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Encyclopedia > Jack Kerouac
Jack Kerouac
Born March 12, 1922(1922-03-12)
Lowell, Massachusetts
Died October 21, 1969 (aged 47)
St. Petersburg, Florida
Occupation Novelist
Poet
Nationality United States
Genres Beat Poets
Literary movement Beat
Notable work(s) On the Road

Jack Kerouac (pronounced /ˈkɛr-o-ek/) (March 12, 1922October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist from Lowell, Massachusetts. Along with William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, he is amongst the best known of the writers (and friends) known as the Beat Generation. is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1653 Incorporated 1826 A city 1836 Government  - Type Manager-City council  - Mayor William F. Martin, Jr. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... For other uses, see St. ... This article is about work. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Beats redirects here. ... ... Beats redirects here. ... This article is about the novel On the Road. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... Nickname: Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1653 Incorporated 1826 A city 1836 Government  - Type Manager-City council  - Mayor William F. Martin, Jr. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Beats redirects here. ...


Kerouac's work was very popular, but received little critical acclaim during his lifetime. Today, he is considered an important and influential writer who inspired others, including Tom Robbins, Lester Bangs, Richard Brautigan, and Ken Kesey, and writers of the New Journalism. Kerouac also influenced musicians such as The Beatles, Ben Gibbard, Bob Dylan, Morrissey, Tom Waits, Simon & Garfunkel, Lebris, Ulf Lundell and Jim Morrison.[1] Kerouac's best-known books are On the Road, The Dharma Bums, Big Sur, and Visions of Cody. Tom Robbins at a reading of Wild Ducks Flying Backward in San Francisco on September 24, 2005 Thomas Eugene Robbins (born July 22, 1936 in Blowing Rock, North Carolina) is an American author. ... Lester Bangs during an interview Leslie Conway Bangs (December 14, 1948 – April 30, 1982) was an American music journalist, author and musician. ... Richard Gary Brautigan (January 30, 1935 – September 14 (?),[1] 1984) was an American writer, best known for the novel Trout Fishing in America. ... Kenneth Elton Kesey (September 17, 1935 – November 10, 2001) was an American author, best known for his novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, and as a counter-cultural figure who, some consider, was a link between the beat generation of the 1950s and the hippies of the 1960s. ... New Journalism was the name given to a style of 1960s and 1970s news writing and journalism which used literary techniques deemed unconventional at the time. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Benjamin Gibbard (born August 11, 1976) in Bremerton, Washington and currently residing in Seattle, Washington, is an American musician who has formed several indie bands, and who is known for his songwriting. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... For other uses, see Morrissey (disambiguation). ... Thomas Alan Waits (born December 7, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter, composer, and actor. ... Bridge Over Troubled Water was Simon and Garfunkels last album; the title track was their only number one hit in the United Kingdom. ... Ulf Lundell (born November 20, 1949 in Södermalm, Stockholm, Sweden, full name Gerhard Ulf Lundell ) is a Swedish writer, poet, songwriter, composer, musician and artist. ... For other persons named James or Jim Morrison, see James Morrison. ... This article is about the novel On the Road. ... The Dharma Bums cover This is an article about the novel by Jack Kerouac. ... Big Sur, a 1962 novel by Jack Kerouac. ... Categories: Literature stubs | Novels of Jack Kerouac ...

Contents

Biography

Family

Jack Kerouac was born Jean-Louis Lebris de Kerouac, in Lowell, Massachusetts to French-Canadian parents, Léo-Alcide Kerouac and Gabrielle-Ange Lévesque, natives of the province of Québec, Canada. Like many other Quebecers of their generation, the Lévesques and Kerouacs were part of the Quebec emigration to New England to find employment. Nickname: Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1653 Incorporated 1826 A city 1836 Government  - Type Manager-City council  - Mayor William F. Martin, Jr. ... Canadiens redirects here. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Quebec diaspora refers to the hundreds of thousands of people who left the province of Quebec for the United States, Ontario and the Canadian prairies between 1840 and the Great Depression of the 1930s as well as those who began to leave during the 1960s following the Front de... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


Kerouac did not start to learn English until the age of six[2], and at home, he and his family spoke joual, a Quebec French dialect. When he was four he was profoundly affected by the death of his nine-year-old brother, Gérard, from rheumatic fever, an event later described in his novel Visions of Gerard. Some of Kerouac's poetry was written in French, and in letters written to friend Allen Ginsberg towards the end of his life he expressed his desire to speak his parents' native tongue again. Recently, it was discovered that Kerouac first started writing On the Road in French, a language in which he also wrote two unpublished novels.[3] The writings are in dialectal Quebec French, and predate the first novels of Michel Tremblay by a decade. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Visions of Gerard, a 1963 novel by Jack Kerouac. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... This article is about the novel On the Road. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Michel Tremblay (born June 25, 1942) is an important Quebec novelist and playwright. ...


