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Encyclopedia > J. R. R. Tolkien's
J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ...
J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... Enlarge
J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January_February January 1 _The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ...1916. He is wearing a WWI_era British Army uniform in this photograph.

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien ( January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...January 3, 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...1892 September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years). ...September 2, 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ...1973) was the author of The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien originally as a childrens story in the tradition of the fairy tale. ...The Hobbit and its sequel Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ...The Lord of the Rings.


He attended King Edwards School Buildings. ...King Edward's School, This article is about the city in England. ...Birmingham and The University of Oxford, situated in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English_speaking world. ...Oxford University; he worked as There are several cities in the United States called Reader, see Reader (place) A Reader is a minor member of the clergy in some Christian churches; see Reader (minor orders). ...reader in The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...English language at University Tower, University of Leeds The University of Leeds (United Kingdom) is amongst the largest of British universities and the most popular by applicants, with 52,444 applicants in 2003 for 7,228 places (UCAS). ...Leeds from 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 _ Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...1920 to Events January_May January 3 _ Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy. ...1925, as professor of Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...Anglo_Saxon at Oxford from Events January_May January 3 _ Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy. ...1925 to 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1945, and of The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...English Language and Literature is literally an acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has, however, generally come to identify a collection of texts. ...Literature, also at Oxford, from 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1945 to 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...1959. He was an eminently distinguished A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of lexicography, especially an author of a dictionary. ...lexicographer and an expert in Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...Anglo_Saxon and Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ...Old Norse. He was a strongly committed The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...Roman Catholic, and admitted in letters that his faith had a profound effect on his writings. He belonged to a literary discussion group called the The Inklings was a literary discussion group associated with the University of Oxford. ...Inklings, through which he enjoyed a close friendship with Clive Staples Lewis ( November 29, 1898– November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ...C. S. Lewis.


In addition to The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien originally as a childrens story in the tradition of the fairy tale. ...The Hobbit and Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ...The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien's published fiction includes a number of Posthumous means after death. ...posthumous books about the history of the imaginary world of A map of the Northwestern part of Middle_earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ...Middle_earth, where his stories take place. The enduring popularity and influence of these works have established Tolkien as the father of the modern High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ...high fantasy A genre is any of the traditional divisions of art forms from a single field of activity into various kinds according to criteria particular to that form. ...genre. Tolkien's other published fiction includes adaptations of stories originally told to his children and not directly related to Middle_earth.

Contents

Biography

Tolkien was born on January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...January 3, 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...1892 in Bloemfontein ( fountain of flowers), is one of South Africas three capital cities serving as the judicial capital (Pretoria being the executive capital and Cape Town the legislative capital). ...Bloemfontein in the Flag of the Orange Free State The Orange Free State (Afrikaans: Oranje Vrystaat) was the historical precursor to the present day Free State province of the Republic of South Africa. ...Orange Free State (today a part of The Republic of South Africa (pronunciation) is a large republic in Southern Africa. ...South Africa), to Arthur Tolkien, an English bank manager, and his wife Mabel Tolkien (maiden name Suffield). As far as is known, most of Tolkien's paternal ancestors were craftsmen. The Tolkien family had its roots in With an area of 18,400 sq. ...Saxony ( The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ...Germany), but had been living in England since the (17th century _ 18th century _ 19th century _ more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...18th century. The surname Tolkien is anglicised from Tollkiehn (i.e. German tollkühn, "foolhardy"). The character of Professor Rashbold in The Notion Club Papers is the title of an abandoned novel by J. R. R. Tolkien, written during 1945 and published posthumously in Sauron Defeated, the 9th volume of The History of Middle_earth. ...The Notion Club Papers is a pun on the name. Tolkien only had one sibling, his brother Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, who was born on February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...February 17, 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...1894.


When he was three, Tolkien went to Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Official language None; English is de facto Capital London Capitals coordinates 51° 30 N, 0° 10 W Largest city London Area  _ Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  _ Total (2001)  _ Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831...England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, however, died in South Africa of a severe brain Hemorrhage (alternate spelling is Haemorrhage) is the medical term meaning bleeding. ...haemorrhage before he could join them. This left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in This article is about the city in England. ...Birmingham for a short time. Soon after, in 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...1896, they moved to Sarehole is an area in Birmingham, England (formerly a village in Warwickshire). ...Sarehole, then a Worcestershire (pronounced wuster_shur, wuster_sheer or wuster_shyer; abbreviated Worcs) is a county, located in the West Midlands region of central England. ...Worcestershire village, later annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole is an area in Birmingham, England (formerly a village in Warwickshire). ...Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog is a nature reserve in the Moseley area of Birmingham, England. ...Moseley Bog and the Clent and Lickey Hills, which would later inspire scenes in his books along with other Worcestershire towns and villages such as Bromsgrove, Alcester and Alvechurch, as would areas in Worcestershire particularly his aunt's farm of Bag End, whose name would be used in his fiction.


Mabel tutored her two sons, and Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil. She taught him a great deal of Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ...botany, and she awoke in her son the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees. But his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, and his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin _ Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...Latin very early. He could read by the age of four, and could write fluently soon afterwards. He attended King Edwards School Buildings. ...King Edward's School, Birmingham, St Phillip's School, and Exeter College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ...Exeter College, Oxford.


