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Encyclopedia > J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien

Tolkien in 1972, in his study at Merton Street, Oxford. Source: J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biography, by Humphrey Carpenter.
Born 3 January 1892(1892-01-03)
Bloemfontein, Orange Free State
Died 2 September 1973 (aged 81)
Bournemouth, England
Occupation Author, Academic, Philologist
Nationality British
Genres High fantasy, Translation, Criticism
Debut works The Hobbit, 1937
Influences George MacDonald, Anglo Saxon Poetry (most notably Beowulf), Germanic paganism, Greco-Roman mythology, the Kalevala, the Bible
Influenced C. S. Lewis; other later authors of high fantasy and fantasy in general
Signature

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE (3 January 18922 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. He was an Oxford professor of Anglo-Saxon language (Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon) from 1925 to 1945, and Merton Professor of English language and literature from 1945 to 1959. He was a devout Roman Catholic. Tolkien was a close friend of C. S. Lewis; they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. He was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien - British author, best known for The Lord of the Rings Christopher Tolkien - J. R. R. Tolkiens son Arthur Tolkien - J. R. R. Tolkiens father Edith Tolkien - J. R. R. Tolkiens wife Simon Tolkien - writer, Christopher Tolkiens son Baillie Tolkien - Christopher Tolkiens... This work is copyrighted. ... Merton Street is a historic and picturesque cobbled lane in central Oxford, England. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bloemfontein (pronounced , Afrikaans and Dutch for spring of Bloem (bloom), flower spring or fountain of flowers is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... , Bournemouth ( ) is a large town and tourist resort, situated on the south coast of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... This article is about the book. ... George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ... Old English redirects here. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... Classical mythology usually refers to the religious legends and practices of classical antiquity: Greek mythology; Roman mythology; Greek religion; and Roman religion. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... This article is about the book. ... This article is about the novel. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Old English redirects here. ... The Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon, until 1916 known as the Rawlinsonian Professorship of Anglo-Saxon, was established by Richard Rawlinson of St. ... There are two Merton Professorships of English in the University of Oxford: the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, and the Merton Professor of English Literature. ... English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... The Eagle and Child pub (commonly known as the Bird and Baby) in Oxford where the Inklings met on Thursday nights in 1939. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In addition to The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien's son Christopher Tolkien published several works based heavily on his father's notes. These include The Silmarillion and others, which taken together, form a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, and literary essays about an imagined world called Arda, and Middle-earth (derived from an Anglicized form of Old Norse Miðgarðr, the land inhabited by humans in Germanic paganism) in particular, loosely identified as an "alternative" remote past of our own world. Tolkien applied the word legendarium to the totality of these writings. Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arda is the name given to the Earth in a period of fictional prehistory, wherein the places mentioned in The Lord of the Rings and related material once existed. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... For other uses, see Midgard (disambiguation). ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... A legendarium is a book or series of books consisting of a collection of legends. ...


While other authors published fantasy works before Tolkien,[1] the great success and enduring influence of his works have led to him being popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature[2] - or to be precise, high fantasy.[3] L. Sprague de Camp and others consider him the "father of modern fantasy" together with sword and sorcery author Robert E. Howard (creator of Conan the Barbarian).[4][5] In any case, Tolkien has had an indisputable and lasting effect on later works, as well as on the genre as a whole. For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907 – November 6, 2000) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... This article is about a fantasy sub-genre. ... Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936)[1] was a classic American pulp writer of fantasy, horror, historical adventure, boxing, western, and detective fiction. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have served as the inspiration to painters, musicians, film-makers and writers, to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the father of the entire genre of high fantasy. ...

Contents

Biography

Tolkien family origins

Most of Tolkien's paternal ancestors were craftsmen. The Tolkien family had its roots in the German Kingdom of Saxony, but had been living in England since the 18th century, becoming "quickly and intensely English".[6] The surname Tolkien is Anglicized from Tollkiehn (i.e. German tollkühn, "foolhardy"; the etymological English translation would be dull-keen, a calque and an oxymoron). The surname Rashbold, given to two characters in Tolkien's The Notion Club Papers, is a pun on this.[7] The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... Look up oxymoron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Notion Club Papers is the title of an abandoned novel by J. R. R. Tolkien, written during 1945 and published posthumously in Sauron Defeated, the 9th volume of The History of Middle-earth. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ...


Tolkien's maternal grandparents, John and Edith Jane Suffield, were Baptists who lived in Birmingham and owned a shop in the city centre. The Suffield family had run various businesses out of the same building, called Lamb House, since the early 1800s. Beginning in 1812 Tolkien's great-great grandfather William Suffield owned and operated a book and stationery shop there; Tolkien's great-grandfather, also John Suffield, was there from 1826 with a drapery and hosiery business.[8] “Grandfather” redirects here. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... This article is about the British city. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Drapery refers to cloth or textiles (Latin drappus = cloth and Old French drap) or the trade of selling cloth. ... Hosiery describes undergarments worn directly on the feet and legs. ...


Childhood

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892, in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State (now Free State Province), part of what is now South Africa, to Arthur Reuel Tolkien (1857–1896), an English bank manager, and his wife Mabel, née Suffield (1870–1904). The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank he worked for. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel, who was born on 17 February 1894.[9] is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bloemfontein (pronounced , Afrikaans and Dutch for spring of Bloem (bloom), flower spring or fountain of flowers is the capital city of the Free State Province of South Africa. ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Capital Bloemfontein Largest city Bloemfontein Area  - Total Ranked 3rd 129,480 km² Premier Beatrice Marshoff (ANC) Population   - 2001   - 1996   - Density Ranked 8th 2,706,776 2,633,504 21/km² (2001) Languages Sotho (62%) Afrikaans (14%) isiXhosa (9. ... Arthur Reuel Tolkien, the father of J.R.R. Tolkien, was born in Handsworth, Stafford, England, about February of 1857. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Ronald (left) and Hilary Tolkien in 1905 (from Carpenter's Biography)

As a child, Tolkien was bitten by a baboon spider in the garden, an event which would have later echoes in his stories. Dr. Thornton S. Quimby cared for the ailing child after the rather nasty spider bite, and it is occasionally suggested that Doctor Quimby was an early model for such characters as Gandalf the Grey.[10] When he was three, Tolkien went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, however, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them.[11] This left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Stirling Road, Birmingham. Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole (now in Hall Green), then a Worcestershire village, later annexed to Birmingham.[12] He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent Hills and Malvern Hills, which would later inspire scenes in his books along with other Worcestershire towns and villages such as Bromsgrove, Alcester, and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt's farm of Bag End, the name of which would be used in his fiction.[13] The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Genera Augacephalus Ceratogyrus Eucratoscelus Harpactira Harpactirella Idiothele Pterinochilus Trichgnathella Harpactirinae is a subfamily of baboon spiders, old-world tarantulas which are native to the continent of Africa. ... For other uses, see Gandalf (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Sarehole is an area in Birmingham, England (formerly a village in Worcestershire, but transfered to the city in 1911) Grid reference SP099818. ... Hall Green constituency shown within Birmingham Hall Green is an area and ward in south Birmingham, England. ... For the condiment, see Worcestershire sauce. ... Sarehole Mill Sarehole Mill Sarehole Mill (grid reference SP099818) is a Grade II listed water mill (in an area once called Sarehole) on the River Cole in Hall Green, Birmingham, England. ... Moseley Bog is a nature reserve in the Moseley area of Birmingham in England, at Grid reference SP092821. ... The Clent Hills lie 15 km southwest of Birmingham city centre in Worcestershire, England. ... For the local government district in Worcestershire, see Malvern Hills (district). ... , Bromsgrove is a town in Worcestershire, England. ... For other places named Alcester see Alcester (disambiguation). ... Alvechurch is a large village of Bromsgrove district, in the north-east of the county of Worcestershire, England. ...


Mabel tutored her two sons, and Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil.[14] She taught him a great deal of botany, and she awakened in her son the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees. But his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, and his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin very early.[15] He could read by the age of four, and could write fluently soon afterwards. His mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper. He thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was amusing, but also thought that Alice's adventures in it were disturbing. But he liked stories about Native Americans and the fantasy works by George MacDonald.[16] In addition, the "Fairy Books" of Andrew Lang were particularly important to him and to some of his later writings.[17] He attended King Edward's School, Birmingham and, while a student there, helped "line the route" for the coronation parade of King George V, being posted just outside the gates of Buckingham Palace.[18] He later attended St. Philip's School and Exeter College, Oxford. Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Treasure Island (disambiguation). ... The Pied Piper is a 1942 film in which an Englishman, on vacation in France, is caught up in the German invasion of that country, and finds himself helping a large group of children to safety. ... Alice in Wonderland redirects here. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ... For the former National Basketball Association player, see Andrew Lang (basketball). ... King Edwards School (KES) (grid reference SP052836) is an independent secondary school in Birmingham, England, founded by King Edward VI in 1552. ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup because: This article has been tagged since December 2006. ... College name Exeter College Latin name Collegium Exoniense Named after Walter de Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter Established 1314 Sister college Emmanuel College, Cambridge Rector Ms Frances Cairncross JCR President Simon Heawood Undergraduates 299 MCR President Meredith Riedel Graduates 150 Location of Exeter College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Exeter College...

J. R. R. Tolkien in 1911 (from Carpenter's Biography)

Mabel Tolkien was received into the Roman Catholic Church in 1900 despite vehement protests by her Baptist family[19] who then stopped all financial assistance to her. She died of acute complications of diabetes in 1904, when Tolkien was twelve, at Fern Cottage in Rednal, which they were then renting. Mabel Tolkien was then about 34 years of age, about as long as a person with diabetes mellitus type 1 could live with no treatment – insulin would not be discovered until two decades later. For the rest of his own life Tolkien felt that his mother had become a martyr for her Faith, which had a profound effect on his own Catholic beliefs.[20] Tolkien's devout faith was significant in the conversion of C. S. Lewis to Christianity, though Tolkien was greatly disappointed that Lewis chose to return to the Anglicanism of his upbringing instead of entering the Roman Catholic Church.[21] The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Rednal is an area of Birmingham, England. ... Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Type 1 diabetes, Type I diabetes, T1D, IDDM) is a form of diabetes mellitus. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ...


Prior to her death, Mabel Tolkien had assigned the guardianship of her sons to Fr. Francis Xavier Morgan of the Birmingham Oratory, who was assigned to bring them up as good Catholics. “Little Rome in Birmingham”, the Oratory Church, Hagley Road, Birmingham was built between 1907-1910 in the Baroque style as a memorial to Cardinal Newman, founder of the English Oratory. ...


J.R.R. Tolkien subsequently grew up in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham. He lived there in the shadow of Perrott's Folly and the Victorian tower of Edgbaston Waterworks, which may have influenced the images of the dark towers within his works. Another strong influence was the romantic medievalist paintings of Edward Burne-Jones and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood; the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery has a large and world-renowned collection of works and had put it on free public display from around 1908. Edgbaston constituency shown within Birmingham Edgbaston is an area and ward in the city of Birmingham in England. ... Perrotts Folly Perrotts Folly, grid reference SP047862, also known as The Monument, or The Observatory, is a 29-metre (96-foot) tall tower, built in 1758. ... Manchester Town Hall is an example of Victorian architecture found in Manchester, UK. The Carson Mansion is an example of a Victorian home in Eureka, California, USA The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles predominantly in the Victorian era. ... Edgbaston Waterworks Edgbaston Waterworks (Edgbaston Pumping Station), grid reference SP0455386465, lies to the east of Edgbaston Reservoir, two miles west of the centre of Birmingham, England. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Love Among the Ruins, by Edward Burne-Jones. ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery Opened in 1885, Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery (BM&AG), in Birmingham, England, has a collection of inernational importance, including a vast amount of first- class work by the Pre_Raphaelite Brotherhood and the largest collection of works by Edward Burne-Jones in the world. ...