Kerouac's athletic prowess led him to become a 100-meter hurdler on his local high school track team, and his skills as a running back in American football earned him scholarship offers from Boston College, Notre Dame and Columbia University. He entered Columbia University after spending a year at Horace Mann School, where he earned the requisite grades to matriculate to Columbia. Kerouac broke a leg playing football during his freshman season, and he argued constantly with coach Lou Little who kept him benched. While at Columbia, Kerouac wrote several sports articles for the student newspaper, the Columbia Daily Spectator. For similarly-named academic institutions, see Education in Boston, MA. Boston College (BC) is a private university located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, in the New England region of the United States. ... For other universities and colleges named Notre Dame, see Notre Dame. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... The Horace Mann School is an independent college preparatory school in New York City. ... Lou Little (1893-?) was an American football coach. ...


Early adulthood

Jack Kerouac lived above this flower shop in Ozone Park.
Jack Kerouac lived above this flower shop in Ozone Park.

When his football scholarship did not pan out, Kerouac dropped out of Columbia, though he continued to live for a period on New York City's Upper West Side with his girlfriend, Edie Parker. It was during this time that he met the people with whom he was later to journey around the world, the subjects of many of his novels: the so-called Beat Generation, including Allen Ginsberg, Neal Cassady, John Clellon Holmes, Herbert Huncke and William S. Burroughs. Kerouac joined the United States Merchant Marine in 1942 and in 1943 joined the United States Navy, but was honorably discharged during World War II on psychiatric grounds (he was of "indifferent disposition").[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 1067 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (800 × 1067 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Upper West Side is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that lies between Central Park and the Hudson River above West 59th Street. ... Edie Parker was an author from the Beatnik generation and the first wife of Jack Kerouac. ... Beats redirects here. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Cowboy Neal redirects here. ... John Clellon Holmes (March 12th, 1926 - March 2nd, 1988) is best known for his 1952 book Go, which described characters such as Jack Kerouac, Neal Cassady, and Allen Ginsberg and is considered the first Beat novel. ... Huncke on the cover of his anthology. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Source: This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... USN redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In 1944, Kerouac was arrested as an accessory in the murder of David Kammerer, who'd been stalking Kerouac's friend Lucien Carr since Carr was a teenager in St. Louis. (William Burroughs was himself a native of St. Louis, and it was through Carr that Kerouac came to know both Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg.) When Kammerer's obsession with Carr turned violent, Carr stabbed him to death and turned to Kerouac for help. Together, they disposed of evidence. Advised by Burroughs to turn themselves in, Kerouac's father at first refused to pay his bail. Kerouac then agreed to marry Edie Parker if she'd pay it. Their marriage was annulled a year later, and Kerouac and Burroughs briefly collaborated on a novel about the Kammerer killing entitled And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks. Though the book was not published during the lifetimes of either Kerouac or Burroughs, an excerpt eventually appeared in Word Virus: A William S. Burroughs Reader (and as noted below, the book is now scheduled for publication in late 2008). Kerouac also later wrote about the killing in his novel Vanity of Duluoz. Lucien Carr (March 1, 1925 – January 28, 2005) was a key figure in the Beat generation, and later an editor for UPI. Carr was a roommate of Allen Ginsberg at Columbia University in the 1940s and met Jack Kerouac through Jacks then-girlfriend Edie Parker. ... Edie Parker was an author from the Beatnik generation and the first wife of Jack Kerouac. ... And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks is an unpublished manuscript written in 1945 by Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs, several years before the two Beat Generation founders achieved notoriety with On the Road and Junkie, respectively. ... Categories: Literature stubs | Novels of Jack Kerouac ...


Later, he lived with his parents in the Ozone Park neighborhood of Queens, after they, too, moved to New York. He wrote his first novel, The Town and the City, and, according to at least John Clellon Holmes, began the quintessential On the Road around 1949 while living there. His friends jokingly called him "The Wizard of Ozone Park,"[5] a spoof of Thomas Edison's "Wizard of Menlo Park" nickname while simultaneously alluding to the title character of the film The Wizard of Oz and a shortened form of the word "ozone". Queens is geographically the largest of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse county in the U.S. It is coterminous with Queens County in the State of New York and is located on western Long Island. ... Edison redirects here. ... The Wizard of Oz (film) redirects here. ...


