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Encyclopedia > J. Edgar Hoover
John Edgar Hoover
J. Edgar Hoover

J. Edgar Hoover, photographed September 28, 1961 Download high resolution version (430x640, 46 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: J. Edgar Hoover Categories: U.S. history images ...


In office
May 10, 1924 – May 2, 1972
Succeeded by L. Patrick Gray

In office
May 10, 1924 – March 22, 1935
Preceded by William J. Burns

Born January 1, 1895(1895-01-01)
Washington, D.C.
Died May 2, 1972 (aged 77)
Washington, D.C.
Religion Presbyterianism
Signature J. Edgar Hoover's signature

John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895May 2, 1972), known popularly as J. Edgar Hoover, was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. He founded the present form of the agency, and remained director for 48 years until his death. During his life, Hoover was highly regarded by much of the U.S. public. Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation are appointed by the President of the United States. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis Patrick Gray III (July 18, 1916 – July 6, 2005) was acting director of the FBI from 1972-73. ... Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation are appointed by the President of the United States. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... This article needs cleanup. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Presbyterianism is a Christian denomination following Jesus which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation are appointed by the President of the United States. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...


Hoover's leadership spanned eight presidential administrations, encompassed Prohibition, the Great Depression, World War II, the Korean War, the Cold War, and the Vietnam War. During this time, the United States moved from being a rural nation with strong isolationist tendencies to an urbanized superpower. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... Superpowers redirects here. ...


From nearly the beginning of his career with the FBI,[1] Hoover was accused of exceeding and abusing his authority, criticism that grew especially strong in the 1960s. He is known to have investigated individuals and groups because of their political beliefs rather than their suspected criminal activity, as well as using the FBI for other illegal activities, such as burglaries and illegal wiretaps.[2] Hoover frequently fired FBI agents by singling out those who he thought "looked stupid like truck drivers" or he considered to be "pinheads."[3] He also relocated agents who had displeased him to career-ending assignments and locations. Melvin Purvis was a prime example; he was one of the more effective agents in capturing and breaking up 1930s gangs and received substantial public recognition, but a jealous Hoover maneuvered him out of the FBI.[4] It is because of Hoover's long and controversial reign that FBI directors are now limited to 10-year terms.[5] Telephone tapping (or wire tapping/wiretapping in the US) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... Melvin Purvis Melvin Horace Purvis, Jr. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ...

Contents

Early life and education

Hoover was born in Washington, D.C., to Anna Marie Scheitlin and Dickerson Naylor Hoover, Sr.,[6] and grew up in the Eastern Market section of the city. Few details are known of his early years; his birth certificate was not filed until 1938. What little is known about his upbringing generally can be traced back to a single 1937 profile by journalist Jack Alexander. Hoover was educated at George Washington University, graduating in 1917 with a law degree. During his time there, he worked at the Library of Congress[7] and also became a member of Kappa Alpha Order (Alpha Nu 1914). While a law student, Hoover became interested in the career of Anthony Comstock, the New York City U.S. Postal Inspector, who waged prolonged campaigns against fraud and vice (as well as pornography and information on birth control) a generation earlier. Hoover is thought to have studied Comstock's methods and modeled his early career on Comstock's reputation for relentless pursuit and occasional procedural violations in crime fighting. ... Mary Elizabeth Winblad (1895-1987) birth certificate A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... The George Washington University (GW), is a private, coeducational university located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The school was founded in 1821 as The Columbian College in the District of Columbia by Baptist ministers using funds bequeathed by George Washington. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Kappa Alpha Order (commonly known as KA) is a collegiate Order of Knights and American social fraternity. ... Portrait of Anthony Comstock Anthony Comstock (March 7, 1844 - September 21, 1915) was a former United States Postal Inspector and politician dedicated to ideas of Victorian morality. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The United States Postal Inspection Service (or USPIS) is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service. ...


