaganda pictures" and promptly ordered the shelving of several projects with an anti-Nazi theme.[75] In time, however, Warner Bros. produced more films with an anti-Nazi message, including Underground and All Through the Night. In 1940, the studio produced shorts that dramatically documented the devastation wrought by the German bombing raids on London. Meanwhile, the studio celebrated the exploits of the Canadian Air Force, with films such as Captains of the Clouds.[76] In 1943, little more than a year after America's entrance into the war, Warner Bros. released Mission to Moscow, a film intended to inspire public support for the United States' uneasy military alliance with the Soviet Union.[77] Jack Warner later dismissed Cold War allegations that the film was subversive, arguing that Mission to Moscow was produced "only to help a desperate war effort and not for posterity".[78] In line with Jack and Harry Warner's early opposition to Nazism, Warner Bros. produced more pictures about the war than any other studio, covering every branch of the armed services.[79] In addition, the studio produced patriotic musicals such as This is the Army and Yankee Doodle Dandy.[79] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) is the air force element of the Canadian Forces. ... Mission to Moscow is a 1943 movie directed by Michael Curtiz with a screen play by Howard Koch based on the book by Ambassador Joseph E. Davies. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This Is the Army is a 1943 American motion picture produced by Hal B. Wallis and Jack L. Warner, and directed by Michael Curtiz. ... Yankee Doodle Dandy is a 1942 biographical film about George M. Cohan, starring James Cagney, Joan Leslie, Walter Huston, Richard Whorf, Irene Manning, George Tobias, Rosemary DeCamp and Jeanne Cagney. ...

Postwar era

Jack Warner responded grudgingly to the rising popularity of television in the late 1940s.[80] Initially, he tried to compete with the new medium, introducing gimmicks such as 3-D films, which soon lost their appeal among moviegoers.[81] In 1954, Warner finally engaged the new medium, providing ABC with a weekly show, Warner Bros. Presents.[82] The studio followed up with a series of Western dramas, such as Maverick, Bronco, and Colt .45.[83] Within a few years, Warner, accustomed to dealing with actors in a high-handed manner, provoked hostility among emerging TV stars like James Garner, who filed a lawsuit against Warner Bros. over a contract dispute.[84] He was angered by the perceived ingratitude of television actors, who evidently showed more independence than film actors, and this deepened his contempt for the new medium.[85] This US Postage Stamp celebrates the 3-D movie craze of the 1950s. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... Warner Bros. ... Maverick is a comedy-western television series created by Roy Huggins that ran from September 22, 1957 to July 8, 1962 on ABC and featured James Garner, Roger Moore, and Jack Kelly as poker-playing travelling gamblers. ... Bronco was a Western series. ... Colt . ... For other uses, see James Garner (disambiguation). ...

During this period, Warner showed little foresight in his treatment of the studio's cartoon operation. Animated characters such as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, and Porky Pig, while embraced by cartoon lovers, "were always stepchildren at Warner Bros."[86] As biographer Bob Thomas wrote, "Jack Warner...considered cartoons no more than an extraneous service provided to exhibitors who wanted a full program for their customers."[86] In 1953, during a rare meeting between the Warners and the studio's cartoon makers, Jack confessed that he didn't "even know where the hell the cartoon studio is", and Harry added, "The only thing I know is that we make Mickey Mouse," a reference to the flagship character of a competing company, Walt Disney Productions.[87] Several years later, Jack sold all of the 400 cartoons Warner Bros. made before 1948 for $3,000 apiece. As Thomas noted, "They have since earned millions, but not for Warner Bros."[88] Bugs Bunny is an animated rabbit/hare who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... Daffy Duck is an animated cartoon character in the Warner Brothers Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons. ... Porky Pig is an Academy Award-nominated animated cartoon character in the Warner Bros. ... Mickey Mouse is an Academy Award-winning comic animal cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. ... Walt Disney Productions is the former name of The Walt Disney Company, which it held from 1929 to 1986. ...

