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Encyclopedia > Iyer
Iyer
Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavathar, a prominent Iyer vocalist
Total population

1901:415,931[1]
2004:< 2,400,000 (Estimated)[2][3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (519x725, 223 KB) This image is mine, and I release all rights to it. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (519x725, 223 KB) This image is mine, and I release all rights to it. ... Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar (Malayalam ചെമ്പൈ വൈദ്യനാഥ ഭാഗവതര്‍‍) was an Indian Carnatic music singer from the state of Kerala. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Regions with significant populations
Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh
Language(s)
Mother tongue is Tamil with unique Iyer dialects. Knowledge of Sanskrit for religious reasons.
Religion(s)
Hinduism
Related ethnic groups
Pancha-Dravida Brahmins, Tamil people

Iyers (Tamil : அய்யர் Malayalam:അയ്യര) also called Sastri[4], Sarma or Bhattar is the name given to Hindu Brahmins of Tamil or Telugu origin who are followers of the Advaita philosophy propounded by Adi Shankara[5]. They are found mostly in Tamil Nadu as they are generally native to the Tamil country. But they are also found in significant numbers in Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka. Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Andhra redirects here. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Brahmin communities in India are traditionally divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins according to the following shloka found in the Rajatarangini of Kalhana (12th century): The Karnatakas, Tailangas, Dravidas, Maharashtrakas and Gurjaras; these five (-types who- ) live south of Vindhya (- mountains) are (called-) Dravida... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ...


The name 'Iyer' originated in the medieval period when different sects of Brahmins residing in the then Tamil country organized themselves as a single community. A breakaway sect of Sri Vaishnavas later formed a new community called "Iyengars".


Iyers fall under the Pancha Dravida Brahmin sub-classification of India's Brahmin community and follow the same customs and traditions as other Brahmins. In recent times, they have been affected by reservation policies [6] and the Self-Respect Movement in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Brahmin communities in India are traditionally divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins according to the following shloka found in the Rajatarangini of Kalhana (12th century): The Karnatakas, Tailangas, Dravidas, Maharashtrakas and Gurjaras; these five (-types who- ) live south of Vindhya (- mountains) are (called-) Dravida... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...

Contents

Origins

Iyers are South Indian Brahmins who reside in the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Iyers are predominantly Smarthas or followers of the Smriti texts[7][8]. The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Andhra redirects here. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... Smartism[1], (or Smarta Sampradaya, Smarta Tradition, as termed in Sanskrit), is a denomination of the Hindu religion. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ...


The term Iyer is derived from the term Ayya which is often used by Tamils to designate respectable people. The word Ayya is a Prakrit version of the Sanskrit word 'Arya' which means 'noble'.[9][10][11] Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Ārya is a Sanskrit (आर्य) and Avestan word used by Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians, and Buddhists. ... Look up Noble in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Noble can refer to: Nobility, a hereditary caste Nobel Prize, awarded to people who have made outstanding contributions to society Noble gas, chemical elements in group 18 (old-style Group 0) of the periodic table Noble metal, metals that are resistant to...


The origin of Iyers, like other South-Indian Brahmin communities, is shrouded in mystery. There have been evidences of Brahmin presence in the southern states even prior to the Sangam Age. However, it is generally believed that they were few in number and that most Iyers migrated from other parts of India at a later stage. According to some sources, these early inhabitants comprised mostly of priests who ministered in temples known as "Gurukkals". Large scale migrations are generally believed to have occurred between 200 and 1600 AD and most Iyers are believed to have descended from these migrants.[12][13][14][15]. However, this theory has come under attack in recent times from historians and anthropologists who question the validity of this theory due to lack of evidence.[16][17][18][19][20][21] According to the Sangam legends first described in the Irayanaar Agapporul and a commentary to it by Nakkirar (c. ... Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... // Gurukkal or Sivacharya or Adisaiva Brahmins Orgins A sub-sect of Vadamas not recognized as one amongst them and whose duties are to worship at temples. ...


During the early medieval period, when Ramanuja founded Vaishnavism many Iyers adopted the new philosophical affiliation and were called Iyengars.[22][23] Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... Vaishnavism is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism, and is distinguished from other schools by its primary worship of Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... Iyengar (or Aiyangar) is the name of a community of Tamil Brahmins of South India whose members subscribe to the Visishtadvaita philosophy codified by Ramanuja. ...


Iyers and the Aryan Invasion Theory

See also: Indo-Aryan Migration and Aryan Invasion Theory (history and controversies)

Iyer men and women are generally fairer in complexion to the average Tamilian [24][25] and this, along with the meaning of the word "Iyer" itself are regarded as sufficient evidences of an "Aryan origin" for Tamil Brahmins.[26] Moreover, some Iyer communities pay homage to the river Narmada instead of the South Indian river Cauvery in their rituals [27] and revere legends proposing a northern origin for their community. This issue is still being debated and researched by anthropologists, linguists and archaeologists alike. However, regardless of whether the "Aryan theory" of origin for Iyers is true or not, still it has often been a burning political issue in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Indo-Aryan migration is a hypothesis, based on linguistic evidence, regarding the expansion of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages following the breakup of Proto-Indo-Iranian and the subsequent Indo-Iranian expansion out of Central Asia (Mallory 1989). ... This article is about historical, ideological and socio-political aspects of this controversy. ...


Recent genetic studies amongst Iyers of Madurai reveal close proximity to populations from Eurasian steppes of Central Asia.[28][29] However, the sharing of some haplotypes between the Iyers and some Southeast Asian populations suggests a migration through Southeast Asia to India.[30] When genetic analysis of South Asians was performed while discarding caste-based ramifications, it was observed that South Indians, in general had lesser genetic affinity with Central Asian people than the inhabitants of North India overall and the mitochondrial DNA (maternal) of Indian caste and tribal populations all emerged from the same source.[31][18][32] Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a city population of 922,913 according to 2001 census. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... Mother with her child (Sculpture) A mother is typically the biological or social female parent of a child or offspring while the male parent is the father. ... Tribal refers to a culture or society based on tribes or clans. ...


Population and distribution

Today, Iyers live all over South India, but an overwhelming majority of Iyers continue to thrive in Tamil Nadu. Tamil Brahmins form an estimated 3% of the state's total population and are distributed all over the state[2]. However, accurate statistics on the population of the Iyer community is unavailable[2]. The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


They are concentrated mainly along the Cauvery Delta districts of Mayiladuthurai, Thanjavur and Tiruchirapalli where they form almost 10% of the total population[1]. In Northern Tamil Nadu they are found in the urban areas of Chennai, Kanchipuram, Chengalpattu, Sriperumbudur and Vellore. They are almost non-existent in rural parts. The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ... Districts are a form of local government in several countries. ... Mayiladuthurai (formerly Mayuram or Mayavaram) is a city and a municipality in Nagapattinam district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Thanjavur district is one of the 30 districts of the state of Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Tiruchirapalli District Map Tiruchirapalli District (also known as Tiruchchirapalli District) is located along the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu India. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Madras redirects here. ... , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Chingleput or Chengalpattu is a city in northern Tamil Nadu state of India. ... Sriperumbudur, located in proximity to Chennai, is a town in Kanchipuram district of Tamilnadu, India. ... , Vellore   (Tamil: வேலூர்), is a town and a municipality in Vellore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ...


Iyers are also found in fairly appreciable number in Western and Southern districts of Tamil Nadu. Iyers of the far south are called Tirunelveli Iyers and speak the Tirunelveli Brahmin dialect. The most prominent Tirunelveli Iyer was Subramanya Bharathy, often regarded as the "national poet of Tamil Nadu". In Coimbatore, there are a large number of Kerala Iyers from Palakkad. , Tirunelveli (Tamil: ) is a Municipal Corporation, sixth largest city in Tamil Nadu(After Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Trichy and Salem)in southern India and the district headquarter of Tirunelveli district. ... Mahakavi Bharathi 1882-1921 Subramanya Bharathi (December 11, 1882 - September 11, 1921) better known as Mahakavi Bharathiar (Maha Kavi meaning Great Poet) in Tamil, is deemed one of the greatest poets of twentieth-century India. ... Many nations have adopted a poet who is perceived to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of their culture. ... , Coimbatore (Tamil: ), also known as Kovai (Tamil: ), is a major industrial city in India and the second largest city in the state of Tamil Nadu. ...