FBI career

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity
Director: Robert S. Mueller III
Deputy Director: John S. Pistole
Department: Justice
Divisions:
Major units:
Lists:
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During World War I, Hoover found work with the Justice Department. He soon proved himself capable and was promoted to head of the Enemy Aliens Registration Section. In 1919, he became head of the new General Intelligence Division of the Justice Department (see the Palmer Raids). From there, in 1921, he joined the Bureau of Investigation as deputy head, and in 1924, the Attorney General made him the acting director. On May 10, 1924, Hoover was appointed by President Calvin Coolidge to be the sixth director of the Bureau of Investigation, following President Warren Harding's death and in response to allegations that the prior director, William J. Burns, was involved in the financial scandal(s) of the Harding administration. When Hoover took over the Bureau of Investigation, it had approximately 650 employees, including 441 Special Agents. F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation are appointed by the President of the United States. ... Robert Swan Mueller III (born August 7, 1944) is the current Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... The Deputy Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (or Associate Director) is a senior United States Government position in the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Statement Of John S. Pistole Executive Assistant Director Counterterrorism/Counterintelligence Federal Bureau Of Investigation Before The House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism and Homeland Security Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treatment of Prisoners and Detainees John S. Pistole... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... The FBI Academy is located in Quantico, Virginia. ... The FBI Laboratory is a division within the FBI. The lab is located in the J. Edgar Hoover Building. ... The Criminal Justice Information Services Division (CJIS) is a divions of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Critical Incident Response Group (or CIRG) is the part of the Federal Bureau of Investigation which facilitates the FBIs rapid response to, and the management of, crisis incidents. ... The FBI Counterterrorism Division is the division of the FBI that deals with terrorist threats inside the United States. ... The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin is published monthly by the FBI, with articles of interest to state and local law enforcement personnel. ... The Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) is the United States Federal Bureau of Investigations Counter-Terrorism tactical unit. ... The Joint Terrorism Task Force is a section of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation charged with taking action against terrorism. ... The National Security Service is to be an office within the Federal Bureau of Investigation that will consolidate the bureaus counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and intelligence duties. ... Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation are appointed by the President of the United States. ... The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) operates 56 field offices in major cities across the U.S. Many of these offices are further subdivided into smaller resident agencies which have jurisdiction over a specific area. ... COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) was a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is an incident-based reporting system used by law enforcement agencies in the United States for collecting and reporting data on crimes. ... The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) contain official data on crime that is reported to law enforcement agencies across the United States, who then provide the data to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). ... The FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list arose from a conversation held in late 1949, during a game of Hearts between J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and William Kinsey Hutchinson,[1] International News Service (the predecessor of the United Press International) Editor-in... Banner used by the FBI since inception on October 10, 2001 as the main title for the web site pages of both the group of wanted terrorists, and also on the wanted poster of each terrorist fugitive. ... William Mark Felt, Sr. ... Joseph Leo Gormley was the chief of chemistry and toxicology for the FBI. Born in Clinton, Massachusetts, he was raised in Somerville, Massachusetts. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has been a staple of American popular culture since its christening in 1935. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... Alexander Mitchell Palmer The Palmer Raids were a series of controversial raids by the U.S. Justice and Immigration Departments from 1919 to 1921 on suspected radical leftists in the United States. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Teapot Dome is the commonly used name applied to the scandal that rocked the administration of United States President Warren G. Harding. ...


Gangster wars

In the early thirties, there was an epidemic of bank robberies in the Midwest orchestrated by colorful criminal gangs who took advantage of superior firepower and fast get-away cars to bedevil local law enforcement agencies. To the chagrin and increasing discomfort of authorities, such robbers were often viewed as somewhat noble in their assaults upon the banking industry, which at the time was evicting many farmers from their homesteads. That empathy reached the point that many of these desperadoes, particularly the dashing John Dillinger (who became famous for leaping over bank cages and his repeated escapes from jails and police traps), were de facto folk heroes whose exploits frequently captured headlines. State officials began to implore Washington to aid them in containing this lawlessness. The fact that the robbers frequently took stolen cars across state lines (a federal offense) gave Hoover and his men the authority to pursue them. Things did not go as planned, however, and there were some embarrassing foul-ups on the part of the FBI, particularly clashes with the Dillinger gang (actually led by "Handsome" Harry Pierpont). John Dillinger (June 22, 1903 – July 22, 1934) was an American bank robber, considered by some to be a dangerous criminal, while others idealized him as a latter-day Robin Hood. ... Harry Pierpont (October 13, 1903 - October 17, 1934) was most noted for being a member of the Dillinger Gang. ...

Hoover in 1935.

A raid on a summer lodge named "Little Bohemia" in Manitowish Waters, Wisconsin, left an agent and a hapless civilian bystander dead, along with others wounded. All the gangsters escaped. Hoover realized that his job was now on the line, and he pulled out all stops to capture the culprits. Hoover was particularly fixated on eliminating Dillinger, whose misdeeds he considered to be insults aimed directly at him and "his" bureau. In late July 1934, Melvin Purvis, the Director of Operations in the Chicago office, received a tip on the whereabouts of John Dillinger. That paid off when the gangster was cut down in a hail of gunfire outside the Biograph Theater. Download high resolution version (521x773, 105 KB)original source: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library; copied from http://history. ... Download high resolution version (521x773, 105 KB)original source: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library; copied from http://history. ... Melvin Purvis Melvin Horace Purvis, Jr. ... Located at 2433-43 North Lincoln Avenue in Chicago, the Biograph Theater is famous because it is the location where bank robber John Dillinger was gunned down by police in 1934. ...