Career: 1950-1957

Kerouac tended to write constantly, carrying a notebook with him everywhere. Letters to friends and family members tended to be long and rambling, including great detail about his daily life and thoughts. Prior to becoming a writer, he tried a varied list of careers. He was a sports reporter for The Lowell Sun; a temporary worker in construction and food service; a United States Merchant Marine and he joined the United States Navy twice. The Lowell Sun (branded as The Sun) is a daily newspaper, serving towns in Massachusetts and New Hampshire in the Greater Lowell area and beyond. ... Source: This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ... USN redirects here. ...


The Town and the City was published in 1950 under the name "John Kerouac," and, though it earned him a few respectable reviews, the book sold poorly. Heavily influenced by Kerouac's reading of Thomas Wolfe, it reflects on the generational epic formula and the contrasts of small town life versus the multi-dimensional, and larger, city. The book was heavily edited by Robert Giroux; some 400 pages were taken out. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Photo by Carl Van Vechten For the contemporary author and journalist, see Tom Wolfe Thomas Clayton Wolfe (October 3, 1900 – September 15, 1938) was an important American novelist of the 20th century. ... Robert Giroux (b. ...


For the next six years, Kerouac wrote constantly but could not find a publisher. Building upon previous drafts tentatively titled "The Beat Generation" and "Gone on the Road," Kerouac wrote what is now known as On the Road in April, 1951 (ISBN 0-312-20677-1). The book was largely autobiographical, narrated from the point of view of the character Sal Paradise, describing Kerouac's roadtrip adventures across the United States and Mexico with Neal Cassady, the model for the character of Dean Moriarty. This article is about the novel On the Road. ... Sal Paradise is the narrator and the protagonist in Jack Kerouacs novel On the Road. ... Cowboy Neal redirects here. ... Dean Moriarty is one of the protagonists in Jack Kerouacs novel On the Road. ...


Part of the Kerouac myth is that, fueled by Benzedrine and coffee, he completed the first version of the novel during a three week extended session of spontaneous confessional prose. This session produced the now famous scroll of On the Road. In fact, according to his Columbia professor and mentor Mark Van Doren, he had outlined much of the work in his journals over several years. His technique was heavily influenced by Jazz, especially Bebop, and later, Buddhism, as well as the famous "Joan Anderson letter", authored by Neal Cassady.[6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... Mark Van Doren (June 13, 1894 – December 10, 1972) was a Pulitzer Prize-winning poet and critic. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Cowboy Neal redirects here. ...

House in Orlando, Florida where Kerouac lived and wrote The Dharma Bums
House in Orlando, Florida where Kerouac lived and wrote The Dharma Bums

Publishers rejected it due to its experimental writing style and its sympathetic tone towards minorities and marginalized social groups of the United States in the 1950s. In 1957, Viking Press purchased the novel, demanding major revisions.[7] Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1056 KB) House where Jack Kerouac lived with his mother, in Winter Park, Florida. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1056 KB) House where Jack Kerouac lived with his mother, in Winter Park, Florida. ... Orlando redirects here. ... The 1950s are noted in United States history as a time of both compliance and conformity and also of rebellion. ... Viking Press was founded on March 1, 1925, in New York City, by Harold K. Guinzburg and George S. Oppenheim. ...


In 1954, Kerouac discovered Dwight Goddard's A Buddhist Bible at the San Jose Library, which marked the beginning of Kerouac's immersion into Buddhism. In 1955 Kerouac wrote a biography of Siddhartha Gautama, entitled Wake Up, which was unpublished during his lifetime but eventually serialised in Tricycle: The Buddhist Review, 1993-95. Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... Tricycle: The Buddhist Review is a well-known Buddhist periodical published in the United States by the Tricycle Foundation. ...


He chronicled parts of his own experience with Buddhism, as well as some of his adventures with Gary Snyder and other San Francisco-area poets, in the book The Dharma Bums, set in California and published in 1958. The Dharma Bums, which some have called the sequel to On the Road, was written in Orlando, Florida during late 1957 through early 1958. Kerouac also wrote and narrated a "Beat" movie entitled Pull My Daisy in 1958. Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Dharma Bums cover This is an article about the novel by Jack Kerouac. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Jan. ... Orlando redirects here. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Jan. ... Pull My Daisy is a 1958 short film that typifies the Beat Generation. ... Jan. ...

Beginning of the original typed roll where Kerouac wrote On the Road. The first sentence is: "I first met met Neal not long after my father died..." Later it would be replaced by the definitive one: "I first met Dean not long after my wife and I split up".
Beginning of the original typed roll where Kerouac wrote On the Road. The first sentence is: "I first met met Neal not long after my father died..." Later it would be replaced by the definitive one: "I first met Dean not long after my wife and I split up".