Telugu-speaking Smartha Brahmins, especially of the Mulukanadu sect, often identify themselves as Iyers. They are found all along coastal Andhra Pradesh and North Tamil Nadu. The fall of the Vijayanagar Empire in 1565 prompted large scale migrations from Vijayanagar as thousands of Telugu Brahmins moved southwards and settled in the districts of Tamil Nadu.[33] There were also periodic migrations from the southern districts of Andhra Pradesh during the 19th and early 20th centuries when Southern and Eastern districts of Andhra Pradesh were parts of Madras province.Savant Tyagaraja, the Paramacharya of the Kanchi mutt and singer S.P.Balasubramanyam are prominent Iyers of Telugu origin. // Introduction The term Smartha refers to those who accept and profess the Advaitha or non-dualistic philosophy propounded by Sri Adi Shankaracharya. ... // Introduction The Mulukanadu community is a caste of Telugu speaking Vaidiki Smartha Brahmins. ... Andhra redirects here. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Sri Tyagaraja (శ్రీ త్యాగరాజ) (17??-1848), an ardent devotee of Sri Ramachandra, was one of the most important composers of Carnatic music. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sripathi Panditaradhyula Balasubrahmanyam, (Telugu:బాల సుబ్రమణ్యం) is a prolific Indian singer. ...


Subsects

Iyers have many sub-sects among them, such as Vadama, Brahacharanam, Vathima, Sholiyar or Chozhiar , Ashtasahasram, Mukkani and Gurukkal.[34][35] Each sub-sect is further subdivided according to the village or region of origin. Vadama (Northerners) is a sub group of the Iyers who are believed to have originated in the regions north of the Tamil Kingdoms. ... A group of people who belongs to Hindu brahmin community. ... Sholiyar or Choliyal or Chozhiars a subsect of Iyer or Iyengars [சோழியர்] சோழிய குல அந்தணர் These group of Brahmins are mainly Purohits, Advisers to the King, Landlords, Astrologers , Temple Priests and Many are Carnatic musicians. ... Sholiyar or Choliyal or Chozhiars a subsect of Iyer or Iyengars [சோழியர்] சோழிய குல அந்தணர் These group of Brahmins are mainly Purohits, Advisers to the King, Landlords, Astrologers , Temple Priests and Many are Carnatic musicians. ... // Gurukkal or Sivacharya or Adisaiva Brahmins Orgins A sub-sect of Vadamas not recognized as one amongst them and whose duties are to worship at temples. ...


Iyers are also divided into different sects based on the Veda they follow. Iyers belonging to the Yajur Veda sect usually follow the teachings of the Krishna Yajur Veda.[36] Veda redirects here. ... The Yajur Veda यजुर्वेद is one of the four Hindu Vedas; it contains religious texts focussing on liturgy and ritual. ...


The sect of Sivacharya or Gurukkal form the hereditary priesthood or in the Siva and Sakthi temples in Tamil Nadu[12][37]. They are Saivites and adhere to the philosophy of Shaiva Siddhanta. They are well versed in Agama Sasthras and follow the Agamic rituals of these temples. This article needs cleanup. ...


The Mukkani sub-sect of Iyers are traditionally helpers to the priests in the temples of Thiruchendur. Legend has it that the Mukkanis were the bhoothaganas, the demon bodyguards of Lord Siva and that they were given the responsibility for guarding Subrahmanya's shrines by Siva.[38]. The Mukkanis predominantly subscribe to the Rig Veda. Thiruchendur is a town in the district of Tirunelveli of Tamil Nadu, located 55 km south-east of Tirunelveli and 75 km north-east of Kanyakumari. ... Lord Åšiva. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ...


Gotra or Lineage

See Also: Brahmin gotra system This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Iyers, like all other Brahmins, trace their paternal ancestors to one of the eight rishis or sages.[39][40] Accordingly they are classified into eight gotras based on the rishi they have descended from. A maiden in the family belongs to gotra of her father, but upon marriage takes the gotra of her husband. A rishi (Sanskrit ऋषि: ) is a Hindu saint or sage and in its most strict canonical sense denotes a Vedic sage to whom Vedic hymns were originally revealed. // A Rishi is a person who can hold and transmit knowledge in the form of Light. ... A gotra is the lineage or clan assigned to a Hindu at birth. ...


Migrations

Migration to West Bengal

The oldest recorded migration of Tamil Brahmins is to West Bengal. They are known as Dākṣiṇātyas amongst Vaidika Brahmins. See Bengali Brahmins. , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Bengali Brahmins are those Brahmins who traditionally reside in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, currently comprising the Indian state of West Bengal, and Bangladesh. ...


Though the date of migration is being debated, the general opinion is that they migrated during the period of the Senas.[41] It is also possible that they arrived in the train of the Chola armies during Rajendra Chola's invasion which took place between 1021 and 1024 C.E. See Mahipala. Some historians have reported that the Adi Sura (Vira sena) who is supposed to have brought the five Brahmin families to Bengal was himself a Tamil Brahmin. The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... // Events Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, sixth Fatimid Caliph of Egypt disappears on a trip to al-Muqattam hills. ... This article is about the year. ... Mahipala I (c. ...


Migration to Karanataka

Over the last few centuries, a large number of Iyers have also migrated and settled in parts of Karnataka. The erstwhile Mysore state had been home to a significantly large Mulukanadu community. During the rule of the Mysore Maharajahs, a large number of Iyers from the then Madras province migrated to Mysore. The Ashtagrama Iyers are also a prominent group of Iyers in Karnataka[42]. , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... The Kingdom of Mysore was one of the three largest princely states within the erstwhile British Empire of India. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... The Ashtagrama Iyers are a group of Vadama Iyers or South Indian Brahmins with their roots in the Ashtagrama situated in the Kolar district of Karnataka // In the early 16th century few of the Iyers from the North Arcot and the Tanjavur districts of Tamil Nadu migrated to the Ashtagrama...


Migrations to Kerala

A series of large-scale migrations of Iyers from the Tamil country into Kerala over the past few centuries has created a 'Kerala Iyer' community[43][44]. According to anthropologists, two streams of migration actually took place: See Anthropology. ...

, Tirunelveli (Tamil: ) is a Municipal Corporation, sixth largest city in Tamil Nadu(After Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Trichy and Salem)in southern India and the district headquarter of Tirunelveli district. ... Ramanathapuram, also known as Ramnad is a town in Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ... Districts are a form of local government in several countries. ... A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , For the district with the same name, see Kozhikode District. ... Thanjavur, also known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Palakkad Iyers are Brahmin Tamilians who are believed to have migrated from the State of Tamil Nadu centuries ago. ...

Iyers in Travancore and Cochin regions

A majority of the Iyers living in the historic Travancore and Cochin regions of Kerala are the descendents of 18th century migrants from the former Pandya kingdom and the Madras Presidency[43][45]. However, Iyers were neither considered eligible nor allowed to officiate as priests in the temples of Kerala as the priests in these parts practised 'Tantra Vidhi'- a very complex system of Tantric rites monopolized by the Namboothris[10]. The only exception is the district of Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu which was formerly a part of Travancore state. Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Tantric can refer to: Tantric yoga, also known as tantra The Louisville, KY hard rock band Tantric This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Namboothiris (Malayalam :നമ്പൂതിരി)are the Brahmins of Kerala, thought to be the most orthodox brahmins in India. ... Kanyakumari District (also spelt Kanniyakumari or Kanniakumari District) is a district of Tamil Nadu state, India and also the southernmost land area and district of mainland India. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ...