His mother converted to This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ...Roman Catholicism in 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ...1900, despite vehement protests by her Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ...Baptist family. She died of This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...diabetes in 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...1904, when Tolkien was 12, and he felt for the rest of his life that she had become a Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...martyr for her faith; this had a profound effect on his own Catholic beliefs. Tolkien's devout faith was significant in the conversion of Clive Staples Lewis ( November 29, 1898– November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ...C. S. Lewis to For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). ...Christianity, and his writings express Christian values and contain much Christian symbolism.


During his subsequent Alternative uses: see orphan (typesetting), and orphan process in computing. ...orphanhood he was brought up by Father Francis Xavier Morgan of the Birmingham Oratory, in the Edgbaston constituency shown within Birmingham Edgbaston is an area in Birmingham, England. ...Edgbaston area of Birmingham. He lived there in the shadow of Perrots Folly is a 29 metre (96 feet) high tower, built in 1739. ...Perrott's Folly and the The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles during the Victorian era: Neoclassicism Gothic Revival Italianate Second Empire Neo_Grec Romanesque Revival (Includes Richardsonian Revival) Renaissance Revival Queen Anne Jacobethan architecture (the precusor to the Queen Anne style) British Arts and Crafts movement painted...Victorian tower of Edgbaston waterworks, which may have influenced the images of the dark towers within his works. Another strong influence was the romantic medievalist paintings of Circe, by Edward Burne_Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne_Jones (August 28, 1833 _ June 17, 1898) was a British artist, closely associated with the Pre_Raphaelite Brotherhood. ...Edward Burne_Jones and the The Pre_Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ...Pre_Raphaelite Brotherhood; the Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery Opened in 1885, Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery (BM&AG), in Birmingham, England, has a collection of inernational importance, including a vast amount of first_ class work by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the largest collection of works by Edward Burne_Jones in the world. ...Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery has a large & world_renowned collection of works and had put it on free public display from around 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1908.


He met and fell in love with Categories: People stubs | 1889 births | 1971 deaths ...Edith Bratt (later to serve as his model for Lúthien), and despite many obstacles he succeeded in marrying her, on March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in Leap years). ...March 22, 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ...1916.


With his childhood love of landscape, he visited Cornwall ( Cornish: Kernow or occasionally Curnow) is the part of Great Britains south_west peninsula that is west of the River Tamar, often known as the Cornish peninsula or plateau. ...Cornwall in 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...1914 and he was said to be deeply impressed by the singular Cornish coastline and sea. After graduating from the The University of Oxford, situated in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English_speaking world. ...University of Oxford with a first_class degree in English language in 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...1915, Tolkien joined the The British Army is the land armed forces of the United Kingdom. ...British Army effort in Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...World War I and served as a second lieutenant in the 11th batallion of the The Lancashire Fusiliers was a British infantry regiment that was amalgamated with other Fusilier regiments in 1968 to form the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. ...Lancashire Fusiliers. His batallion was moved to France in 1916, where Tolkien served as a communications officer during the Battle of the Somme Conflict First World War Date 1 July 1916 – 18 November 1916 Place Somme, Picardy, France Result Stalemate The 1916 Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles of the First World War, with more than one million casualties. ...Battle of the Somme, until he came down with Trench fever is a moderately serious disease, transmitted by lice, that infected more than a million soldiers during World War I and World War II. The disease persists among the homeless. ...trench fever on October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ...27 October, and was moved back to England on November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ...8 November. Many of his fellow servicemen, as well as several of his closest friends, were killed in the war. During his recovery in a 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire A cottage is a small house of any period. ...cottage in Great Haywood, Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the Midlands of England. ...Staffordshire he began to work on what he called The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12_volume series The History of Middle_earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...The Book of Lost Tales, beginning with The Fall of Gondolin.


Tolkien's first civilian job after World War I was at the The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive multi_volume dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ...Oxford English Dictionary (among others, he initiated the entries Families See text. ...wasp and Binomial name Odobenus rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies Walruses are large semi_aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ...walrus). In 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 _ Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...1920 he took up a post as There are several cities in the United States called Reader, see Reader (place) A Reader is a minor member of the clergy in some Christian churches; see Reader (minor orders). ...Reader in English language at the University Tower, University of Leeds The University of Leeds (United Kingdom) is amongst the largest of British universities and the most popular by applicants, with 52,444 applicants in 2003 for 7,228 places (UCAS). ...University of Leeds, but in Events January_May January 3 _ Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy. ...1925 he returned to Oxford as a A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ...Professor of Anglo_Saxon at Pembroke College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ...Pembroke College. In 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1945 he moved to Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ...Merton College, Oxford, becoming the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, in which post he remained until his retirement in 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...1959.


It may be significant that Tolkien disliked intensely the devouring of the English countryside by the suburbs, even though, given his profession, he generally found it convenient to live in them. But for most of his adult life he eschewed automobiles, preferring to ride a bicycle. Tolkien and Edith had four children: John Francis Reuel ( November 17 is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece. ...November 17, 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...1917), Michael Hilary Reuel ( October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ...October, 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 _ Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...1920), Christopher John Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the son of author J. R. R. Tolkien, and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ...Christopher Reuel ( 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1924) and Priscilla Anne Reuel ( 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1929). During the Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ...1950s, Tolkien spent many of his long academic holidays at the home of his son John Francis in This page is about Stoke_on_Trent in England. ...Stoke_on_Trent.