Career: 1957-1969

In July 1957, Kerouac moved to a small house on Clouser Ave. in the College Park section of Orlando, Florida to await the release of On the Road. A few weeks later, the review appeared in the New York Times proclaiming Kerouac the voice of a new generation. Kerouac was hailed as a major American writer. His friendship with Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs and Gregory Corso, among others, became a notorious representation of the Beat Generation. His fame would come as an unmanageable surge that would ultimately be his undoing. Kerouac's novel is often described as the defining work of the post-World War II Beat Generation and Kerouac came to be called "the king of the beat generation," a term that he never felt comfortable with. He once observed, "I'm not a beatnik, I'm a Catholic." The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Gregory Corso (illustration) Gregory Nunzio Corso (March 26, 1930 – January 17, 2001) was an American poet, the fourth member of the canon of Beat Generation writers (with Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William Burroughs). ... Beats redirects here. ...


John Antonelli's 1985 documentary Kerouac, the Movie begins and ends with footage of Kerouac reading from On the Road and Visions of Cody on The Tonight Show with Steve Allen in 1957. Kerouac appears intelligent but shy. "Are you nervous?" asks Steve Allen. "Naw", says Kerouac, sweating and fiddling. This article is about the novel On the Road. ... Categories: Literature stubs | Novels of Jack Kerouac ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Steve Allen” redirects here. ...


Kerouac developed something of a friendship with the scholar Alan Watts (cryptically named Arthur Wayne in Kerouac's novel Big Sur, and Alex Aums in Desolation Angels). He also met and had discussions with the famous Japanese Zen Buddhist authority D.T. Suzuki. Kerouac moved to Northport, New York in March 1958, six months after releasing On the Road, to care for his aging mother Gabrielle and to hide from his new-found celebrity. From The Essential Alan Watts Alan Wilson Watts (January 6, 1915 – November 16, 1973) was a philosopher, writer, speaker, and expert in comparative religion. ... Big Sur, a 1962 novel by Jack Kerouac. ... Desolation Angels, a 1965 novel by Jack Kerouac. ... A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... Dr. Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (1870, Kanazawa, Japan - 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism and Zen that were instrumental in spreading interest in Zen to the West. ... Northport is a village in Suffolk County, New York on the North Shore of Long Island. ...


Death

Kerouac died on October 21, 1969 at St. Anthony's Hospital in St. Petersburg, Florida, one day after being rushed with severe abdominal pain from his St. Petersburg home by ambulance. His death, at the age of 47, resulted from an internal haemorrhage (bleeding esophageal varices) caused by cirrhosis of the liver, the result of a lifetime of heavy drinking. At the time of his death, he was living with his third wife Stella, and his mother Gabrielle. Kerouac is buried in his home town of Lowell and was honored posthumously with a Doctor of Letters degree from his hometown's University of Massachusetts - Lowell on June 2, 2007. is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... For other uses, see St. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... In medicine (gastroenterology), esophageal varices are extreme dilations of sub mucosal veins in the mucosa of the esophagus in diseases featuring portal hypertension, secondary to cirrhosis primarily. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Nickname: Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1653 Incorporated 1826 A city 1836 Government  - Type Manager-City council  - Mayor William F. Martin, Jr. ...


In 2007, to coincide with the 50th anniversary of On the Road's publishing,[8] Viking issued two new editions: On the Road: The Original Scroll, and On the Road: 50th Anniversary Edition. By far the more significant is Scroll, a transcription of the original draft typed as one long paragraph on rolls of teletype paper which Kerouac taped together to form a 120-foot scroll. The text is more sexually explicit than Viking allowed to be published in 1957, and also uses the real names of Kerouac's friends rather than the fictional names he later substituted. (Indianapolis Colts owner Jim Irsay paid $2.43 million for the original scroll and is allowing an exhibition tour that will conclude at the end of 2009.) The other new issue, 50th Anniversary Edition, is a reissue of the 40th anniversary issue under an updated title. League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1953–present) Western Conference (1953-1969) Coastal Division (1967-1969) American Football Conference (1970-present) AFC East (1970-2001) AFC South (2002-present) Current uniform Team colors Royal Blue, White Mascot Blue Personnel Owner Jim Irsay General Manager Bill Polian Head Coach Tony Dungy... Jim Irsay (also known as Jimmy Irsay) graduated from Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX in 1982 and is the owner of the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. ...

