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Encyclopedia > J. D. Salinger
J.D. Salinger

Salinger in 1951.
Born Jerome David Salinger
January 1, 1919 (1919-01-01) (age 89)
Manhattan, New York
Occupation Novelist, writer
Writing period 1940-1965
Notable work(s) The Catcher in the Rye (1951)
Signature

Jerome David Salinger (born January 1, 1919) (pronounced /ˈsælɨndʒɚ/) is an American author, best known for his 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye, as well as for his reclusive nature. He has not published a new work since 1965. This image is a book cover. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about work. ... The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ... Sherwood Anderson in 1933. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: , IPA: ) was a Russian short story writer and playwright. ... Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American Jazz Age author of novels and short stories. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Kafka redirects here. ... Ringgold Wilmer Lardner (March 6, 1885 - September 25, 1933) was an American sports columnist and short story writer best known for his satirical takes on the sports world, marriage, and the theatre. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , Russian pronunciation:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo (Lyof, Lyoff) Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Wesley Wales Anderson (born May 1, 1969) is an American director, writer, and producer of features, short films and commercials. ... The Perks of Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky Stephen Chbosky (born January 25, 1970) is an American author, editor, screenwriter, and film director. ... Carl Hiaasen (IPA pronunciation: ) (born March 12, 1953) is an American journalist and novelist. ... Haruki Murakami , born January 12, 1949) is a popular contemporary Japanese writer and translator. ... Tom Robbins at a reading of Wild Ducks Flying Backward in San Francisco on September 24, 2005 Thomas Eugene Robbins (born July 22, 1936 in Blowing Rock, North Carolina) is an American author. ... Philip Milton Roth (born March 19, 1933, Newark, New Jersey[1]) is a famous American novelist. ... Louis Sachar (IPA: , or Sacker) (born March 20, 1954) is an American author of childrens books who is best known for the Sideways Stories From Wayside School book series and the 1998 novel Holes, for which Sachar won a National Book Award and the Newbery Medal. ... John Hoyer Updike (born March 18, 1932 in Shillington, Pennsylvania) is an American novelist, poet, short story writer and literary critic. ... Richard Yates (February 3, 1926 - November 7, 1992) was an American novelist and short story writer, a chronicler of mid-20th century mainstream American life, often cited as artistically residing somewhere between J.D. Salinger and John Cheever. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ... A recluse is someone who hides away from attention of the public, a person who lives in seclusion from intercourse with the world; from the Latin recludere, to shut up or sequester. ...


Raised in Manhattan, New York, Salinger began writing short stories while in secondary school, and published several stories in the early 1940s before serving in World War II. In 1948 he published the critically acclaimed story "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" in The New Yorker, which became home to much of his subsequent work. In 1951 Salinger published his first novel, The Catcher in the Rye, an immediate popular success. His depiction of adolescent alienation and loss of innocence in the protagonist Holden Caulfield was influential, especially among adolescent readers.[1] The novel remains widely read, selling about 250,000 copies a year. For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A Perfect Day for Bananafish is a short story by J. D. Salinger, originally published in the January 31, 1948 issue of The New Yorker. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ... Holden Caulfield is a fictional character, the protagonist of J.D. Salingers 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye. ...


The success of The Catcher in the Rye led to public attention and scrutiny; Salinger became reclusive, publishing new work less frequently. He followed Catcher with three collections of short stories: Nine Stories (1953), Franny and Zooey (1961), and Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters and Seymour: An Introduction (1963). His last published work, a novella entitled "Hapworth 16, 1924," appeared in The New Yorker in 1965. Nine Stories book cover Nine Stories (1953) is collection of short stories by American fiction writer J. D. Salinger. ... Franny and Zooey is a 1961 pair of stories, published together in book form, by J. D. Salinger, the author best known for The Catcher in the Rye. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... Hapworth 16, 1924 is the youngest of J.D. Salingers Glass Family stories, in the sense that the narrated events happen chronologically before all other Glass stories. ...


Afterwards, Salinger struggled with unwanted attention, including a legal battle in the 1980s with biographer Ian Hamilton and the release in the late 1990s of memoirs written by two people close to him: Joyce Maynard, an ex-lover, and Margaret Salinger, his daughter. In 1997, a small publisher announced a deal with Salinger to publish "Hapworth 16, 1924" in book form, but amid the ensuing publicity, the release was delayed indefinitely. Robert Ian Hamilton (24 March 1938 - 27 December 2001) was a British literary critic, reviewer, biographer, poet, magazine editor and publisher. ... Cover of Looking Back Daphne Joyce Maynard (November 5, 1953 - ) is an American writer who became famous for her relationship with J. D. Salinger. ...

Contents

Biography

World War II

In 1941, Salinger started dating Oona O'Neill, daughter of the playwright Eugene O'Neill. Despite finding the debutante self-absorbed (he confided to a friend that "Little Oona's hopelessly in love with little Oona"), he called her often and wrote her long letters.[2] Their relationship ended when Oona began seeing Charlie Chaplin, whom she eventually married in June 1943 despite a 36-year age difference (Chaplin was 54 and O'Neill was 18.)[3] In late 1941, Salinger briefly worked on a Caribbean cruise ship, serving as an activity director and possibly as a performer.[4] Oona Chaplin (May 13, 1926 – September 27, 1991) was the daughter of Nobel and Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Eugene ONeill and his second wife, writer Agnes Boulton, and the fourth wife of actor Charlie Chaplin. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... Charles Chaplin redirects here. ... West Indies redirects here. ... A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ...


The same year, Salinger began submitting short stories to The New Yorker. A selective magazine, it rejected seven of Salinger's stories that year, including "Lunch for Three," "Monologue for a Watery Highball," and "I Went to School with Adolf Hitler." In December 1941, however, it accepted "Slight Rebellion off Madison," a Manhattan-set story about a disaffected teenager named Holden Caulfield with "pre-war jitters."[5] When Japan carried out the attack on Pearl Harbor that month, the story was rendered "unpublishable"; it did not appear in the magazine until 1946.[5] In the spring of 1942, several months after the United States entered World War II, Salinger was drafted into the Army, where he saw combat with the U.S. 12th Infantry Regiment in some of the fiercest fighting of the war.[4] He was active at Utah Beach on D-Day and in the Battle of the Bulge.[6] For other uses, see New Yorker. ... Slight Rebellion off Madison is a short story written by J.D. Salinger for the December 22, 1946 issue of The New Yorker. ... Holden Caulfield is a fictional character, the protagonist of J.D. Salingers 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The 12th Infantry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Raymond O. Barton Theodore Roosevelt Jr U.S. 4th Infantry Division Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division German 709th Infantry Division Strength 32,000  ? Casualties 700 Unknown American assault troops move onto Utah Beach, carrying full equipment. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ...


During the campaign from Normandy into Germany, Salinger arranged to meet with Ernest Hemingway, a writer who had influenced him and was working as a war correspondent in Paris.[7] Salinger was impressed with Hemingway's friendliness and modesty, finding him more "soft" than his gruff public persona.[8] Hemingway was impressed by Salinger's writing, and remarked: "Jesus, he has a helluva talent."[1] The two writers began corresponding; Salinger wrote Hemingway in July 1946 that their talks were among his few positive memories of the war.[8] Salinger added that he was working on a play about Holden Caulfield, the protagonist of his story "Slight Rebellion off Madison," and hoped to play the part himself.[8] Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ...