Due to their skill in culinary art, Iyers were initially employed mostly as cooks. They are generally credited with having introduced Tamil delicacies as idli, sambhar, dosa and vadai in Kerala. However, with the passage of time, Iyers entered administrative and commercial professions as well. The first prominent member of the Iyer community in Kerala was Ramayyan Dalawa, who was the Prime Minister (Dewan or Dalawa) of Travancore State during the reign of Raja Marthanda Varma. Other prominent Iyers from Kerala include C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, Malayattoor Ramakrishnan, V. R. Krishna Iyer and T. N. Seshan. Food from plant sources Food is any substance normally eaten or drunk by living organisms. ... The idli (IPA:), also romanized idly or iddly, is a steamed rice cake popular throughout South India. ... Sambar may refer to: Sambar, a kind of deer Sambar, a lentil-based dish common in South India This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the term as used in Ayurveda, see Dosha. ... A vadai (left center), served with an idli, coconut chutney and sambar. ... Ramayyan was the Dewan of Travancore state, India, during 1737 and 1756 and was responsible for the consolidation and expansion of that kingdom under the rule of Maharajah Marthanda Varma Kulasekhara Perumal, the maker of Modern Travancore. ... Marthanda Varma (1706 - 1758) was the son of the Rani of Attingal. ... Sir C.P. Ramaswami Aiyar. ... Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer (1877-1949) (Malayalam: ഉള്ളൂര്‍ എസ്. പരമേശ്വരയ്യര്‍) also known as Ulloor , was a famous Malayalam poet and a noted historian. ... Malayattoor Ramakrishnan(1927-1997) was a prominent Malayali novelist of the 20th century. ... Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer was born in the district of Palakkad now in Kerala, India, 14/11/1915. ... This biographical article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Tamil Brahmins have fully integrated into Kerala society even while retaining their ancestral traditions. Their mother tongue is a dialect of Tamil heavily influenced by Malayalam vocabulary. Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ...


Palakkad Iyers

Iyers who migrated to the Palakkad district from the Chola kingdom to serve in the temples of Kerala are known as Palakkad Iyers. From the very beginning, the Palakkad Iyers were endowed with grants of land and were pretty well-off compared to the Travancore and Cochin Iyers. They also officiated in temples as priests. The Palakkad Iyers resided in agraharams[46][47] . Those who established themselves in the interior parts of Kerala lived in houses known as 'Madom'[47][48]. , Sri Killikkurussi Mahadeva Kshetram ( Shiva temple of Killikkurussimangalam). ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Palakkad Iyers are Brahmin Tamilians who are believed to have migrated from the State of Tamil Nadu centuries ago. ... The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ... Agraharams are clusters of houses in a village where Brahmins live. ...


The Palakkad Iyers were greatly affected by the Kerala Agrarian Relations Bill, 1957 (repealed in 1961 and substituted by The Kerala Land Reforms Act, 1963) which abolished the tenancy system.[49] A tenant farmer is one who resides on and farms land owned by a landlord. ...


Migrations to Sri Lanka

According to a primary source called Mahavamsa, Brahmins in general are known in written Sri Lankan history from the beginnings of Indic migrations to the island from about 500 BCE. Currently Tamil Brahmins are an important part of the Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group in Sri Lanka.[50] Tamil Brahmins played an important historic role in the formation of the Jaffna Kingdom circa thirteenth century.[51] (See Aryacakravarti dynasty)[52] In historical scholarship, a primary source is a document, or other source of information that was created at or near the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. ... The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ... see Sri Lankan Tamils ... The remains of the facade of a Dutch building. ...


Recent Migrations

Apart from South India, Iyers have also migrated to and settled in places in North India. There are significantly large Iyer communities in Mumbai, Kolkata, Orissa and Delhi. These migrations, which commenced during the British rule, were often undertaken in search of better prospects and contributed to the prosperity of the community[6]. The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


In recent times Iyers have also migrated in large numbers to the United Kingdom, Europe and the USA in search of better fortune. They are one of the fastest growing Asian communities in the US. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


Religious Practices, Ceremonies and Festivals

Rituals

Iyer rituals comprise rites as described in Hindu scriptures such as Apastamba Sutra attributed to Apastamba. The most important rites are the shodasa samskaras or the 17 essential Saṃskāra. Although many rites and rituals that were practiced in ancient times are no longer followed, some traditions are continued to this day[53][54] Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ... Apastamba (c. ... Apastamba (c. ... Samskaram (Sanskrit accomplishment, embellishment, consecration; Hindi Sanskar) is a word used in both Hinduism and Sikhism for special event in life. ...

Iyers from South India performing the Sandhya Vandhanam, 1913

Iyers are initiated into rituals at the time of birth. In ancient times, rituals used to be performed when the baby was being separated from mother's umbilical cord. This ceremony is known as Jatakarma[55]. However, this practice is no longer observed. At birth, a horoscope is made for the child based on the position of the stars. The child is then given a ritual name with a grand Hindu ritual[56]. On the child's birthday (especially the first one) a Hindu ritual is performed to ensure longevity. This ritual is known as Ayushya Homam. This ceremony is held on the child's birthday reckoned as per the Tamil calendar based on the position of the nakshatras or stars and not the Gregorian calendar[56]. The child's first birthday is the most important and is the time when the baby is formally initiated by piercing the ears of the boy or girl. From that day onwards a girl is expected to wear earrings.[57] Image File history File links Brahmins_ablution. ... Image File history File links Brahmins_ablution. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... A horoscope calculated for January 1, 2000 at 12:01:00 A.M. Eastern Standard Time in New York City, New York, USA (Longitude: 074W0023 - Latitude: 40N4251). In astrology, a horoscope is a chart or diagram representing the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, the astrological aspects, and... Homas are small scale pujas in which different offerings are put into fire under the supervision of a Vedic Purohit chanting special mantras. ... A nakshatra (Devanagari: नक्षत्र) or lunar mansion is one of the 27 or 28 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, that the Moon passes through during its monthly cycle, as used in Hindu astronomy and astrology. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ...


A second initiation (for the male child in particular) follows when the child crosses the age of seven. This is the Upanayana ceremony during which a Brahmana is said to be reborn. A three-piece cotton thread is installed around the torso of the child encompassing the whole length of his body from the left shoulder to the right hip. The Upanayana ceremony of initiation is solely performed for the members of the dvija castes, generally when the individual is between 7 and 16 years of age.[58][59] In ancient times, the Upanayana was often considered as the ritual which marked the commencement of a boy's education, which in those days, comprised mostly of the study of the Vedas. However, with the Brahmins taking to other vocations than priesthood, this initiation has become more of a symbolic ritual these days.The neophyte was expected to perform the Sandhya Vandanam ritual[60][61] and utter a prescribed set of prayers, three times a day: dawn, mid-day, and dusk. The most sacred and prominent of the prescribed set of prayers is the Gayatri Mantra,[62] which is as sacred to the Hindus as the Kalima to the Muslims and Ahunwar to the Zoroastrians. Once a year (usually in the month of August or September) Iyers change their sacred thread. This ritual is exclusive to South Indian Brahmimns and the day is commemorated as 'Avani Avittam'. Upanayana is a Hindu samskara for children of the three highest castes. ... The Sanskrit word denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessivenes . ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ... This article is about the body part. ... Bones of the Hip In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur, known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... Dvija (sanskrit) means one who is twice born. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... A vocation is an occupation, either professional or voluntary, that is seen to those who carry it out as offering more than simply financial reward. ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... Look up neophyte in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gayatri (gāyatrī) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ... Kalima does not render you a Muslim- it is a bunch of words meaning nothing. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Ahuna Vairya is the Avestan language name of the most sacred of the Gathic hymns of the Avesta, the revered texts of Zoroastrianism. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...


Other important ceremonies for Iyers include the rites for the deceased. All Iyers are cremated according to Vedic rites, usually within a day of the individual's death[63]. The death rites include a 13-day ceremony, and regular Tarpanam[64](performed every month thereafter, on Amavasya day, or New Moon Day), for the ancestors. There is also a yearly shraarddha[65], that must be performed. These rituals are expected to be performed only by male descendants of the deceased. Married men who perform this ritual must be accompanied by their wives. The women are symbolically important in the ritual to give a "consent" to all the proceedings in it[66]. This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Tarpanam refers to the the offerings made to an individuals ancestors accrding to the method prescribed by the vedas. ... Amavasya - A Hindu Custom Amavasya is nothing but the no-moon day. ... Shraadh is a Sanskrit word which literally means anything done with sincerity and faith (shraddha is the Sanskrit word for faith). ...


Festivals

Iyers celebrate almost all Hindu festivals like Deepavali, Navratri, Pongal, Vinayaka Chaturthi, Janmāshtami, Tamil New Year, Sivarathri and Karthika Deepam. Diwali taking place in a rural area Dīpãvali (also transliterated Deepavali; Sanskrit: row of lights) or Diwãli (contracted spelling) is the Hindu festival of lights, held on the final day of the Vikram calendar, one type of a Hindu calendar that is followed by North Indians. ... It has been suggested that Dasara be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Pongal festival. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ganesh Chaturthi. ... Janmashtami (जन्माष्टमी) or Krishna Janmashtami, also known as Gokulashtami and Sree Jayanti, is a Hindu festival celebrating the birth of Lord Krishna, the eighth avatar (incarnation) of Vishnu. ... Tamil New Year is celebrated after the vernal equinox. ... Sivarathri or Shivarathri is an important day for the worshippers of Lord Shiva. ...