Jack Warner's tumultuous relationship with his brother, Harry, worsened in 1956, when Harry learned of Jack's decision to sell the Warner Bros.' pre-1949 films to United Artists Television for the modest sum of $21 million.[89] "This is our heritage, what we worked all our lives to create, and now it is gone," Harry exclaimed, upon hearing of the deal.[89] The breach between Jack and Harry widened later that year. In July 1956, Jack, Harry, and Albert announced they were putting Warner Bros. on the market. Jack, however, secretly organized a syndicate that purchased control of the company. By the time Harry and Albert learned of their brother's dealings, it was too late.[3] Shortly after the deal was closed, Jack Warner announced that the company and its subsidiaries would be "directed more vigorously to the acquisition of the most important story properties, talents, and to the production of the finest motion pictures possible".[90] The two brothers had often argued, and earlier in the decade, Harry reportedly chased Jack through the studio with a lead pipe, shouting, "I'm going to get you, you son of a bitch" and threatening to kill him.[91]. This subterfuge, however, proved too much for Harry; he never spoke to Jack again.[3] When Harry Warner died on July 27, 1958, Jack avoided the funeral and departed for his annual vacation at Cap d'Antibes. Asked to respond to his brother's death, Jack said, "I didn't give a shit about Harry." At the same time, Jack took pride in the fact that U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent him a letter of condolence.[92] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the association term. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Antibes (Provençal Occitan: Antíbol in classical norm or Antibo in Mistralian norm) is a resort town of southeastern France, on the Mediterranean Sea in the Côte dAzur, located between Cannes and Nice. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...

The Sixties

In the early 1960s, Warner kept pace with changes in the industry and played a key role in developing films that were commercial and critical successes. In February 1962, he purchased the film rights for the Broadway musical, My Fair Lady, paying an unprecedented $5.5 million. The previous owner, CBS director William S. Paley, set terms that included 50 percent of the distributor's gross profits "plus ownership of the negative at the end of the contract".[93] Despite the "outrageous" purchase price, and the ungenerous terms of the contract, the deal proved lucrative for Warner Bros., securing the studio $12 million in profits. Although Warner was criticized for choosing a non-singing star, Audrey Hepburn, to play the leading role of Eliza Doolittle, the film won the best-picture Academy Award for 1964.[94] For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... My Fair Lady is a musical with a book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe, based on George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... William S. Paley (1901-1990) This article is about the broadcast executive. ... Audrey Hepburn (4 May 1929 - 20 January 1993) was an Academy Award and Tony Award winning Anglo-Dutch actress of film and theatre, Broadway stage performer, ballerina, fashion model, and humanitarian. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ...

In 1965, Warner surprised many industry observers when he purchased the rights to Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Edward Albee's searing play about a destructive marriage.[95] From the beginning, the project was beset by controversy. Ernest Lehman's script, which was extremely faithful to Albee's play, stretched the U.S. film industry's Production Code to the limit.[96] Jack Valenti, who had just assumed leadership of the Motion Picture Association of America, recalled that a meeting with Warner and studio aide Ben Kalmenson left him "uneasy".[97] "I was uncomfortable with the thought that this was just the beginning of an unsettling new era in film, in which we would lurch from crisis to crisis without any suitable solution in sight," Valenti wrote.[97] Meanwhile, Lehman and the film's director, Mike Nichols, battled with studio executives and exhibitors who insisted that the film be shot in color rather than black and white.[98] These controversies soon faded into the background. Upon its release, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? was embraced by audiences and critics alike. It secured 13 nominations from the Academy and won the best-picture award for 1966.[99] Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf? is a 1966 film adaptation of the play of the same name by Edward Albee. ... Edward Franklin Albee III (born March 12, 1928) is an American playwright known for works including Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, The Zoo Story, The Sandbox and The American Dream. ... Ernest Lehman (born December 8, 1915 in New York City - died July 2, 2005 in Los Angeles, California) was a successful screenwriter in Hollywood. ... Jack Joseph Valenti (September 5, 1921 – April 26, 2007) was an influential corpse and a long-time president of the Motion Picture Association of America. ... MPAA redirects here. ... Mike Nichols (born Michael Igor Peschkowsky) is an Academy Award winning movie director of films such as The Graduate and Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf?. He was born on November 6, 1931 in Berlin, to a Jewish Russian family. ...