Lowell, Massachusetts Gravesite, Lowell Massachusetts
Lowell, Massachusetts Gravesite, Lowell Massachusetts

In March 2008, Penguin Books announced that the Kerouac/Burroughs manuscript, And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks will be published for the first time in November 2008. (Previously, a fragment of the manuscript had been published in the Burroughs compendium, Word Virus).[9] Nickname: Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1653 Incorporated 1826 A city 1836 Government  - Type Manager-City council  - Mayor William F. Martin, Jr. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks is an unpublished manuscript written in 1945 by Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs, several years before the two Beat Generation founders achieved notoriety with On the Road and Junkie, respectively. ...


Works, style, and innovations

See also: Bibliography of Jack Kerouac

Style

Jack Kerouac's poem in the center of his namesake alley.
Jack Kerouac's poem in the center of his namesake alley.

Kerouac is generally considered to be the father of the Beat movement, although it must be said that he actively disliked such labels, and, in particular, regarded the subsequent Hippie movement with some disdain. Kerouac's method was heavily influenced by the prolific explosion of Jazz, especially the Bebop genre established by Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Miles Davis, Thelonious Monk, and others. Later, Kerouac would include ideas he developed in his Buddhist studies, beginning with Gary Snyder. He called this style Spontaneous Prose, a literary technique akin to stream of consciousness. Jack Kerouac Alley (formerly Adler Street) is an alleyway in San Franciscos Chinatown. ... For the British TV show, see Hippies (TV series). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... For other persons of the same name, see Charles Parker. ... For the Australian cricketer nicknamed Dizzy, see Jason Gillespie. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... Thelonious Sphere Monk (October 10, 1917 – February 17, 1982) was a jazz pianist and composer. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... For other uses, see Stream of consciousness (psychology) In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique that seeks to portray an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes, either in a loose interior monologue, or in connection to his...


Kerouac utilized Chögyam Trungpa's "first-thought-best-thought" Buddhist idea,[10] and applied it to spontaneous writing; many of his books exemplified this approach including On the Road, Visions of Cody, Visions of Gerard, Big Sur, and The Subterraneans. The central features of this writing method were the ideas of breath (borrowed from Jazz and from Buddhist meditation breathing), improvising words over the inherent structures of mind and language, and not editing a single word (much of his work was edited by Donald Merriam Allen, a major figure in Beat Generation poetry who also edited some of Ginsberg's work as well). Connected with his idea of breath was the elimination of the period, preferring to use a long, connecting dash instead. As such, the phrases occurring between dashes might resemble improvisational jazz licks. When spoken, the words might take on a certain kind of rhythm, though none of it pre-meditated. Chögyam Trungpa (February 1939 - April 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar, teacher, poet, artist, and a Trungpa tülku. ... A full stop or period (sometimes stop, full point, decimal point, or dot), is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and many other languages. ... Improvisation is the practice of acting and reacting, of making and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of ones immediate environment. ...


Gary Snyder was greatly admired by Kerouac, and many of his ideas influenced Kerouac. The Dharma Bums contains accounts of a mountain climbing trip Kerouac took with Snyder. One summer, Kerouac took a job as a fire lookout in the North Cascade Mountains in Washington state on Snyder's recommendation. Kerouac described the experience in his novel Desolation Angels. Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... The Dharma Bums cover This is an article about the novel by Jack Kerouac. ... A USFS fire lookout on Bald Mountain in Butte County, California. ...


He would go on for hours to friends and strangers about his method, often drunk, which at first wasn't well received by Allen Ginsberg, though Ginsberg would later be one of its great proponents, and indeed was apparently influenced by Kerouac's free flowing prose method of writing in the composition of his masterpiece "Howl". It was at about the time that Kerouac wrote The Subterraneans that he was approached by Ginsberg and others to formally explicate exactly how he wrote it, how he did Spontaneous Prose. Among the writings he set down specifically about his Spontaneous Prose method, the most concise would be Belief and Technique for Modern Prose, a list of thirty "essentials." Howl and Other Poems was published in the fall of 1956 as number four in the Pocket Poets Series from City Lights Books This article is about the poem by Allen Ginsberg. ...