Engraved on the stone at Wolvercote Cemetery, This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ...Oxford, where he and his wife are buried, are the names Beren is a fictional character, created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...Beren and Lúthien, paying homage to one of the great love stories of his fictional Middle-earth, which has been certainly inspired in the real history of love between Tolkien and his beloved wife.


Posthumously named after Tolkien are the Tolkien Road in For other places called Eastbourne, see Eastbourne (disambiguation). ...Eastbourne, East Sussex is a county in South East England. ...East Sussex, and the An asteroid is a small, solid object in our Solar System, orbiting the Sun. ...asteroid 2675 Tolkien is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by M. Watt in 1982. ...2675 Tolkien. Tolkien Way in This page is about Stoke_on_Trent in England. ...Stoke_On_Trent is named after J.R.R.'s son, Father John Francis Tolkien, who was the priest in charge at nearby Church of Our Lady of the Angels and St Peter in Chains.


Writing

Tolkien's earliest literary ambition was to be a poet, but his primary creative urge in his younger days was the invention of imaginary languages, including early versions of what would later evolve into the Elvish languages Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in J. R. R. Tolkiens work. ...Quenya and Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...Sindarin. Believing that a language implies a people to speak it, and that a people implies stories that reflect the style and views of their languages, he began writing (in English, but with many names and terms from his invented languages) the This article is about a system of myths. ...mythology and tales of a fictional people he associated with legendary by Sophie Anderson A fairy, or faery, is a creature from stories and mythology, often portrayed in art and literature as a minuscule humanoid with wings. ...fairies. He later came to call them The Elves (always pluralized as such, never Elfs) are one of the races that appear in the work of J. R. R. Tolkien. ...Elves (with some regret, for he came to consider the name misleading). Beginning as The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12_volume series The History of Middle_earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...The Book of Lost Tales, written while recuperating from illness during Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...World War I, these tales _ which included the love story of Beren is a fictional character, created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...Beren and Lúthien - were later re-written as long narrative poems ( The Lays of Beleriand, published in 1985, is the third volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series, The History of Middle-earth, in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...The Lays of Beleriand) and eventually evolved into The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher, with the assistance of fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay. ...The Silmarillion, an epic history that Tolkien never finished. The story of this continuous re_drafting is told in the posthumous series The History of Middle_earth is a 12_volume series of books that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ...The History of Middle_Earth.


Tolkien drew much of his influence from northern Europe: mostly from Germanic mythology is a comprehensive term for Norse mythology, Anglo_Saxon mythology and other versions of the mythologies of the Germanic peoples. ...Germanic mythology, which includes the The Anglo_Saxons arrived in Britain from southern Scandinavia, the Netherlands and northern Germany, thus the Anglo_Saxon gods were originally the same gods as those in Germanic mythology and in the better_known version Norse mythology. ...Anglo_Saxon and Norse mythology, Viking mythology or Scandinavian mythology refer to the pre_Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people. ...Norse mythologies, examples being The first page of Beowulf This article describes Beowulf, the epic poem. ...Beowulf and the The Poetic Edda or Elder Edda is a term applied to two things. ...Elder Edda. He seems to have been especially indebted to the Völsunga saga and the Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. ...Hervarar saga. He also drew inspiration from similar sources such as Like other Iron Age Europeans, the Celts were a polytheistic people prior to their conversion to (Celtic) Christianity. ...Celtic mythology and Finnish The Kalevala is an epic poem compiled by Elias Lönnrot in the 19th century from Finnish folk sources. ...Kalevala.


In addition to this serious adult work, Tolkien enjoyed inventing fantasy stories to entertain his children. He wrote annual Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ...Christmas letters from For places in the United States with this name, please see Santa Claus (disambiguation). ...Father Christmas for them, building up a series of short stories (later compiled and published as The Father Chrismas Letters is a collection of letters written by Father Christmas to J.R.R Tolkiens children. ...The Father Christmas Letters).


Tolkien never expected his fictional stories to become popular but he was persuaded by a former student to publish a book he had written for his own children called The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien originally as a childrens story in the tradition of the fairy tale. ...The Hobbit in 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...1937. However, the book attracted adult readers as well, and it became popular enough for the publisher, Allen & Unwin, to ask Tolkien to work on a sequel. This prompted him to begin what would become his most famous work: the epic three_volume novel Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ...The Lord of the Rings ( 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...1954 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...1955). (Note that while the Lord of the Rings is often described as a "trilogy" and sold as three separate books, it was written as a single story and it was Tolkien's editors, not Tolkien himself, who made the division into three parts.) Tolkien took almost ten years to write Lord of the Rings, during which time he received the constant support of the The Inklings was a literary discussion group associated with the University of Oxford. ...Inklings, in particular his closest friend Clive Staples Lewis ( November 29, 1898– November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ...C. S. Lewis, the author of The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children written by C. S. Lewis. ...The Chronicles of Narnia. Both The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien originally as a childrens story in the tradition of the fairy tale. ...The Hobbit and Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ...The Lord of the Rings are set long after The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher, with the assistance of fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay. ...The Silmarillion but draw heavily on its mythology.