In light of these achievements, Warner's decision in 1967 to sell one-third of Warner Bros.' stock to Seven Arts Productions sent shock waves through the industry.[100] Some observers believed that Ben Kalmenson, Warner Bros.' executive vice president, persuaded Warner to sell his stock so that Kalmenson could assume leadership of the studio.[101] Warner, however, had personal reasons for seeking retirement. His wife, Ann, continually pressured him to "slow down", and the aging studio head felt a need to put his affairs in order.[101] Warner sold his 1.6 million shares of studio stock shortly after producing the film adaptation of Lerner & Loewe's Camelot.[100] The sale yielded him about $24 million, after capital gains taxes.[9] Eight months after the sale, Warner quipped, "Who would ever have thought that a butcher boy from Youngstown, Ohio, would end up with twenty-four million smackers in his pocket?"[9] At the time of the sale, Warner had earned the distinction of being the second chief to also serve as company president, after Columbia Pictures' Harry Cohn. Seven Arts Productions was founded in 1957 by Ray Stark and Eliot Hyman. ... Lerner and Loewe is a designation for the musical comedy writing team of lyricist and librettist Alan Jay Lerner and composer Frederick Loewe. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ...

Warner's decision to sell came at a time when he was losing the formidable power that he once took for granted. He had already survived the dislocations of the 1950s, when other studio heads – including Louis B. Mayer, David O. Selznick, and Samuel Goldwyn – were pushed out by stockholders who "sought scapegoats for dwindling profits".[102] Structural changes that occurred in the industry during this period ensured that studios would become "more important as backers of independent producers than as creators of their own films", a situation that left little room for the traditional movie mogul.[102] Evidence of Warner's eroding control at Warner Bros. included his failure to block production of Bonnie and Clyde, a film project he initially "hated".[103] Similarly, as producer of the film adaptation of Camelot, Warner was unable to persuade director Joshua Logan to cast Richard Burton and Julie Andrews in the leading roles. Instead, Logan selected Richard Harris and Vanessa Redgrave, a move that contributed to the project's critical – and commercial – failure.[104] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... David O. Selznick David Oliver Selznick (May 10, 1902–June 22, 1965), was one of the icon Hollywood producers of the Golden Age. ... Samuel Goldwyn (July 1882 (some sources say 17 August 1882, others 1879 [1]) – 31 January 1974) was an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning producer, also a well-known Hollywood motion picture producer and founding contributor of several motion picture studios. ... Bonnie and Clyde (1967) is a film about Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, bank robbers who roamed the central United States during the Great Depression. ... Camelot is the 1967 film version of the successful musical of the same name. ... Joshua Logan (1908-1988), a director and writer, was best known for Broadway and Hollywood shows such as Mister Roberts, Picnic, and South Pacific. ... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... Dame Julie Elizabeth Andrews, DBE (born Julia Elizabeth Wells[1] on 1 October 1935[2]) is an award-winning English actress, singer, author and cultural icon. ... For other persons named Richard Harris, see Richard Harris (disambiguation). ... Vanessa Redgrave, CBE (born 30 January 1937) is an Academy Award winning English actress and member of the Redgrave family, one of the enduring theatrical dynasties. ...

After Warner Bros.

Warner remained active as an independent producer until the early 1970s. Among his last productions was another film adaptation of a Broadway musical, 1776.[105] Before the film's release, Warner showed a preview cut to U.S. President Richard Nixon, who recommended substantial changes, including the removal of two songs that struck him as veiled criticisms of the ongoing Vietnam War.[106] Without consulting the film's director, Peter H. Hunt, Warner ordered the film re-edited.[106] In November 1972, the film opened to enthusiastic audiences at Radio City Music Hall, but it fared poorly in theaters.[106] Faced with a polarized political climate, few Americans were drawn to "a cheery exercise in prerepublic civics".[107] Warner's efforts to promote the film were sometimes counterproductive. During an interview with talk show host Merv Griffin, the elderly producer engaged in a lengthy tirade against "pinko communists". This proved to be Warner's first – and last – television interview.[108] 1776 is the title of a 1969 Broadway musical and its 1972 film adaptation. ... Radio City Music Hall at Christmas 2005 Radio City Music Hall is an entertainment venue located in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... Mervyn Edward Merv Griffin, Jr. ...