Because of several highly-publicized captures or shootings of outlaws and bank robbers including Dillinger, Alvin Karpis, and Machine Gun Kelly, the Bureau's powers were broadened and it was re-named the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. In 1939, the FBI became pre-eminent in the field of domestic intelligence. Hoover made changes, such as expanding and combining fingerprint files in the Identification Division to compile the largest collection of fingerprints ever. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... This article is about human fingerprints. ...


Hoover also helped to greatly expand the FBI's recruitment and create the FBI Laboratory, a division established in 1932 to examine evidence found by the FBI.[citation needed]


Investigation of subversion and radicals

Hoover was concerned about subversion, and under his leadership, the FBI spied upon tens of thousands of suspected subversives and radicals. Hoover tended to exaggerate the dangers of subversives, and many times overstepped his bounds in his pursuit of eliminating that perceived threat.[8] Subversion is an overturning or uprooting. ... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ...


The FBI had some successes against actual subversives and spies. For example, in the Quirin affair during World War II, German U-boats set two small groups of Nazi agents ashore in Florida and Long Island to cause acts of sabotage within the country. The members of these teams were apprehended due in part to the increased vigilance and intelligence-gathering efforts of the FBI[citation needed]. President Harry Truman wrote in his memoirs: "The country had reason to be proud of and have confidence in our security agencies. They had kept us almost totally free of sabotage and espionage during the World War II".[1] Holding The Court upheld the jurisdiction of a United States military tribunal over the trial of several German saboteurs in the United States. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... For the victim of Mt. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...


Another example of Hoover's concern over subversion is his handling of the Venona Project. The FBI inherited a pre-World War II joint project with the British to eavesdrop on Soviet spies in the UK and the United States. Hoover kept the intercepts — America's greatest counterintelligence secret — in a locked safe in his office, choosing not to inform Truman, his Attorney General McGraith, or two Secretaries of State — Dean Acheson and General George Marshall — while they held office. He informed the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the Venona Project in 1952. The Venona project was a long-running and highly secret collaboration between intelligence agencies of the United States and United Kingdom that involved the cryptanalysis of messages sent by several intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union. ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... CIA redirects here. ...


According to documents declassified in 2007 [9], Hoover maintained a list of 12,000 Americans suspected of disloyalty with the intention of detaining them and to do so by suspending the writ of habeas corpus. Hoover submitted his plan to President Harry Truman at the outbreak of the Korean War, but there is no evidence that Truman accepted the plan. For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ...


COINTELPRO years

In 1956, Hoover was becoming increasingly frustrated by Supreme Court decisions that limited the Justice Department's ability to prosecute Communists. At this time he formalized a covert "dirty tricks" program under the name COINTELPRO.[10] This program remained in place until it was revealed to the public in 1971, and was the cause of some of the harshest criticism of Hoover and the FBI. COINTELPRO was first used to disrupt the Communist Party, and later such organizations such as the Black Panther Party, Martin Luther King, Jr.'s SCLC, the Ku Klux Klan, and others. Its methods included infiltration, burglaries, illegal wiretaps, planting forged documents and spreading false rumors about key members of target organizations.[11] Some authors have charged that COINTELPRO methods also included inciting violence and arranging murders.[12] In 1975, the activities of COINTELPRO were investigated by the Senate Church Committee and declared illegal and contrary to the Constitution.[13] COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) was a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ...


Hoover amassed significant power by collecting files containing large amounts of compromising and potentially embarrassing information on many powerful people, especially politicians. According to Laurence Silberman, appointed deputy Attorney General in early 1974, Director Clarence M. Kelley thought such files either did not exist or had been destroyed. After The Washington Post broke a story in January 1975, Kelley searched and found them in his outer office. The House Judiciary Committee then demanded that Silberman testify about them. An extensive investigation of Hoover's files by David Garrow showed that Hoover and next-in-command William Sullivan, as well as the FBI itself as an agency, were responsible. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Laurence Silberman is an American judge, formerly a member of the U.S. Court of Appeals. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Clarence M. Kelley (October 24, 1911 - August 5, 1997) was a public servant and former director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...