The Lord of the Rings became immensely popular with students in the Centuries: 19th century _ 20th century _ 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s _ 1960s _ 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ...1960s, and has remained popular since, ranking as one the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys. It was voted the greatest book of the 20th century in a readers' poll conducted by the BBC, and the Waterstone's bookstore chain and in 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...1999 a poll of Amazon. ...Amazon.com customers judged The Lord of the Rings to be the greatest book of the millennium. In 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2002 Tolkien was voted 92nd of a " In 2002, the BBC conducted a vote to discover the 100 Greatest Britons of all time. ...Greatest Britons" poll conducted by the BBC and in 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2004 he was voted 35th in the Top 100 Great South Africans In September 2004, thousands of South Africans took part in an informal nationwide poll to determine the 100 Greatest South Africans of all time. ...Greatest South Africans. He is the only person to appear in both the British and South African Top 100. His popularity is not limited just to the English_speaking world: in 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2004 a poll of more than one million Germans found The Lord of the Rings (Herr der Ringe) to be their favourite work of literature by a wide margin.


Tolkien at first thought that The Lord of the Rings would tell another children's tale like The Hobbit, but it quickly grew darker and more serious in the writing. Though a direct sequel to The Hobbit, it addressed an older audience, drawing on the immense In narratology, a back_story (also back story or backstory) is the history behind the situation extant at the start of the main story. ...back_story of Middle_earth that Tolkien had constructed and that eventually saw posthumous publication in The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher, with the assistance of fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay. ...The Silmarillion and other volumes. Tolkien's influence weighs heavily on the For other definitions of fantasy see fantasy (psychology). ...fantasy genre that grew up after the success of The Lord of the Rings.


Tolkien was a professional Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ...philologist, and the languages and the mythologies he studied clearly left an imprint on his fiction. In particular, the dwarves' names in the Hobbit, are taken from the Völuspá of the For Edda great-grandmother as the ancestress of serfs see Ríg. ...Edda, while certain plot_elements (for example. the thief stealing a cup from a dragon's hoard) are taken from The first page of Beowulf This article describes Beowulf, the epic poem. ...Beowulf. Tolkien was a recognised authority on Beowulf, and published several important works on the poem. A previously unpublished translation of Beowulf by Tolkien was found in 2004 and is being edited for publication by Michael Drout.


Tolkien continued to work on the history of Middle_earth until his death. His son Christopher John Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the son of author J. R. R. Tolkien, and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ...Christopher, with assistance from fantasy writer Guy Gavriel Kay (born November 7, 1954) is a Canadian author of fantasy fiction. ...Guy Gavriel Kay, organised some of this material into one volume, published as The Silmarillion in For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...1977. Christopher Tolkien continued over subsequent years to publish background material on the creation of Middle_earth. Note that the posthumous works such as The History of Middle_earth and the Unfinished Tales contain unfinished, abandoned, alternative and outright contradictory versions of the stories simply because Tolkien kept working on his mythology for decades, constantly rewriting, re_editing and expanding the stories. Only The Silmarillion attempts to maintain true consistency with The Lord of the Rings, and this only thanks to heavy editing by Christopher Tolkien—and even he states that many inconsistencies remain in The Silmarillion. (Even The Hobbit never became fully synchronised with The Lord of the Rings, although one chapter was substantially revised in the second edition of Global Metrics Human security Major Armed Conflicts: Total Deaths in Battle: 700,000 people Violent Deaths caused by Government (Other than War): Violent Deaths caused by other humans: Juvenile Violent Crime: Political security Nations Holding Multi_party Elections: Percentage Living under a Fully Democratic System of Governance: Free Countries: Percentage...1951.)


The library of Marquette University is a private, co_educational Roman Catholic university in the United States. ...Marquette University in This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ...Milwaukee, One of the periods of glaciation was also termed the Wisconsin glaciation. ...Wisconsin preserves many of Tolkien's original manuscripts, notes and letters; other original material survives at The University of Oxford, situated in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English_speaking world. ...Oxford's Entrance to the Library, with the coats_of_arms of several Oxford colleges Oxford University Libraries Service (OULS) comprises over 30 of the University of Oxfords central and faculty libraries: from the world famous Bodleian Library, established 400 years ago, to the modern digital library ventures. ...Bodleian Library. Marquette has the manuscripts and proofs of The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit, manuscripts of many "lesser" books like the Farmer Giles of Ham, and Tolkien fan material, while the Bodleian holds the Silmarillion papers and Tolkien's academic work.


Languages

See also The languages of Middle_earth are artificial languages invented by J. R. R. Tolkien and used in his books about Middle_earth, including The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. ...Languages of Middle_earth.


Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ...Philology, the study of languages, was Tolkien's first academic love, and his interest in Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ...linguistics inspired him to invent some fifteen An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose vocabulary and grammar were specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ...artificial languages (most famously the two Elvish languages in Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ...The Lord of the Rings: Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in J. R. R. Tolkiens work. ...Quenya and Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...Sindarin). He later elaborated an entire Cosmogony [Gr. ...cosmogony and History is a term for information about the past. ...history of A map of the Northwestern part of Middle_earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ...Middle_earth as background.


Through his work as a A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of lexicography, especially an author of a dictionary. ...lexicographer he was familiar with several languages, current and extinct, but in his personal correspondence he noted the sound of the Finnish is spoken by the majority (92%) in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. ...Finnish language as the most pleasing to his ears, and it was a source of inspiration for Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in J. R. R. Tolkiens work. ...Quenya, the most important of his invented languages.


The popularity of his books has had a small but lasting effect on the use of language in fantasy literature, especially the use of his non_standard forms "dwarves" and "elvish" (instead of "dwarfs" and "elfish").


Art based on Tolkien's works

See also J. R. R. Tolkiens works have served as the inspiration to painters, musicians, film_makers and writers, to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the father of the entire genre of high fantasy. The production of such derivative works is sometimes of doubtful legality, because Tolkien...Works inspired by J. R. R. Tolkien.


In a Global Metrics Human security Major Armed Conflicts: Total Deaths in Battle: 700,000 people Violent Deaths caused by Government (Other than War): Violent Deaths caused by other humans: Juvenile Violent Crime: Political security Nations Holding Multi_party Elections: Percentage Living under a Fully Democratic System of Governance: Free Countries: Percentage...1951 letter to Milton Waldman (Letters 131), Tolkien writes about his intentions to create a "body of more or less connected legend", of which

The cycles should be linked to a majestic whole, and yet leave scope for other minds and hands, wielding paint and music and drama.

The hands and minds of many artists have indeed been inspired by Tolkien's legends. Personally known to him were Pauline Baynes (born 1922) is an English book illustrator, whose work encompasses more than 100 books. ...Pauline Baynes (Tolkien's favourite illustrator of The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ...The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Farmer Giles of Ham (1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...Farmer Giles of Ham) and Donald Swann (September 30, 1923 _ March 23, 1994) was a British composer, musician and entertainer. ...Donald Swann (who set the music to The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ...The Road Goes Ever On). Queen Her Majesty Queen Margrethe II (Margrethe Alexandrine Þorhildur Ingrid), styled HM The Queen (born April 16, 1940), is the Queen regnant and head of state of Denmark. ...Margrethe II of Denmark created illustrations to the Lord of the Rings in the early 1970s _ Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...1970s. She sent them to Tolkien, who was struck by the similarity to the style of his own drawings.


But Tolkien was not fond of all artistic representation of his works that was produced in his lifetime, and sometimes harshly disapproving.


In 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...1946 (Letters, 107), he rejects suggestions for illustrations by Horus Engels for the German edition of the Hobbit as "too Disney _ Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...Disnified",

Bilbo with a dribbling nose, and Gandalf as a figure of vulgar fun rather than the For other meanings of Odin and Wotan see Odin (disambiguation) Odin (Old Norse Óðinn, Swedish Oden) is usually considered the supreme god of Germanic and Norse mythology. ...Odinic wanderer that I think of.

He was sceptical of the emerging Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle_earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. ...fandom in the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ...United States, and in 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...1954 he returned proposals for the dust_jackets of the American edition of the Lord of the Rings (Letters, 144):

Thank you for sending me the projected 'blurbs', which I return. The Americans are not as a rule at all amenable to criticism or correction; but I think their effort is so poor that I feel constrained to make some effort to improve it.

And in 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1958, in an irritated reaction to a proposed movie adaptation of the Lord of the Rings by Morton Grady Zimmerman (Letters, 207) he writes

I would ask them to make an effort of imagination sufficient to understand the irritation (and on occasion the resentment) of an author, who finds, increasingly as he proceeds, his work treated as it would seem carelessly in general, in places recklessly, and with no evident signs of any appreciation of what it is all about.

He went on criticize the script scene by scene ("yet one more scene of screams and rather meaningless slashings"). But Tolkien was in principle open to the idea of a movie adaptation. He sold the film, stage and merchandise rights of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings to The United Artists Corporation (aka United Artists Pictures and United Artists Films) was formed on February 5, 1919 by four Hollywood greats: Charles Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford and D. W. Griffith. ...United Artists in 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...1968, while, guided by scepticism towards future productions, he forbade that Alternate meanings: Disney (disambiguation) The Walt Disney Company (also known as Disney Enterprises, Inc. ...Disney should ever be involved (Letters, 13, 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...1937):

It might be advisable […] to let the Americans do what seems good to them – as long as it was possible […] to veto anything from or influenced by the Disney studios (for all whose works I have a heartfelt loathing).

