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Iwi (pronounced ee-wee) are the largest everyday social units in Māori society. In pre-European times, iwi was synonymous with nation; it described fully the people to whom a person belonged and owed allegiance. With the development of the country now called New Zealand, a much bigger social unit, the meaning became analogous to that of tribe or clan. Te Puni, Māori Chief Māori is the name of the indigenous people of New Zealand, and their language. ... Māori culture is a distinctive component of New Zealand culture. ... // For publications of this name, see also Nation (disambiguation). ... Viewed historically or developmentally, a tribe consists of a social formation existing before the development of, or outside of, states. ... A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ...


Iwi groups can trace their ancestry to the original Māori settlers that arrived from Hawaiiki, at least according to tradition. Māori who know their iwi connections typically value them highly and place great pride in knowing their genealogy. Their origin is among the first things they mention when introducing themselves. Hawaiki is the mythical island that the Polynesians trace their origins to. ... A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ...

Contents


Bones or roots

In the Maori language, iwi also means bones. The Maori author, Keri Hulme, named her best known (1985 Booker Prize) novel The Bone People, a title linked directly to the dual meaning of bone and tribal people. Returning home after travelling or living elsewhere is known as "going back to the bones", literally to where the ancestors are buried. Many societies would use the word roots. Māori (or Maori) is a language spoken by the native peoples of New Zealand and the Cook Islands. ... Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ... Keri Hulme is a New Zealand writer, best known for her debut (and to this point, only) novel, The bone people. ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known as the Man Booker Prize, or simply the Man Booker, is one of the worlds most important literary prizes, and awarded each year for the best original novel written by a citizen of the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland in... DeFoes Robinson Crusoe, Newspaper edition published in 1719 A novel (from French nouvelle, new) is an extended fictional narrative in prose. ... The bone people is a novel by New Zealand writer Keri Hulme. ... Tribal, as a noun, refers to a type of design or image that has been influenced by tribes of indigenous peoples. ...


Many iwi cluster into super-groups based on genealogical tradition, known as waka (literally: "canoes", i.e. the original migratory canoes). Each iwi can be divided into a number of hapu ("sub-tribes"). (For example, the Ngati Whatua iwi consists of the hapu: Te Uri O Hau, Te Roroa, Te Taou, and Ngati Whatua ki Orakei.) Whakapapa or genealogy is a fundamental principle that permeates the whole of Maori culture. ... In the Maori language and New Zealand English, waka or Waaka are Maori watercraft, usually canoes. ... Canoe at El Nido, Philippines A canoe is a relatively small human-powered boat. ... Migration occurs when living things move from one biome to another. ... Māori culture is a distinctive part of New Zealand culture. ... The Ngati Whatua iwi (tribe) of New Zealand consists of four hapu (subtribes): Te Uri O Hau, Te Roroa, Te Taou, and Ngati Whatua. ...


Despite migration within New Zealand and intermarriage with non-Maori over a couple of centuries, most iwi groups still exist and have significant political power, which they exercise to recover land and other assets taken from them over the last 150 years. A notable example of this is the recent settlement between the New Zealand Government and the Ngāi Tahu, compensating that iwi for various losses of the rights that were guaranteed in the Treaty of Waitangi of 1840. Iwi affairs have a very real impact on New Zealand politics and society. A current claim by some iwi that they own the seabed and foreshore in their areas has polarised public opinion (see New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy). The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Te Tiriti o Waitangi) was signed on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ownership is the socially supported power to exclusively control and use for ones own purposes, that which is owned. ... The New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy is a debate in the politics of New Zealand. ...


Problems with identification

The following extract from a recent High Court of New Zealand judgment (discussing the fishing rights settlement process) illustrates some of the problems:

  • "... 81 per cent of Maori now live in urban areas, at least one-third live outside their tribal influence, more than one-quarter do not know their iwi or for some reason do not choose to affiliate with it, at least 70 per cent live outside the traditional tribal territory and these will have difficulties, which in many cases will be severe, in both relating to their tribal heritage and in accessing benefits from the settlement. It is also said that many Maori reject tribal affiliation because of a working class unemployed attitude, defiance and frustration. Related but less important factors, are that a hapu may belong to more than one iwi, a particular hapu may have belonged to different iwi at different times, the tension caused by the social and economic power moving from the iwi down rather than from the hapu up, and the fact that many iwi do not recognise spouses and adoptees who do not have kinship links."

In the 2001 census, 32.6 per cent of the 604,110 people who claimed Maori ancestry did not know their iwi, or only stated a general geographical region or merely gave a canoe name. It seems that the number who "don’t know" has remained relatively constant over the last three censuses, despite measures such as the "Iwi Helpline".


Challenge from Urban Māori

In recent years, "Urban Māori" have challenged the established tribal (iwi-based) Māori power base. Urban Māori form groups of people that, while unashamedly Māori, either choose not to identify with any particular iwi, or are unable to (typically because they do not know which iwi they are descended from). A particular Māori person may decide to support non-tribal structures because they believe the existing iwi do not give significant value to them, or that they believe that iwi are unable to understand their point-of-view.