Personal life

On October 14, 1914, Warner married Irma Solomons, the adolescent daughter of one of San Francisco's pioneer Jewish families. Irma Warner gave birth to the couple's only child, Jack M. Warner on March 27, 1916. Jack Warner named the child after himself, disregarding a Jewish custom that children should not be named for living relatives. Although his son bore a different middle initial, he "has been called Junior all his life".[109] The marriage ended in 1935, when Irma Warner sued her husband for divorce on the grounds of desertion. In 1936, Warner married his mistress, actress Ann Page. Jack's older brother, Harry, reflected the Warner family's feelings about the marriage when he exclaimed, "Thank God our mother didn't live to see this." The Warners, who took Irma's side in the affair, refused to accept Ann as a family member.[110] In the wake of this falling out, Jack's relationship with his son, Jack Warner Jr., also became strained.[111] is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

In the late 1950s, the elder Warner was almost killed in a car accident that left him in a coma for several days. On August 5, 1958, after an evening of baccarat at the Palm Beach Casino in Cannes, Warner's Alfa Romeo roadster swerved into the path of a coal truck on a stretch of road located near the seaside villa of Prince Aly Khan.[112] Warner was thrown from the car, which had burst into flames upon impact. Shortly after the accident, his son, Jack Jr., joined other family members in France, where the unconscious studio head was hospitalized. In an interview with reporters, Jack Jr. suggested that his father was dying. Then, during a visit to his father's hospital room, the young man offended Ann Warner, whom he largely blamed for his parents' divorce. When Warner regained consciousness, he was enraged by reports of his son's behavior, and their "tenuous" relationship came to an end.[113] In December 1958, Jack Jr. learned of his release as Warner Bros. vice president through an article in a trade paper. When he attempted to report for work, studio guards denied him entry.[114] The two men never achieved a reconciliation, and Jack Jr. is not mentioned in his father's 1964 autobiography.[115] is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... This article is about the card game. ... For the annual festival, see Cannes Film Festival. ... Alfa Romeo is an Italian automobile manufacturing company, founded as Darracq Italiana by Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan in partnership with the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq. ... Prince Ali Solomone Khan (June 13, 1911 – May 12, 1960), known as Aly Khan, was a vice president of the United Nations General Assembly representing Pakistan, for which he served as U.N. ambassador (1958-1960). ...

Warner made no pretense of faithfulness to his wife, Ann, and kept a series of mistresses throughout the 1950s and 1960s.[116] The most enduring of these "girlfriends" was an aspiring actress named Jackie Park, who bore a "startling" resemblance to Warner's second wife.[117] The relationship was in its fourth year when Ann Warner pressured her husband to terminate the affair.[116] Although aware of his many infidelities, Ann remained loyal to Warner.[116] In the 1960s, she insisted that, despite his reputation for ruthlessness, Jack Warner had a softer side. In a note to author Dean Jennings, who assisted Warner on his autobiography, My First Hundred Years in Hollywood, Ann Warner wrote: "He is extremely sensitive, but there are few who know that because he covers it with a cloak."[118]

Political views

An ardent Republican, Jack Warner nevertheless supported Franklin D. Roosevelt in the early 1930s.[5] Later in the decade, he made common cause with opponents of Nazi Germany, overlooking idealogical differences with those who held leftist political views.[7] In 1947, however, Warner served as a "friendly witness" for the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), thereby lending support to popular allegations of a "Red infiltration of Hollywood".[8] On his own initiative, he provided the names of a dozen screenwriters who were dismissed because of suspected Communist sympathies, a move that effectively destroyed their careers.[119] Former studio employees named by Warner included Alvah Bessie, Howard Koch, Ring Lardner Jr., John Howard Lawson, Albert Maltz, Robert Rossen, Dalton Trumbo, Clifford Odets, and Irwin Shaw.[120] As one biographer observed, Warner "was furious when Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall, Paul Henreid and John Huston joined other members of the stellar Committee for the First Amendment in a flight to Washington to preach against the threat to free expression".[119] Lester D. Friedman noted that Warner's response to the HUAC hearings was similar to other Jewish studio heads who "feared that a blanket equation of Communists with Jews would destroy them and their industry".[121] These concerns were deepened by the anti-Semitic rhetoric of prominent HUAC member John E. Rankin.[122] Left wing redirects here. ... HUAC hearings The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA,[1] 1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Howard Koch (December 2, 1902 - August 17, 1995) was an American screenwriter who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s. ... Ringgold W. Lardner Jr. ... John Howard Lawson (September 25, 1894 - August 11, 1977) was an American writer. ... Albert Maltz (October 28, 1908 – April 26, 1985) was an American author and screenwriter who was one of the Hollywood Ten who were blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses during the era of McCarthyism. ... Robert Rossen (March 16, 1908 - February 18, 1966) was an American screenwriter, film director, and producer who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s. ... Dalton Trumbo (December 9, 1905 – September 10, 1976) was an American screenwriter and novelist, and a member of the Hollywood Ten, one of group of film professionals who refused to testify before the 1947 House Un-American Activities Committee about alleged communist involvement. ... Clifford Odets photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Clifford Odets (July 18, 1906 - August 18, 1963) was an American socialist playwright, screenwriter, and social protester. ... Irwin Shaw (né Irwin Gilbert Shamforoff, February 27, 1913 - May 16, 1984) was an American Jewish playwright, screen writer and author. ... Bogart redirects here. ... Betty Joan Perske (born on September 16, 1924), better known as Lauren Bacall, is a Golden Globe– and Tony Award–winning, as well as Academy Award–nominated, American film and stage actress. ... Henreid in Casablanca Paul Georg Julius Hernreid Ritter von Wassel-Waldingau, (January 10, 1908 - March 29, 1992), known professionally as Paul Henreid, was an actor and film director probably best known for his roles in Casablanca and Now, Voyager. ... John Marcellus Huston (August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director and actor. ... The Committee for the First Amendment was an action group formed by actors in support of the Hollywood Ten during the hearings in front of the House Un-American Activities Committee. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... John Elliott Rankin (March 29, 1882 - November 26, 1960) was a politician from the U.S. State of Mississippi. ...

