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Encyclopedia > Jacaranda
iJacarandas
Flowering Jacaranda
Flowering Jacaranda
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Bignoniaceae
Genus: Jacaranda
Juss.
Species

See text Download high resolution version (1024x768, 233 KB)Picture taken in Oaxaca, Mexico in March 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families See text The Order Lamiales is a taxon in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants. ... Genera See text The Family Bignoniaceae, or trumpet creeper family, is a taxon of flowering plants comprised mainly of trees, shrubs, lianas, and a few herbs. ... Portrait of Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (April 12, 1748 - September 17, 1836) was a French botanist. ...

Jacaranda is a genus of 49 species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of South and Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. The genus name is also used as the common name. In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic grouping. ... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Genera See text The Family Bignoniaceae, or trumpet creeper family, is a taxon of flowering plants comprised mainly of trees, shrubs, lianas, and a few herbs. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Map of Central America Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. ... World map depicting Caribbean : West Indies redirects here. ...

Large tree in full bloom.
Large tree in full bloom.

The species are shrubs to large trees ranging in size from 2-30 m tall. The leaves are bipinnate in most species, pinnate or simple in a few species. The flowers are produced in conspicuous large panicles, each flower with a five-lobed blue to purple-blue corolla; a few species have white flowers. The fruit is an oblong to oval flattened capsule containing numerous slender seeds. The genus differs from other genera in the Bignoninaceae in having a staminode that is longer than the stamens, tricolpate pollen, and a chromosome number of 18. Download high resolution version (851x587, 143 KB)Jacaranda tree in bloom, October 2004, Brisbane, Australia, Fair Use File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (851x587, 143 KB)Jacaranda tree in bloom, October 2004, Brisbane, Australia, Fair Use File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Clivia miniata A cluster of flowers (Clivia miniata) A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structures holding the fruits. ... Corolla can be: A Latin-language term for crown The Toyota Corolla, a model of automobile manufactured by Toyota The corolla is one whorl of the perianth of a flower and composed of petals The town of Corolla, North Carolina This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Flowers and fruit (capsules) of the ground orchid, Spathoglottis plicata. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... In botany, a staminode is an often rudimentary, sterile or abortive stamen. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting pollen, accidentally transfer it from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen is the male organ of a flower. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), lily (Lilium auratum), primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ...


The genus is divided into two sections, sect. Jacaranda (syn. sect. Monolobos, an invalid name as it includes the type species of the genus, J. caerulea) and sect. Dilobos DC., based on the number of thecae on the anthers. Sect. Jacaranda (which includes Blue Jacarandas) has 18 species and is found primarily in western South America, Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. Sect. Dilobos, which is believed to be the primitive form, has 31 species and is found primarily in southeastern Brazil including the ParanĂ¡ River valley. The anatomy of the wood in the two sections also differs. Although usually treated in sect. Jacaranda, J. copaia differs somewhat from all other members of the genus, and may be intermediate between the two sections (Dos Santos & Miller 1997). Strawberry anther with parallel thecae In botany, the theca (plural thecae) of an angiosperm is half of the anther. ... Flower of the spider tree (Crateva religiosa) with its numerous conspicuous stamens The stamen is the male organ of a flower. ... The sun rising over the Paraná River, from the north-east of Rosario, Argentina. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ...


Selected species

Sect. Jacaranda
  • Jacaranda acutifolia Bonpl.
  • Jacaranda arborea Urb.
  • Jacaranda brasiliana (Lam.) Pers.
  • Jacaranda caerulea (L.) J.St.-Hil.
  • Jacaranda caucana Pittier
  • Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D.Don
  • Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. ex DC.
  • Jacaranda hesperia Dugand.
  • Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don
  • Jacaranda obtusifolia Humboldt & Bonpl.
  • Jacaranda orinocensis Sandw.
  • Jacaranda poitaei Urb.
  • Jacaranda praetermissa Sandw.
  • Jacaranda sparrei A.H.Gentry
Sect. Dilobos
  • Jacaranda bracteata Bur. & K.Schum.
  • Jacaranda campinae A.Gentry & Morawetz
  • Jacaranda carajasensis A.Gentry
  • Jacaranda caroba (Vell.) DC.
  • Jacaranda crassifolia Morawetz
  • Jacaranda duckei Vattimo
  • Jacaranda glabra (DC.) Bur. & K.Schum.
  • Jacaranda intricata A.Gentry & Morawetz
  • Jacaranda irwinii A.Gentry
  • Jacaranda jasminoides (Thunb.) Sandw.
  • Jacaranda macrantha Cham.
  • Jacaranda macrocarpa Bur. & K.Schum.
  • Jacaranda micrantha Cham.
  • Jacaranda montana Morawetz
  • Jacaranda morii A.Gentry
  • Jacaranda mutabilis Hassl.
  • Jacaranda obovata Cham.
  • Jacaranda oxyphylla Cham.
  • Jacaranda paucifoliata Mart. ex DC.
  • Jacaranda puberula Cham.
  • Jacaranda racemosa Cham.
  • Jacaranda rufa Manso
  • Jacaranda simplicifolia K.Schum.
  • Jacaranda subalpina Morawetz
  • Jacaranda ulei Bur. & K.Schum.

Binomial name Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don The Blue Jacaranda, more often known simply as the Jacaranda, is a sub-tropical tree native to South America that has been widely planted elsewhere because of its beautiful and long-lasting blue flowers. ...

Cultivation and uses

Old church surrounded by jacarandas in bloom, Wooroolin, Australia.
Old church surrounded by jacarandas in bloom, Wooroolin, Australia.