Youth

In 1911, while they were at King Edward's School, Birmingham, Tolkien and three friends, Rob Gilson, Geoffrey Smith and Christopher Wiseman, formed a semi-secret society which they called "the T.C.B.S.", the initials standing for "Tea Club and Barrovian Society", alluding to their fondness for drinking tea in Barrow's Stores near the school and, illicitly, in the school library.[22] After leaving school, the members stayed in touch, and in December 1914, they held a "Council" in London, at Wiseman's home. For Tolkien, the result of this meeting was a strong dedication to writing poetry. King Edwards School (KES) (grid reference SP052836) is an independent secondary school in Birmingham, England, founded by King Edward VI in 1552. ... The semi-secret school club known as the T.C.B.S. (in full Tea Club and Barrovian Society) was formed by pupils at King Edwards School, Birmingham in ca. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ...


In the summer of 1911, Tolkien went on holiday in Switzerland, a trip that he recollects vividly in a 1968 letter,[23] noting that Bilbo's journey across the Misty Mountains ("including the glissade down the slithering stones into the pine woods") is directly based on his adventures as their party of twelve hiked from Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen, and on to camp in the moraines beyond Mürren. Fifty-seven years later, Tolkien remembered his regret at leaving the view of the eternal snows of Jungfrau and Silberhorn ("the Silvertine (Celebdil) of my dreams"). They went across the Kleine Scheidegg on to Grindelwald and across the Grosse Scheidegg to Meiringen. They continued across the Grimsel Pass and through the upper Valais to Brig, and on to the Aletsch glacier and Zermatt.[24] Bilbo Baggins (2890 Third Age - ? Fourth Age) is an important character in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... The Misty Mountains as seen in the prologue to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001). ... Interlaken is a municipality in the Canton of Bern in Switzerland. ... Lauterbrunnen Valley in winter Lauterbrunnen is a municipality in the Interlaken (district) of the Bernese Oberland, Switzerland. ... This article is about geological phenomena. ... Mürren is a traditional Walser mountain village in Bernese Oberland, Switzerland. ... The Jungfrau (German: virgin) is the highest peak of a mountain massif of the same name, located in the Bernese Oberland region of the Swiss Alps, overlooking Grindelwald. ... The Silberhorn is a peak of the Bernese Alps, just to the east of the Jungfrau. ... Celebdil (Sindarin), also known as Zirakzigil (Khuzdul) or Silvertine is a fictional mountain from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... The Kleine Scheidegg (el. ... This article is about the town in Switzerland. ... The beginning of the Reichenbach river Grosse Scheidegg (el. ... Statue of Holmes outside the English Church Street sign outside Holmes museum Meiringen (, 595 m; population 4,740 as of 2004) is a town in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland. ... View from the pass on Grimselsee, Grimsel Hospice und Räterichsbodensee The Grimsel Pass (German: Grimselpass) is a Swiss alpine pass between the valley of the Rhone River (Canton of Valais) and the Haslital (upper valley of the Aar river) in Canton of Berne, at 46°33. ... Capital Sion Population (2003) 278,200 (Ranked 9th)   - Density 53 /km² Area 5224 km² (Ranked 3rd) Highest point Dufourspitze 4634 m Joined 1815 Abbreviation VS Languages French, German Executive Conseil dEtat, Staatsrat (5) Legislative Grand Conseil, Grosser Rat (130) Municipalities 160 municipalities Districts 13 districts, Bezirke Website www. ... Brig (in French Brigue) is a city in the canton of Valais, Switzerland at 46°19′ N 7°58′ E. The historic town with 5000 inhabitants is part of the municipality Brig-Glis with a 11600 inhabitants. ... Aletsch Glacier Aletsch Glacier Aletsch Glacier, the largest glacier in the Alps, covers more than 120 square kilometres (more than 45 square miles) in southern Switzerland. ... In June, the Matterhorn is still snow-covered, while it is spring in Zermatt below. ...


Tolkien graduated from the University of Oxford (where he was a member of Exeter College) with a first-class degree in English language in 1915. The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... College name Exeter College Latin name Collegium Exoniense Named after Walter de Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter Established 1314 Sister college Emmanuel College, Cambridge Rector Ms Frances Cairncross JCR President Simon Heawood Undergraduates 299 MCR President Meredith Riedel Graduates 150 Location of Exeter College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Exeter College... English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology...


Courtship and marriage

At the age of sixteen, Tolkien met and fell in love with Edith Mary Bratt, who was three years older. Father Francis, horrified that his young charge was romantically involved with a Protestant girl, prohibited him from meeting, talking, or even corresponding with her until he was twenty-one. He obeyed this prohibition to the letter[25], with one notable early exception which made Father Morgan threaten to cut short his University career if he did not stop.[26] Edith Bratt Edith Mary Tolkien née Bratt (January 21, 1889 – November 29, 1971) was the wife of writer J. R. R. Tolkien and the inspiration for his fictional character Lúthien. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


On the evening of his twenty-first birthday, Tolkien wrote to Edith a declaration of his love and asked her to marry him. Edith replied saying that she had already agreed to marry another man, but that she had done so because she had believed Tolkien had forgotten her. The two met up and beneath a railway viaduct renewed their love; Edith returned her engagement ring and announced that she was marrying Tolkien instead.[27] Following their engagement Edith converted to Catholicism at Tolkien's insistence.[28] They were formally engaged in Birmingham, in January 1913, and married in Warwick, England, at Saint Mary Immaculate Catholic Church on 22 March 1916.[29] Mill Street in Warwick Warwick (pronounced Worrick) is the historic county town of Warwickshire in England and has a population of 25,434 (2001 census). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


World War I

Tolkien in 1916, wearing his British Army uniform (from Carpenter's Biography)
Tolkien in 1916, wearing his British Army uniform (from Carpenter's Biography)

As the United Kingdom was then engaged in fighting World War I, Tolkien volunteered for military service and was commissioned in the British Army as a Second Lieutenant in the Lancashire Fusiliers.[30] He trained with the 13th (Reserve) Battalion on Cannock Chase, Staffordshire, for eleven months, and was then transferred to the 11th (Service) Battalion with the BEF in France in June 1916.[31] Tolkien served as a communications officer during the Battle of the Somme. He came down with trench fever on 27 October 1916 and was evacuated to England on 8 November 1916.[32] Many of his dearest friends, including Gilson and Smith of the T.C.B.S., were killed in the war. In later years, Tolkien indignantly declared that those who searched his works for parallels to the Second World War were entirely mistaken. Image File history File links Tolkien_1916. ... Image File history File links Tolkien_1916. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... The Lancashire Fusiliers was a British infantry regiment that was amalgamated with other Fusilier regiments in 1968 to form the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939–1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... Trench Fever is a moderately serious disease, transmitted by body lice. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

"One has indeed personally to come under the shadow of war to feel fully its oppression; but as the years go by it seems now often forgotten that to be caught in youth by 1914 was no less hideous an experience than to be involved in 1939 and the following years. By 1918 all but one of my close friends were dead."[33] Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

The weak and emaciated Tolkien spent the remainder of the war alternating between hospitals and garrison duties, being deemed medically unfit for general service.[34] Tolkien's Webley .455 service revolver was put on display in 2006 as part of a Battle of the Somme exhibition in the Imperial War Museum, London.[35][36] and several of his service records, mostly dealing with his health problems, can be seen at the National Archives.[37] The Webley Revolver (also known as the Webley Break-Top Revolver or Webley Self-Extracting Revolver) was, in various marks, the standard issue service pistol for the armed forces of the United Kingdom, the British Empire, and the Commonwealth from 1887 until 1963. ... For other battles known as Battle of the Somme, see Battle of the Somme (disambiguation). ... The Imperial War Museum is a museum in London featuring military vehicles, weapons, war memorabilia, a library, a photographic archive, and an art collection of 20th century and later conflicts, especially those involving Britain, and the British Empire. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Aftermath

During his recovery in a cottage in Great Haywood, Staffordshire, England, he began to work on what he called The Book of Lost Tales, beginning with The Fall of Gondolin. Throughout 1917 and 1918 his illness kept recurring, but he had recovered enough to do home service at various camps, and was promoted to lieutenant. Great Haywood (52°48′ N 2°00′ W) is a village in central Staffordshire, England, about four miles from Rugeley. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In the writings of J.R.R. Tolkien, the Fall of Gondolin is the name of one of the original Lost Tales which formed the basis for a section in his later work, The Silmarillion. ...


When he was stationed at Kingston upon Hull, he and Edith went walking in the woods at nearby Roos, and Edith began to dance for him in a clearing among the flowering hemlock: Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Roos (53°45′ N 0°3′ W) is a village in the East Riding of Yorkshire, near Kingston upon Hull. ...

"We walked in a wood where hemlock was growing, a sea of white flowers".[38]

This incident inspired the account of the meeting of Beren and Lúthien, and Tolkien often referred to Edith as, "my Lúthien."[39] The Lay of Leithian is an unfinished poem written by J. R. R. Tolkien during the 1930s. ... Lúthien Tinúviel is a fictional character in the fantasy-world Middle-earth of the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ...

Academic and writing career

Tolkien's first civilian job after World War I was at the Oxford English Dictionary, where he worked mainly on the history and etymology of words of Germanic origin beginning with the letter W.[40] In 1920 he took up a post as Reader in English language at the University of Leeds, and in 1924 was made a professor there. While at Leeds he produced A Middle English Vocabulary and (with E. V. Gordon) a definitive edition of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, both becoming academic standard works for many decades. In 1925 he returned to Oxford as Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College, which chair he held until he was elected Merton Professor of English Language and Literature in 1945.[41] The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... In the academic hierarchy in the United Kingdom and some universities in Australia and New Zealand, Reader is the rank between senior lecturer (or principal lecturer in the New Universities) and professor. ... The University of Leeds is a major teaching and research university, one of the largest in the United Kingdom with over 32,000 full-time students. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... Eric Valentine Gordon (1896 – 1938) was a philologist who studied at Oxford University (1920) and taught at Leeds University (1922-1931) and Manchester University (1932-1938). ... The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... The Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon, until 1916 known as the Rawlinsonian Professorship of Anglo-Saxon, was established by Richard Rawlinson of St. ... College name Pembroke College Collegium Pembrochianum Named after The Earl of Pembroke Established 1624 Sister College Queens College Master Giles Henderson JCR President Dawn Rennie Undergraduates 408 MCR President Ross Nicolson Graduates 119 College Homepage Boat Club The lodge and the entrance to Pembroke College in Pembroke Square. ... There are two Merton Professorships of English in the University of Oxford: the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, and the Merton Professor of English Literature. ...

20 Northmoor Road, the former home of J.R.R. Tolkien in North Oxford.
20 Northmoor Road, the former home of J.R.R. Tolkien in North Oxford.