Warner publicly supported Richard M. Nixon during the 1960 presidential election and paid for full-page ads in The New York Times "to proclaim why Nixon should be elected".[123] In the wake of Nixon's loss to John F. Kennedy, however, the studio head made arrangements to attend a fundraiser at Los Angeles' Palladium in honor of the president-elect.[123] Several weeks later, Warner received a phone call from the new chief executive's father, Joseph P. Kennedy, and within a short time, Warner Bros. purchased the film rights for Robert Donovan's novel, PT 109, a bestseller concerning John Kennedy's exploits during World War II.[124] "I don't think President Kennedy would object to my friendship with Dick Nixon," Warner said later. "I would have voted for both of them if I could. You might think this is a form of fence-straddling, but I love everybody."[125] In the late 1960s, he emerged as an outspoken critic of those who opposed the Vietnam War.[108] Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The Palladium while hosting the 2005 deviantART Summit. ... Joseph Joe Patrick Kennedy, Sr. ... PT 109 is a 1963 biographical movie which shows the events of John F. Kennedys actions as a member of the United States Navy during World War II. The movie was adapted by Richard L. Breen, Vincent Flaherty and Howard Sheehan from the book by Robert J. Donovan. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...

Death and legacy

By the end of 1973, those closest to Warner became aware of signs that he was becoming disoriented.[108] Shortly after losing his way in the building that housed his own office, Warner retired.[126] In 1974, the former studio chief suffered a stroke that left him blind and enfeebled. During the next several years, he gradually lost the ability to speak and became unresponsive to friends and relatives.[127] Finally, on August 13, 1978, Warner was admitted to Cedars-Sinai Hospital, where he died of a heart inflammation on September 9.[26] He was 86 years old.[128] is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Cedars-Sinai Medical Center is a world famous hospital located in Los Angeles. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Jack Warner left behind an estate estimated at $15 million.[129] Much of the Warner estate, including property and memorabilia, was bequeathed to his widow, Ann. Warner, however, left $200,000 to his estranged son, Jack Jr., perhaps in an effort to discourage him from contesting the will.[129] In the days following Warner's death, newspaper obituaries recounted the familiar story of "the four brothers who left the family butcher shop for nicklelodeons" and went on to revolutionize American cinema.[130] A front-page story in Warner's adopted hometown of Youngstown featured accounts of the family's pre-Hollywood struggles in Ohio, describing how Jack Warner drove a wagon for his father's business when he was only seven years old.[26] The late movie "mogul" was widely eulogized for his role in "shaping Hollywood's 'Golden Age'".[26]