However, the most important festival which is exclusive to Brahmins of South India is the Avani Avittam festival.[67][68]


Weddings

A typical Iyer wedding consists of Sumangali Prārthanai (Hindu prayers for prosperous married life) , Nāndi (homage to ancestors), Nischayadhārtham (Engagement) and Mangalyadharanam (tying the knot). This is a highly ritualistic affair. The main ritualistic events of an Iyer marriage include Vratam (fasting), Kasi Yatra (pilgrimage to Kasi), Oonjal (Swing), Kanyadanam (placing the bride in the groom's care), Mangalyadharanam, Pānigrahanam and Saptapathi (or seven steps - the final and most important stage wherein the bride takes seven steps supported by the groom's palms thereby finalizing their union). This is usually followed by Nalangu, which is a casual and informal event.[69]


Lifestyle and Culture

Traditional Iyer Ethics

A traditional-looking Iyer -- M.V.Sivan, a prominent vocalist from the 19th century
A traditional-looking Iyer -- M.V.Sivan, a prominent vocalist from the 19th century

Iyers are generally orthodox Hindus who adhere steadfastly to their customs and traditions. However, of recent, they have started leaving their traditional priestly duties for more secular vocations, causing contemporary Iyers to be more flexible than their parents and grandparents. They followed the Manusmriti (Hindu Code of Laws or The Institutes of Manu) and the Grihya Sutras of Apastamba and Baudhayana. The society is patriarchal but not feudal.[70] The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... Apastamba (c. ... Baudhāyana, (fl. ...



Iyers observed many rules in the past when they used to live and marry only within their community; many continue to adhere to their roots. Their dietary habits can be considered to be strict, consuming only vegetarian food which excludes fish and fowl, eggs and egg products. Some abjure onion and garlic on the grounds that they activate certain base senses. Milk and milk products, preferably from the cow, were approved. They were mandated to avoid the consumption of intoxicants, including alcohol and tobacco[71].

An Iyer man dressed in traditional clothes for a Hindu ritual

Iyers follow elaborate purification rituals, both of self and the house. The women of the household cook food only after a bath, while the males perform religious rites after a purificatory bath. An Iyer does not visit a temple without taking bath. Food is partaken of only after it is offered to the deity/deities in a prescribed manner. Like any other Brahmin community, bathing everyday is mandatory, and is, strictly speaking, the first thing to be carried out, before beginning any work of the day or before the start of any ritual or prayer. So much importance was given to this, that it was not unusual to see Iyers bathe many times during the day (before performing any important ritual).[72]


The bathing was considered sufficiently purifying only if it confirmed to the rules of madi[72]. The word madi is used by Tamil Brahmins to indicate that a person is bodily pure. In order to practice madi, the brahmin had to wear only clothes which had been recently washed and dried, and the clothes should remain untouched by any person who was not madi. Only after taking bath in cold water, and after wearing such clothes, would the person be in a state of madi. This practice of madi is followed by Iyers even in modern times, before participating in any kind of religious ceremony[72]. The Madi are an African group of over 150,000 people living along both banks of the Nile River in the Sudan and northwestern Uganda. ...

As alcoholic beverages are prohibited according to the Manusmriti, Iyers have taken a special liking for coffee
As alcoholic beverages are prohibited according to the Manusmriti, Iyers have taken a special liking for coffee [73][74]

. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 531 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (849 × 958 pixel, file size: 430 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 531 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (849 × 958 pixel, file size: 430 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


Until the turn of the last century, an Iyer widow (but not a widower) was never allowed to remarry. Divorces were considered a "great evil". Once a widow, an Iyer woman had to shave her head and lead the life of Sanyasin. She had to stop wearing the kumkum/bindi on her forehead, and was recommended to smear her forehead with sacred ashes. All of these practices have diminished over the last few decades, and modern Iyer widows lead less orthodox lives[75]. ... Ashes are put to use in various religions. ...


Traditional Attire

Tamil Brahmins (Iyers and Iyengars) in traditional veshti and angavastram at a convention of the Mylai Tamil Sangam, circa early 1900s
Tamil Brahmins (Iyers and Iyengars) in traditional veshti and angavastram at a convention of the Mylai Tamil Sangam, circa early 1900s

Iyer men traditionally wear veshtis, which cover them from waist to foot. These are made of cotton and sometimes silk. Veshtis are worn in different styles. They are worn in typical brahminical style during religious ceremonies. This style is popularly known as panchakacham[76](from the sanskrit terms pancha and kacham meaning "five yards" as the length of the panchakacham is five yards in contrast to the veshtis used in non-ceremonial daily life is, by contrast, four or eight cubits long). They sometimes wrap their shoulders with a single piece of cloth known as angavastram (body-garment). In earlier times, Iyer men who performed austerities also draped their waist or chests with deer skin or grass. The Dhoti, known locally as the Veshti, Pancha or Panche, is the traditional male clothing of south India. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


The traditional Iyer woman is draped in a nine yard saree, also known as madisar in Tamil.[77] Though such dress is worn regularly only by the older women these days, on festivals and other religious occasions younger women wear it as well. The madisar is a 9 yard saree and is a very important part of the Tamil Brahmin culture. ...


Iyers and Art

See Also: Distinguished Iyers It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iyer. ...

DK Pattammal (right) ,Classical Music Singer, in concert with her brother, DK Jayaraman; circa early 1940s.

For centuries, Iyers have taken a keen interest in preserving the arts and sciences[78]. They undertook the responsibility of preserving the Bharata Natya Shastra, a monumental work on Bharatanatyam, the classical dance form of Tamil Nadu. During the early 20th century, dance was usually regarded as a degenerate art associated with devadasis. However, it was an Iyer woman, Rukmini Devi Arundale, who revived the dying art form thereby breaking social and caste taboos about Brahmins taking part in the study and practice of the traditional dance form of Bharatanatyam, an art then considered degenerate[79][80][81][82]. DK Pattammal (right) singing with her brother, DK Jayaraman, ca. ... DK Pattammal (right) singing with her brother, DK Jayaraman, ca. ... The Natya Shastra of Bharata( Nātyaśāstra ) (titled as Natyashastra) is the principal work of dramatic theory in the Sanskrit drama of classical India. ... Bharatanatyam[1] is a classical dance form originating from Tamil Nadu[2][3][4][5][6], a state in Southern India. ... Devadasis (Sanskrit: देवदासी, translation: Servant of God) are cult prostitutes in the service of the Yellamma, the Hindu goddess of fertility. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


However, compared to dance, the contribution of Iyers in field of music has been considerably noteworthy[83][84][85]. The Trinity of Carnatic Music were responsible for making some excellent compositions towards the end of the 18th century. In more recent times, Chembai Vaidyanatha Iyer and D. K. Pattammal have enthralled audiences with some soul-stirring renderings. Today, there are Iyers who give traditional renderings as well as playback singers in Indian films like S P Balasubrahmanyam, Hariharan, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Nithyashree Mahadevan, Usha Uthup, Shankar Mahadevan, Mahalaxmi Iyer, Hamsika Iyer and Naresh Iyer . Iyers have also contributed considerably to drama, short story and temple architecture. Chembai Vaidyanatha Bhagavatar (Malayalam ചെമ്പൈ വൈദ്യനാഥ ഭാഗവതര്‍‍) was an Indian Carnatic music singer from the state of Kerala. ... Damal Krishnaswamy Pattammal is one of the most popular and respected Carnatic musicians. ... SP Balasubramanyam (born Sripathi Panditaradhyula Balasubramanyam, commonly known as SPB) is a prolific Indian singer from Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. ... Hariharan could refer to any of these people : Hariharan, Malayalam film director. ... Kavita Krishnamurthy is an Indian playback singer born Sharda Krishnamurthy in Delhi. ... Nithyasree Mahadevan, also referred to as S. Nithyashri Mahadevan (born August 25, 1973) is an eminent Indian classical musician and leading playback singer for film songs in many Indian languages. ... Usha Uthup is a popular Indian pop singer. ... Shankar Mahadevan is an Indian singer and music composer. ... Mahalakshmi Iyer is an Indian playback singer, best known for her Hindi and Tamil songs. ... Hamsika Iyer is a singer based in Mumbai. ... Naresh Iyer is a playback singer in the Tamil and Hindi film industry. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ...