During his time at Pembroke, Tolkien wrote The Hobbit and the first two volumes of The Lord of the Rings, largely at 20 Northmoor Road in North Oxford, where a blue plaque was placed in 2002. He also published a philological essay in 1932 on the name 'Nodens', following Sir Mortimer Wheeler's unearthing of a Roman Asclepieion at Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, in 1928.[42] Of Tolkien's academic publications, the 1936 lecture "Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics" had a lasting influence on Beowulf research.[43] Lewis E. Nicholson said that the article Tolkien wrote about Beowulf is "widely recognized as a turning point in Beowulfian criticism", noting that Tolkien established the primacy of the poetic nature of the work as opposed to the purely linguistic elements.[44] He also revealed in his famous article how highly he regarded Beowulf; "Beowulf is among my most valued sources…" And indeed, there are many influences of Beowulf in The Lord of the Rings.[45] When Tolkien wrote, the consensus of scholarship deprecated Beowulf for dealing with childish battles with monsters rather than realistic tribal warfare; Tolkien argued that the author of Beowulf was addressing human destiny in general, not as limited by particular tribal politics, and therefore the monsters were essential to the poem. (Where Beowulf does deal with specific tribal struggles, as at Finnsburg, Tolkien argued firmly against reading in fantastic elements.)[46] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 853 KB) 20 Northmoor Road, Oxford, England, former home of the author J.R.R. Tolkien. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 853 KB) 20 Northmoor Road, Oxford, England, former home of the author J.R.R. Tolkien. ... Northmoor Road is a road in North Oxford, England. ... North Oxford, especially central North Oxford between the city centre and Summertown, is considered by many to be the most desirable and famous suburb of Oxford, England. ... This article is about the book. ... This article is about the novel. ... Northmoor Road is a road in North Oxford, England. ... North Oxford, especially central North Oxford between the city centre and Summertown, is considered by many to be the most desirable and famous suburb of Oxford, England. ... A blue plaque showing information about The Spanish Barn at Torre Abbey in Torquay. ... Nodens, or Nodons, was a Celtic deity worshipped in Britain. ... Brigadier Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler Kt, CH, CIE, MC (10 September 1890–22 July 1976), was one of the best-known British archaeologists of the twentieth century. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... In ancient Greece, an asclepieion was a healing temple, sacred to the god Asclepius. ... // Gardens Ruins A Roman settlement was built upon an earlier Iron Age settlement, and Scowles, which are open cast iron mines, and tunnels exist throughout the hill. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... The Finnsburg Fragment is a fragment of an Old English poem, found in the Exeter Book. ...


In 1945, he moved to Merton College, Oxford, becoming the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, in which post he remained until his retirement in 1959. Tolkien completed The Lord of the Rings in 1948, close to a decade after the first sketches. During the 1950s, Tolkien spent many of his long academic holidays at the home of his son John Francis in Stoke-on-Trent. Tolkien had an intense dislike for the side effects of industrialization, which he considered to be devouring the English countryside. For most of his adult life, he was disdainful of automobiles, preferring to ride a bicycle.[47] This attitude can be seen in his work, most famously in the portrayal of the forced "industrialization" of The Shire in The Lord of the Rings. and of the Merton College College name The House of Scholars of Merton Named after Walter de Merton Established 1264 Sister college Peterhouse, Cambridge Warden Prof. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... The fields of the Shire in the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy The Shire is a region of J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works. ...

The last known photograph of Tolkien, taken 9 August 1973, next to one of his favourite trees (a European Black Pine) in the Botanic Garden, Oxford

W. H. Auden was a frequent correspondent and long-time friend of Tolkien's, initiated by Auden's fascination with The Lord of the Rings: Auden was among the most prominent early critics to praise the work. Tolkien wrote in a 1971 letter, This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Binomial name Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold The European Black Pine Pinus nigra (generally called Black Pine in Europe), is a variable species of pine, occurring across southern Europe from Spain to the Crimea, and also in Asia Minor, Cyprus, and locally in the Atlas Mountains of northwest Africa. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ...

"I am […] very deeply in Auden's debt in recent years. His support of me and interest in my work has been one of my chief encouragements. He gave me very good reviews, notices and letters from the beginning when it was by no means a popular thing to do. He was, in fact, sneered at for it."[48]

Family life

John Ronald and Edith Tolkien had four children: John Francis Reuel (17 November 191722 January 2003), Michael Hilary Reuel (22 October 19201984), Christopher John Reuel (born 21 November 1924) and Priscilla Mary Anne Reuel (born 18 June 1929). Tolkien was a very devoted family man, shown by the fact that he sent his children letters from Father Christmas when they were young. There were more characters added each year, such as the Polar Bear, Father Christmas' helper, the Snow Man, FC's gardener, Ilbereth the elf, his secretary, and various other minor characters. The major characters would relate tales of Father Christmas' battles against goblins who rode on bats and the various pranks committed by the Polar Bear. 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A goblin is an evil or mischievous creature of folklore, often described as a grotesquely disfigured, elf-like phantom. ... For the flying mammal see bat. ...


Retirement and old age

During his life in retirement, from 1959 up to his death in 1973, Tolkien received steadily increasing public attention and literary fame. The sale of his books was so profitable that he regretted he had not chosen early retirement.[49] While at first he wrote enthusiastic answers to reader inquiries, he became more and more suspicious of emerging Tolkien fandom, especially among the hippie movement in the United States.[50] In a 1972 letter he deplores having become a cult-figure, but admits that Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. ... Singer of a modern Hippie movement in Russia The hippie subculture was a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread around the world. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ...

... even the nose of a very modest idol (younger than Chu-Bu and not much older than Sheemish) cannot remain entirely untickled by the sweet smell of incense![51] Chu-Bu and Sheemish are characters in a short story of the same name by Lord Dunsany. ... Chu-Bu and Sheemish are characters in a short story of the same name by Lord Dunsany. ...

Fan attention became so intense that Tolkien had to take his phone number out of the public directory[52] and eventually he and Edith moved to Bournemouth on the south coast. Tolkien was awarded the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace on 28 March 1972. , Bournemouth ( ) is a large town and tourist resort, situated on the south coast of England. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Death

The grave of J. R. R. and Edith Tolkien, Wolvercote Cemetery, Oxford.
The grave of J. R. R. and Edith Tolkien, Wolvercote Cemetery, Oxford.

Edith Tolkien died on 29 November 1971, at the age of eighty-two. [53] Tolkien had the name Lúthien engraved on the stone at Wolvercote Cemetery, Oxford. When Tolkien died twenty-one months later on 2 September 1973, at the age of eighty-one, he was buried in the same grave, with Beren added to his name, so that the engravings now read: Image File history File links Tolkiengrab. ... Image File history File links Tolkiengrab. ... The grave of J. R. R. and Edith Tolkien Wolvercote Cemetery is in the north Oxford suburb of Wolvercote off the Banbury Road. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Lúthien Tinúviel is a fictional character in the fantasy-world Middle-earth of the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The grave of J. R. R. and Edith Tolkien Wolvercote Cemetery is in the north Oxford suburb of Wolvercote off the Banbury Road. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Beren is a fictional character, from J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy-world Middle-earth. ...

Edith Mary Tolkien
Lúthien
1889 – 1971
John Ronald
Reuel Tolkien
Beren
1892 – 1973

Memorials

Posthumously named after Tolkien are the Tolkien Road in Eastbourne, East Sussex, and the asteroid 2675 Tolkien discovered in 1982. Tolkien Way in Stoke-on-Trent is named after Tolkien's eldest son, Fr. John Francis Tolkien, who was the priest in charge at the nearby Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady of the Angels and St. Peter in Chains.[54] There is also a professorship in Tolkien's name at Oxford, the J.R.R. Tolkien Professor of English Literature and Language.[55] For other places with the same name, see Eastbourne (disambiguation). ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... 2675 Tolkien is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by M. Watt in 1982. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ...


Views

Tolkien was a devout Roman Catholic, and in his religious and political views he was mostly conservative, in the sense of favouring established conventions and orthodoxies over innovation and modernization; in 1943 he wrote "My political opinions lean more and more to Anarchy (philosophically understood, meaning abolition of control, not whiskered men with bombs) – or to 'unconstitutional' Monarchy."[56] Catholic Church redirects here. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ...


Religion

As already given above, Tolkien's devout faith was significant in the conversion of C. S. Lewis from atheism to Christianity, although Tolkien was greatly disappointed that Lewis chose to return to Anglicanism,[21] rather than becoming a Catholic like himself. Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ...


In the last years of his life, he became greatly disappointed by the reforms and changes implemented after the Second Vatican Council, as his grandson Simon Tolkien recalls, The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Simon Tolkien (born 1959) is a British barrister and novelist. ...

"I vividly remember going to church with him in Bournemouth. He was a devout Roman Catholic and it was soon after the Church had changed the liturgy from Latin to English. My grandfather obviously didn't agree with this and made all the responses very loudly in Latin while the rest of the congregation answered in English. I found the whole experience quite excruciating, but my grandfather was oblivious. He simply had to do what he believed to be right." [57] , Bournemouth ( ) is a large town and tourist resort, situated on the south coast of England. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

He later voiced his support on several occasions for the Pre-Conciliar Tridentine Mass in the Latin language, and spoke at traditionalist meetings - although he died in the early years of the Traditionalist movement. [58] The Tridentine Mass (Pontifical High Mass) being celebrated at Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in Wyandotte, Michigan - 1949. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and presentation of Catholic teachings that prevailed in the Catholic Church just before the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). ...


Politics

The question of racist or racialist elements in Tolkien's views and works has been the matter of some scholarly debate.[59] Christine Chism[60] distinguishes accusations as falling into three categories: intentional racism,[61] unconscious Eurocentric bias, and an evolution from latent racism in Tolkien's early work to a conscious rejection of racist tendencies in his late work. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ...


Tolkien is known to have condemned Nazi "race-doctrine" and anti-Semitism as "wholly pernicious and unscientific".[62] He also said of apartheid in his birthplace South Africa, Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...

The treatment of colour nearly always horrifies anyone going out from Britain.[63]

He also spoke out against it in his valedictory address to the University of Oxford in 1959,

I have the hatred of apartheid in my bones; and most of all I detest the segregation or separation of Language and Literature. I do not care which of them you think White.[64] A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...

In 1968, he objected to a description of Middle-earth as "Nordic", a term he said he disliked due to its association with racialist theories.[65] The Nordic countries (Greenland not shown) The Nordic countries is a term used collectively for five countries in Northern Europe. ... A Nazi illustration of the perceived Nordic master race. ...


Tolkien had nothing but contempt for Adolf Hitler, whom he accused of "perverting ... and making for ever accursed, that noble northern spirit" which was so dear to him.[66] However, he could get more agitated over "lesser evils" that struck nearer home; he denounced anti-German fanaticism in the British war effort during World War II. In 1944, he wrote in a letter to his son Christopher: Hitler redirects here. ... Anti-German sentiment should not be confused with Anti-Germans (communist current), also called Anti-German. ...

But it is distressing to see the press grovelling in the gutter as low as Goebbels in his prime, shrieking that any German commander who holds out in a desperate situation (when, too, the military needs of his side clearly benefit) is a drunkard, and a besotted fanatic ... There was a solemn article in the local paper seriously advocating systematic exterminating of the entire German nation as the only proper course after military victory: because, if you please, they are rattlesnakes, and don't know the difference between good and evil! (What of the writer?) The Germans have just as much right to declare the Poles and Jews exterminable vermin, subhuman, as we have to select the Germans: in other words, no right, whatever they have done.[67] Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... FANatic was an American TV show that was shown on the MTV network in the late 1990s. ... Species 27 species; see list of rattlesnake species and subspecies. ... The term subhuman can refer to several concepts: Humanoid, any being whose body structure resembles that of a human Last Man, the antithesis to the Übermensch in Nietzschean philosophy Slave, a person who is under the control of another Subhumans, a UK punk rock band The Subhumans, a Canadian punk...

He was horrified by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, referring to the Bomb's creators as "these lunatic physicists" and "babel-builders".[68] The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


Others of his views were guided by his strict Catholicism. He voiced support for Francisco Franco's Falangist regime during the Spanish Civil War upon learning that Republican death squads were destroying churches and killing large numbers of priests and nuns.[69][70] He also expressed admiration for the South African poet, fellow Catholic, and Fascist sympathizer Roy Campbell after a 1944 meeting. Since Campbell had served with Franco's armies in Spain, Tolkien regarded him as a defender of the Catholic faith, while C. S. Lewis composed poetry openly satirising Campbell's "mixture of Catholicism and Fascism."[71] “Franco” redirects here. ... Falange was a totalitarian clerical fascist political organization founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933 in opposition to the Second Spanish Republic. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta... A death squad is an extra-judicial group whose members execute or assassinate persons they believe to be politically unreliable or undesirable. ... During the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s, many of the Republican forces were violently anti-clerical anarchists and Communists, whose assaults during what has been termed Spains red terror included sacking and burning monasteries and churches and killing 6,832 members of the Catholic clergy. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Roy Campbell (1901-1957) Roy Campbell (2 October 1901 – 22 April 1957) was a South African poet and satirist. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ...