Salinger was assigned to a counter-intelligence division, where he used his proficiency in French and German to interrogate prisoners of war.[9] He was also among the first soldiers to enter a liberated concentration camp.[9] Salinger's experiences in the war affected him emotionally. He was hospitalized for a few weeks for combat stress reaction after Germany was defeated,[10][11] and he later told his daughter: "You never really get the smell of burning flesh out of your nose entirely, no matter how long you live."[12] Both of his biographers speculate that Salinger drew upon his wartime experiences in several stories,[13] such as "For Esmé with Love and Squalor," which is narrated by a traumatized soldier. Salinger wrote while serving, and published several stories in slick magazines such as Collier's and the Saturday Evening Post. He continued to submit stories to The New Yorker, but with little success; it rejected all of his submissions from 1944 to 1946, and in 1945 rejected a group of 15 poems.[5] Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Image from The Great War taken in an Australian Dressing Station near Ypres in 1917. ... For Esmé with Love and Squalor is a short story by J. D. Salinger. ... Colliers Weekly was a United States magazine that was published between 1888 and 1957. ... There have been many publications called the Saturday Evening Post; several were/are local British newspapers. ...


Post-war years

After Germany's defeat, Salinger signed up for six months of "de-Nazification" duty in Germany.[14] He met a French woman named Sylvia, and they married in 1945.[15] They lived in Germany, but their marriage fell apart for unknown reasons, and Sylvia left for France.[15] In 1972, his daughter Margaret was with her father when he received a letter from Sylvia. He looked at the envelope, and without reading it, tore it apart. It was the first time he had heard from her since the breakup, but as Margaret put it, "when he was finished with a person, he was through with them."[16]


In 1946, Whit Burnett agreed to help Salinger publish a collection of his short stories through Lippincott's Story Press imprint.[17] Titled The Young Folks, the collection was to consist of twenty stories — ten, like the title story and "Slight Rebellion off Madison," were already in print; ten were previously unpublished.[17] Though Burnett implied the book would be published and even negotiated Salinger a $1,000 advance on its sale, Lippincott overruled Burnett and rejected the book.[17] Salinger blamed Burnett for the book's failure to see print, and the two became estranged.[18]


By the late 1940s, Salinger had become an avid follower of Zen Buddhism, to the point that he "gave reading lists on the subject to his dates"[1] and arranged a meeting with Buddhist scholar D. T. Suzuki. In 1948, he submitted a short story titled "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" to The New Yorker. The magazine was so impressed with "the singular quality of the story" that its editors accepted it for publication immediately, and signed Salinger to a contract that allowed them right of first refusal on any future stories.[19] The critical acclaim accorded "Bananafish", coupled with problems Salinger had with stories being altered by the "slicks", led him to publish almost exclusively in The New Yorker.[20] "Bananafish" was also the first of Salinger's published stories to feature the Glasses, a fictional family consisting of two retired vaudeville performers and their seven precocious children: Seymour, Buddy, Boo Boo, Walt, Waker, Zooey, and Franny.[21] Salinger eventually published seven stories about the Glasses, developing a detailed family history and focusing particularly on Seymour, the troubled eldest child.[21] A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... Dr. Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki (1870, Kanazawa, Japan - 1966; standard transliteration: Suzuki Daisetsu, 鈴木大拙) was a famous author of books and essays on Buddhism and Zen that were instrumental in spreading interest in Zen to the West. ... A Perfect Day for Bananafish is a short story by J. D. Salinger, originally published in the January 31, 1948 issue of The New Yorker. ... Right of first refusal is the right to make an offer before offers from others are considered. ... The Glass family is a group of fictional characters that have been featured in a number of J.D. Salingers short stories. ... This article is about the musical variety theatre. ...


In the early 1940s, Salinger had confided in a letter to Whit Burnett that he was eager to sell the film rights to some of his stories in order to achieve financial security.[22] According to Ian Hamilton, Salinger was disappointed when "rumblings from Hollywood" over his 1943 short story "The Varioni Brothers" came to nothing. Therefore he immediately agreed when, in mid-1948, independent film producer Samuel Goldwyn offered to buy the film rights to his short story "Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut."[22] Though Salinger sold his story with the hope — in the words of his agent Dorothy Olding — that it "would make a good movie,"[23] the film version of "Wiggly" was lambasted by critics upon its release in 1949.[24] Renamed My Foolish Heart and starring Dana Andrews and Susan Hayward, the melodramatic film departed to such an extent from Salinger's story that Goldwyn biographer A. Scott Berg referred to it as a “bastardization”.[24] As a result of this experience, Salinger never again permitted film adaptations to be made from his work.[25] The Varioni Brothers is a short story dealing with two brothers, one a sensitive artist whos attempts at writing the great American novel are thwarted by the manipulations of his brother who forces him to write music instead of his book. ... Samuel Goldwyn (July 1882 (some sources say 17 August 1882, others 1879 [1]) – 31 January 1974) was an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning producer, also a well-known Hollywood motion picture producer and founding contributor of several motion picture studios. ... The story Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut by J.D. Salinger appears in a collection of short stories by the American author, entitled Nine Stories. ... My Foolish Heart is a 1949 film which tells the story of a womans reflections on the bad turns her life has taken. ... Dana Andrews (January 1, 1909 - December 17, 1992) was an American film actor. ... For other persons named Hayward, see Hayward (disambiguation). ... Lindbergh by A. Scott Berg Andrew Scott Berg (b. ...


The Catcher in the Rye

Salinger's landmark 1951 novel, The Catcher in the Rye.
Salinger's landmark 1951 novel, The Catcher in the Rye.

In the 1940s, Salinger confided to several people that he was working on a novel featuring Holden Caulfield, the teenage protagonist of his short story "Slight Rebellion off Madison,"[26] and The Catcher in the Rye was published on July 16, 1951. The novel's plot is simple,[27] detailing sixteen-year-old Holden's experiences in New York City following his expulsion from an elite prep school. The book is more notable for the iconic persona and testimonial voice of its first-person narrator, Holden.[28] He serves as an insightful but unreliable narrator who expounds on the importance of loyalty, the "phoniness" of adulthood, and his own duplicity.[28] In a 1953 interview with a high-school newspaper, Salinger admitted that the novel was "sort of" autobiographical, explaining that "My boyhood was very much the same as that of the boy in the book.… [I]t was a great relief telling people about it."[29] The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ... The Catcher in the Rye book cover This image is a book cover. ... The Catcher in the Rye book cover This image is a book cover. ... The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ... The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually shortened to preparatory school, or prep school) is a private secondary school (or high school) designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... First-person narrative is a literary technique in which the story is narrated by one character, who explicitly refers to him or herself in the first person, that is, I. the narrator is a fool putting his nose into the storytelling exercise. ... Illustration by Gustave Doré for Baron Münchhausen: tall tales, such as those of the Baron, often feature unreliable narrators. ...


Initial reactions were mixed, ranging from The New York Times's praise of Catcher as "an unusually brilliant first novel"[30] to denigrations of the book's monotonous language and the "immorality and perversion" of Holden,[31] who uses religious slurs and casually discusses premarital sex and prostitution.[32] The novel was a popular success; within months of its publication, The Catcher in the Rye had been reprinted eight times, and it went on to spend thirty weeks on the New York Times Bestseller list.[27] The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Whore redirects here. ... The New York Times bestseller list is a weekly chart in The New York Times newspaper that keeps track of the best-selling books of the week. ...


The book's initial success was followed by a brief lull in popularity, but by the late 1950s, according to Ian Hamilton, it had "become the book all brooding adolescents had to buy, the indispensable manual from which cool styles of disaffectation could be borrowed."[33] Newspapers began publishing articles about the "Catcher Cult",[33] and the novel was banned in several countries – as well as some U.S. schools – because of its subject matter and what Catholic World reviewer Riley Hughes called an "excessive use of amateur swearing and coarse language".[34] One irate parent counted 237 appearances of the word "goddam" in the novel, along with 58 "bastard"s, 31 "Chrissakes," and 6 "fucks."[34] Catholic World was a periodical founded by Paulist Father Isaac Thomas Hecker in April 1865. ...