In 1956, several years before he targeted King, Hoover had a public showdown with T.R.M. Howard, a civil rights leader from Mound Bayou, Mississippi. During a national speaking tour, Howard had criticized the FBI's failure to thoroughly investigate the racially-motivated murders of George W. Lee, Lamar Smith, and Emmett Till. Hoover not only wrote an open letter to the press singling out these statements as "irresponsible" but secretly enlisted the help of NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall in a campaign to discredit Howard. Theodore Roosevelt Mason Howard (T.R.M. Howard) (March 4, 1908 —- May 1, 1976) was an African American civil rights leader, fraternal organization leader, surgeon, and entrepreneur. ... Mound Bayou is a city in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. ... George W. Lee (1904 —- May 7, 1955) was an African American civil rights leader, minister, and entrepreneur. ... Lamar Seeligson Smith (born November 19, 1947) is a politician from the state of Texas. ... Emmett Louis Bobo Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was a fourteen year old African-American from Chicago, Illinois who was brutally murdered [1] in Money, Mississippi, a small town in the states Delta region. ... For people and institutions etc. ...


Response to Mafia and civil rights groups

In the 1950s, evidence of Hoover's unwillingness to focus FBI resources on the Mafia became grist for the media and his many detractors, after famed muckraker Jack Anderson exposed the immense scope of the Mafia's organized crime network, a threat Hoover had long downplayed. Hoover's retaliation and continual harassment of Anderson lasted into the 1970s. Hoover has also been accused of trying to undermine the reputations of members of the civil rights movement. His alleged treatment of actress Jean Seberg and Martin Luther King, Jr. are two such examples. The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... This article is about the criminal society. ... In American English, a muckraker is a journalist or an author who searches for and exposes scandals and abuses occurring in business and politics. ... jack donald anderson (september 156, 1995 and wasted himself with a gun; december19, 1999) was an American newspaper columnist and is considered one of the fathers of modern investigative journalism. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... Jean Seberg (November 13, 1938 – September 8, 1979) was an American actress who spent an important part of her career in France. ...


Hoover personally directed the FBI investigation into the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The House Select Committee on Assassinations issued a report in 1979 critical of the performance by the FBI, the Warren Commission as well as other agencies. The report also criticized what it characterized as the FBI's reluctance to thoroughly investigate the possibility of a conspiracy to assassinate the president.[14] John F. Kennedy The assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC). ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Late career and death

Presidents Harry Truman, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson each considered firing Hoover but concluded that the political cost of doing so would be too great.[15] For the victim of Mt. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... LBJ redirects here. ...


Hoover maintained strong support in Congress until his death in 1972 from the effects of high blood pressure. [16] Operational command of the Bureau passed to Associate Director Clyde Tolson. Soon thereafter, President Nixon appointed L. Patrick Gray, a Justice Department official with no FBI experience, as Acting Director, with W. Mark Felt remaining as Associate Director. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Clyde Anderson Tolson (May 22, 1900 – April 14, 1975) was associate director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Louis Patrick Gray III (July 18, 1916 – July 6, 2005) was acting director of the FBI from 1972-73. ... William Mark Felt, Sr. ...


Legacy

Hoover was a consultant to Warner Brothers on a 1959 theatrical film about the FBI, The FBI Story, and in 1965 on Warner Brothers' long-running spin-off television series, The F.B.I.. Hoover personally made sure that Warner Brothers would portray the FBI more favorably than other crime dramas of the times. Warner Bros. ... The FBI Story is a 1959 drama film directed and produced by Mervyn LeRoy and starring James Stewart. ... The F.B.I. was an American television series that was broadcast on ABC from 1965 to 1974. ...


In 1979, the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) under Senator Richard Schweiker, which had re-opened the investigation into the assassination of President Kennedy, reported that Hoover's FBI "failed to investigate adequately the possibility of a conspiracy to assassinate the President." The HSCA further reported that Hoover's FBI "was deficient in its sharing of information with other agencies and departments." As a result, various conspiracy theories abound regarding the negligence of Hoover's leadership in performing due diligence with regard to the JFK assassination.[17] The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Richard S. Schweiker Richard Schultz Schweiker (born June 1, 1926) is a former U.S. Congressman and Senator representing the state of Pennsylvania. ... President Kennedy, with his wife, Jackie, and Texas Gov. ... John F. Kennedy The assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC). ...