Several months after Warner's death, a more personal tribute was organized by the Friends of the Libraries at the University of Southern California.[130] The event, called "The Colonel: An Affectionate Remembrance of Jack L. Warner", drew Hollywood notables such as director Michael Curtiz, entertainers Olivia de Haviland and Debbie Reynolds, and cartoon voice actor Mel Blanc.[131] Blanc closed the event with a rendition of Porky Pig's famous farewell, "A-bee-a-bee-a-bee–that's all, folks."[131] In recognition of his contributions to the motion picture industry, Jack Warner was accorded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, located at 6541 Hollywood Boulevard.[132] He is also represented on Canada's Walk of Fame in Toronto, which honors outstanding Canadians from all fields.[133] The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was an Academy Award-winning Hungarian-American film director. ... Photo still of Olivia de Havilland. ... Debbie Reynolds (born April 1, 1932) is an American actress, dancer and singer. ... Melvin Jerome Blanc (May 30, 1908 – July 10, 1989) was a prolific American voice actor. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... Buskers perform on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. ... Canadas Walk of Fame acknowledges the achievements and accomplishments of successful Canadians. ...

See also

Motion pictures have been a part of the Canadians. ...


  1. ^ a b c d e Thomas (1990), p. 4.
  2. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 52–62.
  3. ^ a b c Thomas (1990), p. 226.
  4. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 45–49.
  5. ^ a b c d Buhle and Wagner (2002), p. 59.
  6. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 4–7.
  7. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2002), p. 68.
  8. ^ a b Buhle and Wagner (2002), pp. 377–378.
  9. ^ a b c Thomas (1990), p. 3.
  10. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 9–10.
  11. ^ a b Warner and Jennings (1964), p. 18.
  12. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 9.
  13. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), p. 20.
  14. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 11.
  15. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 23–24.
  16. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 24–25.
  17. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 12–13.
  18. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 12.
  19. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), p. 29.
  20. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 35–36.
  21. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 17–18.
  22. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 18.
  23. ^ a b "Heard on the Corner: How the Warner Brothers, Movie Producers, Got Their Start", The Youngstown Daily Vindicator, December 30, 1923. 
  24. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 49–50.
  25. ^ a b Trebilcock, Bob. "A Warner Brothers Production: They parlayed Youngstown nickelodeon into a Hollywood empire", Ohio Magazine, March 1985, pp. 24–25. 
  26. ^ a b c d e "Warner Dies; Movie Tycoon", The Youngstown Vindicator, September 11, 1978, p. 1. 
  27. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 54–55.
  28. ^ a b "Jack L. Warner's Death Closes Out Pioneer Clan of 'Talkies'", Variety, September 13, 1978, p. 2. 
  29. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 54–57.
  30. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 65–66.
  31. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 25–26.
  32. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), p. 73.
  33. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 29.
  34. ^ a b Thomas (1990), pp. 34–35.
  35. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 100–101.
  36. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 37.
  37. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 38.
  38. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 39.
  39. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 42.
  40. ^ Behlmer (1985), p. 4.
  41. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 45.
  42. ^ Behlmer (1985), p. xii.
  43. ^ Thomas (1990), 52–55.
  44. ^ "Warner, Movie Magnate, Dies: Sam Warner, Former Youngstown Man, Rose from Obscurity to Leader in Field", The Youngstown Daily Vindicator, October 5, 1927. 
  45. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 180–181.
  46. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 62.
  47. ^ Jews in Hollywood. Jewishmag.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-30.
  48. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 63.
  49. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 66.
  50. ^ Schatz (1988), p. 7.
  51. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 77–83.
  52. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 75–76.
  53. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 76–77.
  54. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 79–80.
  55. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 80–81.
  56. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 81.
  57. ^ a b Behlmer (1985), p. 63.
  58. ^ a b Behlmer (1985), p. 12.
  59. ^ Behlmer (1985), p. 13.
  60. ^ Schatz (1988), pp. 199–200.
  61. ^ a b Schatz (1988), p. 200.
  62. ^ Schatz (1988), p. 212.
  63. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 209.
  64. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 156.
  65. ^ David (1981), p. 52.
  66. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 111.
  67. ^ Schatz (1988), pp. 209–210.
  68. ^ a b c Thomas (1990), p. 129.
  69. ^ Dick (1985), p. 55.
  70. ^ Dick (1985), pp. 55–56.
  71. ^ Friedman (1982), p. 82.
  72. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), p. 249.
  73. ^ Dick (1985), p. 56.
  74. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2002), p. 211.
  75. ^ Ceplair and Englund (1980), p. 310.
  76. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 130.
  77. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2002), p. 240.
  78. ^ Buhle and Wagner (2002), p. 241.
  79. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 132.
  80. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 190.
  81. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 191.
  82. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 192.
  83. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 194.
  84. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 196–198.
  85. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 199.
  86. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 211.
  87. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 211–212.
  88. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 212.
  89. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 225.
  90. ^ The United Press. "2 Warners Sell Most of Stock in Film Firm: Harry and Albert Dispose of Shares to Banker; Jack to Be President", The Youngstown Vindicator, July 12, 1956, p. 22. 
  91. ^ Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 283.
  92. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 226–227.
  93. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 259.
  94. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 262–263.
  95. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 266–267.
  96. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 270.
  97. ^ a b Corey and Ochoa (2002), p. 216.
  98. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 271.
  99. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 278.
  100. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 279.
  101. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 280.
  102. ^ a b Friedman (1982), p. 139.
  103. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 280–281.
  104. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 285–286.
  105. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 295–300.
  106. ^ a b c Thomas (1990), p. 299.
  107. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 299–300.
  108. ^ a b c Thomas (1990), p. 303.
  109. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 29–30.
  110. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 102–103.
  111. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 229–230.
  112. ^ The Associated Press. "Jack Warner Injured Badly in Auto Crash", The Youngstown Vindicator, August 5, 1958. 
  113. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 228–229.
  114. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 230.
  115. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 249.
  116. ^ a b c Thomas (1990), p. 248.
  117. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 246.
  118. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 210–211.
  119. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 165.
  120. ^ Ceplair and Englund (1980), pp. 279–280.
  121. ^ Friedman (1982), p. 141.
  122. ^ Friedman (1982), p. 140.
  123. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 237.
  124. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 238.
  125. ^ Warner and Jennings (1964), p. 326.
  126. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 304.
  127. ^ Thomas (1990), pp. 304–305.
  128. ^ Thomas (1990), p. 305.
  129. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 306.
  130. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 307.
  131. ^ a b Thomas (1990), p. 308.
  132. ^ Hollywood Walk of Fame. Hollywoodusa. Retrieved on 2008-02-22.
  133. ^ Jack Warner. Canada's Walk of Fame. Retrieved on 2008-02-22.