In the 1970s, several U.S. high school teachers who assigned the book were fired or forced to resign. In 1979 one book-length study of censorship noted that The Catcher in the Rye "had the dubious distinction of being at once the most frequently censored book across the nation and the second-most frequently taught novel in public high schools [after John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men]."[35] The book remains widely read; as of 2004, the novel was selling about 250,000 copies per year, "with total worldwide sales over – probably way over – 10 million."[36] For other members of the family, see Steinbeck (disambiguation). ... Of Mice and Men is a novella by Nobel Prize winning author John Steinbeck, first published in 1937, which tells the tragic story of George Milton and Lennie Small, two displaced Anglo migrant ranch workers in California during the Great Depression. ...


In the wake of its 1950s success, Salinger received (and rejected) numerous offers to adapt The Catcher in the Rye for the screen, including one from Samuel Goldwyn.[24] Since its publication, there has been sustained interest in the novel among filmmakers, with Billy Wilder,[37] Harvey Weinstein, and Steven Spielberg[38] among those seeking to secure the rights. Salinger stated in the 1970s that "Jerry Lewis tried for years to get his hands on the part of Holden."[39] The author has repeatedly refused, though, and in 1999, Joyce Maynard definitively concluded: "The only person who might ever have played Holden Caulfield would have been J. D. Salinger."[39] Billy Wilder (June 22, 1906 – March 27, 2002) was an Austrian-born, Jewish-American journalist, screenwriter, film director, and producer whose career spanned more than 50 years and 60 films. ... Harvey Weinstein at Cannes, 2002 Harvey Weinstein CBE (Hon) (born March 19, 1952) is an American film producer and movie studio chairman. ... Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. ... For other persons named Jerry Lewis, see Jerry Lewis (disambiguation). ...


Writing in the 1950s and move to Cornish

J.D. Salinger c. 1950's

In a July 1951 profile in Book of the Month Club News, Salinger's friend and New Yorker editor William Maxwell asked Salinger about his literary influences. Salinger responded: "A writer, when he's asked to discuss his craft, ought to get up and call out in a loud voice just the names of the writers he loves. I love Kafka, Flaubert, Tolstoy, Chekhov, Dostoevsky, Proust, O'Casey, Rilke, Lorca, Keats, Rimbaud, Burns, E. Brontë, Jane Austen, Henry James, Blake, Coleridge. I won't name any living writers. I don't think it's right."[40] In letters written in the 1940s, Salinger had expressed his admiration of three living, or recently deceased, writers: Sherwood Anderson, Ring Lardner, and F. Scott Fitzgerald;[41] Ian Hamilton wrote that Salinger even saw himself for some time as "Fitzgerald's successor."[42] William Keepers Maxwell, Jr (1908-2000) was an American novelist and editor. ... Kafka redirects here. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , Russian pronunciation:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo (Lyof, Lyoff) Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: , IPA: ) was a Russian short story writer and playwright. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and... Proust redirects here. ... Sean OCasey Sean OCasey (March 30, 1880 - September 18, 1964) was a major Irish dramatist and memorist. ... Rainer Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926) is considered one of the German languages greatest 20th century poets. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... Keats redirects here. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Emily Jane Brontë (pronounced ); (July 30, 1818 – December 19, 1848) was a British novelist and poet, now best remembered for her only novel Wuthering Heights, a classic of English literature. ... A watercolour and pencil sketch of Jane Austen, believed to be drawn from life by her sister Cassandra (c. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... For other persons named William Blake, see William Blake (disambiguation). ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Sherwood Anderson in 1933. ... Ringgold Wilmer Lardner (March 6, 1885 - September 25, 1933) was an American sports columnist and short story writer best known for his satirical takes on the sports world, marriage, and the theatre. ... Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American Jazz Age author of novels and short stories. ...


After several years of practicing Zen Buddhism, in 1952, while reading the gospels of Hindu religious teacher Sri Ramakrishna, Salinger wrote friends of a momentous change in his life.[43] He became an adherent of Ramakrishna's Advaita Vedanta Hinduism, which advocated celibacy for those seeking enlightenment, and detachment from human responsibilities such as family.[44][45] Salinger also studied the writings of Ramakrishna's disciple Vivekananda; in the story "Hapworth 16, 1924", the character of Seymour Glass describes him as "one of the most exciting, original and best-equipped giants of this century."[44] Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sri Thakur Gadadhar Chattopadhyaya Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (February 18, 1836 - August 16, 1886) was a Bengali saint. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... Introduction Swami Vivekananda (Narendranath Dutta) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902) is considered one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the Hindu religion. ...


In 1953, Salinger published a collection of seven stories from The New Yorker ("Bananafish" among them), as well as two that the magazine had rejected. The collection was published as Nine Stories in the United States, and For Esmé with Love and Squalor in the UK, after one of Salinger's best-known stories.[46] The book received grudgingly positive reviews, and was a financial success – "remarkably so for a volume of short stories," according to Hamilton.[47] Nine Stories spent three months on the New York Times Bestseller list.[47] Already tightening his grip on publicity, though, Salinger refused to allow publishers of the collection to depict his characters in dust jacket illustrations, lest readers form preconceived notions of them. Nine Stories book cover Nine Stories (1953) is collection of short stories by American fiction writer J. D. Salinger. ... For Esmé with Love and Squalor is a short story by J. D. Salinger. ...


As the notoriety of The Catcher in the Rye grew, Salinger gradually withdrew from public view. In 1953, he moved from New York to Cornish, New Hampshire. Early in his time at Cornish he was relatively sociable, particularly with students at Windsor High School. Salinger invited them to his house frequently to play records and talk about problems at school.[48] One such student, Shirley Blaney, persuaded Salinger to be interviewed for the high school page of The Daily Eagle, the city paper. However, after Blaney's interview appeared prominently in the newspaper's editorial section, Salinger cut off all contact with the high schoolers without explanation.[48] He was also seen less frequently around town, only seeing one close friend with any regularity, jurist Learned Hand.[49] Cornish is a town located in Sullivan County, New Hampshire. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Windsor High School (California) Windsor High School (England) ... Billings Learned Hand (January 27, 1872 – August 18, 1961) — usually called simply Learned Hand — was a famed American judge and an avid supporter of free speech, though he is most remembered for applying economic reasoning to American tort law. ...


Marriage, family, and religious beliefs

In June 1955, at the age of 36, Salinger married Claire Douglas, a Radcliffe student. They had two children, Margaret (b. December 10, 1955) and Matt (b. February 13, 1960). Margaret Salinger wrote in her memoir Dream Catcher that she believes her parents would not have married – nor would she have been born – had her father not read the teachings of a disciple of Paramahansa Yogananda, which held out the possibility of enlightenment to those following the path of the "householder" (a married person with children).[50] After their marriage, J.D. and Claire were initiated into the path of Kriya yoga in a small store-front Hindu temple in Washington, D.C., during the summer of 1955.[51] They received a mantra and breathing exercises to practice for ten minutes twice a day.[51] Radcliffe College was a liberal arts womens college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, closely associated with Harvard University. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Matt Salinger playing Captain America Matt Salinger (born February 13, 1960 in Windsor, Vermont) is a D-list actor who starred in the 1991 film Captain America, based on the Marvel Comics character. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paramahansa Yogananda (Bengali: পরমহংস যোগানন্দ Pôromohôngsho Joganondo, Sanskrit: परमहंस योगानं‍द Paramahaṃsa Yogānaṃda; January 5, 1893–March 7, 1952), born Mukunda Lal Ghosh (Bengali: মুকুন্দ লাল ঘোষ Mukundo Lal Ghosh), was an Indian yogi and guru who introduced many westerners to the teachings of meditation and Kriya Yoga through his book, Autobiography of... Kriya Yoga is described by its practitioners as the ancient Yoga system revived in modern times by Mahavatar Babaji through his disciple Lahiri Mahasaya, c 1861, and brought into widespread public awareness through Paramhansa Yoganandas book Autobiography of a Yogi. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Salinger also insisted that Claire drop out of school and live with him, only four months shy of graduation, which she did. Certain elements of the story "Franny", published in January, 1955, are based on his relationship with Claire, including the fact that Claire owned the book The Way of the Pilgrim.[52] Because of their isolated location and Salinger's proclivities, they hardly saw other people for long stretches of time. Claire was also frustrated by J.D.'s ever-changing religious beliefs. Though she committed herself to Kriya yoga, she remembered that Salinger would chronically leave Cornish to work on a story "for several weeks only to return with the piece he was supposed to be finishing all undone or destroyed and some new 'ism' we had to follow."[53] Claire believed "it was to cover the fact that Jerry had just destroyed or junked or couldn't face the quality of, or couldn't face publishing, what he had created."[53] The Way of a Pilgrim is the English title of an 19th century anonymous Russian work, detailing the narrators journey across the country while discovering practicing the Jesus Prayer devoutly, with the help of a prayer rope, and studying the Philokalia. ...