Influences

His love of myths and devout faith came together in his assertion that he believed that mythology is the divine echo of "the Truth".[72] This view was expressed in his poem Mythopoeia,[73] and his idea that myths held "fundamental truths" became a central theme of the Inklings in general. For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Mythopoeia (Greek for myth-making) is a narrative genre in modern literature and film where a fictional mythology was created by the author or director. ... The Eagle and Child pub (commonly known as the Bird and Baby) in Oxford where the Inklings met on Thursday nights in 1939. ...


Writing

Tolkien's cover design for the three volumes of The Lord of the Rings
Tolkien's cover design for the three volumes of The Lord of the Rings

Beginning with The Book of Lost Tales, written while recuperating from illnesses contracted during The Battle of the Somme, Tolkien devised several themes that were reused in successive drafts of his legendarium. The two most prominent stories, the tales of Beren and Lúthien and that of Túrin, were carried forward into long narrative poems (published in The Lays of Beleriand). Cover design for The Lord of the Rings by JRRT. This work is copyrighted. ... Cover design for The Lord of the Rings by JRRT. This work is copyrighted. ... The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... See Battle of the Somme (disambiguation) for other battles and meanings Battle of the Somme Conflict First World War Date 1 July 1916 – 18 November 1916 Place Somme, Picardy, France Result Stalemate The 1916 Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles of the First World War... A legendarium is a book or series of books consisting of a collection of legends. ... The Lay of Leithian is an unfinished poem written by J. R. R. Tolkien during the 1930s. ... In The Silmarillion by J. R. R. Tolkien, Túrin Turambar was a Man of Middle-earth, who became a tragic hero (or anti-hero) of the First Age in the tale called Narn i Chîn Húrin (The Tale of the Children of Húrin). Unpublished drafts of... The Lays of Beleriand, published in 1985, is the third volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series, The History of Middle-earth, in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Influences

Tolkien was heavily influenced by ancient Germanic literature, indigenous pre-Christian religion (Germanic paganism), linguistics, legend and culture, for which he confessed a great love. Tolkien spent much of his scholarly time studying and lecturing on these subjects, as well as producing a number of introductions and essays. These sources of inspiration included Anglo-Saxon literature such as Beowulf, the Norse sagas (such as the Volsunga saga and the Hervarar saga[74]), the Poetic Edda, the Prose Edda, the Nibelungenlied and numerous other culturally related works.[75] ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle, likely scribed around 1150, is one of the major sources of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Ramsund carving in Sweden depicts 1) how Sigurd is sitting naked in front of the fire preparing the dragon heart, from Fafnir, for his foster-father Regin, who is Fafnirs brother. ... Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. ... The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ...


Despite similarities to the Volsunga saga and the Nibelungenlied, the basis for Richard Wagner's opera series Der Ring des Nibelungen, Tolkien dismissed critics' direct comparisons of his work to Wagner, telling his publisher: "Both rings were round, and there the resemblance ceases." Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ...


Tolkien himself also acknowledged Homer, Sophocles, and the Finnish and Karelian Kalevala as influences or sources for some of his stories and ideas.[76] Tolkien also drew influence from a variety of CelticScottish and Welsh — history and legends.[77][78] For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... This article is about Karelia, the land of the Karelians, in its broadest meaning. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which the Finn Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish and Karelian folklore in the 19th century. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... Scottish mythology consists of the myths and legends historically told by the people of Scotland. ... Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ...


A major philosophical influence on his writing is Alfred the Great's Anglo-Saxon translation of Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy, known as the Lays of Boethius.[79] Characters in The Lord of the Rings such as Frodo, Treebeard, and Elrond make noticeably Boethian remarks. Also, Catholic theology and imagery played a part in fashioning his creative imagination, suffused as it was by his deeply religious spirit.[80][81] For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... For other people of the same name, see Boethius (disambiguation). ... This early printed book has many hand-painted illustrations depicting Lady Philosophy and scenes of daily life in fifteenth-century Ghent (1485) Consolation of Philosophy (Latin: Consolatio Philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius written in about the year 524 AD. It has been described as the single most important... The Lays of Boethius is King Alfred greatest work of literature Citation needed. ... Frodo redirects here. ... Treebeard or (Sindarin) Fangorn is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ... Elrond Half-elven is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Among more contemporary influences was H. Rider Haggard's novel She. Tolkien said in a telephone interview, "I suppose as a boy She interested me as much as anything—like the Greek shard of Amyntas [should be 'Amenartas'], which was the kind of machine by which everything got moving.'[82] A supposed facsimile of this potsherd appeared in Haggard's first edition, and the ancient inscription it bore, once translated, led the English characters on their journey that reached "She"'s ancient kingdom, a device that has been compared to the Testament of Isildur in The Lord of the Rings[83] and Tolkien's efforts to produce as an illustration a realistic page from the Book of Mazarbul.[84] Critics starting with Edwin Muir[85] have found resemblances between Haggard's romances and Tolkien's.[86][87][88] H. Rider Haggard, author Sir Henry Rider Haggard (June 22, 1856 – May 14, 1925), born in Norfolk, England, was a Victorian writer of adventure novels set in locations considered exotic by readers in his native England. ... 1961 paperback edition She is a novel by H. Rider Haggard, first serialized in The Graphic from October 1886 to January 1887. ... A page from the Book of Mazarbul Record of Balins expedition to Moria. ... Edwin Muir (15 May 1887 - 3 January 1959) was an Orcadian [1] poet, novelist and translator born on a farm in Deerness on the Orkney Islands. ...


Also, Tolkien wrote of being impressed as a boy by S. R. Crockett's historical novel The Black Douglas and of basing the Necromancer (Sauron) on its villain, Gilles de Retz.[89] The critic Jared Lobdell has suggested that Crockett's style and imagery influenced Tolkien as well.[90] Samuel Rutherford Crockett (September 24, 1860 - April 16, 1914), Scottish novelist, was born at Duchrae, Galloway, the son of a Galloway farmer. ... This article is about a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth fantasy writings. ... Gilles de Rais Gilles de Rais (also spelled Retz) (autumn of 1404 – October 26, 1440) was a French aristocrat, soldier, and at one time, a national hero. ...


The Silmarillion

Tolkien wrote a brief summary of the legendarium that the tales of Beren and Lúthien and of Túrin were intended to represent, and that summary eventually evolved into The Silmarillion, an epic history that Tolkien started three times but never published. Tolkien hoped to publish it along with The Lord of the Rings, but publishers (both Allen & Unwin and Collins) got cold feet; moreover printing costs were very high in the post-war years, leading to The Lord of the Rings being published in three books.[91] The story of this continuous redrafting is told in the posthumous series The History of Middle-earth, which was edited by Tolkien's son, Christopher Tolkien. From around 1936, he began to extend this framework to include the tale of The Fall of Númenor, which was inspired by the legend of Atlantis. The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... For other uses, see Atlantis (disambiguation). ...


Children's books

In addition to his mythopoetic compositions, Tolkien enjoyed inventing fantasy stories to entertain his children.[92] He wrote annual Christmas letters from Father Christmas for them, building up a series of short stories (later compiled and published as The Father Christmas Letters). Other stories included Mr. Bliss, Roverandom, Smith of Wootton Major and Farmer Giles of Ham. Roverandom and Smith of Wootton Major, like The Hobbit, borrowed ideas from his legendarium. Mythopoeic literature is literature that involves the making of myths. ... Excerpt from Josiah Kings The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England Father Christmas is the name used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth countries, for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas... The Father Christmas Letters is a collection of letters written by Father Christmas to J.R.R Tolkiens children. ... Mr. ... Roverandom is a story written by J.R.R. Tolkien, originally told in 1925. ... Smith of Wootton Major, first published in 1967, is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... This article is about the book. ...


The Hobbit

Tolkien never expected his stories to become popular, but by sheer accident a book he had written some years before for his own children, called The Hobbit, came in 1936 to the attention of Susan Dagnall, an employee of the London publishing firm George Allen & Unwin, who persuaded him to submit it for publication.[93] However, the book attracted adult readers as well, and it became popular enough for the publisher to ask Tolkien to work on a sequel. This article is about the book. ...


The Lord of the Rings

Even though he felt uninspired on the topic, this request prompted Tolkien to begin what would become his most famous work: the epic three-volume novel The Lord of the Rings (published 1954–55). Tolkien spent more than ten years writing the primary narrative and appendices for The Lord of the Rings, during which time he received the constant support of the Inklings, in particular his closest friend Lewis, the author of The Chronicles of Narnia. Both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are set against the background of The Silmarillion, but in a time long after it. This article is about the novel. ... The Eagle and Child pub (commonly known as the Bird and Baby) in Oxford where the Inklings met on Thursday nights in 1939. ... Narnia redirects here. ... This article is about the book. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ...

Tolkien's monogram, and Tolkien Estate trademark.
Tolkien's monogram, and Tolkien Estate trademark.

Tolkien at first intended The Lord of the Rings to be a children's tale in the style of The Hobbit, but it quickly grew darker and more serious in the writing.[94] Though a direct sequel to The Hobbit, it addressed an older audience, drawing on the immense back story of Beleriand that Tolkien had constructed in previous years, and which eventually saw posthumous publication in The Silmarillion and other volumes. Tolkien's influence weighs heavily on the fantasy genre that grew up after the success of The Lord of the Rings. Image File history File links JRRT_logo. ... Image File history File links JRRT_logo. ... The Tolkien Estate is the legal body which manages the copyrights of J. R. R. Tolkiens works. ... In narratology, a back-story (also back story or backstory) is the history behind the situation extant at the start of the main story. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Beleriand was the region of northwestern Middle-earth during the First Age. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ... For other definitions of fantasy see fantasy (psychology). ...


Legacy

After the publication of the final volume of The Lord of the Rings in 1955, Tolkien continued to work both on the earlier stories and the later stories and material concerning Middle-earth. He continued such work right up until his death 18 years later in 1973. (His tale Leaf by Niggle appears to be, in part, an allegory of his problems with completing a definitive version of the legendarium. In it, a "very small man", Niggle, works on a painting of a tree, but is so caught up in painstakingly painting individual leaves or elaborating the background, or so distracted by the demands of his neighbour, that he never manages to complete it.[95]) Tolkien had appointed his son Christopher to be his literary executor, and he (with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, later a well-known fantasy author in his own right) organized some of the unpublished material into a single coherent volume, published as The Silmarillion in 1977—his father had previously attempted to get a collection of 'Silmarillion' material published together with The Lord of the Rings. In 1980 Christopher Tolkien followed The Silmarillion with a collection of more fragmentary material under the title Unfinished Tales. In subsequent years (1983–1996) he published a large amount of the remaining unpublished materials together with notes and extensive commentary in a series of twelve volumes called The History of Middle-earth. They contain unfinished, abandoned, alternative and outright contradictory accounts, since they were always a work in progress, and Tolkien only rarely settled on a definitive version for any of the stories. There is not complete consistency between The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit, the two most closely related works, because Tolkien never fully integrated all their traditions into each other. He commented in 1965, while editing The Hobbit for a third edition, that he would have preferred to completely rewrite the entire book due to the style of its prose.[96] Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... A literary executor is a person with decision-making power in respect of a literary estate. ... Canadian author Guy Gavriel Kay Guy Gavriel Kay (born November 7, 1954) is a Canadian author of fantasy fiction. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ...