In the field of literature and journalism, the Iyer community has produced stalwarts like R. K. Narayan, R. K. Laxman, Subramanya Bharathy, Kalki Krishnamurthy, Ulloor Parameswara Iyer, and Cho Ramaswamy to name a few. The adoption of Western education at every stage has ensued their proficiency in the English language[86][87]. They have also contributed in an equal amount to Tamil language and literature[88][89].There are innumerable hymns composed on different deities worshipped in the South such as Meenakshi, Amman, Shiva, Murugan, Vishnu, etc. The style of these poems are indeed unique and beautiful. Besides Tamil, they have also written a number of works in Sanskrit which is the language used in rituals. R. K. Narayan (October 10, 1906 - May 13, 2001), born Rasipuram Krishnaswami Ayyar Narayanaswami,[1] is among the best known and most widely read Indian novelists writing in English. ... A drawing by R. K. Laxman for R.K. Narayans Malgudi Days Rasipuram Krishnaswamy Laxman (b. ... Mahakavi Bharathi 1882-1921 Subramanya Bharathi (December 11, 1882 - September 11, 1921) better known as Mahakavi Bharathiar (Maha Kavi meaning Great Poet) in Tamil, is deemed one of the greatest poets of twentieth-century India. ... Kalki R Krishnamurthy Kalki (Tamil: ) is the pen name of Krishnamurthy (Tamil: ) (September 9, 1899–December 5, 1954), an Indian freedom fighter, novelist, short-story writer, journalist, satirist, travel writer, script-writer, poet, critic, and connoisseur of the arts. ... Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer (1877-1949) (Malayalam: ഉള്ളൂര്‍ എസ്. പരമേശ്വരയ്യര്‍) also known as Ulloor , was a famous Malayalam poet and a noted historian. ... Cho Ramaswamy is an actor, playwright, columnist and a political commentator in Tamil Nadu, India. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... Idol of Meenakshi at the Meenakshi temple in Madurai Meenakshi is a Hindu deity - sister of Lord Vishnu and wife of Lord Shiva - worshipped primarily by South Indians in India and abroad. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ...


The Iyer community has also produced a number of film stars and cine artistes. Two of Kollywood's greatest directors, K. Balachander and Mani Ratnam hail from the Iyer community. Gemini Ganesan was one of the greatest Tamil film actors of the black-and-white era along with Sivaji Ganesan and M. G. Ramachandran. At present, Ajith and Trisha are amongst the top five stars in Tamil cinema. Kollywood (Tamil : கோலிவூட் ) is a name often applied to the home of the Tamil-language film industry based in India, and to the industry as a whole. ... Kailasam Balachander (born July 9, 1930 in Nannilam, Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, India) is an Indian film director, scriptwriter and producer. ... Mani Ratnam (Tamil: ) (born June 2, 1956) is a critically acclaimed Tamil Indian film director, writer and producer. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Ganesan in Thayaipola Pillai Noolaipola Selai, 1959 Sivaji Ganesan (October 1, 1927 - July 21, 2001) was a famous Indian actor and politician. ... Maruthur Gopala Ramachandran (Tamil: மருதூர் கோபால இராமச்சந்திரன், Malayalam:മരത്തൂര്‍ ഗോപാലന്‍ രാമചന്ദ്രന്‍) (January 17, 1917–December 24, 1987), popularly known as MGR எம்.ஜி.ஆர்., Puracthi Nadigar, Ponmana Chemmal, Makkal Thilakam and Puratchi Thalaivar (Tamil: Revolutionary Leader), was a longtime leading Tamil film actor and Chief Minister of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu from 1977 until his death. ... Ajith Kumar ( Tamil: அஜித் குமார்) (born May 1, 1971) is an Indian film actor who has appeared in Tamil, Telugu and Hindi movies. ... Trisha Krishnan born on 4th May 1983 as Trisha Krishnamurthy. ...


Food

See Also: Tamil cuisine Tamil cuisine is one of the oldest vegetarian culinary heritages in the world. ...

The diet of Iyers comprise mainly of Tamil vegetarian cuisine, comprising rice
The diet of Iyers comprise mainly of Tamil vegetarian cuisine, comprising rice

The main diet of Iyers is composed of vegetarian food[90], mostly rice which is the staple diet for millions of South Indians.Vegetarian side dishes are frequently made in Iyer households apart from compulsory additions as rasam,sambar,etc. Home-made ghee is a staple addition to the diet, and traditional meals do not begin until ghee is poured over a heap of rice and lentils. While tasting delicious, the cuisine eschews the extent of spices and heat traditionally found in south Indian cuisine. Iyers are mostly known for their love for curd. Other South Indian delicacies such as dosas, idli, etc. are also relished by Iyers[91]. Coffee amongst beverages and curd amongst food items form an indispensable part of the Iyer food menu. Liquor is traditionally forbidden, as per the Manusmrithi[71], and is accordingly eschewed by the Iyers. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu گھی, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ...


Agraharams

Agraharam
Agraharam

In ancient times, Iyers, along with Iyengars and other Tamil Brahmins, lived in exclusive Brahmin quarters of their village or town known as an 'agraharam'(in Sanskrit Agram means tip or end and Haram means Shiva). Shiva and Vishnu temples were usually situated at the ends of an agraharam. In most cases, there would also be a fast-flowing stream or river nearby.[92][93][94] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 95 KB) Summary Reconstructed agraharam found at Dakshina Chitra, Chennai. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 95 KB) Summary Reconstructed agraharam found at Dakshina Chitra, Chennai. ... Iyengar (or Aiyangar) is the name of a community of Tamil Brahmins of South India whose members subscribe to the Visishtadvaita philosophy codified by Ramanuja. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A quarter is a section of an urban settlement. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ...


A typical agraharam consisted of a temple and a street adjacent to it. The houses on either side of the street were exclusively peopled by Brahmins who followed a joint family system. All the houses were identical in design and architecture though not in size.


With the arrival of the British and commencement of the Industrial Revolution, Iyers started moving to cities for their sustenance. Starting from the late 1800s, the agraharams were gradually discarded as more and more Iyers moved to towns and cities to take up lucrative jobs in the provincial and judicial administration.


However, there are still some agraharams left where traditional Iyers continue to reside. In an Iyer residence, people wash their feet first with water on entering the house. This is not possible in flats in cities due to the layout of the same. But in houses in villages, the layout permits this and is still practiced.[95][96]


Language of Iyers

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See also: Brahmin Tamil Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Tamil is the mother tongue of most Iyers residing in India and elsewhere. However, Iyers speak a distinct dialect of Tamil unique to their community[97][98].This dialect of Tamil is known as Braahmik or Brahmin Tamil, but is more popularly known by its colloquial term "Iyer baashai" or "language of Iyers". Brahmin Tamil is highly Sanskritized and has often invited ridicule from Tamil nationalists due to its extensive usage of the Sanskrit vocabulary. However, with Brahmins moving out of their agraharams to urban centres or migrating to foreign countries, Brahmin Tamil is being increasingly discarded and is facing the prospect of extinction. The Palakkad Iyers have a unique sub-dialect of their own. Palakkad Tamil is characterized by the presence of a large number of words of Malayali origin. The Iyers of Tirunelveli speak a form of Tamil closely allied to the Tirunelveli dialect. The Sankheti Iyers speak a sub-dialect of Brahmin Tamil called Sankheti. Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... Sanskritisation is a term coined by late Indian sociologist M.N.Srinivas, to define the process by which castes placed lower in the caste hierarchy seek upward mobility by emulating the rituals and practices of the upper or dominant castes. ... The Tanittamil Iyakkam (Tamil: ) (Pure Tamil Movement, Only Tamil Movement) is a movement of linguistic purism in Tamil literature attempting to emulate the unadulterated Tamil language of the Sangam period, avoiding Sanskrit, Persian and English loanwords. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Agraharams are clusters of houses in a village where Brahmins live. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Sankethi is distinct from Tamil and is now an independent language according to Dravidian linguists such as Hampa Nagarajaiah. ...


Apart from Tamil, Iyers in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala are also fluent in the local languages of their state i.e. Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam, respectively. Iyers who reside in Mumbai and North India are well-versed in Hindi and English. Telugu may refer to: Telugu language Telugu literature Telugu people Telugu script Telugu films Look up Telugu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Iyengars speak a separate dialect of Tamil called Iyengar Tamil.