United Artists never made a film, though at least John Boorman (born 18 January 1933) is an English film director who is best known for his films Point Blank (1967), Deliverance (1972), Zardoz (1974), Excalibur (1981), and Hope and Glory (1987). ...John Boorman was planning a film in the early seventies. It would have been a live_action film, which apparently would have been much more to Tolkien's liking than an animated film. In 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...1976 the rights were sold to Tolkien Enterprises is a company controlled by Saul Zaentz. ...Tolkien Enterprises, a division of the Saul Zaentz (born February 28, 1921 in New Jersey) was a big lover of music and movies as a child. ...Saul Zaentz Company, and the first movie adaptation (an animated film) of The Lord of the Rings appeared only after Tolkien's death (in Events January January 1 _ The Copyright Act of 1976 takes effect, making sweeping changes to United States copyright law. ...1978, directed by Ralph Bakshi (born October 29, 1938) is a director of animation and occasionally live_action films. ...Ralph Bakshi). In 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2001 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 _ Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ...2003 The Lord of the Rings was filmed as a The Lord of the Rings movie trilogy consists of three live action films, directed by Peter Jackson. ...trilogy of films by Peter Jackson in Wellington (New Zealand) Peter Jackson CNZM (born October 31, 1961), is a film writer, director and producer born in Pukerua Bay, New Zealand to Bill and Joan Jackson. ...Peter Jackson.


Bibliography

See also This is a list of poems written by J. R. R. Tolkien (years are the date of composition, if not stated otherwise) The Battle of the Eastern Field 1911 From the many_willowd margin of the immemorial Thames 1913 Goblin Feet 1915 The Happy Mariners 1920 The Clerkes...Poems by J. R. R. Tolkien.


Fiction and poetry

  • 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1936 Songs for the Philologists, with E.V. Gordon et al.
  • 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...1937 The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien originally as a childrens story in the tradition of the fairy tale. ...The Hobbit or There and Back Again
  • 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1945 Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938_39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ...Leaf by Niggle (short story)
  • 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1945 The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun, published in Welsh Review
  • 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...1949 Farmer Giles of Ham (1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...Farmer Giles of Ham (medieval fable)
  • 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...1953 The Homecoming of Byrhtnoth (Byrhtnoþ, also spelled Byrhtnoð, Byrihtnoð, Brihtnoþ, Beorhtnoþ, Beorhtnoð, Baeorhtnoð), Anglo_Saxon name, composed of beorht bright and noth courage. Name of the leader of the Anglo_Saxon defence force in the Battle of Maldon in 991. ...Beorhtnoth, Beorhthelm's Son published with the essay Ofermod
  • Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ...The Lord of the Rings
    • 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...1954 The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings. ...The Fellowship of the Ring: being the first part of The Lord of the Rings
    • 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...1954 The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ...The Two Towers: being the second part of The Lord of the Rings
    • 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...1955 The Return of the King is the third and final volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, following The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers. ...The Return of the King: being the third part of The Lord of the Rings
  • 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1962 The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ...The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book
  • 1967 _ Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...1967 The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ...The Road Goes Ever On, with Donald Swann (September 30, 1923 _ March 23, 1994) was a British composer, musician and entertainer. ...Donald Swann
  • 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1964 Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy_Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ...Tree and Leaf ( On Fairy_Stories is an essay written by J. R. R. Tolkien, first published in Essays Presented to Charles Williams, Oxford University Press, 1947. ...On Fairy_Stories and Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938_39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ...Leaf by Niggle in book form)
  • _1...1966 The Tolkien Reader (The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorthelm's Son, On Fairy_Stories is an essay written by J. R. R. Tolkien, first published in Essays Presented to Charles Williams, Oxford University Press, 1947. ...On Fairy Stories, Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938_39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ...Leaf by Niggle, Farmer Giles of Ham (1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...Farmer Giles of Ham' and The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ...The Adventures of Tom Bombadil)
  • _1...1966 Tolkien on Tolkien (autobiographical)
  • 1967 _ Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...1967 Smith of Wootton Major is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien about a boy who gets a fay_star in a slice of cake during the Twenty_Four Feast, and explores Faery during the time before the next Feast. ...Smith of Wootton Major