  1. Scribbled secret notebooks, and wild typewritten pages, for yr own joy
  2. Submissive to everything, open, listening
  3. Try never get drunk outside your own house
  4. Be in love with your life
  5. Something that you feel will find its own form
  6. Be crazy dumbsaint of the mind
  7. Blow as deep as you want to blow
  8. Write what you want bottomless from bottom of the mind
  9. The unspeakable visions of the individual
  10. No time for poetry but exactly what is
  11. Visionary tics shivering in the chest
  12. In tranced fixation dreaming upon object before you
  13. Remove literary, grammatical and syntactical inhibition
  14. Like Proust be an old teahead of time
  15. Telling the true story of the world in interior monolog
  16. The jewel center of interest is the eye within the eye
  17. Write in recollection and amazement for yrself
  18. Work from pithy middle eye out, swimming in language sea
  19. Accept loss forever
  20. Believe in the holy contour of life
  21. Struggle to sketch the flow that already exists intact in mind
  22. Don't think of words when you stop but to see picture better
  23. Keep track of every day the date emblazoned in yr morning
  24. No fear or shame in the dignity of yr experience, language & knowledge
  25. Write for the world to read and see yr exact pictures of it
  26. Bookmovie is the movie in words, the visual American form
  27. In praise of Character in the Bleak inhuman Loneliness
  28. Composing wild, undisciplined, pure, coming in from under, crazier the better
  29. You're a Genius all the time
  30. Writer-Director of Earthly movies Sponsored & Angeled in Heaven
"The only people for me are the mad ones, the ones who are mad to live, mad to talk, mad to be saved, desirous of everything at the same time, the ones who never yawn or say a commonplace thing, but burn, burn, burn, like fabulous yellow Roman candles exploding like spiders across the stars, and in the middle, you see the blue center-light pop, and everybody goes ahh..."
from On the Road

Some believed that at times Kerouac's writing technique did not produce lively or energetic prose. Truman Capote famously said about Kerouac's work, "That's not writing, it's typing." Despite such criticism, it should be kept in mind that what Kerouac said about writing and how he wrote are sometimes seen to be separate. According to Carolyn Cassady and other people who knew him he rewrote and rewrote. Some claim his own style was in no way spontaneous. However it should be taken into account that throughout most of the '50s, Kerouac was constantly trying to have his work published, and consequently he often revised and re-arranged manuscripts in an often futile attempt to interest publishers, as is clearly documented in his collected letters (which are in themselves wonderful examples of his style). The Subterraneans and Visions of Cody are possibly the best examples of Kerouac's free-flowing spontaneous prose method. A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Proust redirects here. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Truman Capote (pronounced ; 30 September 1924 – 25 August 1984) was an American writer whose stories, novels, plays, and non-fiction are recognized literary classics, including the novella Breakfast at Tiffanys (1958) and In Cold Blood (1965), which he labeled a non-fiction novel. ... Carolyn Cassady, American writer and Beat Generation personality, was born Carolyn Robinson in Lansing, Michigan on April, 28 1923 and raised in Nashville, Tennessee. ...


Influence

Kerouac is considered by some as the "King of the Beats". Beating is striking more than once, in violence, beating a drum, etc. ...


Kerouac's plainspeak manner of writing prose, as well as his nearly long-form haiku style of poetry have inspired countless modern neo-beat writers and artists, such as George Condo (Painter), Roger Craton (Poet and Philosopher), and John McNaughton (filmmaker). John McNaughton (born January 13, 1950) is an American film director, originally from Chicago, Illinois. ...


The Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at Naropa University is named in his honor. In 2007, Kerouac was awarded a posthumous honorary degree from the University of Massachusetts Lowell.[11] The Jack Kerouac School was founded at Naropa in 1974 by Beat Generation poets Allen Ginsberg and Anne Waldman. ... Naropa University,, founded in 1974 by Tibetan Buddhist teacher Chögyam Trungpa, is a private liberal arts university in Boulder, Colorado. ... An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... The University of Massachusetts Lowell (UMass Lowell) is one of five University of Massachusetts campuses. ...


In the 1999 film, The Source, that detailed the Beat Generation, Kerouac was portrayed by Johnny Depp. It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Notability not established. ... John Christopher Depp II[1] (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, best known for his frequent portrayals of offbeat and eccentric characters such as Jack Sparrow in the Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy and the titular character of Tim Burtons Edward Scissorhands. ...


A reference is made to Kerouac in the Julie Taymor film Across the Universe when the father of Max claims that his son will end up like Kerouac, driving around the country. Julie Taymor (born December 15, 1952) is an American director of Broadway theatre and film. ... Across the Universe is a 2007 Academy Award-nominated musical film produced by Revolution Studios and distributed by Columbia Pictures. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Hopkins, J: No One Here Gets Out Alive, p. 11. Warner Books, 1980
  2. ^ Jack Kerouac Biography and List of Works - Jack Kerouac Books
  3. ^ Les 50 ans d'On the Road - Kerouac voulait écrire en français
  4. ^ Hit The Road, Jack - September 6, 2005
  5. ^ The Wizard of Ozone Park by Patrick Fenton
  6. ^ Joan Anderson" letter
  7. ^ http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC
  8. ^ Uncensored ‘On the Road’ to be published - BOOKS - MSNBC.com
  9. ^ Chris Hastings and Beth Jones, "New Jack Kerouac book to be published, The Telegraph, 2 March 2008 (accessed 3 March 2008)
  10. ^ Ginsberg, Allen (2001). Spontaneous Mind: Selected Interviews, 1958-1996. HarperCollins, 366. ISBN 0060930829. 
  11. ^ Commencement 2007 : : UMass Lowell

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ...