The FBI Headquarters in Washington, D.C. is named after Hoover. Because of the controversial nature of Hoover's legacy, there have been periodic proposals to rename it. In 2001, Senator Harry Reid sponsored an amendment to strip Hoover's name from the building. "J. Edgar Hoover's name on the FBI building is a stain on the building," Reid said.[18] The amendment was not adopted by the Senate. J. Edgar Hoover Building The J. Edgar Hoover Building is the headquarters for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). ... ... Harry Mason Reid (born December 2, 1939) is the senior United States Senator from Nevada and a member of the Democratic Party. ...


Personal life

FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover and Associate FBI Director Clyde Tolson.
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover and Associate FBI Director Clyde Tolson.

Hoover was a lifelong bachelor, and since at least the 1940s, rumors have circulated that he was homosexual, but no hard evidence of these claims has yet arisen.[19] It has also been suggested that his long association with Clyde Tolson, an associate director of the FBI who was also Hoover's heir, was that of a gay couple.[20] Some authors have dismissed the rumors about Hoover's sexuality and his relationship with Tolson in particular as unlikely,[21] while others have described them as probable or even "confirmed",[22] and still others have reported them without stating an opinion.[23] Attorney Roy Cohn,[24] an associate of Hoover during the '50s investigations of Communists and himself a closeted homosexual, opined that Hoover was too frightened of his own sexuality to have anything approaching a normal sexual or romantic relationship. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover and Associate FBI Director Clyde Tolson. ... FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover and Associate FBI Director Clyde Tolson. ... A bachelor is a man above the age of majority who has never been married (see single). ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Clyde Anderson Tolson (May 22, 1900 – April 14, 1975) was associate director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Roy Marcus Cohn (February 20, 1927 – August 2, 1986) was an American lawyer who came to prominence during the investigations by Senator Joseph McCarthy into Communism in the government and especially during the Army-McCarthy Hearings. ...


Hoover described Tolson as his alter ego: the men not only worked closely together during the day, but also took meals, went to night clubs and vacationed together.[25] The exceedingly close relationship between the two is often cited as evidence that the two were lovers, though some FBI employees who knew them, such as Felt, say that the relationship was merely "brotherly". Agents also report that Tolson was picked up first and dropped off last by the vehicle that transported Hoover to and from his office every day. Alter Ego has multiple meanings: Alter Ego is a game for the Commodore 64 computer. ...


Tolson inherited Hoover's estate worth approximately USD$551,000 and moved into his home, having also accepted the American flag that draped Hoover's casket. Tolson is buried a few yards away from Hoover in the Congressional Cemetery. USD redirects here. ... Flag ratio: 7:12; nicknames: Stars and Stripes, Old Glory The flag of the United States of America consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars... The Congressional Cemetery is an historic cemetery located at 1801 E Street, SE, in Washington, D.C., on the bank of the Anacostia River. ...


Hoover's biographer Richard Hack[26] reports that Hoover was romantically linked to actress Dorothy Lamour in the late '30s and early '40s, and that after Hoover's death, Lamour did not deny rumors that she'd had an affair with Hoover in the years between her two marriages. Hack additionally reports that during the '40s and '50s, Hoover so often attended social events with Lela Rogers, the divorced mother of dancer and actress Ginger Rogers, that many of their mutual friends assumed the pair would eventually marry. Richard Hack (March 20, 1958) is an American writer best known for his biographical books and screenplays. ... Dorothy Lamour (December 10, 1914 – September 22, 1996) was an American motion picture actress. ... Ginger Rogers (Virginia Katherine McMath, July 16, 1911 – April 25, 1995) was an Academy Award-winning American film and stage actress and singer. ...


In his 1993 biography Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J Edgar Hoover, Anthony Summers quoted a witness who said to have seen Hoover engaging in cross-dressing and homosexual acts on two occasions in the 1950s.[27] Summers also said that the Mafia had blackmail material on Hoover, and that as a consequence, Hoover had been reluctant to aggressively pursue organized crime. Although never corroborated, the allegation of cross-dressing has been widely repeated, and "J. Edna Hoover" has become the subject of humor on television, in movies and elsewhere. In the words of author Thomas Doherty, "For American popular culture, the image of the zaftig FBI director as a Christine Jorgensen wanna-be was too delicious not to savor."[28] Most biographers consider the story of Mafia blackmail to be unlikely in light of the FBI's actual investigations of the Mafia.[29] Anthony Summers was born in 1942. ... This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... Rubens Venus at the Mirror BBW, an initialism for Big Beautiful Woman, denotes an attractive, self-confident woman of size. BBWs are also the focus of a subculture with interests centered on the acceptance, support, and admiration of obese women. ... The picture from the album cover for Christine Jorgensen Reveals (1958). ...

