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Encyclopedia > Jack Ruby
Jack Leon Ruby
Born March 25, 1911(1911-03-25)
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Died January 3, 1967 (aged 55)
Dallas, Texas, USA
Charge(s) Murder
Penalty Death penalty (overturned)
Status Died before new trial
Occupation Nightclub owner

Jacob Rubenstein (March 25, 1911January 3, 1967), who legally changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in 1947, was an American business analyst and nightclub owner from Dallas, Texas. He was convicted on March 14, 1964 for the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald on November 24, 1963, two days after Oswald was arrested for the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. He successfully appealed his conviction and sentence of death. As a date for his new trial was being set,[1] he became ill and died. Image File history File links Picture taken by Dallas Police Department. ... The Dallas Police Department, established in 1881, is the principal law enforcement agency serving Dallas, Texas. ... Al Capone. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Dallas redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... Look up trial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... Dallas redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... In law, an appeal is a process for making a formal challenge to an official decision. ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Look up trial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Family and early life

Jack Ruby was born Jacob Rubenstein to Joseph Rubenstein (1871–1958) and Fannie Turek Rutkowski (or Rokowsky) in Chicago, Illinois, in 1911, both Polish-born, Orthodox Jews. For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ...


His father, Joseph Rubenstein, was born in the town of Sokołów Podlaski, Poland, then part of Imperial Russia. He was a carpenter as was his father. He joined the Russian Army in 1893, serving in the artillery. He married while in military service. Joseph later was assigned to forces positioned in China, Korea and Siberia. He grew to detest army life and reportedly "walked away" from it in 1898. The Rubensteins left the Russian Empire about four years later. They briefly lived in the United Kingdom and then Canada. They entered the United States in 1903, and the following year they settled in the heavily Jewish 24th Ward on Chicago's West Side. Sokołów Podlaski is a town in Poland, in Mazowsze Voivodship, about 80 kilometers east of Warsaw. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... For other uses, see Carpenter (disambiguation). ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Conflicting birth dates for Jacob Rubenstein, ranging March to June of 1911, were quoted by various sources and given by Ruby at various times; March 25, 1911 is the date he most commonly gave for his own birthdate. (Births in Chicago in 1911 were not mandatorily recorded, so there is no official record to consult.) The fifth of his parents' eight living children, growing up in the Maxwell Street area of Chicago, Ruby had a troubled childhood and adolescence, marked by juvenile delinquency and time spent in foster homes. On June 6, 1922 when Ruby was only eleven years old, he was arrested for truancy. Ruby eventually skipped school enough times that he spent time in a youth detention center. Young Ruby sold horse-racing tip sheets and various other novelties, then acted as business agent for a local refuse collectors union that later became part of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. Ruby briefly came to public attention in December 1939 when he was implicated in the fatal shooting of the union's president, attorney Leon Cooke, but was cleared of any wrongdoing. In memory of Cooke, Ruby later adopted "Leon" as his middle name. is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... West Maxwell Street, is a short street in Chicago, Illinois, near Halsted Street and Roosevelt Road. ... Childhood (song) Childhood is a broad term usually applied to the phase of development in humans between infancy and adulthood. ... Teen redirects here. ... Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. ... A youth detention center, also known as Juvenile Hall is a prison for people under the age of 18. ... Monmouth Racetrack in New Jersey in May 2005. ... The International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America, commonly known as the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) or simply the Teamsters, is one of the largest labor unions in the United States. ...


In the 1940s, Ruby frequented race tracks in Illinois and California. He was drafted in 1943 and served in the Army Air Forces during World War II, working as an aircraft mechanic at bases in the US until 1946. He had an honorable record and was promoted to private first class. Upon discharge, Ruby returned to Chicago. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... “Conscript” redirects here. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In 1947, Ruby moved to Dallas, where he and his brothers soon afterward shortened their surnames from Rubenstein to Ruby. The stated reason for changing the family name had been that Jack and his brothers had opened up a mail order business and feared that some customers would refuse to do business with Jews. Jack later went on to manage various nightclubs, strip clubs, and dancehalls. Among the strippers Ruby befriended was Candy Barr. Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... For the book or movie Striptease see Striptease (book) and Striptease (movie) A striptease is a performance, usually a dance, in which the performer gradually removes their clothing for the purposes of sexually arousing the audience, usually performed in nightclubs. ... Candy Barr (born Juanita Dale Slusher in Edna, Texas, on July 6, 1935, and died of pneumonia on December 30, 2005) was the stage name of an American burlesque dancer and occasional pornographic film actress and magazine model. ...