After abandoning Kriya yoga, Salinger tried Dianetics (the forerunner of Scientology), even meeting its founder L. Ron Hubbard, according to Claire.[53][54] This was followed by adherence to a number of spiritual, medical, and nutritional belief systems including Christian Science, homeopathy, acupuncture, macrobiotics, the teachings of Edgar Cayce, fasting, vomiting to remove impurities, megadoses of Vitamin C, urine therapy, "speaking in tongues" (or Charismatic glossolalia), and sitting in a Reichian "orgone box" to accumulate "orgone energy".[55][56][57][58] This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986) was the founder of the Church of Scientology, as well as the author of Dianetics and the body of works comprising Scientology doctrine. ... Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (first published in 1875). ... Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Macrobiotics (from the Greek macro (large, long) + bio (life)) is a lifetyle that incorporates a dietary regime. ... Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) (pronounced or like Casey) was an American who claimed psychic abilities. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... In alternative medicine, the term urine therapy (also urotherapy, urinotherapy or uropathy) refers to various applications of human urine for medicinal or cosmetic purposes, including drinking of ones own urine and massaging ones skin with ones own urine. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began... Tongues redirects here. ... Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... Dr. Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897–November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, who was trained in Vienna by Sigmund Freud. ...


Salinger's family life was further marked by discord after the first child was born; according to Margaret, Claire felt that her daughter had replaced her in Salinger's affections.[59] The infant Margaret was sick much of the time, but Salinger, having embraced the tenets of Christian Science, refused to take her to a doctor.[60] According to Margaret, her mother admitted to her years later that she went "over the edge" in the winter of 1957 and had made plans to murder her thirteen-month-old infant and then commit suicide. Claire had intended to do it during a trip to New York City with Salinger, but she instead acted on a sudden impulse to take Margaret from the hotel and run away. After a few months, Salinger persuaded her to return to Cornish.[60] Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (first published in 1875). ...


Last publications and Maynard relationship

Time magazine analyzed Salinger's "life of a recluse" in a 1961 cover story.

Salinger published the collections Franny and Zooey in 1961, and Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters and Seymour: An Introduction in 1963. Each book contained two short stories or novellas, previously published in The New Yorker, about members of the Glass family. On the dust jacket of Franny and Zooey, Salinger wrote, in reference to his interest in privacy: "It is my rather subversive opinion that a writer's feelings of anonymity-obscurity are the second most valuable property on loan to him during his working years."[61] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 527 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) SOURCE: www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 527 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) SOURCE: www. ... TIME redirects here. ... Franny and Zooey is a 1961 pair of stories, published together in book form, by J. D. Salinger, the author best known for The Catcher in the Rye. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ...


On September 15, 1961, Time magazine devoted its cover to Salinger, in an article that profiled his "life of recluse"; Time reported that the Glass family series "is nowhere near completion…Salinger intends to write a Glass trilogy".[1] However, Salinger has only published one other story since. His last published work was "Hapworth 16, 1924," an epistolary novella in the form of a long letter from seven-year-old Seymour Glass from summer camp. It took up most of the June 19, 1965 issue of The New Yorker. Around this time, Salinger had isolated Claire from friends and relatives and made her – in the words of Margaret Salinger – "a virtual prisoner."[53] Claire separated from him in September 1966; their divorce was finalized on October 3, 1967.[62] is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hapworth 16, 1924 is the youngest of J.D. Salingers Glass Family stories, in the sense that the narrated events happen chronologically before all other Glass stories. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1972, at the age of 53, Salinger had a year-long relationship with 18-year-old Joyce Maynard, already an experienced writer for Seventeen magazine. The New York Times had asked Maynard to write an article, which, when published as "An Eighteen Year Old Looks Back On Life" on April 23, 1972, made her a celebrity. Salinger wrote a letter to her warning about living with fame. After exchanging 25 letters, Maynard moved in with Salinger the summer after her freshman year at Yale University.[63] Maynard did not return to Yale that fall, and spent ten months as a guest in Salinger's Cornish home. The relationship ended, he told his daughter Margaret at a family outing, because Maynard wanted children, and he felt he was too old.[64] Cover of Looking Back Daphne Joyce Maynard (November 5, 1953 - ) is an American writer who became famous for her relationship with J. D. Salinger. ... Seventeen is an American magazine for teenage girls. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yale redirects here. ...


Salinger continued to write in a disciplined fashion, a few hours every morning; according to Maynard, by 1972 he had completed two new novels.[65][66] In a rare 1974 interview with The New York Times, he explained: "There is a marvelous peace in not publishing.… I like to write. I love to write. But I write just for myself and my own pleasure."[67] According to Maynard, he saw publication as "a damned interruption."[68] In her memoir, Margaret Salinger describes the detailed filing system her father had for his unpublished manuscripts: "A red mark meant, if I die before I finish my work, publish this 'as is,' blue meant publish but edit first, and so on."[69]


Legal conflicts in 1980s and 1990s

Although Salinger tried to escape public exposure as much as possible, he continued to struggle with unwanted attention from both the media and the public.[70] Readers of his work and students from nearby Dartmouth College often came to Cornish in groups, hoping to catch a glimpse of him.[71] Upon learning in 1986 that the British writer Ian Hamilton intended to publish In Search of J.D. Salinger: A Writing Life (1935-65), a biography including letters Salinger had written to other authors and friends, Salinger sued to stop the book's publication. The book was finally published in 1988 with the letters' contents paraphrased. The court ruled that Hamilton's extensive use of the letters went beyond the limits of fair use, and that "the author of letters is entitled to a copyright in the letters, as with any other work of literary authorship."[72] Dartmouth College is a private, coeducational university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. Incorporated as Trustees of Dartmouth College,[6][7] it is a member of the Ivy League and one of the nine colonial colleges founded before the American Revolution. ... Robert Ian Hamilton (24 March 1938 - 27 December 2001) was a British literary critic, reviewer, biographer, poet, magazine editor and publisher. ... For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ...


An unintended consequence of the lawsuit was that many details of Salinger's private life, including that he had spent the last twenty years writing, in his words, "Just a work of fiction.… That's all",[25] became public in the form of court transcripts. Excerpts from his letters were also widely disseminated, most notably a bitter remark written in response to Oona O'Neill's marriage to Charlie Chaplin: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

I can see them at home evenings. Chaplin squatting grey and nude, atop his chiffonier, swinging his thyroid around his head by his bamboo cane, like a dead rat. Oona in an aquamarine gown, applauding madly from the bathroom.[72][3] A Cheffonier or Chiffonier, is a piece of furniture differentiated from the sideboard by its smaller size and by the enclosure of the whole of the front by doors. ...