Grave of J. Edgar Hoover in Congressional Cemetery (Washington, DC, USA)
Grave of J. Edgar Hoover in Congressional Cemetery (Washington, DC, USA)

Hoover has been described as becoming increasingly a caricature of himself towards the end of his life. The book, "No Left Turns," by former agent Joseph L. Schott, portrays a rigid, paranoid old man who terrified everyone. For example, Hoover liked to write on the margins of memos. According to Schott, when one memo had too narrow margins he wrote, "watch the borders!" No one had the nerve to ask him why, but they sent inquiries to the Border Patrol about any strange activities on the Canadian and Mexican frontiers. It took a week before an HQ staffer realized the message related to the borders of the memo paper.[30] The Congressional Cemetery is an historic cemetery located at 1801 E Street, SE, in Washington, D.C., on the bank of the Anacostia River. ...


African American author Millie McGhee[31] says in her 2000 book Secrets Uncovered to be related to J. Edgar Hoover.[32] McGhee's oral family history holds that a branch of her Mississippi family, also named Hoover, is related to the Washington, D.C., Hoovers, and that further, J. Edgar's father was not Dickerson Hoover as recorded, but rather Ivery Hoover of Mississippi. Genealogist George Ott investigated these claims and found some supporting circumstantial evidence, as well as unusual alterations of records pertaining to Hoover's officially recorded family in Washington, D.C., but found no conclusive proof. J. Edgar Hoover's birth certificate was not filed until 1938, when he was 43 years old. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


Honors

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (14 December 1895–6 February 1952) was the third British monarch of the House of Windsor, reigning from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... This is an incomplete list of people who have been created honorary Knights (or Dames) by the British crown, as well as those who have been raised to the two comparable Orders of Chivalry (Order of Merit and Order of the Companions of Honour) and the Royal Victorian Chain, which... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... National Security Medal The National Security Medal is a decoration of the United States of America which was first created in 1947 by order of the United States National Security Council. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... The Distinguished Service Award was created in 1940 to honor those who rendered service to the Order beyond the lodge level. ... LBJ redirects here. ... J. Edgar Hoover Building The J. Edgar Hoover Building is the headquarters for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ...

See also

F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... G-Man (short for Government Man) is gangster slang for an FBI agent. ...

Writings

J. Edgar Hoover was the nominal author of a number of books and articles. Although it is widely believed that all of these were ghostwritten by FBI employees,[34] Hoover received the credit and royalties.

  • Hoover, J. Edgar (1938). Persons In Hiding. Gaunt Publishing. ISBN 1-56169-340-5. 
  • Hoover, J. Edgar (1958). Masters of Deceit: The Story of Communism in America and How to Fight It. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4254-8258-9. 
  • Hoover, J. Edgar (1962). A Study of Communism. Holt Rinehart & Winston. ISBN 0-03-031190-X. 