The Lord of the Rings became immensely popular in the 1960s and has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the 20th century, judged by both sales and reader surveys.[97] In the 2003 "Big Read" survey conducted by the BBC, The Lord of the Rings was found to be the "Nation's Best-loved Book". Australians voted The Lord of the Rings "My Favourite Book" in a 2004 survey conducted by the Australian ABC.[98] In a 1999 poll of Amazon.com customers, The Lord of the Rings was judged to be their favourite "book of the millennium".[99] In 2002 Tolkien was voted the ninety-second "greatest Briton" in a poll conducted by the BBC, and in 2004 he was voted thirty-fifth in the SABC3's Great South Africans, the only person to appear in both lists. His popularity is not limited to the English-speaking world: in a 2004 poll inspired by the UK’s "Big Read" survey, about 250,000 Germans found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite work of literature.[100] The Big Read was a 2003 survey carried out by the BBC, with the goal of finding the Nations Best-loved Book by way of a viewer vote via the Web, SMS and telephone. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... My Favourite Book was a 2004 survey carried out by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation to identify the nations favourite books. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Amazon. ... // In 2002, the BBC conducted a vote to determine whom the general public considers the 100 Greatest Britons of all time. ... Great South Africans was a South African television series that aired on SABC3 and hosted by Noeleen Maholwana Sangqu and Denis Beckett. ...


The Children of Húrin

In September 2006, Christopher Tolkien, who had spent 30 years working on his father's unpublished manuscripts, announced that The Children of Húrin had been edited into a completed work for publication in 2007; it was released on April 17, 2007. J. R. R. Tolkien had first written what he called Húrin's saga (and later the Narn) in 1918, and rewritten it several times as an epic poem, but never completed his mature, novelistic version. Extracts from the latter had been published before by Christopher Tolkien in Unfinished Tales, with other texts appearing in The Silmarillion and his later literary investigations of The History of Middle-earth. The Children of Húrin (2007) is a completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien begun in 1918. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Húrin (439-c. ... ... The Narn i Hîn Húrin or Lay of the Children of Húrin is a part of the Unfinished Tales by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...

It has seemed to me for a long time that there was a good case for presenting my father's long version of the legend of The Children of Hurin as an independent work, between its own covers.[101]

Manuscript locations

The John P. Raynor, S.J., Library at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin preserves many of Tolkien's manuscripts, notes and letters; other original material is in Oxford University's Bodleian Library. Marquette has the manuscripts and proofs of The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and other works, including Farmer Giles of Ham, while the Bodleian holds the Silmarillion papers and Tolkien's academic work.[102] The Society of Jesus — also known by its Latin name Societas Iesu or its English variant Jesuit Order — is a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in direct service to the Pope. ... Marquette University is a private, coeducational, Jesuit, Roman Catholic university located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the United States of America. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ...


Languages and philology

See also: Languages of Middle-earth

The languages of Middle-earth are artificial languages invented by J. R. R. Tolkien and used in his books about Middle-earth, including The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. ...

Linguistic career

Both Tolkien's academic career and his literary production are inseparable from his love of language and philology. He specialized in Ancient Greek philology in college, and in 1915 graduated with Old Norse as special subject. He worked for the Oxford English Dictionary from 1918, and is credited with having worked on a number of W words, including walrus, over which he struggled mightily.[103] In 1920, he went to Leeds as Reader in English language, where he claimed credit for raising the number of students of linguistics from five to twenty. He gave courses in Old English heroic verse, history of English, various Old English and Middle English texts, Old and Middle English philology, introductory Germanic philology, Gothic, Old Icelandic, and Medieval Welsh. When in 1925, aged thirty-three, Tolkien applied for the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon, he boasted that his students of Germanic philology in Leeds had even formed a "Viking Club".[104] Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Walrus Subspecies Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation) and Leeds City (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Heroic verse, a term exclusively used in English to indicate the rhymed iambic line or heroic couplet. ... English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Northern Netherlands. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... The Old Icelandic language was the most prominent of the Old Norse languages. ... Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 14th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period. ... Early modern publications dealing with what we now call Viking culture appeared in the 16th century, e. ...


Privately, Tolkien was attracted to "things of racial and linguistic significance", and he entertained notions of an inherited taste of language, which he termed the "native tongue" as opposed to "cradle tongue" in his 1955 lecture English and Welsh, which is crucial to his understanding of race and language. He considered West Midlands dialect of Middle English to be his own "native tongue", and, as he wrote to W. H. Auden in 1955,[105] "I am a West-midlander by blood (and took to early west-midland Middle English as a known tongue as soon as I set eyes on it)". For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... English and Welsh is the title of J. R. R. Tolkiens valedictory address to the University of Oxford of 1955, explaining the origin of the word Welsh. In a lengthy sidenote, Tolkien discusses his notions of native tongue as opposed to cradle tongue, and of an inherited taste of... The West Midlands is an official Region of England, covering the western half of the Midlands. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ...


Language builder

Parallel to Tolkien's professional work as a philologist, and sometimes overshadowing this work, to the effect that his academic output remained rather thin, was his affection for the construction of artificial languages. The best developed of these are Quenya and Sindarin, the etymological connection between which formed the core of much of Tolkien's legendarium. Language and grammar for Tolkien was a matter of aesthetics and euphony, and Quenya in particular was designed from "phonaesthetic" considerations; it was intended as an "Elvenlatin", and was phonologically based on Latin, with ingredients from Finnish, Welsh, English, and Greek.[106] A notable addition came in late 1945 with Adûnaic or Númenórean, a language of a "faintly Semitic flavour", connected with Tolkien's Atlantis legend, which by The Notion Club Papers ties directly into his ideas about inability of language to be inherited, and via the "Second Age" and the story of Eärendil was grounded in the legendarium, thereby providing a link of Tolkien's twentieth-century "real primary world" with the legendary past of his Middle-earth. An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose vocabulary and grammar were specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ... Quenya is one of the fictional languages spoken by the Elves (the Quendi) the ones who speak. The first-found children of Ilúvatar, in the fantasy works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... Euphony describes flowing and aesthetically pleasing speech. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Adûnaic (language of the west) was the language of the Men of Númenor during the Second Age. ... Númenor is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth and is intended to be his version of Atlantis. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... For other uses, see Atlantis (disambiguation). ... The Notion Club Papers is the title of an abandoned novel by J. R. R. Tolkien, written during 1945 and published posthumously in Sauron Defeated, the 9th volume of The History of Middle-earth. ... The Second Age is a fictional time period from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... For the Anglo-Saxon name, see Earendel. ...


Views

Tolkien considered languages inseparable from the mythology associated with them, and he consequently took a dim view of auxiliary languages: in 1930 a congress of Esperantists were told as much by him, in his lecture A Secret Vice, "Your language construction will breed a mythology", but by 1956 he concluded that "Volapük, Esperanto, Ido, Novial, &c, &c, are dead, far deader than ancient unused languages, because their authors never invented any Esperanto legends".[107] An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... A Secret Vice is the title of a lecture held by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1930 at an Esperanto congress. ... Volapük is a constructed language, created in 1879–1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany. ... This article is about the language. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ... Novial [nov- (new) + IAL, International Auxiliary Language] is a constructed international auxiliary language (IAL) intended to facilitate international communication and friendship, without displacing anyones native language. ...


Legacy

The popularity of Tolkien's books has had a small but lasting effect on the use of language in fantasy literature in particular, and even on mainstream dictionaries, which today commonly accept Tolkien's revival of the spellings dwarves and elvish (instead of dwarfs and elfish), which had not been in use since the mid-1800s and earlier. Other terms he has coined such as eucatastrophe are mainly used in connection with Tolkien's work. Eucatastrophe is a term coined by J.R.R. Tolkien which refers to the sudden turn of events at the end of a story which result in the protagonists well-being. ...


Legacy

Works inspired by Tolkien

In a 1951 letter to Milton Waldman, Tolkien writes about his intentions to create a "body of more or less connected legend", of which The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have served as the inspiration to painters, musicians, film-makers and writers, to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the father of the entire genre of high fantasy. ...

The cycles should be linked to a majestic whole, and yet leave scope for other minds and hands, wielding paint and music and drama.[108]

The hands and minds of many artists have indeed been inspired by Tolkien's legends. Personally known to him were Pauline Baynes (Tolkien's favourite illustrator of The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Farmer Giles of Ham) and Donald Swann (who set the music to The Road Goes Ever On). Queen Margrethe II of Denmark created illustrations to The Lord of the Rings in the early 1970s. She sent them to Tolkien, who was struck by the similarity they bore in style to his own drawings.[109] Pauline Baynes (born 1922, in Hove, Sussex) is an English book illustrator, whose work encompasses more than 100 books. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Donald Ibrahím Swann (September 30, 1923–March 23, 1994) was a British composer, musician and entertainer. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Margrethe II (Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid) (born 16 April 1940) is the Queen regnant of Denmark. ...


But Tolkien was not fond of all the artistic representation of his works that were produced in his lifetime, and was sometimes harshly disapproving.


In 1946, he rejected suggestions for illustrations by Horus Engels for the German edition of The Hobbit as "too Disnified", Disney redirects here. ...

Bilbo with a dribbling nose, and Gandalf as a figure of vulgar fun rather than the Odinic wanderer that I think of.[110] For other meanings of Odin,Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ...

He was sceptical of the emerging Tolkien fandom in the United States, and in 1954 he returned proposals for the dust jackets of the American edition of The Lord of the Rings: Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. ...

Thank you for sending me the projected 'blurbs', which I return. The Americans are not as a rule at all amenable to criticism or correction; but I think their effort is so poor that I feel constrained to make some effort to improve it.[111]

In film

In 1958, after receiving a screenplay for a proposed movie adaptation of The Lord of the Rings by Morton Grady Zimmerman, Tolkien wrote: Jan. ... Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions. ...

I would ask them to make an effort of imagination sufficient to understand the irritation (and on occasion the resentment) of an author, who finds, increasingly as he proceeds, his work treated as it would seem carelessly in general, in places recklessly, and with no evident signs of any appreciation of what it is all about.[112]

He went on to criticize the script scene by scene ("yet one more scene of screams and rather meaningless slashings"). But Tolkien was in principle open to the idea of a movie adaptation. He sold the film, stage and merchandise rights of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings to United Artists in 1968. However, guided by an intense hatred of their past work, Tolkien expressly forbade that The Walt Disney Company should ever become involved in any future productions.[citation needed] This article is about the film studio. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Disney redirects here. ...


United Artists never made a film, although director John Boorman was planning a live-action film in the early 1970s. In 1976 the rights were sold to Tolkien Enterprises, a division of the Saul Zaentz Company, and the first movie adaptation of The Lord of the Rings appeared in 1978, an animated rotoscoping film directed by Ralph Bakshi with screenplay by the fantasy writer Peter S. Beagle. It covered only the first half of the story of The Lord of the Rings.[113] In 1977 an animated TV production of The Hobbit was made by Rankin-Bass, and in 1980 they produced an animated The Return of the King, which covered some of the portions of The Lord of the Rings that Bakshi was unable to complete. John Boorman (born January 18, 1933 in Shepperton, Surrey, United Kingdom), is a British filmmaker, currently based in Ireland, best known for his feature films such as Point Blank, Deliverance, Excalibur, and The General. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Tolkien Enterprises is a company controlled by Saul Zaentz. ... It has been suggested that The Saul Zaentz Film Center be merged into this article or section. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which animators trace over live-action film movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. ... Ralph Bakshi (October 29, 1938) is an American director of animated and occasionally live-action films. ... Peter Soyer Beagle (born in 1939) is an American fantasist and author of novels, nonfiction, and screenplays. ... For the planned live action film, see The Lord of the Rings film trilogy#Prequels. ... Rankin-Bass (aka Videocraft International) is an American production company, known for its seasonal television specials. ... DVD cover The Return of the King is an animated adaptation of the novel by J. R. R. Tolkien which was released by Rankin/Bass as a TV special in 1980. ...