He developed close ties to many Dallas police officers, who frequented his nightclubs where Ruby showered them with large quantities of liquor and other favors. Ruby went to Cuba in 1959, ostensibly to visit a friend, influential Dallas gambler Lewis McWillie, an associate of Mafia boss Santo Trafficante. (Trafficante operated major casinos in Cuba and was briefly imprisoned after Fidel Castro came to power.)[2] The House Select Committee on Assassinations inferred from Ruby's trip to Cuba, and his subsequent trips, "...that Ruby was at least serving as a kind of courier on behalf of gambling interests in Cuba."[3] Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This January 2007 does not cite its references or sources. ... Santo Trafficante was the name of two powerful Tampa, Florida Mafia bosses, father and son: Santo Trafficante, Sr. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Organized crime links

A number of writers have suspected Jack Ruby of being linked to organized crime, and some have gone on to hypothesize that his alleged links to organized crime were evidence of conspiracy to kill Lee Harvey Oswald and/or John F. Kennedy. The House Select Committee on Assassinations said that Jack Ruby knew restaurateurs Sam (1920–1970) and Joseph Campisi (1918–1990) since 1947, and had been seen with them on many occasions.[4] After an investigation of Joe Campisi, the HSCA found, The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...

While Campisi's technical characterization in Federal law enforcement records as an organized crime member has ranged from definite to suspected to negative, it is clear that he was an associate or friend of many Dallas-based organized crime members, particularly Joseph Civello during the time he was the head of the Dallas organization. There was no indication that Campisi had engaged in any specific organized crime-related activities.[5]

Similarly, a PBS Frontline investigation into the connections between Ruby and Dallas organized crime figures reported the following: Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... FRONTLINE is a public affairs television program of varying length produced at WGBH in Boston, Massachusetts, and distributed through the Public Broadcasting Service network in the United States. ...

In 1963, Sam and Joe Campisi were leading figures in the Dallas underworld. Jack knew the Campisis and had been seen with them on many occasions. The Campisis were lieutenants of Carlos Marcello, the Mafia boss who had reportedly talked of killing the President.[6]

A day before Kennedy was murdered, Ruby went to Joe Campisi's restaurant.[7] At the time of the Kennedy assassination, Ruby was close enough to the Campisis to ask them to come see him after he was arrested for shooting Lee Oswald.[8]


Some writers, including former Los Angeles District Attorney Vincent Buglosi, dismiss Ruby's connections to organized crime as hearsay:

It is very noteworthy that without exception, not one of these conspiracy theorists knew or had ever met Jack Ruby. Without our even resorting to his family and roommate, all of whom think the suggestion of Ruby being connected to the mob is ridiculous, those who knew him, unamimously and without exception, think the notion of his being connected to the Mafia, and then killing Oswald for them, is nothing short of laughable.[9]

About an hour after President Kennedy was shot, an acquaintance of Jack Ruby, former Dallas news reporter, Seth Kantor said that Ruby approached him at Parkland Hospital where Kennedy was being treated for his wounds. Kantor, a Washington correspondent, testified to the Warren Commission that Ruby came up to him and remarked, "Isn't this a terrible thing..." and that Ruby asked him, "Should I close my places for the next 3 nights?..."[10] When the Warren Commission questioned Ruby about his presence at Parkland, he denied being there, and the Commission decided that "Kantor probably did not see Ruby at Parkland Hospital."[11] However, in 1979, the House Select Committee on Assassinations reached a different conclusion declaring: "While the Warren Commission concluded that Kantor was mistaken, the Committee determined he probably was not."[12] The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Public assassination

Ruby (also known as "Sparky," reportedly because of his short temper) frequently carried a handgun, and witnesses saw him with a handgun in the halls of the Dallas police headquarters on several occasions after President Kennedy's assassination and arrest of Lee Harvey Oswald on November 22, 1963. In addition, WFAA-TV (Dallas) and NBC newsreel footage show Ruby impersonating a newspaper reporter during a press conference, at Dallas Police Headquarters, on the night of the assassination, though the reason he went there is unknown. At the press conference, District Attorney Henry Wade said that Lee Oswald was a member of the anti-Castro Free Cuba Committee. Ruby corrected Wade by stating that it was the pro-Castro Fair Play for Cuba Committee. A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... This article is about journalistic reporters. ...