Footnotes

  1. ^ Hack, Richard Puppetmaster: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover. (2007). Phoenix Books. ISBN 1597775126
  2. ^ Documented in Cox, John Stuart and Theoharis, Athan G. (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87722-532-X.  and elsewhere.
  3. ^ Schott, Joseph L (1975). No Left Turns: The FBI in Peace & War. Praeger. ISBN 0-275-33630-1. 
  4. ^ Purvis, Alston; and Tresinowski, Alex (2005). The Vendetta: FBI Hero Melvin Purvis's War Against Crime and J. Edgar Hoover's War Against Him. Public Affairs, pp 183+. ISBN 1-58648-301-3. 
  5. ^ U.S. Code Title 28, part 2, chapter 33. sec. 533, Confirmation and Compensation of Director; Term of Service (b)
  6. ^ Ancestry of J. Edgar Hoover (1895-1972)
  7. ^ Federal Bureau of Investigation - Directors, Then and Now
  8. ^ See, for example, Cox, John Stuart and Theoharis, Athan G. (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87722-532-X. 
  9. ^ "Hoover planned mass jailings in 1950", The New York Times, December 23, 2007
  10. ^ Cox, John Stuart and Theoharis, Athan G. (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press, pg. 312. ISBN 0-87722-532-X. 
  11. ^ Kessler, Ronald (2002). The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI. St. Martin's Paperbacks, pp 107, 174, 184, 215. ISBN 0-312-98977-6. 
  12. ^ See for example James, Joy (2000). States of Confinement: Policing, Detention, and Prisons. Palgrave Macmillan, pg. 335. ISBN 0-312-21777-3. , Williams, Kristian (2004). Our Enemies In Blue: Police And Power In America. Soft Skull Press, pg. 183. ISBN 1-887128-85-9.  and Churchill, Ward and Wall, Jim Vander (2001). Agents of Repression: The FBI's Secret Wars Against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement. South End Press, pp 53+. ISBN 0-89608-646-1. .
  13. ^ Intelligence Activities And The Rights Of Americans (1976). Retrieved on 2006-10-25.
  14. ^ Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S. House of Representatives. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (1979). Retrieved on 2006-10-25.
  15. ^ Hack, 2007
  16. ^ "J. Edgar Hoover, 77, Dies; Will Lie in State in Capitol; J. Edgar Hoover Is Dead at 77; to Lie in State in Capitol", New York Times, May 3, 1972, Wednesday. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. "J. Edgar Hoover, who directed the Federal Bureau of Investigation for 48 years and built it into a dominant and controversial force in American law enforcement, died during the night from the effects of high blood pressure." 
  17. ^ [1].HCSA Conclusions, 1979.
  18. ^ King, Colbert I. (May 5, 2001), "No thanks to Hoover", The Washington Post, <http://www.polkonline.com/stories/050701/opi_hoover.shtml>
  19. ^ Terry, Jennifer (1999). An American Obsession: Science, Medicine, and Homosexuality in Modern Society. University of Chicago Press, pg. 350. ISBN 0-226-79366-4. 
  20. ^ Cox, John Stuart and Theoharis, Athan G. (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press, pg. 108. ISBN 0-87722-532-X. 
  21. ^ For example,
    Felt, W. Mark and O'Connor, John D. (2006). A G-man's Life: The FBI, Being 'Deep Throat,' And the Struggle for Honor in Washington. Public Affairs, pg. 167. ISBN 1-58648-377-3. ,
    Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri (2003). Cloak and Dollar: A History of American Secret Intelligence. Yale University Press, pg. 93. ISBN 0-300-10159-7. ,
    Cox, John Stuart and Theoharis, Athan G. (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press, pg. 108. ISBN 0-87722-532-X.  "The strange likelihood is that Hoover never knew sexual desire at all."
  22. ^ For example,
    Percy, William A. and Johansson , Warren (1994). Outing: Shattering the Conspiracy of Silence. Haworth Press, pp 85+. ISBN 1-56024-419-4. ,
    Summers, Anthony (1993). Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J Edgar Hoover. Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-88087-X. 
  23. ^ For example,
    Edited by Theoharis, Athan G. (1998). The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide. Oryx Press, pp 291, 301, 397. ISBN 0-89774-991-X. ,
    Doherty, Thomas (2003). Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture. Columbia University Press, pp 254, 255. ISBN 0-231-12952-1. 
  24. ^ Hack, 2007
  25. ^ Cox, John Stuart and Theoharis, Athan G. (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press, pg. 108. ISBN 0-87722-532-X. 
  26. ^ Hack, Richard Puppetmaster: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover. (2007). Phoenix Books. ISBN 1597775126
  27. ^ Summers, Anthony (1993). Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J Edgar Hoover. Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-88087-X. 
  28. ^ Doherty, Thomas (2003). Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture. Columbia University Press, pg. 255. ISBN 0-231-12952-1. 
  29. ^ See for example Kessler, Ronald (2002). The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI. St. Martin's Paperbacks, pp 120+. ISBN 0-312-98977-6. 
  30. ^ Schott, Joseph L (1975). No Left Turns: The FBI in Peace & War. Praeger. ISBN 0-275-33630-1. 
  31. ^ Millie McGhee biography
  32. ^ McGhee, Millie L. (2000). Secrets Uncovered: J. Edgar Hoover--Passing for White?. Inland Empire Services. ISBN 0-9701822-2-8. 
  33. ^ Citation and Remarks at Presentation of the National Security Medal to J. Edgar Hoover.
  34. ^ See, for example:
    Anderson, Jack (1999). Peace, War, and Politics: An Eyewitness Account. Forge Books, pg. 174. ISBN 0-312-87497-9. ,
    Powers, Richard Gid (2004). Broken: the troubled past and uncertain future of the FBI. Free Press, pg. 238. ISBN 0-684-83371-9. ,
    Theoharis, Athan G. (editor) (1998). The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide. Oryx Press, pg. 264. ISBN 0-89774-991-X. 

