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Encyclopedia > Jack Broughton
A drawing of Jack Broughton by George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend.
A drawing of Jack Broughton by George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend.

John "Jack" Broughton, (c. 1703January 8, 1789), was an English bare-knuckle fighter. He was the first person to ever codify a set of rules to be used in such contests; prior to this the "rules" that existed were very loosely defined and tended to vary from contest to contest. His London Prize Ring rules are widely regarded as the foundation stone of the sport that would become boxing, and were by far the most widely used in pugilistic contests prior to the development of the Marquess of Queensberry rules in the 1860s. Image File history File links Jack_Broughton. ... Image File history File links Jack_Broughton. ... George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend, PC (February 28, 1724 - September 14, 1807) was a British soldier and reached the rank of field marshal. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... Bare-knuckle is a phrase often used to distinguish between boxing with gloves and the more ancient form of combat sport performed by two individuals fighting without any gloves or other form of padding on their hands. ... The London Prize Ring rules was a list of 29 rules drafted by Britains Jack Broughton in 1743, governing the conduct of prizefighting/boxing for over 100 years. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Marquis of Queensbury rules are a code of popularly accepted rules in the sport of boxing. ...


Broughton was of obscure birth, he is varyingly described as being born in either London or Gloucestershire. He served his apprenticeship in the Port of London, initially working as a lighterman but eventually, in light of his physical prowess (Broughton was nearly 6 foot tall, a rarity in those days, and very muscular), working as a waterman rowing passengers on the River Thames. In 1730 he won a major annual race on the Thames against a number of other waterman who had recently finished their apprenticeships. London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Royal motto (Yokel): OFF MY LAND CUNT (Translated: The Rolling Stones- Gimme Shelter) Republic of Gloucesters location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital Gloucester de facto Largest city Cheltenham Emperor Headspeath the VI Area - Total Ranked 4th UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density... The Port of London lies along the banks of the River Thames in London, England. ... Lighterman riding the current under Tower Bridge, circa 1928 Lightermen were workers who transferred goods between ships and quays, aboard flat-bottomed barges called lighters. ... The Thames (pronounced /temz/) is a river flowing through southern England and connecting London with the sea. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ...


Throughout the 1730s Broughton fought semi-professionally and earned a sizable reputation. Although records of fights fought in this era are few there is no evidence that Broughton ever lost a fight, and, following his retirement, he certainly claimed to have been undefeated. Broughton's fights often attracted sizable audiences, so much so that on one occasion a spectator was crushed to death. Another of his fights served as the inspiration for Paul Whitehead's poem The Gymnasiad.


Broughton used the money he earned from fighting, along with help from a number of wealthy patrons, to open his own amphitheatre in 1743. It was at this time that he developed his code of rules, which he hoped would allow fighters a certain degree of protection (Broughton himself had once killed an opponent in a fight). Aside from boxing, Broughton's amphitheatre also hosted such other violent spectacles as bear-baiting and fights using weapons. Following his retirement from boxing in 1744, Broughton devoted much of his time to running an academy for aspiring fighters. The name amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is given to a public building of the Classical period (being particularly associated with ancient Rome) which was used for spectator sports, games and displays. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... Bear_baiting in the 18th century, engraving, 1796 Bear_baiting is a blood sport that was a popular entertainment from at least the 11th century in which a bear is secured to a post and then attacked by a number of dogs. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President...


In 1750 Broughton came out of retirement to settle a dispute, the details of which are unknown. Despite being far older than his opponent, Broughton entered the contest as the clear favourite. However, despite a strong start, the fight did not go his way and he suffered an embarrassing loss (destroying the perfect record he claimed for himself). The amphitheatre eventually closed in 1754, but Broughton continued to teach young boxers until his death. Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Aside from his career in boxing, Broughton also served in the Yeomen of the Guard (the bodyguard of the British monarch), as a member of which he accompanied George II at the Battle of Dettingen, the last time a British monarch fought in a battle. The Queens Body Guard of the Yeomen of the Guard are a bodyguard of the British Monarch. ... George II (George Augustus) (10 November 1683–25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... The Battle of Dettingen took place on June 16 (some sources, no doubt using a different calendar, say June 27), 1743 at Dettingen in Bavaria during the War of the Austrian Succession. ...


Following his death in 1789, Broughton was interred at Westminster Abbey. His headstone did not bear an epitaph for nearly 200 years because the Dean of the Abbey felt that the epitaph that Broughton had requested was inappropriate. It was not until 1988 that Broughton's request was fulfilled and the words "Champion of England" were engraved on the headstone. 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Abbeys western facade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to as Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral, in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Headstones in the Japanese Cemetry in Broome, Western Australia A cemetery in rural Spain A typical late 20th century headstone in the United States A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker, normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a burial. ... An epitaph (literally: on the grave in ancient Greek) is text honoring the dead, most commonly inscribed on a tombstone or plaque. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Broughton was one of the original inductees of the International Boxing Hall of Fame, inducted as a pioneer of the sport. The modern International Boxing Hall of Fame is located in Canastota, New York, United States, within driving distance from the Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown and the National Soccer Hall of Fame in Oneonta. ...


References

  • Roberts, James B. & Alexander G. Skutt (2002). Boxing Register: International Boxing Hall of Fame Official Record Book. London, McBooks Press. ISBN 1590130200.
  • Hennell, Reginald (1904). The History of The King's Body Guard of the Yeoman of the Guard. Westminster, Archibald Constable & Co..

  Results from FactBites:
 
Jack Broughton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (947 words)
Broughton was of obscure birth, he is variously described as being born in either London or Gloucestershire.
Broughton was considered the champion of England after he beat George Taylor, James Figg's (1st champion of England at the Heavyweight) successor and considered the 2nd champion of England at the heavyweight, in 1734, a title which he held, at least on the books, until 1750.
Broughton was one of the original inductees of the International Boxing Hall of Fame, inducted as a pioneer of the sport.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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