Ruby received international attention when he shot and fatally wounded the 24-year-old Oswald on Sunday, November 24, 1963, at 11:21 am CST while authorities were preparing to transfer Oswald by car from police headquarters to the nearby county jail. Stepping out from a crowd of reporters and photographers, Ruby fired a snub-nosed Colt Cobra .38 into Oswald's abdomen.[13] is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... The Colt Cobra . ...


When Ruby was arrested immediately after the shooting, he told several witnesses that his killing of Oswald would show the world that "Jews have guts," that he helped the city of Dallas "redeem" itself in the eyes of the public, and that Oswald's death would spare Jacqueline Kennedy the ordeal of appearing at Oswald's trial.[14] Ruby stated that he shot Oswald to avenge Kennedy. Later, however, he claimed he shot Oswald on the spur of the moment when the opportunity presented itself, without considering any reason for doing so.[15] First official White House portrait. ...


Prosecution and conviction

Main article: Ruby v. Texas

Prominent San Francisco defense attorney Melvin Belli agreed to represent Ruby free of charge. Some observers thought that the case could have been disposed of as a "murder without malice" charge (roughly equivalent to manslaughter), with a maximum prison sentence of five years. Instead, Belli attempted to prove that Ruby was legally insane and had a history of mental illness in his family (the latter being true, as his mother had been committed to a mental hospital years before). On March 14, 1964, Ruby was convicted of murder with malice, for which he received a death sentence. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Melvin Mouron Belli (29 July 1907, Sonora, California - 9 July 1996, San Francisco, California) was a prominent American lawyer known as The King of Torts—and by detractors as Melvin Bellicose. He had many celebrity clients, including Zsa Zsa Gabor, Errol Flynn, Chuck Berry, Muhammad Ali, Sirhan Sirhan, Jim and... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


During the six months following the Kennedy assassination, Ruby repeatedly asked, orally and in writing, to speak to the members of the Warren Commission. Only after Ruby's sister Eileen wrote letters to the Warren Commission (and after her writing letters to the commission became publicly reported) did the commission agree to talk to Ruby. In June 1964, Chief Justice Earl Warren, then-Representative Gerald R. Ford of Michigan and other commission members went to Dallas and met with Ruby. Ruby begged Warren several times to take him to Washington D.C.[16], because he feared for his life and those of his family members, claiming among other things that "a whole new form of government is going to take over this country, and I know I won't live to see you another time." Warren refused Ruby's request. According to a record of Ruby's testimony, Warren declared that the Commission would have no way of providing protection to him, since it had no police powers. Ruby said he wanted to convince President Johnson that he was not part of any conspiracy to kill JFK.[17] President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


Following Ruby's March 1964 conviction for murder with malice, Ruby's lawyers, led by Sam Houston Clinton, appealed to the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, the highest criminal court in Texas. Ruby's lawyers argued that he could not have received a fair trial in the city of Dallas because of the excessive publicity surrounding the case. A year after his conviction, in March 1965, Ruby conducted a brief televised news conference in which he stated: "Everything pertaining to what's happening has never come to the surface. The world will never know the true facts of what occurred, my motives. The people who had so much to gain, and had such an ulterior motive for putting me in the position I'm in, will never let the true facts come above board to the world." When asked by a reporter: "Are these people in very high positions Jack?" he responded "Yes."[18] Sam Houston Clinton (1923 – 2004) was a former Texas Court of Criminal Appeals Judge, who as a lawyer represented both atheist leader Madalyn Murray OHair and the man who shot and killed alleged presidential assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ...