Salinger was romantically involved with television actress Elaine Joyce for quite a few years in the 1980s.[63] The relationship ended when he met Colleen O'Neill (b. June 11, 1959), a nurse and quiltmaker, whom he married around 1988.[73] O'Neill, forty years his junior, once told Margaret Salinger that she and Salinger were trying to have a child.[74] Elaine Joyce (born December 19, 1945, Kansas City, Missouri) is an American actress. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1995, Iranian director Dariush Mehrjui released the film Pari, an unauthorized and loose adaptation of Salinger's Franny and Zooey. Though the film could be distributed legally in Iran since the country has no official copyright relations with the United States,[75] Salinger had his lawyers block a planned screening of the film at the Lincoln Center in 1998.[76] Mehrjui called Salinger's action "bewildering," explaining that he saw his film as "a kind of cultural exchange."[76] Darius Mehrjui (Persian: داریوش مهرجویی , born 8 December 1939 in Tehran) is an Iranian film director, screenwriter, producer, and film editor. ... Pari (Persian: پری) is a 1995 motion picture directed by Dariush Mehrjui. ... The Metropolitan Opera House at Lincoln Center. ...


In 1997, Salinger gave a small publisher, Orchises Press, permission to publish "Hapworth 16, 1924," the previously uncollected novella. It was to be published that year, and listings for it appeared at Amazon.com and other book-sellers. After a flurry of articles and critical reviews of the story appeared in the press, the publication date was pushed back repeatedly, the last time to 2002. It was not published and no new date has been set.[77] Amazon. ...


Recent privacy invasions

In 1999, twenty-four years after the end of their relationship, Joyce Maynard put up for auction a series of letters Salinger had written to her. Maynard's memoir of her life and her relationship with Salinger, At Home in the World: A Memoir, was published the same year. Among other indiscretions, the book described how Maynard's mother had consulted with her on how to appeal to the aging author, and described Maynard's relationship with him at length. In the ensuing controversy over both the memoir and the letters, Maynard claimed that she was forced to auction the letters for financial reasons; she would have preferred to donate them to Beinecke Library. Software developer Peter Norton bought the letters for $156,500 and announced his intention to return them to Salinger.[78] Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... Peter Norton Peter Norton (born November 14, 1943) is an American software publisher and philanthropist. ...

Margaret Salinger's memoir Dream Catcher, its cover featuring a rare photograph of Salinger.
Margaret Salinger's memoir Dream Catcher, its cover featuring a rare photograph of Salinger.

A year later, Salinger's daughter Margaret, by his second wife Claire Douglas, published Dream Catcher: A Memoir. In her book, Ms. Salinger described the harrowing control Salinger had over her mother and dispelled many of the Salinger myths established by Ian Hamilton's book. One of Hamilton's arguments was that Salinger's experience with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder left him psychologically scarred, and that he was unable to deal with the traumatic nature of his war service. Though Ms. Salinger allowed that "the few men who lived through ['bloody Mortain,' a battle in which her father fought] were left with much to sicken them, body and soul,"[79] she also painted a picture of J.D. as a man immensely proud of his service record, maintaining his military haircut, service jacket, and moving about his compound (and town) in an old Jeep. This image is a book cover. ... This image is a book cover. ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ... Mortain is a small town and commune in the Manche département, France. ...


Both Margaret and Maynard characterized Salinger as a devoted film buff. According to Margaret, his favorite movies include Gigi, The Lady Vanishes, The 39 Steps (Phoebe's favorite movie in The Catcher in the Rye), and the comedies of W.C. Fields, Laurel and Hardy, and the Marx Brothers.[80] Predating VCRs, Salinger had an extensive collection of classic movies from the 1940s in 16 mm prints. Maynard wrote that "he loves movies, not films",[81] and his daughter argued that her father's "worldview is, essentially, a product of the movies of his day. To my father, all Spanish speakers are Puerto Rican washerwomen, or the toothless, grinning gypsy types in a Marx Brothers movie."[82] For other uses, see Gigi (disambiguation). ... The Lady Vanishes is a 1938 film directed by Alfred Hitchcock. ... The 39 Steps is a 1935 film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, based on the adventure novel The Thirty-nine Steps by John Buchan. ... W. C. Fields (January 29, 1880 - December 25, 1946) was an American comedian and actor. ... Laurel and Hardy, in a promotional still from their 1937 feature film Way Out West. ... This article is about the comedian siblings. ...


Margaret also offered many insights into other Salinger myths, including her father's supposed long-time interest in macrobiotics and involvement with alternative medicine and Eastern philosophies. A few weeks after Dream Catcher was published, Margaret's brother Matt discredited the memoir in a letter to The New York Observer. He disparaged his sister's "gothic tales of our supposed childhood" and stated: "I can't say with any authority that she is consciously making anything up. I just know that I grew up in a very different house, with two very different parents from those my sister describes."[83] Macrobiotics (from the Greek macro (large, long) + bio (life)) is a lifetyle that incorporates a dietary regime. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... Matt Salinger playing Captain America Matt Salinger (born February 13, 1960 in Windsor, Vermont) is a D-list actor who starred in the 1991 film Captain America, based on the Marvel Comics character. ... The New York Observer is a weekly newspaper first published in New York City on September 22, 1987 by Arthur L. Carter, a very successful former investment banker with publishing interests. ...


Literary style and themes

In a contributor's note Salinger gave to Harper's Magazine in 1946, he wrote: "I almost always write about very young people", a statement which has been referred to as his credo.[84] Adolescents are featured or appear in all of Salinger's work, from his first published short story, "The Young Folks", to The Catcher in the Rye and his Glass family stories. In 1961, the critic Alfred Kazin explained that Salinger's choice of teenagers as a subject matter was one reason for his appeal to young readers, but another was "a consciousness [among youths] that he speaks for them and virtually to them, in a language that is peculiarly honest and their own, with a vision of things that capture their most secret judgments of the world."[85] Salinger's language, especially his energetic, realistically sparse dialogue, was revolutionary at the time his first stories were published, and was seen by several critics as "the most distinguishing thing" about his work.[86] Harpers redirects here. ... The credo (Latin for I believe; pronounced ) is a statement of religious belief, such as the Nicene Creed (or, less often, another creed, such as the Apostles Creed). ... The Glass family is a group of fictional characters that have been featured in a number of J.D. Salingers short stories. ... Alfred Kazin (June 5, 1915 – June 5, 1998) was an American writer and literary critic, many of whose writings depicted the immigrant experience in early twentieth century America. ...