Ronald Kessler is an American journalist and New York Times bestselling author of 17 non-fiction books. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Colbert I. King (born 1939-09-20) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist for the Washington Post. ... Anthony Summers was born in 1942. ... Athan George Theoharis (born August 3, 1936) is a professor emeritus of History at Marquette University. ... Anthony Summers was born in 1942. ... jack donald anderson (september 156, 1995 and wasted himself with a gun; december19, 1999) was an American newspaper columnist and is considered one of the fathers of modern investigative journalism. ...

References and further reading

  • Lowenthal, Max (1950). The Federal Bureau of Investigation. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0837157552. 
  • Schott, Joseph L (1975). No Left Turns: The FBI in Peace & War. Praeger. ISBN 0-275-33630-1. 
  • Garrow, David J. (1981). The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr., From 'Solo' to Memphis. W.W.Norton. ISBN 0-393-01509-2. 
  • Powers, Richard Gid (1986). Secrecy and Power: The Life of J. Edgar Hoover. Free Press. ISBN 0029250609. 
  • Gentry, Curt (1991). J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets. Plume. ISBN 0-452-26904-0. 
  • Theoharis, Athan (1993). From the Secret Files of J. Edgar Hoover. Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-017-7. 
  • Beverly, William (2003). On the Lam; Narratives of Flight in J. Edgar Hoover's America. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1-57806-537-2. 
  • Stove, Robert J. (2003). The Unsleeping Eye: Secret Police and Their Victims. Encounter Books. ISBN 1-893554-66-X. 
  • Summers, Anthony (2003). Official and Confidential:The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover. Putnam Publishing Group. ISBN 0-399-13800-5. 
  • Charles, Douglas (2007). J. Edgar Hoover and the Anti-interventionists: FBI Political Surveillance and the Rise of the Domestic Security State, 1939-1945. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 978-0814210611. 

Athan George Theoharis (born August 3, 1936) is a professor emeritus of History at Marquette University. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
J. Edgar Hoover
Preceded by
William J. Burns (Director of the BOI)
Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
1924-1972
Succeeded by
L. Patrick Gray
Preceded by
Everett Dirksen
Persons who have lain in state or honor in the United States Capitol rotunda
May 3May 4, 1972
Succeeded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
Persondata
NAME Hoover, John Edgar
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION FBI director
DATE OF BIRTH January 1, 1895(1895-01-01)
PLACE OF BIRTH Washington, D.C., United States
DATE OF DEATH May 2, 1977
PLACE OF DEATH Washington, D.C., United States
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation are appointed by the President of the United States. ... Louis Patrick Gray III (July 18, 1916 – July 6, 2005) was acting director of the FBI from 1972-73. ... Everett McKinley Dirksen Everett McKinley Dirksen (January 4, 1896 – September 7, 1969) was a Republican U.S. Congressman and Senator from Illinois. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation are appointed by the President of the United States. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Ð Stanley W. Finch, first Director of the FBI Stanley W. Finch (July 20, 1872–1951) was the first director of the Bureau of Investigation, which would eventually become the FBI. Finch was born in Monticello, New York, in 1872. ... Alexander Bruce Bielaski (1884–February, American lawyer and director of the Bureau of Investigation (now the FBI). ... On February 10, 1919, William E. Allen of Texas began serving as Acting Director of the US Bureau of Investigation (BOI), a predecessor of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Louis Patrick Gray III (July 18, 1916 – July 6, 2005) was acting director of the FBI from 1972-73. ... William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an attorney and civil servant in the United States. ... Clarence M. Kelley (October 24, 1911 - August 5, 1997) was a public servant and former director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... James Blackburn Adams (born December 21, 1926) was an attorney, Texas legislator, and former director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... William Hedgcock Webster (born March 6, 1924) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from 1978 to 1987 and Director of Central Intelligence from 1987 to 1991. ... John Otto was the acting director of the FBI in 1987. ... William Steele Sessions (b. ... Floyd I. Clarke was a former director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Louis Freeh was the fifteenth director of the FBI. He oversaw the agency for nearly 10 years during one of the most difficult periods of its history. ... SALUT Jaimerais devenir agent de la FBI au togo,car je veux servir lamerique et le monde entier. ... Robert Swan Mueller III (born August 7, 1944) is the current Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: J. Edgar Hoover Louis Freeh Clyde Tolson L. Patrick Gray Robert Mueller Stanley Finch William Ruckelshaus William S. Sessions William Webster A. Bruce Bielaski William E. Allen William J. Flynn William J. Burns Clarence M. Kelley... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... ...

 
 

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