Dallas Deputy Sheriff Al Maddox claimed: "Ruby told me, he said, 'Well, they injected me for a cold.' He said it was cancer cells. That's what he told me, Ruby did. I said you don't believe that ____. He said, 'I damn sure do!' [Then] one day when I started to leave, Ruby shook hands with me and I could feel a piece of paper in his palm.... [In this note] he said it was a conspiracy and he said ... if you will keep your eyes open and your mouth shut, you're gonna learn a lot. And that was the last letter I ever got from him."[19][20]


Not long before Ruby died, according to an article in the London Sunday Times, he told psychiatrist Werner Teuter, that the assassination was "an act of overthrowing the government" and that he knew "who had President Kennedy killed." He added: "I am doomed. I do not want to die. But I am not insane. I was framed to kill Oswald."[21][22]


Eventually, the appellate court agreed with Ruby's lawyers for a new trial, and on October 5, 1966, ruled that his motion for a change of venue before the original trial court should have been granted. Ruby's conviction and death sentence were overturned. Arrangements were underway for a new trial to be held in February 1967, in Wichita Falls, Texas, when, on December 9, 1966, Ruby was admitted to Parkland Hospital in Dallas, suffering from pneumonia. A day later, doctors realized he had cancer in his liver, lungs, and brain. A change of venue is the legal term for moving a trial to a new location. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Wichita Falls is a city in Wichita County, Texas, United States. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Parkland Memorial Hospital is a hospital located at 5201 Harry Hines Boulevard in Dallas, Texas. ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma or hepatocarcinogenesis) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or...


Ruby made a final statement from his hospital bed on December 19 that he and he alone had been responsible for the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald.[23] "There is nothing to hide," Ruby said. "There was no one else."[24] He died of a pulmonary embolism, secondary to bronchiolar lung cancer, on January 3, 1967 at Parkland Hospital, where Lee Harvey Oswald had died and President Kennedy had been pronounced dead after his assassination. The bronchioles are the first airway branches that no longer contain cartilage. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


He is buried in the Westlawn Cemetery in Chicago. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


In popular culture

Ruby's shooting of Oswald, and his behavior both before and after the Kennedy assassination, have been the topic of three films.


Ruby and Oswald

A 1977 made-for-television movie, Ruby and Oswald, generally supported the Warren Commission conclusions. Ruby was played by Michael Lerner. Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... Michael Lerner is the name of several notable people from the Americans: Michael Lerner, rabbi and left-wing political activist Michael Lerner, actor Michael Lerner, retailer with Lerner Stores This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


JFK

In Oliver Stone's 1991 film JFK, Ruby was portrayed by Brian Doyle-Murray. Stone's perspective on events draws heavily from conspiracy theory researchers such as Jim Marrs and L. Fletcher Prouty. William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946), known as Oliver Stone, is a three-time Academy Award winning film director and screenwriter. ... JFK is an American film directed by Oliver Stone, first released on December 20, 1991. ... Brian Doyle-Murray (born October 31, 1945) is an American comedian, screenwriter and character actor. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... Jim Marrs (December 5, 1943) is a news reporter, college teacher, and author of books and articles on conspiracy theories. ... Leroy Fletcher Prouty (January 24, 1917 - June 5, 2001) was a commissioned officer in the United States Air Force, author, banker, and critic of US foreign policy, especially as regarded the activities of the CIA. His books include The Secret Team: The CIA and Its Allies in Control of the...


At least three scenes further detailing Ruby were removed from the film and only available on DVD. One showed Ruby being poisoned in his cell by men in black.


The other expanded the Oswald shooting by showing corrupt police letting Ruby enter through a restricted entrance.


A lunch meeting between Jim Garrison (Kevin Costner) and Dean Andrews (John Candy) is expanded to include the comment by Andrews, “Jack Ruby gets a new trial and dies of cancer a few days later. That’s some kind of cancer. I’d say that’s a going out of business kind of cancer.” When this conversation took place Ruby would still have been alive. Earling Carothers Jim Garrison (November 20, 1921 - October 21, 1992) — who changed his first name to Jim in the early 1960s — was the Democratic District Attorney of Orleans Parish, Louisiana from 1962 to 1973. ... Kevin Michael Costner (born January 18, 1955) is an Academy Award-winning American film actor, director and producer. ... John Franklin Candy (October 31, 1950 – March 4, 1994) was a Canadian comedian and actor. ...