Salinger identified closely with his characters,[68] and used techniques such as interior monologue, letters, and extended telephone calls to display his gift for dialogue. Such style elements also "[gave] him the illusion of having, as it were, delivered his characters' destinies into their own keeping."[87] Recurring themes in Salinger's stories also connect to the ideas of innocence and adolescence, including the "corrupting influence of Hollywood and the world at large",[88] the disconnect between teenagers and "phony" adults,[88] and the perceptive, precocious intelligence of children.[13]


Contemporary critics discuss a clear progression over the course of Salinger's published work, as evidenced by the increasingly negative reviews received by each of his three post-Catcher story collections.[89][83] Ian Hamilton adheres to this view, arguing that while Salinger's early stories for the "slicks" boasted "tight, energetic" dialogue, they had also been formulaic and sentimental. It took the standards of The New Yorker editors, among them William Shawn, to refine his writing into the "spare, teasingly mysterious, withheld" qualities of "A Perfect Day for Bananafish", The Catcher in the Rye, and his stories of the early 1950s.[90] By the late 1950s, as Salinger became more reclusive and involved in religious study, Hamilton notes that his stories became longer, less plot-driven, and increasingly filled with digression and parenthetical remarks.[91] Louis Menand agrees, writing in The New Yorker that Salinger "stopped writing stories, in the conventional sense.… He seemed to lose interest in fiction as an art form—perhaps he thought there was something manipulative or inauthentic about literary device and authorial control."[13] Margaret Salinger, in her memoir, also cites her father's "beloved" Dostoyevski's The House of the Dead as another influence on her father's existential externalization.[92] Dostoyevski's semi-autobiographical book is about that author's experience serving four years of hard labor at a Siberian gulag, which Dostoyevski himself likened to a living hell. Judging by Salinger's main characters in "Teddy" and "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" in Nine Stories, one can see the influence on those who would rather go to their own death than live a life without, or perhaps a life with too much -- though unwarranted -- purpose. William Shawn (August 31, 1907-December 8, 1992) was an American magazine editor who edited The New Yorker from 1952 until 1987. ... also called parekbasis(in greek) or egressio, digressio, excursio(in latin) Digression is a section of a composition or speech that is an intentional change of subject. ... Louis Menand (first name pronounced lü-E) is a prominent American writer and academic, best known for his book The Metaphysical Club (2001), an intellectual and cultural history of late 19th and early 20th century America. ...


In recent years, Salinger's later work has been defended by some critics; in 2001, Janet Malcolm wrote in The New York Review of Books that "Zooey" "is arguably Salinger's masterpiece.… Rereading it and its companion piece "Franny" is no less rewarding than rereading The Great Gatsby."[83] Janet Malcolm Janet Malcolm (born 1934) is an American writer and journalist on the staff of The New Yorker magazine. ... This article is about the literary magazine. ... This article is about the novel. ...


Influence

Salinger's writing has influenced several prominent writers, prompting Harold Brodkey (himself an O. Henry Award-winning author) to state in 1991: "His is the most influential body of work in English prose by anyone since Hemingway."[93] Of the writers in Salinger's generation, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist John Updike attested that "the short stories of J. D. Salinger really opened my eyes as to how you can weave fiction out of a set of events that seem almost unconnected, or very lightly connected.… [Reading Salinger] stick[s] in my mind as really having moved me a step up, as it were, toward knowing how to handle my own material."[94] The critic Louis Menand has observed that the early stories of Pulitzer Prize-winner Philip Roth were affected by "Salinger's voice and comic timing."[13] Harold Brodkey (October 25, 1930 – January 26, 1996) was an American author. ... The O. Henry Awards are yearly prizes given to short stories of exceptional merit. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... John Hoyer Updike (born March 18, 1932 in Shillington, Pennsylvania) is an American novelist, poet, short story writer and literary critic. ... Louis Menand (first name pronounced lü-E) is a prominent American writer and academic, best known for his book The Metaphysical Club (2001), an intellectual and cultural history of late 19th and early 20th century America. ... Philip Milton Roth (born March 19, 1933, Newark, New Jersey[1]) is a famous American novelist. ...


National Book Award finalist Richard Yates told The New York Times in 1977 that reading Salinger's stories for the first time was a landmark experience, and that "nothing quite like it has happened to me since."[95] Yates describes Salinger as "a man who used language as if it were pure energy beautifully controlled, and who knew exactly what he was doing in every silence as well as in every word." Gordon Lish's O. Henry Award-winning short story "For Jeromé—With Love and Kisses" (1977, collected in What I Know So Far, 1984), is a parody of Salinger's "For Esmé—with Love and Squalor."[96] The National Book Awards is one of the most preeminent literary prizes in the United States. ... Richard Yates (February 3, 1926 - November 7, 1992) was an American novelist and short story writer, a chronicler of mid-20th century mainstream American life, often cited as artistically residing somewhere between J.D. Salinger and John Cheever. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Gordon Jay Lish (born February 11, 1934 in Hewlett, New York) is an American writer. ...


In 2001, Louis Menand wrote in The New Yorker that "Catcher in the Rye rewrites" among each new generation had become "a literary genre all its own."[13] He classed among them Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar (1963), Hunter S. Thompson's Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas (1971), Jay McInerney's Bright Lights, Big City (1984), and Dave Eggers's A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius (2000). The writer Aimee Bender was struggling with her first short stories when a friend gave her a copy of Nine Stories; inspired, she later described Salinger's effect on writers, explaining: "[I]t feels like Salinger wrote The Catcher in the Rye in a day, and that incredible feeling of ease inspires writing. Inspires the pursuit of voice. Not his voice. My voice. Your voice."[97] Authors such as Stephen Chbosky,[98] Carl Hiaasen, Susan Minot,[99] Haruki Murakami, Gwendoline Riley,[100] Tom Robbins, Louis Sachar,[101] Megan McCafferty, and Joel Stein,[102] along with Academy Award-nominated writer-director Wes Anderson, have cited Salinger as an influence. Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short story writer. ... The Bell Jar is American writer Sylvia Plaths only novel, which was originally published under the pseudonym Victoria Lucas in 1963. ... Hunter Stockton Thompson (18 July 1937 – 20 February 2005) was an American journalist and author, famous for his novel Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. ... The hard cover version of the book. ... Jay McInerney (born in 1955 in Hartford, Connecticut and christened John Barrett McInerney, Jr. ... For the 1984 novel, see Bright Lights, Big City (novel). ... Dave Eggers at the 2005 Hay Festival Dave Eggers (born March 12, 1970) is an American writer, editor, and publisher. ... A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius (or AHWoSG) is a memoir by Dave Eggers released in 2000. ... Aimee Bender is an American novelist and short story writer, known for her often fantastic and surreal plots and characters. ... The Perks of Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky Stephen Chbosky (born January 25, 1970) is an American author, editor, screenwriter, and film director. ... Carl Hiaasen (IPA pronunciation: ) (born March 12, 1953) is an American journalist and novelist. ... Susan Minot (b. ... Haruki Murakami , born January 12, 1949) is a popular contemporary Japanese writer and translator. ... Gwendoline Riley is an English writer, born in 1979. ... Tom Robbins at a reading of Wild Ducks Flying Backward in San Francisco on September 24, 2005 Thomas Eugene Robbins (born July 22, 1936 in Blowing Rock, North Carolina) is an American author. ... Louis Sachar (IPA: , or Sacker) (born March 20, 1954) is an American author of childrens books who is best known for the Sideways Stories From Wayside School book series and the 1998 novel Holes, for which Sachar won a National Book Award and the Newbery Medal. ... Megan McCafferty (also known as Megan Fitzmorris McCafferty) is a contemporary U.S. author most known for her series of books about Jessica Darling, a witty teenage heroine. ... Joel Stein at Beverly Hills High School for Career Day, May 16, 2006. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Wesley Wales Anderson (born May 1, 1969) is an American director, writer, and producer of features, short films and commercials. ...


List of works

Books

The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ... Nine Stories book cover Nine Stories (1953) is collection of short stories by American fiction writer J. D. Salinger. ... A Perfect Day for Bananafish is a short story by J. D. Salinger, originally published in the January 31, 1948 issue of The New Yorker. ... The story Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut by J.D. Salinger appears in a collection of short stories by the American author, entitled Nine Stories. ... Just Before the War with the Eskimos is a book by J. D. Salinger and was published in 1948. ... The Laughing Man is a short story written by J. D. Salinger and originally published in The New Yorker magazine on March 19, 1949. ... Down at The Dinghy is a short story by J. D. Salinger that was originally published in Harpers in April of 1949. ... For Esmé with Love and Squalor is a short story by J. D. Salinger. ... A short story written by J.D. Salinger for the New Yorker, collected in his Nine Stories, a. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into J.D. Salinger. ... Teddy is the last story in J.D. Salingers Nine Stories. ... Franny and Zooey is a 1961 pair of stories, published together in book form, by J. D. Salinger, the author best known for The Catcher in the Rye. ...