is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


  • Behlmer, Rudy (1985). Inside Warner Bros. (1935–1951). New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0670804789
  • Buhle, Paul; Wagner, Dave (2002). Radical Hollywood: The Untold Story Behind America's Favorite Movies. New York: The New Press. ISBN 1565847180
  • Ceplair, Larry; Englund, Steven (1980). The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930–1960. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/ Doubleday. ISBN 0385129009
  • Corey, Melinda; Ochoa, George (2002). The American Film Institute Desk Reference. New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing. ISBN 0789489341
  • David, Saul (1981). The Industry: Life in the Hollywood Fast Lane. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0812909712
  • Dick, Bernard F. (1985). The Star-Spangled Screen: The American World War II Film. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0813115310
  • Friedman, Lester D. (1982). Hollywood's Image of the Jew. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. ISBN 0804422192
  • Schatz, Thomas (1988). The Genius of the System: Hollywood Filmmaking in the Studio Era. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0394539796
  • Sperling, Cass Warner; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack Jr. (1998). Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0813109582
  • Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. ISBN 0070642591
  • Warner, Jack; Jennings, Dean (1964). My First Hundred Years in Hollywood. New York: Random Books.

  Results from FactBites:
CONCACAF (6612 words)
Warner was recognized for his committed services and efforts in the success of the country’s qualification and subsequent performance at the 2006 FIFA World Cup™ as well as his part in other positive developments locally and globally through th more...
Jack Warner (Trinidad and Tobago), President of CONCACAF and Vice President of FIFA, is the sole nominee for another four-year term as CONCACAF Representative (Caribbean Zone) on the FIFA Executive Committee.
Warner revealed this during a press conference on the island last Thursday during which he also said that some of the best names to have played the game in 20th century are also expected more...
Jack Warner Summary (2090 words)
Jack continued to exercise his desire to entertain by singing between movies as a "chaser" to rid the theater of its audience between films.
Jack Warner (J.L. for short) (August 2, 1892 – September 9, 1978), born Jacob Leonard Warner in London, Ontario, Canada, was the president and driving force behind the highly successful development of Warner Brothers Studios in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California.
Jack Warner died on September 9, 1978 in Los Angeles, California and is buried in Home of Peace Cemetery in East Los Angeles, California.
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