Ruby

The 1992 feature film Ruby speculated on Ruby's more complex motivations. Among the impulses explored by the film that might have propelled Ruby into shooting Oswald were Ruby's reputation among family and friends as an assiduous, emotionally volatile publicity-seeker, and the influence of his long-time organized crime and Dallas police connections. Ruby was played by Danny Aiello. Ruby is a film, released in the United States on March 27, 1992, about Jack Ruby, the Dallas, Texas nightclub owner who shot and killed Lee Harvey Oswald outside of a police station in 1963. ... Danny Aiello Daniel Louis Aiello, Jr. ...


In popular music

  • In "Wishing the Days Away," Billy Bragg sings "A man can spend a lot of time / Wondering what was on Jack Ruby's mind."
  • In Paul Brady's song "Nobody Knows", the second line of the chorus is "Nobody knows what Ruby had to hide."
  • In "Bicentennial", Loudon Wainwright III sings "And including old Jack Ruby. Wasn't he wonderful? Oh, you know, he certainly was."
  • In "Jack Ruby", Paul Metsa sings about the many theories surrounding the assassination of J.F.K. and the life of Jack Ruby.
  • Formed in 1987, the UK music group The Jack Rubies consisted of vocalist Ian Wright, guitarist Stephen D. Ineson, bassist Steve Brockway, and percussionist Lawrence Giltnane. The group's highwater mark was the 1988 single "Be With You".
  • On the track "After The Soil Fails" by Curtis Eller - from the album "Wirewalkers and Assassins" - Jack Ruby is referenced.

Camper Van Beethoven is an American alternative rock group. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Key lime pie Cut-away view of a Key lime pie. ... The Last Waltz was a concert by the Canadian-American rock group, The Band, held on Thanksgiving Day, November 25, 1976, at Winterland Ballroom in San Francisco. ... Robbie Robertson (born Jaime Robert Robertson, 5 July 1943, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a songwriter, guitarist and singer, best known for his membership in The Band. ... For other uses, see Band. ... Stephen William Bragg (born December 20, 1957 in Essex, England), better known as Billy Bragg, is an English musician who blends elements of folk music, punk rock and protest songs. ... This article is about the rock band. ... Abandon is an album by Deep Purple, released in 1998 on the CMC International Record Label. ... Paul Joseph Brady (born May 19, 1947 in Strabane, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland) is an Irish singer/songwriter whose work straddles folk and pop. ... Loudon Snowden Wainwright III (born September 5, 1946) is an American songwriter, folk singer, humorist, and actor. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Martin Waldron, "Ruby Seriously Ill In Dallas Hospital," New York Times, Dec. 10, 1966, p. 1.
  2. ^ Summers, Anthony. Not in Your Lifetime, (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1998), pp. 336-339. ISBN 1-56924-739-0
  3. ^ House Select Committee on Assassinations, Volume 9, 5C, p. 177
  4. ^ HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 9, p. 336, par. 917, Joseph Campisi. Ancestry.com, Social Security Death Index [database on-line], Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2007. Ancestry.com, Texas Death Index, 1903-2000 [database on-line], Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2006.
  5. ^ HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 9, p. 336, par. 916, Joseph Campisi.
  6. ^ Frontline: Who Was Lee Harvey Oswald?, 2003.
  7. ^ HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 9, p. 344, par. 919, Joseph Campisi.
  8. ^ HSCA Appendix to Hearings, vol. 9, p. 344, Joseph Campisi.
  9. ^ Bugliosi, Vincent, Reclaiming History: The Assassination of John F. Kennedy p. 1130.
  10. ^ Kantor, Seth. Who Was Jack Ruby?, (New York: Everest House, 1978), p. 41. ISBN 0-896-96004-8
  11. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, p. 336, Possible Conspiracy Involving Jack Ruby
  12. ^ HSCA Final Assassinations Report, p. 158, Findings of the Select Committee on Assassinations
  13. ^ From Ruby's testimony to the Warren Commission: "I think I used the words, 'You killed my President, you rat.' The next thing, I was down on the floor. I said, 'I am Jack Ruby. You all know me.' I never used anything malicious, nothing like s.o.b."
  14. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol.5, p. 198–199, Testimony of Jack Ruby.
  15. ^ Ruby, ibid., p. 199
  16. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Volume V page 194 history-matters.com
  17. ^ From Ruby's testimony to the Warren Commission: "I realize it is a terrible thing I have done, and it was a stupid thing, but I just was carried away emotionally…I am as innocent regarding any conspiracy as any of you gentlemen in the room … And all I want to do is tell the truth, and that is all. There was no conspiracy."
  18. ^ Jack Ruby (Oswald's assassin) makes a statement to reporters after his trial ntlworld
  19. ^ Marrs, Jim. Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy, (New York: Carroll & Graf, 1989), p. 432. ISBN 0-88184-648-1
  20. ^ Dallas Deputy Sheriff Al Maddox, videotape interview
  21. ^ Marrs, Crossfire, p. 431.
  22. ^ JFK Lancer
  23. ^ Associated Press, "Ruby Asks World to Take His Word," New York Times, Dec. 20, 1966, p. 36.
  24. ^ "A Last Wish," Time, Dec. 30, 1966.