Published and anthologized stories

  • "Go See Eddie" (1940, republished in Fiction: Form & Experience, ed. William M. Jones, 1969)
  • "The Hang of It" (1941, republished in The Kit Book for Soldiers, Sailors and Marines, 1943)
  • "The Long Debut of Lois Taggett" (1942, republished in Stories: The Fiction of the Forties, ed. Whit Burnett, 1949)
  • "A Boy in France" (1945, republished in Post Stories 1942-45, ed. Ben Hibbs, 1946)
  • "This Sandwich Has No Mayonnaise" (1945, republished in The Armchair Esquire, ed. L. Rust Hills, 1959)
  • "A Girl I Knew" (1948, republished in Best American Short Stories 1949, ed. Martha Foley, 1949)
  • "Slight Rebellion off Madison" (1946, republished in Wonderful Town: New York Stories from The New Yorker, ed. David Remnick, 2000)

Go see Eddie was one of J. D. Salingers first short stories, published in December of 1940 in the Kansas Review. ... Another of Salingers uncollected stories, The Hang of It is a commercial tale of a soldier who just cant seem to get The Hang of It. The positive ending to the story was fitting for the countries upcoming involvement in World War II and popular with the magazines... A uncollected story written by Salinger, The Long Debut of Lois Taggett is the tale of a debutante and her long process of coming out. ... A Boy in France is a short story by J. D. Salinger. ... Slight Rebellion off Madison is a short story written by J.D. Salinger for the December 22, 1946 issue of The New Yorker. ...

Published and unanthologized stories

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Heart of a Broken Story is Salingers satirical story about the products of the slick magazines in the 30s and 40s. ... Personal Notes of an Infantryman is another one of Salingers War stories about an older man trying to get in the military, and then overseas to combat with a surprise ending. ... The Varioni Brothers is a short story dealing with two brothers, one a sensitive artist whos attempts at writing the great American novel are thwarted by the manipulations of his brother who forces him to write music instead of his book. ... Both Parties Concerned is a story of a young couple and their baby. ... Written before he had actually seen combat, Soft-Boiled Sergeant chronicles a young soldiers entry in the military and his contact with a good natured Staff Sergeant he could never forget. ... Last Day of the Last Furlough covers the last days of furlough for Babe Gladwaller before he is shipped off to the war. ... Once a Week Wont Kill You is story by American author Salinger. ... The Stranger is a short story written by J.d. ... Im Crazy is a short story written by J.D. Salinger in 1945 for Colliers magazine. ... Blue Melody is a short story by J. D. Salinger, first published in the September 1948 issue of Cosmopolitan. ... Hapworth 16, 1924 is the youngest of J.D. Salingers Glass Family stories, in the sense that the narrated events happen chronologically before all other Glass stories. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Skow, John. "Sonny: An Introduction", Time, 1961-09-15. Retrieved on 2007-04-12. 
  2. ^ Scovell, Jane (1998). Oona Living in the Shadows: A Biography of Oona O'Neill Chaplin. New York: Warner. ISBN 0-446-51730-5.  p. 87.
  3. ^ a b Sheppard, R.Z. "Trespassers Will Be Prosecuted: In Search of J.D. Salinger by Ian Hamilton", Time, 1988-03-23. Retrieved on 2007-04-14. 
  4. ^ a b Lutz (2001). p. 18.
  5. ^ a b c Yagoda, Ben (2000). About Town: The New Yorker and the World It Made. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-684-81605-9.  pp. 98, 233.
  6. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 58.
  7. ^ Lamb, Robert Paul. "Hemingway and the creation of twentieth-century dialogue - American author Ernest Hemingway" (reprint), Twentieth Century Literature, Winter 1996. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. 
  8. ^ a b c Baker, Carlos (1969). Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. ISBN 0-020-01690-5.  p. 420, 646.
  9. ^ a b Salinger, M (2000). p.55
  10. ^ Hamilton (1988). p. 89.
  11. ^ Lutz (2001). p. 7.
  12. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 55.
  13. ^ a b c d e Menand, Louis. "Holden at Fifty: The Catcher in the Rye and what it spawned" (reprint), The New Yorker, 2001-10-01. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. 
  14. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 67.
  15. ^ a b Alexander (1999). p. 113.
  16. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 359.
  17. ^ a b c Alexander (1999). p. 118-20.
  18. ^ Alexander (1999). p. 120, 164, 204-5.
  19. ^ Alexander (1999). p. 124.
  20. ^ Alexander (1999). p. 130.
  21. ^ a b Crawford (2006). p. 97-99.
  22. ^ a b Hamilton (1988). p. 75.
  23. ^ Fosburgh, Lacey. "Why More Top Novelists Don't Go Hollywood" (fee required), The New York Times, 1976-11-21. Retrieved on 2007-04-06. 
  24. ^ a b c Berg, A. Scott. Goldwyn: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989. ISBN 1-57322-723-4. p. 446.
  25. ^ a b "Depositions Yield J. D. Salinger Details" (fee required), The New York Times, 1986-12-12. Retrieved on 2007-04-14. 
  26. ^ Alexander (1999). p. 142.
  27. ^ a b Whitfield (1997). p. 77.
  28. ^ a b Nandel, Alan. "The Significance of Holden Caulfield's Testimony". Reprinted in Bloom, Harold, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations: J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2000. p. 75–89.
  29. ^ Crawford (2006). p. 4.
  30. ^ Burger, Nash K. "Books of The Times", The New York Times, 1951-07-16. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. 
  31. ^ Whitfield, Stephen J. "Raise High the Bookshelves, Censors!" (book review), The Virginia Quarterly Review, Spring 2002. Retrieved on 2007-11-27. In a review of the book in The Christian Science Monitor, the reviewer found the book unfit "for children to read," writing that they would be influenced by Holden, "as too easily happens when immorality and perversion are recounted by writers of talent whose work is countenanced in the name of art or good intention."
  32. ^ Hamilton (1988). p. 117.
  33. ^ a b Hamilton (1988). p. 155.
  34. ^ a b Whitfield (1997). p. 97.
  35. ^ Whitfield (1997). p. 82, 78.
  36. ^ Yardley, Jonathan. "J.D. Salinger's Holden Caulfield, Aging Gracelessly", The Washington Post, 2004-10-19. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. 
  37. ^ Crowe, Cameron, ed. Conversations with Wilder. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999. ISBN 0-375-40660-3. p. 299.
  38. ^ PAGE SIX; Inside Salinger's Own World. New York Post (2003-12-04). Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  39. ^ a b Maynard (1998). p. 93.
  40. ^ Silverman, Al, ed. The Book of the Month: Sixty Years of Books in American Life. Boston: Little, Brown, 1986. ISBN 0-316-10119-2. pp. 129–130.
  41. ^ Hamilton (1988). p. 53.
  42. ^ Hamilton (1988) p. 64.
  43. ^ Hamilton (1988). p. 127.
  44. ^ a b Hamilton (1988). p. 129.
  45. ^ Ranchan, Som P. (1989). An Adventure in Vedanta: J. D. Salinger's The Glass Family. Delhi: Ajanta. ISBN 81-202-0245-7. 
  46. ^ Hamilton (1988). p. 92.
  47. ^ a b Hamilton (1988). pp. 136-7.
  48. ^ a b Crawford (2006). p. 12-14.
  49. ^ Lutz (2001). p. 30.
  50. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 89.
  51. ^ a b Salinger, M (2000). p. 90.
  52. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 84.
  53. ^ a b c d Salinger, M (2000). p. 94-5.
  54. ^ Smith, Dinitia. "Salinger's Daughter's Truths as Mesmerizing as His Fiction", The New York Times, 2000-08-30. Retrieved on 2007-03-09. 
  55. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 94-5. Mentions Salinger's interest in Christian Science, Edgar Cayce, homeopathy, acupuncture, and macrobiotics.
  56. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 195. Mentions Salinger's interest in fasting and vomiting to remove impurities.
  57. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 219. Mentions Salinger's interest in megadoses of Vitamin C.
  58. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 96. Mentions Salinger's interest in urine therapy, glossolalia, and orgone energy.
  59. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 115.
  60. ^ a b Salinger, M (2000). p. 115-116.
  61. ^ "People", Time, 1961-08-04. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  62. ^ Lutz (2001). p. 35.
  63. ^ a b Alexander, Paul. "J. D. Salinger’s Women", New York, 1998-02-09. Retrieved on 2007-04-12. 
  64. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 361-2.
  65. ^ Maynard (1998). p. 158.
  66. ^ Pollitt, Katha. "With Love and Squalor", The New York Times, 1998-09-13. Retrieved on 2007-04-14. 
  67. ^ Fosburgh, Lacey. "J. D. Salinger Speaks About His Silence", The New York Times, 1974-11-03. Retrieved on 2007-04-12. 
  68. ^ a b Maynard (1998). p. 97.
  69. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 307.
  70. ^ Lutz (2001). p. 33.
  71. ^ Crawford (2006). p. 79.
  72. ^ a b Lubasch, Arnold H. "Salinger Biography is Blocked", The New York Times, 1987-01-30. Retrieved on 2007-04-14. 
  73. ^ Alexander, Paul. "J. D. Salinger’s Women", New York, 1998-02-09. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.  The 1998 article mentions that "the couple has been 'married for about ten years.'"
  74. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 108.
  75. ^ Circular 38a of the U.S. Copyright Office
  76. ^ a b Mckinley, Jesse. "Iranian Film Is Canceled After Protest By Salinger", The New York Times, 1998-11-21. Retrieved on 2007-04-05. 
  77. ^ Lutz (2001). p. 42-3.
  78. ^ "Salinger letters bring $156,500 at auction", CNN, 1999-06-22. Retrieved on 2007-04-12. 
  79. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 55.
  80. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 7.
  81. ^ Maynard (1998). p. 94.
  82. ^ Salinger, M (2000). p. 195.
  83. ^ a b c Malcolm, Janet. "Justice to J. D. Salinger", The New York Review of Books, 2001-06-21. Retrieved on 2007-04-16. 
  84. ^ Whitfield (1997). p. 96.
  85. ^ Kazin, Alfred. "J.D. Salinger: "Everybody's Favorite"," The Atlantic Monthly 208.2, Aug. 1961. Rpt. in Bloom, Harold, ed. (2001) Bloom's BioCritiques: J. D. Salinger. Philadelphia: Chelsea House. ISBN 0-7910-6175-2.  pp. 67-75.
  86. ^ Shuman, R. Baird, ed. Great American Writers: Twentieth Century. Vol. 13. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2002. 14 vols. p. 1308.
  87. ^ Hamilton (1988). p. 70.
  88. ^ a b Mondloch, Helen. "Squalor and Redemption: The Age of Salinger," The World & I. SIRS Knowledge Source: SIRS Renaissance. Nov. 2003. Retrieved on 2004-04-02.
  89. ^ Lutz (2001). p. 34.
  90. ^ Hamilton (1988). p. 105-6.
  91. ^ Hamilton (1988). p. 188.
  92. ^ Salinger (2000). p. 424-425.
  93. ^ Brozan, Nadine. "Chronicle", The New York Times, 1991-04-27. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. 
  94. ^ Osen, Diane. "Interview with John Updike", The National Book Foundation. 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  95. ^ Yates, Richard. "Writers' Writers" (fee required), The New York Times, 1977-12-04. Retrieved on 2007-10-24. Relevant passage is excerpted on richardyates.org.
  96. ^ Gordon Lish Criticism
  97. ^ Bender, Aimee. "Holden Schmolden." Kotzen, Kip, and Thomas Beller, ed. With Love and Squalor: 14 Writers Respond to the Work of J.D. Salinger. New York: Broadway, 2001. ISBN 978-076-790799-6. pp. 162-9.
  98. ^ Beisch, Ann. "Interview with Stephen Chbosky, author of The Perks of Being a Wallflower", LA Youth, November-December 2001. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  99. ^ "What Authors Influenced You?", Authorsontheweb.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. Both Hiaasen and Minot cite him as an influence here.
  100. ^ "You have to trawl the depths", The Guardian, 2007-04-25. Retrieved on 2007-12-26.
  101. ^ "Author Bio", Louis Sachar's Official Web Site, 2002. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
  102. ^ Stein, Joel. "The Yips." Kotzen, Kip, and Thomas Beller, ed. With Love and Squalor: 14 Writers Respond to the Work of J.D. Salinger. New York: Broadway, 2001. ISBN 978-076-790799-6. pp. 170-6.