In 2001–3, New Line Cinema released The Lord of the Rings as a trilogy of live-action films filmed in New Zealand by director Peter Jackson. Among veteran fans, reviews were mixed. Casting and characterizations were praised, while alterations to central story concepts provoked passionate arguments from hardcore fans. The series was extremely successful, however - performing well commercially and winning numerous Oscars. A third accomplishment was also attained, in an interview for the film Ringers: Lord of the Fans, Peter Jackson had expressed hope that his three films would draw more people towards the "real masterpiece" - namely Tolkien's novel. New Line redirects here. ... This article is about the Peter Jackson films. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ...


Blue plaques

Sarehole Mill's blue plaque.
Sarehole Mill's blue plaque.
The Plough and Harrow's blue plaque.
The Plough and Harrow's blue plaque.

There are five blue plaques that commemorate places associated with Tolkien, one in Oxford and four in Birmingham. The Birmingham plaques commemorate three of his childhood homes right up to the time he left to attend Oxford University. The Oxford plaque commemorates the residence where Tolkien wrote The Hobbit and most of The Lord of the Rings. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 673 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1321 × 1177 pixel, file size: 415 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Blue plaque at Sarehole Mill, Birmingham, commemorating J. R. R. Tolkien and Matthew Boulton. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 673 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1321 × 1177 pixel, file size: 415 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Blue plaque at Sarehole Mill, Birmingham, commemorating J. R. R. Tolkien and Matthew Boulton. ... Sarehole Mill Sarehole Mill Sarehole Mill (grid reference SP099818) is a Grade II listed water mill (in an area once called Sarehole) on the River Cole in Hall Green, Birmingham, England. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 579 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1569 × 1625 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Blue plaque on the Plough and Harrow hotel, Birmingham, commemorating J. R. R. Tolkiens stay there in June 1916. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 579 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1569 × 1625 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Blue plaque on the Plough and Harrow hotel, Birmingham, commemorating J. R. R. Tolkiens stay there in June 1916. ... A blue plaque showing information about The Spanish Barn at Torre Abbey in Torquay. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... This article is about the British city. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... This article is about the book. ... This article is about the novel. ...

Address Commemoration Date unveiled Issued by
Sarehole Mill
Hall Green, Birmingham
"Inspired" 1896–1900
(i. e. lived nearby)
15 August 2002 Birmingham Civic Society and
The Tolkien Society[114]
1 Duchess Place
Ladywood, Birmingham
Lived near here 1902–1910 Unknown Birmingham Civic Society[115]
4 Highfield Road
Edgbaston, Birmingham
Lived here 1910–1911 Unknown Birmingham Civic Society and
The Tolkien Society[116]
Plough and Harrow
Hagley Road, Birmingham
Stayed here June 1916 June 1997 The Tolkien Society[117]
20 Northmoor Road
Oxford
Lived here 1930–1947 3 December 2002 Oxfordshire Blue Plaques Board[118]

Sarehole Mill Sarehole Mill Sarehole Mill (grid reference SP099818) is a Grade II listed water mill (in an area once called Sarehole) on the River Cole in Hall Green, Birmingham, England. ... Hall Green constituency shown within Birmingham Hall Green is an area and ward in south Birmingham, England. ... This article is about the British city. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Birmingham Civic Society was founded at an inaugural meeting on 10th June 1918 in The Council House, Birmingham, England and is registered with The Civic Trust. ... The Tolkien Society is an educational charity, formed in 1969 to further interest in the life and works of J. R. R. Tolkien, C.B.E., the author of The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion and other works of fiction and philological study. ... For the Parliamentary constituency, see Birmingham Ladywood (UK Parliament constituency). ... This article is about the British city. ... The Birmingham Civic Society was founded at an inaugural meeting on 10th June 1918 in The Council House, Birmingham, England and is registered with The Civic Trust. ... Edgbaston constituency shown within Birmingham Edgbaston is an area and ward in the city of Birmingham in England. ... This article is about the British city. ... The Birmingham Civic Society was founded at an inaugural meeting on 10th June 1918 in The Council House, Birmingham, England and is registered with The Civic Trust. ... The Tolkien Society is an educational charity, formed in 1969 to further interest in the life and works of J. R. R. Tolkien, C.B.E., the author of The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion and other works of fiction and philological study. ... A main road in England running between Birmingham and Woofferton, Shropshire, south of Ludlow. ... This article is about the British city. ... The Tolkien Society is an educational charity, formed in 1969 to further interest in the life and works of J. R. R. Tolkien, C.B.E., the author of The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion and other works of fiction and philological study. ... Northmoor Road is a road in North Oxford, England. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Oxfordshire Blue Plaques Board, established in 1999, is administered by the Oxford Civic Society. ...

Bibliography

Fiction and poetry

See also: Poems by J. R. R. Tolkien. This is a list of poems written by J. R. R. Tolkien (years are the date of composition, if not stated otherwise) The Battle of the Eastern Field 1911 From the many-willowd margin of the immemorial Thames 1913 The Voyage of Eärendel the Evening Star (The Book...

Songs for the Philologists is a collection of poems by E.V. Gordon and J. R. R. Tolkien as well as traditional songs. ... // Brief Biography E.V. Gordon (Eric Valentine Gordon) lived between the short years of 1896-1938. ... This article is about the book. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun is a poem of 508 lines, written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1930, and published in Welsh Review in December, 1945. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelms Son is the title of a work by J. R. R. Tolkien that was originally published in 1953 in volume 6 of the scholarly journal Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association. ... Alliteration is one of the stylistic devices (literary technique) in which successive words (more strictly, stressed syllables) begin with the same sound or with the same letter. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... The Return of the King is the third and final volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, following The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy-Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... Contents The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorthelms Son On Fairy Stories Ofermod Leaf by Niggle Farmer Giles of Ham The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ... The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelms Son is the title of a work by J. R. R. Tolkien that was originally published in 1953 in volume 6 of the scholarly journal Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Donald Ibrahím Swann (September 30, 1923–March 23, 1994) was a British composer, musician and entertainer. ... Smith of Wootton Major, first published in 1967, is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...

Academic and other works

  • 1922 A Middle English Vocabulary, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 168 pp.
  • 1925 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, co-edited with E.V. Gordon, Oxford University Press, 211 pp.; Revised edition 1967, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 232 pp.
  • 1925 Some Contributions to Middle-English Lexicography, published in The Review of English Studies, volume 1, no. 2, pp. 210–215.
  • 1925 The Devil's Coach Horses, published in The Review of English Studies, volume 1, no. 3, pp. 331–336.
  • 1929 Ancrene Wisse and Hali Meiðhad, published in Essays and Studies by members of the English Association, Oxford, volume 14, pp. 104–126.
  • 1932 The Name 'Nodens', concerning the name Nodens, published in Report on the Excavation of the Prehistoric, Roman, and Post-Roman Site in Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, Oxford, University Press for The Society of Antiquaries.
  • 1932–34 Sigelwara Land parts I and II, in Medium Aevum, Oxford, volume 1, no. 3 (December 1932), pp. 183–196 and volume 3, no. 2 (June 1934), pp. 95–111.
  • 1934 Chaucer as a Philologist: The Reeve's Tale, in Transactions of the Philological Society, London, pp. 1–70 (rediscovery of dialect humour, introducing the Hengwrt manuscript into textual criticism of Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales)
  • 1937 Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics, London, Humphrey Milford, 56 pp. (publication of his 1936 lecture on Beowulf criticism)
  • 1939 The Reeve's Tale: version prepared for recitation at the 'summer diversions', Oxford, 14 pp.
  • 1939 On Fairy-Stories (1939 Andrew Lang lecture) - concerning Tolkien's philosophy on fantasy, this lecture was a shortened version of an essay later published in full in 1947.
  • 1944 Sir Orfeo, Oxford, The Academic Copying Office, 18 pp. (an edition of the medieval poem)
  • 1947 On Fairy-Stories (essay - published in Essays presented to Charles Williams, Oxford University Press) - first full publication of an essay concerning Tolkien's philosophy on fantasy, and which had been presented in shortened form as the 1939 Andrew Lang lecture.
  • 1953 Ofermod and Beorhtnoth's Death, two essays published with the poem The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth, Beorhthelm's Son in Essays and Studies by members of the English Association, volume 6.
  • 1953 Middle English "Losenger": Sketch of an etymological and semantic enquiry, published in Essais de philologie moderne: Communications présentées au Congrès International de Philologie Moderne (1951), Les Belles Lettres.
  • 1962 Ancrene Wisse: The English Text of the Ancrene Riwle, Early English Text Society, Oxford University Press.
  • 1963 English and Welsh, in Angles and Britons: O'Donnell Lectures, University of Cardiff Press.
  • 1964 Introduction to Tree and Leaf, with details of the composition and history of Leaf by Niggle and On Fairy-Stories.
  • 1966 Contributions to the Jerusalem Bible (as translator and lexicographer)
  • 1966 Foreword to the Second Edition of The Lord of the Rings, with Tolkien's comments on the varied reaction to his work, his motivation for writing the work, and his opinion of allegory.
  • 1966 Tolkien on Tolkien (autobiographical)

This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... // Brief Biography E.V. Gordon (Eric Valentine Gordon) lived between the short years of 1896-1938. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Ancrene Wisse and Hali Meiðhad is a 1929 essay by J. R. R. Tolkien on the 13th century early Middle English treatise Ancrene Wisse The Anchoresses Rule, and on the tract on virginity Hali Meiðhad Holy Maidenhood. The essay has been called the most perfect of Tolkiens... Nodens, or Nodons, is a Celtic deity worshipped in ancient Britain. ... Nodens, or Nodons, was a Celtic deity worshipped in Britain. ... Sigelwara Land is the title of an essay in two parts by J. R. R. Tolkien, appeared in Medium Aevum Vol. ... The Reeves Prologue and Tale is the third story to be told in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... The opening folio of the Hengwrt manuscript contains the beginning of the General Prologue. ... Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Chanticleer the rooster from an outdoor production of Chanticleer and the Fox at Ashby_de_la_Zouch castle Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... This article is about the epic poem. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... The Andrew Lang Lecture series is held at the University of St. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... The Andrew Lang Lecture series is held at the University of St. ... Ancrene Wisse (also Ancrene Riwle) or Guide for Anchoresses is a monastic rule (or manual) for anchorite nuns, written in the early 13th century in Middle English. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... English and Welsh is the title of J. R. R. Tolkiens valedictory address to the University of Oxford of 1955, explaining the origin of the word Welsh. In a lengthy sidenote, Tolkien discusses his notions of native tongue as opposed to cradle tongue, and of an inherited taste of... Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy-Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... The Jerusalem Bible (JB) is a Catholic translation of the Bible which first was introduced to the English-speaking public in 1966 and published by Darton, Longman & Todd. ... A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of lexicography, especially an author of a dictionary. ... This article is about the novel. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...

Posthumous publications

See Tolkien research for essays and text fragments by Tolkien published posthumously in academic publications and forums. The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have generated a body of academic research, studying different facets such as Tolkien as a writer of fantasy literature Tolkiens invented languages As A Writer Splintered Light: Logos And Language In Tolkiens World Verlyn Flieger (1st Edition 1983, Revised Edition 2002...