Iyers Today

A Tamil Brahmin couple, circa 1945
A Tamil Brahmin couple, circa 1945

Akin to Bengali Brahmins, the Brahmins of South India were one of the first communities to be Westernized. However, this was restricted to their outlook on the material world. They have retained their Smartha traditions despite almost two centuries of western influence[6]. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


In addition to their earlier occupations, Iyers today have diversified into a variety of fields — their strengths particularly evident in the fields of Mass Media, science, mathematics and computer science. It is a small percentage of Iyers who voluntarily choose, in this era, to pursue the traditional vocation of priesthood, though all Hindu temple priests are Brahmins. Some Iyers today have even married outside of their caste in Europe and therefore produced children of mixed background. Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...


Social and political issues

See Also:Accusations of Casteism and Other Controversies Iyers (Tamil : அய்யர் Malayalam:അയ്യര) also called Sastri[4], Sarma or Bhattar is the name given to Hindu Brahmins of Tamil or Telugu origin who are followers of the Advaita philosophy propounded by Adi Shankara[5]. They are found mostly in Tamil Nadu as they are generally native to the Tamil country. ...


Since ancient times, Iyers, as members of the privileged priestly class, exercised a near-complete domination over educational,religious and literary institutions in the Tamil country [99] [100]. Their domination continued throughout the British Raj as they used their knowledge of the English language and education to dominate the political, administrative, judicial and intellectual spectrum. Upon India's independence in 1947, they hoped to consolidate their hold on the administrative and judicial machinery . Such a situation led to resentment from the other castes in Tamil Nadu; an upshot of this atmosphere was an "non-Brahmin" movement and the formation of the Justice Party[86] . In the early days,the Justice Party functioned on a principled high-ground as a representative organization of non-Brahmins of the Madras Presidency and campaigning for their grievances to be addressed and for the fulfillment of their education and monetary needs. However, with the passage of time, the movement soon led to a power struggle between the Brahmins and other upper castes like the Mudaliars, Pillais and Chettiars. Periyar, who took over as Justice Party President in the 1940s, changed its name to Dravida Kazhagam, and formulated the view that Tamil Brahmins were Aryans as opposed to a majority of Tamils who were Dravidian based on Robert Caldwell's writings [101]. See Iyers and the Aryan Invasion Theory. The ensuing anti-Brahmin propaganda and the rising unpopularity of the Rajaji Government left an indelible mark on the Tamil Brahmin community ending their political aspirations forever. In the 1960s the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (roughly translated as "Organisation for Progress of Dravidians") and its subgroups gained political ground on this platform forming state ministries, thereby wrenching control from the Indian National Congress, in which Iyers at that time were holding important party positions. Today, apart from a few exceptions, Iyers have virtually disappeared from the political arena. [102][103][104][105][106][107] [108][109][110] Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Literature is literally an acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has, however, generally come to identify a collection of texts. ... An institution is a group, tenet, maxim, or organization created by a group of humans. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... Literati redirects here. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... The Sanskrit word denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessivenes . ... Mudaliar also Mudaliyār, Mudali and Moodley in Tamil language literally means a person of first rank in a feudal society[1] in south India. ... Pillai, Pillay, Pulle or Pilli is a popular title of Tamil- and Malayalam-speaking people of India and others living in Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, South Africa and Fiji, mostly from Vellalar and Nair communities. ... The Chettiars also Chetty, Chetti, Setty, Chitty, Shetty and Shettigar is a title, commonly used by people of South Indian origin in India and abroad. ... E.V.Ramasami (September 17, 1879–December 24, 1973), also known as Periyar, EVR, Thanthai Periyar, or Periyar Ramasami, was a well-known rationalist, atheist,freedom-fighter, activist, founder of Dravidar Kazhagam and founder of the Self-respect Movement in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Dravidar Kazhagam or Dravida Kazhagam (Dravidian Organization) was the first fully Dravidian party in India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the term Aryan. For Arian, a follower of the ancient Christian sect, See Arianism. ... Dravidian may refer to: Dravidian languages, including the Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada languages spoken especially in southern India and Sri Lanka. ... Bishop Robert Caldwell (1814 -1891) was an orientalist who pioneered the study of the Dravidian languages with his influential work Comparative Grammar of Dravidian Languages (1856; revised edition 1875). ... Anti-Brahminism, also spelled as Anti-Brahmanism, is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed against the Brahmin caste, as opposed to Anti-Hinduism which rejects Hinduism as a whole. ... Rajaji Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (December 1878 - December 25, 1972), known as or Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, writer, statesman and a Hindu spiritualist. ... DMK redirects here. ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ...


Accusations of Casteism and Other Controversies

See Also: Brahminism,Anti-Brahminism,Caste-Based Reservations in Tamil Nadu Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Anti-Brahminism, also spelled as Anti-Brahmanism, is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed against the Brahmin caste, as opposed to Anti-Hinduism which rejects Hinduism as a whole. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


The legacy of Iyers have often been marred by accusations of racism and counter-racism against them by non-Brahmins and vice versa. The Manusmriti forbids Brahmins from eating with individuals of particular castes (particularly the Scheduled Castes) and prescribed a strict code of laws with regard to their day-to-day behavior and dealings with other castes. Iyers of orthodox families generally obeyed these laws strictly. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ...

It was found that prior to Independence, the Pallars were never allowed to enter the residential areas of the caste Hindus particularly of the Brahmins. Whenever a Brahmin came out of his house, no Scheduled Caste person was expected to come in his vicinity as it would pollute his sanctity and if it happened by mistake, he would go back home cursing the latter. He would come out once again only after taking a bath and making sure that no such thing would be repeated.

However, as a mark of protest a few Pallars of this village deliberately used to appear before the Brahmin again and again. By doing so the Pallars forced the Brahmin to get back home once again to take a bath drawing water from deep well.[111]

Grievances and alleged instances of discrimination by Brahmins are believed to be the main factors which fuelled the Dravidian Movement[86]. With the dawn of the 20th century, and the rapid penetration of western education and western ideas, there was a rise in consciousness amongst the lower castes who felt that rights which were legitimately theirs were being denied to them [86]. This, in combination with the depressed economic and social conditions of non-Brahmins, led the non-Brahmins to agitate and form the Justice Party in 1916, which later became the Dravidar Kazhagam. The Justice Party banked on vehement anti-Hindu and anti-Brahmin propaganda to ease Brahmins out of their privileged positions. Gradually, the non-Brahmin replaced the Brahmin in every sphere and destroyed the monopoly over education and the administrative services which the Brahmin had previously held.[112] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... Justice Party was the political wing of Then Nala Urimai Sangam (literal translation: The South Indian Welfare Association). ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Dravidar Kazhagam or Dravida Kazhagam (Dravidian Organization) was the first fully Dravidian party in India. ... This article is about the economic term. ... Look up Administration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


However, with the destruction of Brahmin monopoly over the services and introduction of adequate representation for other communities, anti-Brahmin feelings did not subside. On the contrary, they were fully exploited by politicians, who often indulged in anti-Brahmin rhetoric primarily in order to get non-Brahmin votes[113][114]. With the passage of time, they reached such a pitch that even individuals who had previously been a part of the Dravidian Movement began to cry foul. Deprived of opportunities, Tamil Brahmins began to migrate en masse to other states in India and foreign countries in search of livelihood.[6] There were frequent allegations of casteism and racism against Brahmins very similar to the ones made by the lower castes against them in the decades before independence. Most generally, a representation is a performing of selected functions or roles of another physical or abstract object/person/organization in predefined circumstances and it is based on the consensus of the group/community involved. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics, sometimes this may include political scientists. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


However, the very concept of "Brahmin atrocities" is refuted by some Tamil Brahmin historians who are keen to dismiss it as fictitious. They argue that allegations of casteism against Tamil Brahmins have been exaggerated and that even prior to the rise of the Dravida Kazhagam, a significant section of Tamil Brahmin society was liberal and anti-casteist. Their claim is supported by the fact that a number of Iyers participated in the Vaikom Sathyagraha. Also, the Temple Entry Proclamation passed by the princely state of Travancore which gave peoiple of all castes the right to enter Hindu temples in the princely state was due to the efforts of the Dewan of Travancore, Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Iyer who was an Iyer.