Academic works

  • 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...1922 A Middle English Vocabulary
  • 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1924 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late 14th century metrical romance recorded in a manuscript containing three other pieces of an altogether more Christian orientation, which are linked by a commonality of dialect usage. ...Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (with E. V. Gordon)
  • Events January_May January 3 _ Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy. ...1925 Some Contributions to Middle_English Lexicography
  • Events January_May January 3 _ Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy. ...1925 The Devil's Coach Horses
  • 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1929 Ancrene Wisse (also Ancrene Riwle) or Guide for Anchoresses is a monastic rule (or manual) for anchorite nuns, written in the early 13th century in Middle English. ...Ancrene Wisse and Hali Meiohad
  • 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ...1932 The Name 'Nodens' (in: Report on the Excavation of the Prehistoric, Roman, and Post_Roman Site in Lydney Park, Gloucestershire.)
  • 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ...1932/ 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1935 Sigelwara Land is the title of an essay in two parts by J. R. R. Tolkien, appeared in Medium Aevum Vol. ...Sigelwara Land parts I and II
  • 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1934 The Reeve's Tale (rediscovery of dialect humour, introducing the Categories: Art stubs | Literature stubs | Illuminated manuscripts ...Hengwrt manuscript into textual criticism of Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Chanticleer the rooster from an outdoor production of Chanticleer and the Fox at Ashby_de_la_Zouch castle Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. ...Chaucer's Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ...The Canterbury Tales)
  • 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1936 The Monsters and the Critics, a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens scholarly linguistic essays published posthumously in 1983. ...The Monsters and the Critics (lecture on The first page of Beowulf This article describes Beowulf, the epic poem. ...Beowulf criticism)
  • 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...1939 On Fairy-Stories is an essay written by J. R. R. Tolkien, first published in Essays Presented to Charles Williams, Oxford University Press, 1947. ...On Fairy-Stories (lecture on Tolkien's philosophy on fantasy)
  • 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...1944 Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ...Sir Orfeo (an edition of the medieval poem)
  • 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1947 On Fairy-Stories is an essay written by J. R. R. Tolkien, first published in Essays Presented to Charles Williams, Oxford University Press, 1947. ...On Fairy-Stories (essay, very central for understanding Tolkien's views on fantasy)
  • 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...1953 Ofermod, published with the poem The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth, Beorhthelm's Son
  • 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...1953 Middle English "Losenger"
  • 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1962 Ancrene Wisse (also Ancrene Riwle) or Guide for Anchoresses is a monastic rule (or manual) for anchorite nuns, written in the early 13th century in Middle English. ...Ancrene Wisse: The English Text of the Ancrene Riwle
  • Events January-February January 11 - The Whisky A Go-Go night club in Los Angeles, the first disco in the USA, is opened. ...1963 English and Welsh
  • -1...1966 The Jerusalem Bible is a Catholic translation of the Bible which first was introduced to the English-speaking public in 1966. ...Jerusalem Bible (contributing translator and lexicographer)

Posthumous publications

  • 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...1975 Translations of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late 14th century metrical romance recorded in a manuscript containing three other pieces of an altogether more Christian orientation, which are linked by a commonality of dialect usage. ...Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl is a Middle English alliterative poem written in the late 14th century. ...Pearl (poem) and Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ...Sir Orfeo
  • 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...1976 The Father Chrismas Letters is a collection of letters written by Father Christmas to J.R.R Tolkiens children. ...The Father Christmas Letters
  • For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...1977 The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher, with the assistance of fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay. ...The Silmarillion
  • 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ...1979 Pictures by J. R. R. Tolkien
  • 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...1980 Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ...Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth
  • 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...1980 Poems and Stories (a compilation of The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ...The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son, On Fairy-Stories is an essay written by J. R. R. Tolkien, first published in Essays Presented to Charles Williams, Oxford University Press, 1947. ...On Fairy-Stories, Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ...Leaf by Niggle, Farmer Giles of Ham (1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...Farmer Giles of Ham and Smith of Wootton Major is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien about a boy who gets a fay-star in a slice of cake during the Twenty-Four Feast, and explores Faery during the time before the next Feast. ...Smith of Wootton Major)
  • 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...1981 The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and the biographer Humphrey Carpenter. ...The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (eds. Christopher John Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the son of author J. R. R. Tolkien, and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ...Christopher Tolkien and Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ...Humphrey Carpenter)
  • 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...1981 The Old English Exodus Text
  • 1982 is a number and represents a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar Events January-February January 6 - William Bonin is convicted of being the freeway killer. January 8 - AT&T agrees to divest itself of twenty-two subdivisions January 11 - Mark Thatcher, son of the British...1982 Finn and Hengest is a study by J.R.R Tolkien, published posthumously in book form in 1982. ...Finn and Hengest: The Fragment and the Episode
  • 1982 is a number and represents a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar Events January-February January 6 - William Bonin is convicted of being the freeway killer. January 8 - AT&T agrees to divest itself of twenty-two subdivisions January 11 - Mark Thatcher, son of the British...1982 Mr. ...Mr. Bliss
  • 1983 is an integer and composite number that represents a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1983 The Monsters and the Critics, a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens scholarly linguistic essays published posthumously in 1983. ...The Monsters and the Critics (an essay collection)
  • 1983 is an integer and composite number that represents a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1983 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...1996 The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ...The History of Middle-Earth:
    • I. The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...The Book of Lost Tales 1 ( 1983 is an integer and composite number that represents a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1983)
    • II. The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...The Book of Lost Tales 2 ( 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1984)
    • III. The Lays of Beleriand, published in 1985, is the third volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series, The History of Middle-earth, in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...The Lays of Beleriand ( 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1985)
    • IV. The Shaping of Middle-Earth is the fourth volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...The Shaping of Middle-earth ( 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1986)
    • V. The Lost Road and Other Writings is the fifth volume of The History of Middle-earth, a series of compilations of drafts and essays written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...The Lost Road and Other Writings ( 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1987)
    • VI. The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ...The Return of the Shadow (The History of The Lord of the Rings vol. 1) ( 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1988)
    • VII. The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ...The Treason of Isengard (The History of The Lord of the Rings vol. 2) ( 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1989)
    • VIII. The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ...The War of the Ring (The History of The Lord of the Rings vol. 3) ( 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1990)
    • IX. The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ...Sauron Defeated (The History of The Lord of the Rings vol. 4, including an edition of The Notion Club Papers is the title of an abandoned novel by J. R. R. Tolkien, written during 1945 and published posthumously in Sauron Defeated, the 9th volume of The History of Middle-earth. ...The Notion Club Papers) ( 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1992)
    • X. Morgoths Ring is the 10th volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12_volume series The History of Middle_earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...Morgoth's Ring (The Later Silmarillion vol. 1) ( 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ...1993)
    • XI. The War of the Jewels is the 11th volume of Christopher Tolkiens series The History of Middle-earth, analysing the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...The War of the Jewels (The Later Silmarillion vol. 2) ( 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...1994)
    • XII. The Peoples of Middle-earth is the 12th and final volume of The History of Middle-earth, edited by Christopher Tolkien from the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...The Peoples of Middle-earth ( 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...1996)
    • Index ( 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2002)
  • 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1995 J. R. R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator is a collection of paintings (mostly watercolour) and drawings by J.R.R. Tolkien for his stories, published posthumously in 1995. ...J. R. R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator (a compilation of Tolkien's art)
  • 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...1998 Roverandom is a story written by J.R.R. Tolkien, originally told in 1925. ...Roverandom

