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Encyclopedia > Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Jöns Jakob Berzelius

Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 - August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist, who invented modern chemical notation and is considered one of the fathers of modern chemistry (along with John Dalton and Antoine Lavoisier). Berzelius discovered the elements silicon, selenium, thorium, and cerium. He was inducted into the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1808, and became a member of the Swedish Academy in 1837. The copyright status of this old image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Chemistry (in Greek: χημεία) is the science of matter and its interactions with energy and itself (see physics, biology). ... John Dalton (September 6, 1766–July 27, 1844) was a British chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Series metalloid Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 3, p Density, Hardness 2330 kg/m3, 6. ... General Name, Symbol, Number selenium, Se, 34 Series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16 (VIA), 4, p Density, Hardness 4790 kg/m3(300K), 2 Appearance grey, metallic lustre Atomic properties Atomic weight 78. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Transition metals Period, Block 7 , f Density, Hardness 11724 kg/m3, 3. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series Lanthanides Group, Period, Block _ , 6, d Density, Hardness 6689 kg/m3, 2. ... The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or , founded in 1739 by King Frederick I, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Swedish Academy or Svenska Akademien, founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. ... 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Trained as a medical doctor at the Uppsala University, in 1802 he became a teacher, from 1807 professor, in medicine and surgery at the Stockholm School of Surgery. In 1810 the school became a part of Medico-Kirurgiska institutet, the predecessor to the Karolinska Institute, and Berzelius was appointed professor in chemistry and pharmacy. Not long after arriving to Stockholm he wrote a chemistry textbook for his medical students, from which point a long and fruitful career in chemistry began. While conducting experiments in support of the textbook he discovered the law of constant proportions, which showed that inorganic substances are composed of different elements in constant proportions by weight. From this, by 1828 he compiled a table of the relative atomic weights (with oxygen set to 100) of all elements then known. Taken together, this work was a strong confirmation of the atomic hypothesis; that inorganic chemical compounds were composed of atoms combining in whole number amounts. In discovering that the atomic weights were also not integer multiples of hydrogen's, Berzelius also disproved Prout's hypothesis that elements were built up from atoms of hydrogen. Berzelius in 1838 discovered proteins. Uppsala University Uppsala University (Swedish Uppsala universitet) is a public university in Uppsala, Sweden. ... 1802 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Karolinska Institute or Karolinska institutet is a medical university in Stockholm, Sweden. ... One of the fundamental observations of modern chemistry, the law of definite proportions states that, in a pure compound, the elements combine in definite proportions to each other. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Prouts hypothesis was an early 19th century attempt to explain the existence of the various chemical elements through a hypothesis regarding the internal structure of the atom. ... 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


In order to aid his experiments, he developed a system of chemical notation in which the elements were given simple written labels -- such as O for oxygen, or Fe for iron -- and proportions were noted with numbers. This is the same basic system as is used today, the only difference being that where we would use a subscript number (i.e., H2O), Berzelius would use a superscript. General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metal Group, Period, Block 8 (VIIIB), 4, d Density, Hardness 7874 kg/m3, 4. ...


A biography on Jac. Berzelius - his life and work was written by J. Erik Jorpes and published in 1966 and 1970 (originally in Swedish, first published in 1949).


External links

  • Publications (http://runeberg.org/authors/jjberzel.html) - at Project Runeberg
  • Free eBook of Nova Analysis Aquarum Medeviensium (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/10054) at Project Gutenberg

 
 

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