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References

  • Alexander, Paul (1999). Salinger: A Biography. Los Angeles: Renaissance. ISBN 1-58063-080-4. 
  • Bloom, Harold (1990). Holden Caulfield. New York: Chelsea House. ISBN 079100953X. 
  • Crawford, Catherine (editor) (2006). If You Really Want to Hear About It: Writers on J. D. Salinger and His Work. New York: Thunder's Mouth. ISBN 978-1560258803. 
  • Hamilton, Ian (1988). In Search of J. D. Salinger. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-53468-9. 
  • Kubica, Chris; Hochman, Will (2002). Letters to J. D. Salinger. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-17800-5. 
  • Lutz, Norma Jean (2001). "Biography of J.D. Salinger", in Bloom, Harold, ed.: Bloom's BioCritiques: J. D. Salinger. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, pp. 3–44. ISBN 0-7910-6175-2. 
  • Maynard, Joyce (1998). At Home in the World. New York: Picador. ISBN 0-312-19556-7. 
  • Salinger, Margaret (2000). Dream Catcher: A Memoir. New York: Washington Square Press. ISBN 0-671-04281-5. 
  • Whitfield, Stephen J. (Dec 1997). "Cherished and Cursed: Toward a Cultural History of The Catcher in the Rye,". The New England Quarterly 70 (4): 567–600. doi:10.2307/366646.  Reprinted in Bloom, Harold (editor) (2001). Bloom's BioCritiques: J. D. Salinger. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, pp. 77–105. ISBN 0-7910-6175-2. 

Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... Robert Ian Hamilton (24 March 1938 - 27 December 2001) was a British literary critic, reviewer, biographer, poet, magazine editor and publisher. ... Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... Cover of Looking Back Daphne Joyce Maynard (November 5, 1953 - ) is an American writer who became famous for her relationship with J. D. Salinger. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
J. D. Salinger
  • The Letters to J. D. Salinger Web Site.
  • The J. D. Salinger "Bananafish" discussion list.
  • Implied meanings in J. D. Salinger stories and reverting (from http://www.tversu.ru/Science/Hermeneutics/1998-2.html )
  • Salinger.org - A Fan site
  • Dead Caulfields. The early life and work of J.D. Salinger
  • 1988 Audio Interview with Ian Hamilton, author of In Search of J. D. Salinger - RealAudio at Wired for Books.
Persondata
NAME Salinger, J. D.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Salinger, Jerome David
SHORT DESCRIPTION American novelist and writer
DATE OF BIRTH January 1, 1919 (1919-01-01) (age 89)
PLACE OF BIRTH Manhattan, New York
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Wired for Books <http://wiredforbooks. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ...

 
 

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