Further reading

  • Amburm, Ellis. "Subterranean Kerouac: The Hidden Life of Jack Kerouac". St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-20677-1
  • Amram, David. "Offbeat: Collaborating with Kerouac". Thunder's Mouth Press, 2002.ISBN 1-56025-362-2
  • Bartlett, Lee (ed.) "The Beats: Essays in Criticism". London: McFarland, 1981.
  • Beaulieu, Victor-Lévy. "Jack Kerouac: A Chicken Essay". Coach House Press, 1975.
  • Brooks, Ken. "The Jack Kerouac Digest". Agenda, 2001.
  • Cassady, Carolyn. "Neal Cassady Collected Letters, 1944-1967". Penguin, 2004. ISBN 0-14-200217-8
  • Cassady, Carolyn. "Off the Road: Twenty Years with Cassady, Kerouac and Ginsberg". Black Spring Press, 2007.
  • Challis, Chris. "Quest for Kerouac". Faber & Faber, 1984.
  • Charters, Ann. "Kerouac". San Francisco: Straight Arrow Books, 1973.
  • Charters, Ann (ed.) "The Portable Beat Reader". New York: Penguin, 1992.
  • Charters, Ann (ed.) "The Portable Jack Kerouac". New York: Penguin, 1995.
  • Christy, Jim. "The Long Slow Death of Jack Kerouac". ECW Press, 1998.
  • Clark, Tom. "Jack Kerouac". Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1984.
  • Coolidge, Clark. "Now It's Jazz: Writings on Kerouac & the Sounds". Living Batch, 1999.
  • Dagier, Patricia; Quéméner, Hervé. "Jack Kerouac: Au Bout de la Route ... La Bretagne". An Here, 1999.
  • Edington, Stephen. "Kerouac's Nashua Roots". Transition, 1999.
  • Ellis, R.J., "Liar! Liar! Jack Kerouac - Novelist". Greenwich Exchange, 1999.
  • French, Warren. "Jack Kerouac". Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1986.
  • Gaffié, Luc. "Jack Kerouac: The New Picaroon". Postillion Press, 1975.
  • Giamo, Ben. "Kerouac, The Word and The Way". Southern Illinois U.P., 2000.
  • Gifford, Barry. "Kerouac's Town". Creative Arts, 1977.
  • Gifford, Barry; Lee, Lawrence. "Jack's Book: An Oral Biography of Jack Kerouac". St. Martin's Press, 1978. ISBN 0-14-005269-0
  • Goldstein, N.W., "Kerouac's On the Road." Explicator 50.1. 1991.
  • Haynes, Sarah, "An Exploration of Jack Kerouac's Buddhism:Text and Life"
  • Heller, Christine Jack Kerouac and Gary Snyder: Chasing Zen Clouds
  • Hemmer, Kurt. "Encyclopedia of Beat Literature: The Essential Guide to the Lives and Works of the Beat Writers". Facts on File, Inc., 2007.
  • Hipkiss, Robert A., "Jack Kerouac: Prophet of the New Romanticism". Regents Press, 1976.
  • Holmes, John Clellon. "Visitor: Jack Kerouac in Old Saybrook". tuvoti, 1981.
  • Holmes, John Clellon. "Gone In October: Last Reflections on Jack Kerouac". Limberlost, 1985.
  • Holton, Robert. "On the Road: Kerouac's Ragged American Journey". Twayne, 1999.
  • Hrebeniak, Michael. "Action Writing: Jack Kerouac"s Wild Form," Carbondale IL., Southern Illinois UP, 2006.
  • Huebel, Harry Russell. "Jack Kerouac". Boise State U.P., 1979.
  • Hunt, Tim. "Kerouac's Crooked Road". Hamden: Archon Books, 1981.
  • Jarvis, Charles. "Visions of Kerouac". Ithaca Press, 1973.
  • Johnson, Joyce. "Minor Characters: A Young Woman's Coming-Of-Age in the Beat Orbit of Jack Kerouac". Penguin Books, 1999.
  • Johnson, Joyce. "Door Wide Open: A Beat Love Affair in Letters, 1957-1958". Viking, 2000.
  • Johnson, Ronna C., "You're Putting Me On: Jack Kerouac and the Postmodern Emergence". College Literature. 27.1 2000.
  • Jones, James T., "A Map of Mexico City Blues: Jack Kerouac as Poet". Southern Illinois U.P., 1992.
  • Jones, James T., "Jack Kerouac's Duluoz Legend". Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999.
  • Jones, Jim. "Use My Name: Kerouac's Forgotten Families". ECW Press, 1999.
  • Jones, Jim. "Jack Kerouac's Nine Lives". Elbow/Cityful Press, 2001.
  • Kealing, Bob. "Kerouac in Florida: Where the Road Ends". Arbiter Press, 2004.
  • Kerouac, Joan Havery. "Nobody's Wife: The Smart Aleck and the King of the Beats". Creative Arts, 2000.
  • Maher Jr., Paul. "Kerouac: The Definitive Biography". Lanham: Taylor Trade P, July 2004 ISBN 0-87833-305-3
  • McNally, Dennis. "Desolate Angel: Jack Kerouac, the Beat Generation, and America". Da Capo Press, 2003. ISBN 0-306-81222-3
  • Miles, Barry. "Jack Kerouac: King of the Beats". Virgin, 1998.
  • Montgomery, John. "Jack Kerouac: A Memoir ...". Giligia Press, 1970.
  • Montgomery, John. "Kerouac West Coast". Fels & Firn Press, 1976.
  • Montgomery, John. "The Kerouac We Knew". Fels & Firn Press, 1982.
  • Montgomery, John. "Kerouac at the Wild Boar". Fels & Firn Press, 1986.
  • Mortenson, Erik R., "Beating Time: Configurations of Temporality in Jack Kerouac's On the Road". College Literature 28.3. 2001.
  • Motier, Donald. "Gerard: The Influence of Jack Kerouac's Brother on his Life and Writing". Beaulieu Street Press, 1991.
  • Nicosia, Gerald. "Memory Babe: A Critical Biography of Jack Kerouac". Berkeley: U of Cal P, 1994. ISBN 0-520-08569-8
  • Parker, Brad. "Jack Kerouac: An Introduction". Lowell Corporation for the Humanities, 1989.
  • Sandison, David. "Jack Kerouac". Hamlyn, 1999.
  • Swartz, Omar. "The View From On the Road: The Rhetorical Vision of Jack Kerouac". Southern Illinois U.P., 1999.
  • Swick, Thomas. "South Florida Sun Sentinel". February 22, 2004. Article: "Jack Kerouac in Orlando".
  • Theado, Matt. "Understanding Jack Kerouac". Columbia: University of South Carolina, 2000.
  • Turner, Steve. "Angelheaded Hipster: A Life of Jack Kerouac". Viking Books, 1996. ISBN 0-670-87038-2
  • Weinreich, Regina. "The Spontaneous Prose of Jack Kerouac". Southern Illinois U.P., 1987.

Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... Tom Clark (born 1941) is an American poet, editor and biographer. ... Clark Coolidge (February 26, 1939 – ) is an American poet born in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Paul Maher, Jr. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Persondata
NAME Kerouac, Jack
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American novelist and poet
DATE OF BIRTH March 12, 1922(1922-03-12)
PLACE OF BIRTH Lowell, Massachusetts
DATE OF DEATH October 21, 1969
PLACE OF DEATH St. Petersburg, Florida

A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Art is the Handmaid of Human Good Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1653 Incorporated 1826 A city 1836 Government  - Type Manager-City council  - Mayor William F. Martin, Jr. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... For other uses, see St. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Jack Kerouac - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3320 words)
Kerouac's novel is often described as the defining work of the post-World War II Beat Generation and Kerouac came to be called "the king of the beat generation," a term that he never felt comfortable with, and once observed I'm not a beatnik, I'm a Catholic.
Kerouac is considered by some as the "King of the Beatniks" as well as the "Father of the Hippies".
Kerouac was "locked in the Cold War and the first Asian debacle" in "the gray, chill, militaristic silence, [...] the intellective void [...] the spiritual drabness".
Author Profile: Jack Kerouac (577 words)
Jack Kerouac was born Jean-Louis Kerouac, in Lowell, Massachusetts on March 12, 1922.
Jack Kerouac is generally seen as one of the great writers of his generation, but what is truly amazing is the fact that he was and has become much more than that.
Kerouac was a man blessed with a lucid vision of life whose flip-side of vulnerability and sensitivity was to lead him through a series of breakdowns in his lifetime.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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