Another important accusation hurled upon Iyers was that they were Sanskritists who entertained a distorted and contemptuous atitude towards Tamil language, culture and civilization[19][115]


Professor George L. Hart in a speech in 1997 on Tamil, Brahmins, & Sanskrit rubbishes the claims of anti Brahmins that Brahmins favored Sanskrit to Tamil.[88] I have been a Professor of Tamil at the University of California, Berkeley, since 1975 and am currently holder of the Tamil Chair at that institution. ...

Here are some facts:

1. Brahmins are only 2% of the population, yet they have contributed much more to Tamil literature than their number would indicate.


2. The purest (i.e. least Sanskritized) Tamil was written by the medieval Saiva Brahmin commentators on Tamil. For example, Parimelazakar translates the yoga asanas into Tamil, and the only way anyone can figure out what he is saying is to read the sub commentary (by Gopalakrishnamachari), who gives the original Sanskrit terms. You will find no Tamil any purer than that of Naccinarkkiniyar et al.


3. Brahmins have contributed to Tamil from Sangam times. Kapilar is one of the greatest Tamil poets.


4. Yes, of course Brahmins have had their own political agenda to push. They have been responsible for many things that I feel are entirely unconscionable. But is this any different from the other high castes? I have heard many many stories of high non-Brahmin castes killing and abusing Dalits. You can't blame the Brahmins for this.


5. You cannot blame the Brahmins for Sanskritizing Tamil. Tenkalai Aiyengars often use Tamil words where most non-Brahmins use Sanskrit ones. The Sanskrtization of Tamil is a very old process and cannot be understood except in an all-South-Asian context. The Bengali used in Bangladesh is highly Sanskritized, and the Muslims are quite proud of their language. The fact is, Sanskrit was the lingua franca of South Asia for intellectual purposes, much as Latin was in Europe. Buddhists used it, Jains used it, much as Spinoza, a Jew, wrote his philosophical treatises in Latin. The Tamil of Ramalinga Swamigal, a non-Brahmin, is highly Sanskritized.

Dalit leader and founder of political party Pudiya Tamizhagam, Dr.Krishnasamy admits that the Anti-Brahmin Movement had not succeeded up to the expectations and that there continues to be as much discrimination of Dalits as had been before. Dalit is a demeaning term referred to the so-called outcast people of India in a hindu religion. ...

So many movements have failed. In Tamil Nadu there was a movement in the name of anti-Brahmanism under the leadership of Periyar. It attracted Dalits, but after 30 years of power, the Dalits understand that they are as badly-off - or worse-off - as they were under the Brahmans. Under Dravidian rule, they have been attacked and killed, their due share in government service is not given, they are not allowed to rise.[116]