Audio recordings

  • 1967 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...1967 Poems and Songs of Middle-Earth, Caedmon TC 1231
  • 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...1975 JRR Tolkien Reads and Sings his The Hobbit & The Lord of the Rings, Caedmon TC 1477, TC 1478 (based on an August, 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1952 recording by George Sayer)

In journal articles

Tolkien himself and his works have become subjects of The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have generated a body of academic research, studying different facets such as Tolkien as a writer of fantasy literature Tolkiens invented languages As A Writer Splintered Light: Logos And Language In Tolkiens World Verlyn Flieger (1st Edition 1983, Revised Edition 2002...academic research and many of his essays and text fragments, otherwise unpublished, have been studied in academic publications and forums.


Books about Tolkien and Tolkien's worlds

A small selection of the dozens of books about Tolkien and his worlds:

  • For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...1977 J. R. R. Tolkien - A Biography ( Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ...Humphrey Carpenter)
  • Events January January 1 - The Copyright Act of 1976 takes effect, making sweeping changes to United States copyright law. ...1978 The Complete Guide to Middle-earth is a reference book for the fictional universe of J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, compiled and edited by Robert Foster Originally published soon after the publication of The Silmarillion, it is generally recognised as excellent reference book on the subject. ...The Complete Guide to Middle-earth (Robert Foster — a reference, covers The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, and The Silmarillion, but not Unfinished Tales)
  • 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...1981 The Lord of the Rings by Barbara Strachey (ISBN 0049120166, 1981) is an atlas based on the fictional realm of Middle-earth, which traces the journeys undertaken by the characters in Tolkiens epic. ...Journeys of Frodo (Barbara Strachey — an atlas of The Lord of the Rings)
  • 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1991 The Atlas of Middle-earth by Karen Wynn Fonstad is an atlas of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional realm of Middle-earth. ...The Atlas of Middle-earth ( Karen Wynn Fonstad is the author of several atlases of fictional worlds, including: Pern, basis for the Dragon Riders stories by Anne McCaffrey The Atlas of Pern (1984, ISBN 0345314344) The Land, basis for The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant by Stephen R. Donaldson The Atlas of the Land (1985, ISBN...Karen Wynn Fonstad — an atlas of The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, The Silmarillion, and The Unfinished Tales)
  • 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1995 A Tolkien Bestiary David Day
  • 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2000 J. R. R. Tolkien - Author of the Century ( Thomas A. Shippey is a scholar of medieval literature, including Anglo-Saxon England, and of modern fantasy and science fiction, in particular the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, about whom he has written several mainstream books. ...T. A. Shippey)
  • 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2000 Tolkien's Legendarium: Essays on The History of Middle Earth ed. Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter
  • 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2002 The Complete Tolkien Companion, 3rd edition (J. E. A. Tyler — a reference, covers The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, The Silmarillion, and Unfinished Tales; substantially improved over the previous editions.)
  • 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ...2003 Tolkien the Medievalist, (ed. Jane Chance, Routledge, London, New York)
  • 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2004 Tolkien studies, Vol 1 ed. Douglas A. Anderson, Michael D. C. Drout and Verlyn Flieger
  • 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2004 Tolkien and the Invention of Myth, a Reader ed. Jane Chance

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Informational:

  • The Tolkien Meta_FAQ (http://tolkien.slimy.com/) Answers for beginners and experts alike
  • Tolkien Biography (http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/biography.html) (The Tolkien Society)

Works:

Encyclopedic:

Thematic:

  • Ardalambion (http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/) Of the Tongues of Arda, the invented world of J. R. R. Tolkien
  • Music inspired by Tolkien (http://www.tolkien_music.com/)

Places in Tolkien's life:

Movies:

Miscellaneous:

Societies or communities:

  • The Tolkien Society (http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/)
  • The Tolkien Wiki Community (http://www.thetolkienwiki.org/)
  • TheOneRing.net (http://www.theonering.net) Forged by and for fans of J. R. R. Tolkien
  • The Barrow_Downs (http://www.barrowdowns.com/) Tolkien/Lord of the Rings resource page
  • Tolkien Online (http://www.tolkienonline.com)

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