... Wayne G. Hammond is a scholar known for his research and writings on the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Christina Scull is a researcher and writer best known for her books about the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... Pearl is a Middle English alliterative poem written in the late 14th century. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... The Father Christmas Letters is a collection of letters written by Father Christmas to J.R.R Tolkiens children. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Smith of Wootton Major, first published in 1967, is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... Joan Elizabeth Turville-Petre (B Litt, MA) (?1912 – 9 March 2006) was a noted academic at Oxford University, England, in the field of Anglo-Saxon, Icelandic and Scandanavian language studies. ... Finn and Hengest is a study by J.R.R Tolkien, published posthumously in book form in 1982. ... Mr. ... The Monsters and the Critics is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens scholarly linguistic essays published posthumously in 1983. ... The Monsters and the Critics is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens scholarly linguistic essays published posthumously in 1983. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... A Secret Vice is the title of a lecture held by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1930 at an Esperanto congress. ... English and Welsh is the title of J. R. R. Tolkiens valedictory address to the University of Oxford of 1955, explaining the origin of the word Welsh. In a lengthy sidenote, Tolkien discusses his notions of native tongue as opposed to cradle tongue, and of an inherited taste of... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Lays of Beleriand, published in 1985, is the third volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series, The History of Middle-earth, in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Shaping of Middle-Earth is the fourth volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... ... The Lost Road and Other Writings is the fifth volume of The History of Middle-earth, a series of compilations of drafts and essays written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... The Notion Club Papers is the title of an abandoned novel by J. R. R. Tolkien, written during 1945 and published posthumously in Sauron Defeated, the 9th volume of The History of Middle-earth. ... Morgoths Ring is the 10th volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyzes the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The War of the Jewels is the 11th volume of Christopher Tolkiens series The History of Middle-earth, analysing the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Peoples of Middle-earth is the 12th and final volume of The History of Middle-earth, edited by Christopher Tolkien from the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... J. R. R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator is a collection of paintings (mostly watercolour) and drawings by J.R.R. Tolkien for his stories, published posthumously in 1995. ... Roverandom is a story written by J.R.R. Tolkien, originally told in 1925. ... A Tolkien Miscellany is a collection of short stories, translations, and poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien published by the Quality Paperback Book Club on January 1, 2002. ... Beowulf and the Critics by J. R. R. Tolkien is a book edited by Michael D. C. Drout that presents scholary editions of the two manuscript versions of Tolkiens essays or lecture series Beowulf and the Critics, which served as the basis for the much shorter 1936 lecture Beowulf... ... Wayne G. Hammond is a scholar known for his research and writings on the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Christina Scull is a researcher and writer best known for her books about the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Children of Húrin (2007) is a completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien begun in 1918. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ...

Audio recordings

  • 1967 Poems and Songs of Middle-earth, Caedmon TC 1231
  • 1975 JRR Tolkien Reads and Sings his The Hobbit & The Lord of the Rings, Caedmon TC 1477, TC 1478 (based on an August, 1952 recording by George Sayer)

Notes and references

  1. ^ de Camp, L. Sprague (1976). Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy. Arkham House. ISBN 0-87054-076-9.  The author mentions William Morris, George MacDonald, Robert E. Howard and E. R. Eddison.
  2. ^ Mitchell, Christopher. J. R. R. Tolkien: Father of Modern Fantasy Literature (Google Video). "Let There Be Light" series. University of California Television. Retrieved on 2006-07-20..
  3. ^ Clute, John and Grant, John, ed. (1999). The Encyclopedia of Fantasy. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-19869-8. 
  4. ^ Westfahl, Gary, ed. (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313329508. 
  5. ^ L. Sprague de Camp: 'The Miscast Barbarian: Robert E. Howard' in Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy
  6. ^ Letters, no. 165.
  7. ^ (undergraduate John Jethro Rashbold, and "old Professor Rashbold at Pembroke"; J. R. R. Tolkien (1992), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Sauron Defeated, Boston, New York, & London: Houghton Mifflin, pp. page 151, ISBN 0-395-60649-7; Letters, no. 165.
  8. ^ Image of John Suffield's shop before demolition with caption - Birmingham.gov.uk
  9. ^ Biography, page 22.
  10. ^ Biography, page 21.
  11. ^ Biography, page 24.
  12. ^ Biography, page 27.
  13. ^ Biography, page 113.
  14. ^ Biography, page 29.
  15. ^ Doughan, David (2002). JRR Tolkien Biography. Life of Tolkien. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  16. ^ Biography, page 22.
  17. ^ Biography, page 30.
  18. ^ Letters, no. 306.
  19. ^ Biography, page 31.
  20. ^ Biography, page 39.
  21. ^ a b Carpenter, Humphrey (1978). The Inklings. Allen & Unwin.  Lewis was brought up in the Church of Ireland, and after his conversion joined the Church of England.
  22. ^ Biography, pages 53–54.
  23. ^ Letters, no. 306.
  24. ^ map of the trail of the 1911 expedition (Google Maps)
  25. ^ Doughan, David (2002). War, Lost Tales And Academia. J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  26. ^ Humphrey Carpenter: J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biography, George Allen & Unwin, 1977, page 43.
  27. ^ Biography, pp. 67–69.
  28. ^ Biography, page 73.
  29. ^ Biography, page 86.
  30. ^ Biography, page 85.
  31. ^ Garth, John Tolkien and the Great War, Boston, Houghton Mifflin 2003, pp.89, 138, 147.
  32. ^ Biography, page 93.
  33. ^ "The Lord of the Rings," Preface to the Second Edition.
  34. ^ Garth, John Tolkien and the Great War, Boston, Houghton Mifflin 2003, pp. 207 et seq.
  35. ^ Online exhibit with history and pictures: http://www.iwm.org.uk/server/show/nav.00o00200h
  36. ^ Press release detailing exhibit: http://www.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.4097
  37. ^ Online images and transcripts: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/people/tolkien.htm
  38. ^ Following rural English usage, Tolkien used the name 'hemlock' for various plants with white flowers in umbels, resembling the poison hemlock; the flowers among which Edith danced were more probably cow parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris) or Queen Anne's lace (Daucus carota). See John Garth Tolkien and the Great War (Harper Collins/Houghton Mifflin 2003) and Peter Gilliver, Jeremy Marshall, & Edmund Weiner The Ring of Words (OUP 2006).
  39. ^ Cater, Bill (12 April 2001). We talked of love, death, and fairy tales. UK Telegraph. Retrieved on 2006-03-13.
  40. ^ Gilliver, Peter (2006). The Ring of Words: Tolkien and the OED. OUP. 
  41. ^ Biography, pages 109, 114–115.
  42. ^ See The Name Nodens (1932) in the bibliographical listing. For the etymology, see Nodens#Etymology.
  43. ^ Biography, page 143.
  44. ^ Ramey, Bill (March 30, 1998). The Unity of Beowulf: Tolkien and the Critics. Wisdom's Children. Retrieved on 2006-03-13.
  45. ^ Kennedy, Michael (2001). Tolkien and Beowulf - Warriors of Middle-earth. Amon Hen. Retrieved on 2006-05-18.
  46. ^ Tolkien: Finn and Hengest. Chiefly, p.4 in the Introduction by Alan Bliss; for the parenthesis, the discussion of Eotena, passim.
  47. ^ Letters, no. 64, 131, etc.
  48. ^ Letters, no. 327.
  49. ^ Doughan, David (2002). JRR Tolkien Biography. Life of Tolkien. Retrieved on 2006-03-13.
  50. ^ Meras, Phyllis (15 January 1967). "Go, Go, Gandalf". New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  51. ^ Letters, no. 336. (Chu-Bu and Sheemish are idols in a 1912 story by Lord Dunsany)
  52. ^ Letters, no. 332.
  53. ^ "J. R. R. Tolkien Dead at 81. Wrote 'Lord of the Rings'. Creator of Escapist Literature. Served in World War I. Took 14 Years to Write.", New York Times, September 3, 1973, Monday. Retrieved on 2007-09-25. "J. R. R. Tolkien, linguist, scholar and author of "The Lord of the Rings," died today in Bournemouth. He was 81 years old. Three sons and a daughter survive." 
  54. ^ People of Stoke-on-Trent. Retrieved on 2005-03-13.
  55. ^ Schedule of Statutory Professorships in Statutes and Regulations of the University of Oxford online at ox.ac.uk/statutes (accessed 27 November 2007)
  56. ^ The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, no. 52, to Christopher Tolkien on 29 November 1943
  57. ^ [1]
  58. ^ http://www.beliefnet.com/story/95/story_9572_1.html Tolkien was a Roman Catholic, close to the Tridentines in his conservative Catholicism (Source: International Beliefnet)], A Catholic Poem in Time of War, catholiceducation.org
  59. ^ Was Tolkien a racist? Were his works? from the Tolkien Meta-FAQ by Steuard Jensen. Last retrieved 2006-11-16
  60. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia (2006), s.v. "Racism, Charge of", p. 557.
  61. ^ John Yatt, The Guardian (December 2, 2002) writes: "White men are good, 'dark' men are bad, orcs are worst of all." (Other critics such as Tom Shippey and Michael Drout disagree with such clear-cut generalizations of Tolkien's 'white' and 'dark' men into good and bad.) Tolkien's works have also been embraced by self-admitted racists such as the British National Party.
  62. ^ The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, no. 29, to Stanley Unwin 25 July 1938: When German publishers inquired whether he was of Aryan origin, he declined to answer, instead stating: "... I regret that I appear to have no ancestors of that gifted [Jewish] people." He gave his publishers a choice of two letters to send; these quotations are from the less tactful draft, which was not sent - Letters no. 30
  63. ^ The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien no. 61, to Christopher 18 April 1944
  64. ^ Published in The Monsters and the Critics (1983, ISBN 0-04-809019-0)
  65. ^ Letters, #294
  66. ^ Letters', no. 45.
  67. ^ Letters, no. 81.
  68. ^ Letters, no. 102.
  69. ^ Biography, page ?[citation needed]
  70. ^ Letters, no. ?[citation needed]
  71. ^ Letters, no. 83.
  72. ^ Wood, Ralph C., Biography of J. R. R. Tolkien.
  73. ^ "Tolkien, Mythopoiea (the poem), circa 1931.
  74. ^ As described by Christopher Tolkien in Hervarar Saga ok Heidreks Konung (Oxford University, Trinity College). B. Litt. thesis. 1953/4. [Year uncertain], The Battle of the Goths and the Huns, in: Saga-Book (University College, London, for the Viking Society for Northern Research) 14, part 3 (1955–6) [2]
  75. ^ Day, David (1 February 2002). Tolkien's Ring. New York: Barnes and Noble. ISBN 1-58663-527-1. 
  76. ^ Handwerk, Brian (March 1, 2004). Lord of the Rings Inspired by an Ancient Epic. National Geographic News. Retrieved on 2006-03-13.
  77. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2386/is_2_117/ai_n16676591Fimi,Dimitra, "Mad" Elves and "elusive beauty": some Celtic strands of Tolkien's mythology,Folklore, Volume 117, Issue 2 August 2006 , pages 156 - 170
  78. ^ http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/tolkien_studies/v004/4.1fimi.html
  79. ^ Gardner, John (23 October 1977). The World of Tolkien. New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-03-13.
  80. ^ Bofetti, Jason (November 2001). Tolkien's Catholic Imagination. Crisis Magazine. Retrieved on 2006-08-30.
  81. ^ Day, David (1 February 2002). Tolkien's Ring. New York: Barnes and Noble. ISBN 1-58663-527-1. 
  82. ^ Resnick, Henry (1967). "An Interview with Tolkien". Niekas: 37–47. 
  83. ^ Nelson, Dale J. (2006). "Haggard's She: Burke's Sublime in a popular romance". Mythlore (Winter-Spring). Retrieved on 2007-12-02. 
  84. ^ Flieger, Verlyn (2005). Interrupted Music: The Making Of Tolkien's Mythology. Kent State University Press, 150. Retrieved on 2007-12-02. 
  85. ^ Muir, Edwin. The Truth of Imagination: Some Uncollected Reviews and Essays. Aberdeen University Press, 121. 
  86. ^ Lobdell, Jared C. (2004). The World of the Rings: Language, Religion, and Adventure in Tolkien. Open Court, 5–6. 
  87. ^ Rogers, William N., II; Underwood, Michael R. (2000). "Gagool and Gollum: Exemplars of Degeneration in King Solomon's Mines and The Hobbit", in George Clark and Daniel Timmons (eds.): J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-Earth, 121–132. 
  88. ^ Stoddard, William H. (July 2003). Galadriel and Ayesha: Tolkienian Inspiration?. Franson Publications. Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
  89. ^ Letters, p. 391, quoted by Lobdell, 6.
  90. ^ Lobdell, 6–7.
  91. ^ Hammond, Wayne G. J.R.R. Tolkien: A Descriptive Bibliography, London: January 1993, Saint Paul's Biographies, ISBN 1-873040-11-3, American edition ISBN 0-938768-42-5
  92. ^ Phillip, Norman (2005). The Prevalence of Hobbits. New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  93. ^ Times Editorial Staff (3 September 1973). J.R.R. Tolkien Dead at 81: Wrote "The Lord of the Rings". New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  94. ^ Times Editorial Staff (5 June 1955). Oxford Calling. New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  95. ^ Site Editor (2005). Leaf by Niggle - a symbolic story about a small painter. Leaf by Niggle. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  96. ^ Martinez, Michael (7 December 2004). Middle-earth Revised, Again. Merp.com. Retrieved on 2006-03-13.
  97. ^ Seiler, Andy (16 December 2003). 'Rings' comes full circle. USA Today. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  98. ^ Cooper, Callista (December 5, 2005). Epic trilogy tops favorite film poll. ABC News Online. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  99. ^ O'Hehir, Andrew (4 June 2001). The book of the century. Salon.com. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  100. ^ Diver, Krysia (5 October 2004). A lord for Germany. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  101. ^ Statement by Christopher Tolkien
  102. ^ McDowell, Edwin (4 September 1983). Middle-earth Revisited. New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  103. ^ Winchester, Simon (2003). The Meaning of Everything: The Story of the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-9654996-3-4
  104. ^ (Letter dated 27 June 1925 to the Electors of the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professorship of Anglo-Saxon, University of Oxford, Letters, no. 7.
  105. ^ Letters, no. 163.
  106. ^ Letters, no. 144.
  107. ^ Letters, no. 180.
  108. ^ Letters, no. 131.
  109. ^ Thygesen, Peter (Autumn, 1999). Queen Margrethe II: Denmark's monarch for a modern age. Scandinavian Review. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  110. ^ Letters, no. 107.
  111. ^ Letters, no. 144.
  112. ^ Letters, no. 207.
  113. ^ Canby, Vincent (15 November 1978). Film: 'The Lord of the Rings' From Ralph Bakshi. New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  114. ^ Birmingham Civic Society. Sarehole Mill. Blue Plaques Photograph Gallery. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  115. ^ Birmingham Civic Society. Duchess Place. Blue Plaques Photograph Gallery. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  116. ^ Birmingham Civic Society. 4 Highfield Road. Blue Plaques Photograph Gallery. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  117. ^ Birmingham Civic Society. Plough and Harrow. Blue Plaques Photograph Gallery. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  118. ^ Oxfordshire Blue Plaques Board. J. R. R. Tolkien Philologist and Author. Plaques Awarded. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