They are typically urban bred, and probably identify with European culture to a much larger degree than traditional Māori, and often feel that a non-iwi group best represents their needs. How the traditional iwi groups respond to this remains to be seen. (As yet, some appear dismissive of these notions.) Notably, one such group has been created believing that Urban Māori are not getting their fair share of "treaty settlements" between the Māori people and the New Zealand government.


Well-known iwi groups

Prominent iwi include:

Note that each iwi has its own territory (rohe), and that no two iwi have overlapping territories. This has been of assistance in the long-running discussions and court cases about how to allocate fishing rights, because the length of coastline was one factor in some of the suggested formulae and the final (2004) legislation. Ngāi Tahu, or Kāi Tahu, is the principal iwi (tribe) of the southern region of New Zealand. ... South Island The South Island forms one of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the North Island. ... Ngapuhi form one of the major and (with over 100,000 members) the single most numerous of the Maori tribes or iwi in New Zealand, occupying much the Northland Peninsula, also known as Tai Tokerau, north of the city of Auckland. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... This article is about the Northland region of New Zealand. ... The Ngati Kahungunu iwi, one of the largest tribes of New Zealand Maori, is based in Wairarapa and Hawkes Bay. ... Hawkes Bay is a region of New Zealand. ... The Wairarapa is a district or subregion of New Zealand occupying the south-eastern corner of the North Island, east of Wellington and south-west of Hawke Bay. ... Ngati Maniapoto is an iwi based in the Waikato-Waitomo region of New Zealands North Island. ... Waikato is the name of a region in the North Island of New Zealand. ... Waitomo is a district-type municipality in the southwest of the Waikato region in the North Island of New Zealand. ... The Ngati Porou iwi is among the top ten tribes of New Zealand by population. ... Gisborne is the name of a unitary authority (in this case, a region and district) in New Zealand. ... East Cape is the easternmost point of the main islands of New Zealand. ... Taranaki is a region in New Zealands North Island and the name of the mountain which is the regions main feature, Geography and people Taranaki is situated on a peninsula on the west coast of the North Island, surrounding the volcanic peak. ... Wellington (Te Whanganui-a-Tara or Poneke) is the capital city of New Zealand and the countrys second-largest urban area. ... The Ngāti Toa iwi is a prominent Maori tribe in central New Zealand. ... Porirua is a city in New Zealand, 20 km north of Wellington. ... Kawhia Harbour is one of three large natural inlets in the Tasman Sea coast of the Waikato region of New Zealands North Island. ... Events and Trends Nationalistic independence movements helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece declares independence from the Ottoman Empire (1821). ... Maori Chief and War Leader of the Ngati Toa tribe, Te Rauparaha (1760s?-1849) took a leading part in the Musket Wars. ... Taranaki is a region in New Zealands North Island and the name of the mountain which is the regions main feature, Geography and people Taranaki is situated on a peninsula on the west coast of the North Island, surrounding the volcanic peak. ... The Ngati Whatua iwi (tribe) of New Zealand consists of four hapu (subtribes): Te Uri O Hau, Te Roroa, Te Taou, and Ngati Whatua. ... Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest urban area in New Zealand. ... Orakei is a suburb of Auckland city, in the North Island of New Zealand. ... The Tainui is a Maori Iwi (tribe) of New Zealand. ... Waikato is the name of a region in the North Island of New Zealand. ... The Bay of Plenty, often abbreviated to BoP, is a region of New Zealand situated around the body of water of the same name. ... Taranaki is a region in New Zealands North Island and the name of the mountain which is the regions main feature, Geography and people Taranaki is situated on a peninsula on the west coast of the North Island, surrounding the volcanic peak. ... Lower Hutt is a city in the lower North Island of New Zealand. ... Tuhoe comprise a Māori iwi (roughly: tribe) of New Zealand. ... Te Urewera National Park consists of a total land area of 2,127 km² and is situated in the East Coast region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... Whakatane (pronounced Fah-kah-tah-neh) is a small town near the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... Opotiki is a town in the eastern Bay of Plenty in the North Island of New Zealand. ...


See also

The following is a list of the Maori iwi of New Zealand. ...

External links

  • Map of Tribal areas
  • Profiled websites, including past and present iwi
  • The home page of the Waikato tribe, one of the tribes of the Tainui waka
  • Ngāi Tahu homepage
  • Ngapuhi homepage
  • Urban Māori Article in the New Zealand Herald details the creation and rationale for the National Urban Māori Authority.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iwi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (798 words)
Iwi (pronounced ee-wee) are the largest everyday social units in Māori society.
Iwi groups can trace their ancestry to the original Māori settlers that arrived from Hawaiiki, at least according to tradition.
A notable example of this is the recent settlement between the New Zealand Government and the Ngāi Tahu, compensating that iwi for various losses of the rights that were guaranteed in the Treaty of Waitangi of 1840.
Iwi (584 words)
Iwi (pronounced ee-wee) form the largest everyday social units in Māori Society.
A notable example of this trend is the recent settlement between the New Zealand government and the Ngāi Tahu, compensating that Iwi for the loss of rights guaranteed in the Treaty of Waitangi of 1840.
Iwi groups are able to trace their ancestry to the original Māori settlers that arrived from Hawaiiki, at least according to tradition.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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