Vincent Bugliosi (born August 18, 1934 in Hibbing, Minnesota) is an American attorney and author, best known for prosecuting Charles Manson and other defendants accused of the Tate-LaBianca murders. ... A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... TIME redirects here. ...

Further reading

  • (1992) Report of the Warren Commission on the assassination of President Kennedy. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-08257-4. 
  • Bugliosi, Vincent (2007). Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-3930-4525-3. 
  • Fonzi, Gaeton (1993). The Last Investigation. Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 978-1-56025-052-4. 
  • Kantor, Seth (1978). Who Was Jack Ruby?. Everest House. ISBN 0-896-96004-8. 
  • Manchester, William (1996). The Death of a President: November 20-November 25. BBS Publishing Corporation. ISBN 978-0-88365-956-4. 
  • McKnight, Gerald D. (2005). Breach of Trust: How the Warren Commission Failed the Nation and Why. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1390-8. 
  • Newman, John (1995). Oswald and the CIA. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7867-0131-5. 
  • Rappleye, Charles; Ed Becker (1991). All American Mafioso. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-26676-5. 
  • Summers, Anthony (1998). Not in Your Lifetime: The Definitive Book on the JFK Assassination. Marlowe & Company. ISBN 978-1-56924-739-6. 

Vincent Bugliosi (born August 18, 1934 in Hibbing, Minnesota) is an American attorney and author, best known for prosecuting Charles Manson and other defendants accused of the Tate-LaBianca murders. ... The University Press of Kansas is a publisher that represents the state universities in Kansas (Emporia State University, Fort Hays State University, Kansas State University, Pittsburg State University, the University of Kansas, and Wichita State University. ... Carroll & Graf Publishers is an American publishing company centered in New York City and an imprint of the Avalon Publishing Group. ... It has been suggested that The Crime Club be merged into this article or section. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jack Ruby (1680 words)
Jack Ruby was in the Dallas Police Headquarters on the evening of November 22, 1963.
Ruby was among the crowd of reporters present.
Ruby, testifying before the Warren Commission, begged to be given a polygraph ("lie detector") test, and the Commission — very much against its better judgment — gave in to his entreaties.
Jack Ruby - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2062 words)
Jack Ruby was born Jacob Rubenstein to Joseph Rubenstein (1871–1958) and Fannie Turek Rutkowski or Rokowsky in Chicago, Illinois, in 1911.
Ruby (also known as "Sparky," reportedly because of his short temper) frequently carried a handgun, and witnesses saw him with a handgun in the halls of the Dallas police headquarters on several occasions after President Kennedy's assassination and arrest of Lee Harvey Oswald on November 22, 1963.
Ruby's lawyers argued that he could not have received a fair trial in the city of Dallas because of the excessive publicity surrounding the case.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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