Famous Iyers

See Distinguished Iyers It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iyer. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Google Book on Caste and Race in India by G.S. Gurye, Pg. 393
  2. ^ a b c Percentage of Brahmin Population
  3. ^ Accurate statistics on the population of Iyers are unavailable. This is due to the fact that the practice of conducting caste-based population census have been stopped since independence. The statistics given here are mainly based on estimates from unofficial sources
  4. ^ Sastri, or Ayyar (Hindu honorific title), Encyclopedia Brittanica
  5. ^ 'Iyers' from Uttarakhand Information Centre website
  6. ^ a b c d BRIEF CASE: Tambram's Grouse by Rohit Vishwanath, The Times of India, 23 June 2007
  7. ^ Smarthism
  8. ^ People of India by Kumar Suresh Singh, B.V.Bhanu, Pg.1873
  9. ^ Etymology of the term 'Ayya' from Starling database
  10. ^ a b History of Kerala Iyers from Kerala Iyers website
  11. ^ The Meaning and Significance of Arya
  12. ^ a b An article on Gurukkals
  13. ^ Nataraja and Vedic Concepts as Revealed by Sekkizhar
  14. ^ An article on the Dikshitars of Chidambaram
  15. ^ An interesting article on Sage Agastya and his association with the Tamil land
  16. ^ An Article which argues that the Tamil Brahmins have been closely associated with Tamil Culture since the earliest period of recorded history
  17. ^ The Politics of the Aryan Invasion Debate
  18. ^ a b An analysis of the different theories of origin for Iyers and similarities with other Tamils
  19. ^ a b P.V.Manickam Naicker, writes in 'The Tamil Alphabet and its Mystic Aspect', 1917,Pg 74-75: "Even should Dutt's description of the aryanisation be true, the real Aryan corpus in South-India came to nothing. A cranial study of the various classes will also confirm the same. The lecturer, being a non-Brahmin, wishes to leave nothing to be misunderstood. His best and tried friends are mostly Brahmins and he is a sincere admirer of them. There is no denying the fact that the ancestors of the present Brahmins were the most cultured among the South-Indians at the time the said Aryanisation took place and got crystallized into a class revered by the people. As the cultured sons of the common mother Tamil, is it not their legitimate duty to own their kinsmen and to cooperate and uplift their less lucky brethern, if they have real patriotism for the welfare of the country? On the contrary, the general disposition of many a Brahmin is to disown his kinship with the rest of the Tamil brethern, to disown his very mother Tamil and to comstruct an imaginary untainted Aryan pedigree as if the Aryan alone is heaven-born
  20. ^ The Dravidian Elements in Indian Culture by Gilbert Slater
  21. ^ Extracts from T.R.Sesha Iyengar's "Dravidian India"
  22. ^ Information on Ramanujar who was born a Vadama Iyer
  23. ^ [http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/smartism/smarthas-who-split-away-from-their-sect.html Smarthas who split away from their sect]
  24. ^ Madras in the Olden Time by J. Talboys Wheeler, Pg. 22 -- Speaks about "fair-complexioned Brahmins"
  25. ^ Encyclopaedia of Dalits in India By Mamta Rajawat, Pg 295 -- Mentions a Tamil proverb: "dark Brahmins and fair paraiyans are improper"
  26. ^ The Coming of Aryans and Brahmins into Kerala by Dr.Zacharias Thondy
  27. ^ [www.experiencefestival.com/a/Iyer_-_Origins/id/1518747 Article on Iyer origins]
  28. ^ HLA affinities of Iyers, a Brahmin population of Tamil Nadu, South India.
  29. ^ Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations
  30. ^ [1]
  31. ^ The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations
  32. ^ People in north and south India belong to the same gene pool: ICHR Chairman by T.S. Ranganna
  33. ^ Brahmin Exodus from Vijayanagar and the Bhagavathar Melas of Melattur
  34. ^ A List of Brahmin communities from kamat.com
  35. ^ Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon, and North-West Pakistan by E. R. Leach; University Press, 1962
  36. ^ Rev. M.A.Sherring, in the 1860s, divided Brahmins into 2000 sub-castes and further, into gothras and segregated the gothras by the Vedas which they follow
  37. ^ From Dictionary of Hinduism
  38. ^ Article on Mukkanis
  39. ^ Definition of the word 'gotra'
  40. ^ A description of the gotra system
  41. ^ An article on the origin of Bengali Brahmins which hints at possible migration of Brahmins from the south to the north
  42. ^ A brief history of Ashtagrama Iyers from Ashtagrama Iyer website
  43. ^ a b History of Kerala Iyers
  44. ^ Migration theories about Kerala Iyers from Kerala Iyers website
  45. ^ An article on Migration of Kerala Iyers from Kerala Iyers website
  46. ^ A colourful festival from a hoary past by G. Prabhakaran, Article in The Hindu Metro Plus dated Nov 12, 2005
  47. ^ a b Article on Palakkad District from the website of Kerala Brahmana Sabha, Palakkad
  48. ^ A brief description of a Madhom from the website of Ernakulam Gramajana Samooham
  49. ^ Landmark Legislations of the Kerala Government
  50. ^ Civattampi, K Sri Lankan Tamil society and politics, p.3
  51. ^ Gnanaprakasar, S A critical history of Jaffna, p.96
  52. ^ Pathmanathan, The Kingdom of Jaffna,p.1-13
  53. ^ An article on the Sixteen Samskaras or duties of Iyers.
  54. ^ Kamakoti.org on the duties of Iyers
  55. ^ A description of the Jatakarma ceremony
  56. ^ a b Welcoming Baby; Birth rituals provide children with sense of community, culture by Lisette Austin, May 21, 2005, Article in ParentMap.com
  57. ^ A Brief Description of the significance and Procedure for Ayushya Homam
  58. ^ An Explanation of the Concept of Upanayana
  59. ^ Rites and Rituals of Iyers
  60. ^ A Description of the Sandhya Vandanam
  61. ^ You Tube Video on Sandhya Vandanam
  62. ^ The Meaning of the Gayatri Manthra and its Description
  63. ^ Transition Rituals -- Death Rites for Major World Religions
  64. ^ A description of the different kinds of Tarpanams and their procedure
  65. ^ A definition of the word Shraddha and a description of the ritual
  66. ^ The Journey of a Lifebody by David M.Knipe, Hindugateway.com
  67. ^ A description of Avani Avittam from panchangam.com
  68. ^ Upakarma Procedure
  69. ^ A complete description of a typical Iyer marriage
  70. ^ Apastamba Grihya-Sutras Transliterated in English
  71. ^ a b "The Laws of Manu", Translated by Wendy Doniger and Brian K. Smith, published 1991, Penguin Books. Chapter 11, Verses 94 to 98
  72. ^ a b c An Interesting Article on madi as practised by Brahmins
  73. ^ An oasis of vegetarian calm, Article by S Lakshmi, Business Standard, New Delhi,February 23, 2008
  74. ^ The Art of Slurping, Article in The Hindu dated December 23, 2001
  75. ^ Brahmin Women by G.K. Ghosh and Shukla Ghosh. Kolkata, Firma KLM, 2003, viii, 171 p., $19. ISBN 81-7102-107-7
  76. ^ How to Wear a Pancha Kachham, WikiHow
  77. ^ An article on madisar
  78. ^ List of distinguished Iyers
  79. ^ Roles and Rituals for Hindu Women By Julia Leslie, Pg. 154
  80. ^ How Natyam danced its way into the Academy, Article by Lakshmi Viswanathan in The Hindu dated Dec 1, 2006
  81. ^ The revivalist role in classical Bharatha Natyam by Subashini Pathmanathan
  82. ^ Article on Bharatanatyam
  83. ^ Great composers of Carnatic music
  84. ^ From the Tanjore Court to the Madras Music Academy: A Social History of Music in South India by Lakshmi Subramanian ISBN-10: 0195678354
  85. ^ The Popularity of Carnatic Music by Raghavan Jayakumar
  86. ^ a b c d The Origin of the Non-Brahmin Movement,1905-1920 by K.Nambi Arooran
  87. ^ Caste in Indian Politics by Rajni Kothari,Pg 254
  88. ^ a b Forum on Caste and the Tamil Nation
  89. ^ In Tamil Renaissance and Dravidian Nationalism Nambi Arooran states: "However the Tamil Renaissance cannot be considered as solely the work of non-Brahmin scholars. Brahmins also played all equally important role and the contribution of U. V. Swaminatha Aiyar and C. Subramania Bharati cannot be underestimated. Similarly in the reconstruction of the Tamil past Brahmin historians such as S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar, K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, P. T. Srinvasa Ayyangar and C. S. Srinivasachari brought out authoritative works on the ancient and medieval periods of South Indian history, on the basis of which non-Brahmins were able to look back with pride upon the excellence of Tamil culture. But some of the non-Brahmins looked at the contribution of Brahmin scholars with suspicion because of the pro-Aryan and pro-Sanskrit views expressed sometimes in their writings."
  90. ^ The Hindu Attitude Towards Vegetarianism -- explains why Brahmins are vegetarian
  91. ^ South Indian Vegetarian Cuisine
  92. ^ Website of Kuzhalmannagraharam, a Kerala Iyer Agraharam
  93. ^ Website of Anikode Agraharam near Palakkad
  94. ^ An article on 'The Hindu' on Agraharams
  95. ^ Description of life in an Agraharam (from a personal account)
  96. ^ Description of an Agraharam from 'Simply South' by Lalitha Sridhar, Business Line, Aug 6, 2001
  97. ^ A list of different dialects of Tamil from ethnologue.com
  98. ^ Streams of Language: Tamil Dialects in History and Literature Note on the Proposed International Conference on Dialects
  99. ^ brief discussion on brahmins within caste system
  100. ^ Aryans and Tamils, The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Vol.IV, Page 296
  101. ^ 'Periyar was against Brahminism, not Brahmins' -- Interview with Gnana Rajashekharan in Rediff.com
  102. ^ Towards a Non Brahmin Millennium - From Iyothee Thass to Periyar - V.Geetha, and S.V. Rajadurai, 1998
  103. ^ The Rise of Caste in the Dravida Land, An article by Amrith Lal
  104. ^ Dalits in Reverse, an article from Indian magazine The Outlook
  105. ^ Are Brahmins the Dalits of Today
  106. ^ Brahmins and Eelamists by V.Thangavelu -- 2001
  107. ^ Gail Omvedt(2006),Dalit Visions: The Anti-caste Movement and the Construction on an Indian Identity,Orient Longman,ISBN 8125028951
  108. ^ Lloyd I. Rudolph Urban Life and Populist Radicalism: Dravidian Politics in Madras The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 20, No. 3 (May, 1961), pp. 283-297
  109. ^ Lloyd I. Rudolph and Suzanne Hoeber Rudolph, The Modernity of Tradition: political development in India P78,University of Chicago Press 1969, ISBN 0226731375
  110. ^ C. J. Fuller,The Renewal of the Priesthood: Modernity and Traditionalism in a South Indian Temple P117, Princeton University Press 2003 ISBN 0691116571
  111. ^ A.Ramaiah, Untouchability and Inter Caste Relations in Rural India:The Case of Southern Tamil Villages
  112. ^ 'Education is the means of social mobility', Rediff News, May 30, 2006
  113. ^ Drive out “anti-Tamil, evil forces” - DMK, Chennai Online News Service
  114. ^ Aryan vs Dravidian — Lord Rama vs E V Ramaswamy ??? By: V Sundaram, IAS, Retd
  115. ^ P.V.Manickam Naicker, in his The Tamil Alphabet and its Mystic Aspect writes: "At least one of them is explicit in his endeavour to establish page after page and chapter after chapter, untainted Aryan pedigree for the Brahmins and Brahmins alone among the South-Indians. As such, he has naturally no scruples to say that the Tamils have nothing excellent or high which can be claimed as their own. Whatever is bad in them is their heritage and whatever good in them they owe to Sanskrit.
  116. ^ Dravidian Movement and Dalits by Gail Omvedt

See also

Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... For the yoga style founded by B.K.S. Iyengar, see Iyengar Yoga. ... Forward castes or Upper castes are terminology used in India to denote people from any religion who do not qualify currently for quota benefits of Government of India for Backward castes, scheduled castes and tribes [10] The Government of India does not publish a separate list of forward castes. ... Palakkad Iyers are Brahmin Tamilians who are believed to have migrated from the State of Tamil Nadu centuries ago. ... The Ashtagrama Iyers are a group of Vadama Iyers or South Indian Brahmins with their roots in the Ashtagrama situated in the Kolar district of Karnataka // In the early 16th century few of the Iyers from the North Arcot and the Tanjavur districts of Tamil Nadu migrated to the Ashtagrama... The Sankethis are Smartha brahmins residing in Karnataka. ... Anti-Brahminism, also spelled as Anti-Brahmanism, is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed against the Brahmin caste, as opposed to Anti-Hinduism which rejects Hinduism as a whole. ... // Introduction The Mulukanadu community is a caste of Telugu speaking Vaidiki Smartha Brahmins. ... In Hinduism, Agastya (अगस्त्य in devanagari, pronounced /ə gəs tyə/) is a legendary Vedic sage or rishi. ... // Introduction The term Smartha refers to those who accept and profess the Advaitha or non-dualistic philosophy propounded by Sri Adi Shankaracharya. ... This article is about historical, ideological and socio-political aspects of this controversy. ...

External links

  • http://www.keralaiyers.com/
  • http://www.tamilbrahmins.com/
  • Ashtagrama.com, information on Ashtagrama Iyers, a sub group of Iyers from Karnataka.
  • sankethi.com, information on Sankethis, a sub group of Iyers from Karnataka.
  • Thummagunta Dravida Iyers, Information on Thummagunta Dravida Brahmins, a sub-sect of Vadama Iyers from Thummagunta in Nellore District, AP.
  • Advaita Vedanta research centre, and hosts articles and mailing-lists on the subject; see also Advaita.
Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ...

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