General references

Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by Tolkiens biographer Humphrey Carpenter assisted by Christopher Tolkien. ... ...

Further reading

A small selection of books about Tolkien and his works:

  • (2004) in Anderson, Douglas A., Michael D. C. Drout and Verlyn Flieger: Tolkien Studies, An Annual Scholarly Review Vol. I. West Virginia University Press. ISBN 0-937058-87-4. 
  • Carpenter, Humphrey (1979). The Inklings: C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Charles Williams and Their Friends. ISBN 0-395-27628-4. 
  • (2003) in Chance, Jane: Tolkien the Medievalist. London, New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28944-0. 
  • (2004) in Chance, Jane: Tolkien and the Invention of Myth, a Reader. Louisville: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2301-1. 
  • Curry, Patrick (2004). Defending Middle-earth: Tolkien, Myth and Modernity. ISBN 0-618-47885-X. 
  • (2006) in Drout, Michael D. C.: J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. New York City: Routledge. ISBN 0-415969425.. 
  • Duriez, Colin (2001). The Inklings Handbook: The Lives, Thought and Writings of C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield, and Their Friends. ISBN 1-902694-13-9. 
  • Duriez, Colin (2003). Tolkien and C.S. Lewis: The Gift of Friendship. ISBN 1-58768-026-2. 
  • (2000) in Flieger, Verlyn and Carl F. Hostetter: Tolkien's Legendarium: Essays on The History of Middle-earth. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30530-7. DDC 823.912. LC PR6039.. 
  • Fonstad, Linda Wynn (1991). The Atlas of Middle-earth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-126996. 
  • Garth, John (2003). Tolkien and the Great War. Harper-Collins. ISBN 0-00-711953-4. 
  • Gilliver, Peter (2006). The Ring of Words: Tolkien and the Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861069-6. 
  • Diana Pavlac Glyer The Company They Keep: C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien as Writers in Community. Kent State University Press. Kent Ohio. 2007. ISBN 978-0-87338-890-0
  • Haber, Karen (2001). Meditations on Middle-earth: New Writing on the Worlds of J. R. R. Tolkien. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-27536-6. 
  • (2003) in Harrington, Patrick: Tolkien and Politics. London, England: Third Way Publications Ltd.. ISBN 0-9544788-2-7. 
  • (2005) in Lee, S. D., and E. Solopova: The Keys of Middle-earth: Discovering Medieval Literature through the Fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-4671-X. 
  • O'Neill, Timothy R. (1979). The Individuated Hobbit: Jung, Tolkien and the Archetypes of Middle-earth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-28208-X. 
  • Pearce, Joseph (1998). Tolkien: Man and Myth. London: HarperCollinsPublishers. ISBN 0-00-274018-4. 
  • Perry, Michael (2006). Untangling Tolkien: A Chronology and Commentary for The Lord of the Rings. Seattle: Inkling Books. ISBN 1-58742-019-8. 
  • (2003) in Pytrell, Ariel: El Señor de los Anillos. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Mondragón Argentina. ISBN 987-20607-0-3. 
  • Tom Shippey (2000). J. R. R. Tolkien — Author of the Century. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-12764-X, ISBN 0-618-25759-4 (pbk). 
  • Strachey, Barbara (1981). Journeys of Frodo: an Atlas of The Lord of the Rings. London, Boston: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-912016-6. 
  • Tolkien, John & Priscilla (1992). The Tolkien Family Album. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-261-10239-7. 
  • White, Michael (2003). Tolkien: A Biography. New American Library. ISBN 0-451-21242-8. 

Carl F. Hostetter (born 1965) is a computer scientist at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center, and the key figure of the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship. ... Collins was a Scottish printing company founded by a Presbyterian schoolmaster, William Collins, in Glasgow in 1819, in partnership with Charles Chalmers, the younger brother of Thomas Chalmers, minister of Tron Church, Glasgow. ... Thomas Alan Shippey (born 1943) is a scholar of medieval literature, including Anglo-Saxon England, and of modern fantasy and science fiction, in particular the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, about whom he has written several scholarly studies. ... The Lord of the Rings by Barbara Strachey (ISBN 0049120166, 1981) is an atlas based on the fictional realm of Middle-earth, which traces the journeys undertaken by the characters in Tolkiens epic. ...

External links

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J. R. R. Tolkien
Persondata
NAME Tolkien, J. R. R.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel
SHORT DESCRIPTION British philologist and author
DATE OF BIRTH 3 January 1892(1892-01-03)
PLACE OF BIRTH Bloemfontein, Orange Free State
DATE OF DEATH 2 September 1973
PLACE OF DEATH Bournemouth, England

Image File history File links En-JRRTolkien. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... WorldCat is the worlds largest bibliographic database, the merged catalogs of over 50,000 OCLC member libraries in over 90 countries. ... The Internet Book List (IBList) is an online database with information about books, authors, short stories, etc. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Songs for the Philologists is a collection of poems by E.V. Gordon and J. R. R. Tolkien as well as traditional songs. ... This article is about the book. ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun is a poem of 508 lines, written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1930, and published in Welsh Review in December, 1945. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelms Son is the title of a work by J. R. R. Tolkien that was originally published in 1953 in volume 6 of the scholarly journal Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings by the English author J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the book. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy-Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ... Contents The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorthelms Son On Fairy Stories Ofermod Leaf by Niggle Farmer Giles of Ham The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ... Smith of Wootton Major, first published in 1967, is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Father Christmas Letters is a collection of letters written by Father Christmas to J.R.R Tolkiens children. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... Roverandom is a story written by J.R.R. Tolkien, originally told in 1925. ... The Children of Húrin (2007) is a completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien begun in 1918. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Ancrene Wisse and Hali Meiðhad is a 1929 essay by J. R. R. Tolkien on the 13th century early Middle English treatise Ancrene Wisse The Anchoresses Rule, and on the tract on virginity Hali Meiðhad Holy Maidenhood. The essay has been called the most perfect of Tolkiens... Sigelwara Land is the title of an essay in two parts by J. R. R. Tolkien, appeared in Medium Aevum Vol. ... The Reeves Prologue and Tale is the third story to be told in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... Ancrene Wisse (also Ancrene Riwle) or Guide for Anchoresses is a monastic rule (or manual) for anchorite nuns, written in the early 13th century in Middle English. ... English and Welsh is the title of J. R. R. Tolkiens valedictory address to the University of Oxford of 1955, explaining the origin of the word Welsh. In a lengthy sidenote, Tolkien discusses his notions of native tongue as opposed to cradle tongue, and of an inherited taste of... Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy-Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ... The Jerusalem Bible (JB) is a Catholic translation of the Bible which first was introduced to the English-speaking public in 1966 and published by Darton, Longman & Todd. ... The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... Finn and Hengest is a study by J.R.R Tolkien, published posthumously in book form in 1982. ... The Monsters and the Critics is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens scholarly linguistic essays published posthumously in 1983. ... Beowulf and the Critics by J. R. R. Tolkien is a book edited by Michael D. C. Drout that presents scholary editions of the two manuscript versions of Tolkiens essays or lecture series Beowulf and the Critics, which served as the basis for the much shorter 1936 lecture Beowulf... The Tolkien family is an English family best known for member J. R. R. Tolkien, Oxford academic and author of the fantasy books The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. ... Arthur Reuel Tolkien, the father of J.R.R. Tolkien, was born in Handsworth, Stafford, England, about February of 1857. ... Edith Bratt at age 16 Edith Mary Tolkien born Bratt (January 21, 1889 – November 29, 1971) was the wife of writer J. R. R. Tolkien and the inspiration for his fictional character Lúthien Tinúviel. ... Christopher Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the third son of author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973), and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Baillie Tolkien edited J. R. R. Tolkiens Father Christmas Letters. ... Simon Tolkien (born 1959) is a British barrister and novelist. ... Sentinel, by Tim Tolkien, near the Jaguar works in Castle Bromwich, formerly the Spitfire factory Tim Tolkien is a British sculptor who has designed several monumental sculptures, including the award-winning Sentinel. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... Tolkiens Legendarium (ISBN 0-313-30530-7) is a collection of scholarly essays edited by Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter on the History of Middle-earth series of books relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... This article is about the book. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... Bilbos Last Song is a poem by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Children of Húrin (2007) is a completion of a tale by J. R. R. Tolkien begun in 1918. ... The History of The Hobbit, a new study of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit, is to be published by Houghtin Mifflin in May and June 2007. ... This is a list of articles related to J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium. ... This article aims to list all articles on Wikipedia that are related to J.R.R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth. ... This article is a list of all books by J. R. R. Tolkien and writings contained in these books (stories, essays, poems, etc. ... Middle-earth, the setting of J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, contains many rivers. ... This is a list of the known realms of Arda in J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... This article includes several chronologies relating to J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


 
 

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