Several species are widely grown as ornamental plants throughout the subtropical regions of the world, valued for their intense flower displays. The most often seen is the Blue Jacaranda Jacaranda mimosifolia (syn. J. acutifolia hort. non Bonpl.). Other members of the genus are also commercially important; for example the Copaia (Jacaranda copaia) is important for its timber because of its exceptionally long bole. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1705 KB) Summary old church in Wooroolin, Australia framed by jacarandas in bloom. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1705 KB) Summary old church in Wooroolin, Australia framed by jacarandas in bloom. ... An ornamental plant is a plant that is grown for its ornamental qualities, rather than for its commercial or other value. ... Binomial name Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don The Blue Jacaranda, more often known simply as the Jacaranda, is a sub-tropical tree native to South America that has been widely planted elsewhere because of its beautiful and long-lasting blue flowers. ... In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


Pretoria in South Africa is popularly known as The Jacaranda City due to the enormous number of Jacaranda trees planted as street trees and in parks and gardens. In flowering time the city appears blue/purple in colour when seen from the nearby hills because of all the Jacaranda trees. Other towns and cities in South Africa have Jacaranda trees, but none produce such a show as that of Pretoria. City motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Province Gauteng Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ...


The city of Brisbane in Australia has a local reputation of having a significant population of Jacaranda trees. The University of Queensland in the city's inner west has a very high concentration of the tree, and due to the impressive display of purple flowers in mid-Spring, which wind up littering vast sections of the suburbs, local folklore claims that "one won't start studying for exams until the jacarandas have molted". This has led to the slang name "exam tree" being attached to the plant. At Sydney University there exists a similar expression "by the time the jacaranda in the main quadrangle flowers, it's too late to start studying for exams". Brisbane (pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Queensland, and is the third largest city in Australia, with a population of just under 2. ... The University of Queensland (UQ) has its main campus in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, specifically in the suburb of St Lucia. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... Folklore is the body of verbal expressive culture, including tales, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs current among a particular population, comprising the oral tradition of that culture, subculture, or group. ...


Jacarandas in bloom have become closely associated with Brisbane and South East Queensland. The Brisbane City Council have used jacarandas to line avenues, and commercial developments in some areas, particularly along the Brisbane River have incorporated jacarandas into their landscape design. The trees are common in parks throughout the city, most notably in a long curved avenue in the inner city New Farm Park, in Goodna, and in private backyards. Brisbane's hilly geography allows views of the city and suburbs in which the brightly coloured flowers can be easily seen for miles. The jacaranda has become so much a part of the city's identity that contemporary art, particularly of streetscapes, often incorporates the flowering jacaranda, despite the fact that it flowers for approximately six weeks from September through October. Captain Cook Bridge from Kangaroo Point Lookout The Brisbane River is situated in southeast Queensland, Australia, and flows through the state capital Brisbane, before emptying into Moreton Bay. ... New Farm Park is a significant historic park in the suburb of New Farm, Queensland, Brisbane. ... Goodna is a suburb on the eastern edge of the city of Ipswich. ...


The city of Grafton on the edge of the New England plateau in northern New South Wales, Australia, is also famous for its Jacarandas. Every October the city has a Jacaranda festival during the period of full bloom. A street parade, local public holiday and a series of events are held. A local public holiday sees the city's businesses perform street theatre for passers by and street stalls proliferate. A Jacaranda Queen and Jacaranda Princess are named at a formal ball. Grafton is reachable by road from Sydney and Brisbane on the Pacific Highway (Highway 1) Grafton, (population 17,110), is a small cathedral city on the northern east coast of New South Wales, Australia. ... Emblems: Floral - Waratah (Telopea speciosissima); Bird - Kookaburra (Dacelo gigas); Animal - Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus); Fish - Blue Groper (Achoerodus viridis) Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Slogan or Nickname: First State, Premier State Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Const. ...


In South Africa, the capital Pretoria is also known as Jacaranda City, due to almost all the streets being lined with Jacarandas. The time of year the Jacarandas bloom in Pretoria, coincide with the year-end exams at the University of Pretoria and legend has it that if a flower from the Jacaranda tree drops on your head, you will pass all your exams. City motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Province Gauteng Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... The University of Pretoria is a university in South Africa, with a total of about 38 499 students being enrolled in 2005. ...


Jacarandas are also popular in the southwestern United States, notably in Phoenix, Arizona and Los Angeles and San Diego, California. Jacaranda can be found throughout most of southern California, where they were imported by the horticulturalist Kate Sessions. Nickname: Valley of the Sun Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area    - City 1,230. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Nickname: Americas Finest City Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates: Country United States State California County San Diego Mayor Jerry Sanders City Attorney Michael Aguirre City Council Scott Peters Kevin Faulconer Toni Atkins Tony Young Brian Maienschein Donna Frye Jim Madaffer Ben Hueso Area    - City 963. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Kate (Katherine) Olivia Sessions (November 8, 1857–March 24, 1940) was an American botanist, horticulturalist, and landscape architect closely associated with the city of San Diego, California and known as the Mother of Balboa Park. Sessions was born in San Francisco, California. ...


References and external links

  • Germplasm Resources Information Network: Jacaranda
  • Dos Santos, G., & Miller, R. B. (1997). Wood anatomy of Jacaranda (Bignoniaceae): Systematic relationships in sections Monolobos and Dilobos as suggested by twig and stem rays. IAWA Journal 18: 369-383. Available online (pdf file).
  • Goodna RSL Jacaranda Festival at Evan Marginson Park, Goodna

 
 

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