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Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Hedera hibernica shoot with flower buds
Hedera hibernica shoot with flower buds
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Apiales
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Aralioideae
Genus: Hedera
  • Hedera algeriensis – Algerian Ivy
  • Hedera azorica – Azores Ivy
  • Hedera canariensis – Canaries Ivy
  • Hedera caucasigena
  • Hedera colchica – Caucasian Ivy
  • Hedera cypria
  • Hedera helix – Common Ivy
  • Hedera hibernica – Irish Ivy
  • Hedera maderensis – Madeiran Ivy
  • Hedera maroccana
  • Hedera nepalensis – Himalayan Ivy
  • Hedera pastuchowii – Pastuchov's Ivy
  • Hedera rhombea – Japanese Ivy
  • Hedera sinensis
  • Hedera taurica

Hedera (English name ivy, plural ivies) is a genus of 15 species of climbing or ground-creeping evergreen woody plants in the family Araliaceae, native to the Atlantic Islands, western, central and southern Europe, northwestern Africa and across central-southern Asia east to Japan. On suitable surfaces (trees and rock faces), they are able to climb to at least 25–30 metres above the basal ground level. Image:Hedera hibernica. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Apiaceae (carrot family) Araliaceae (ginseng family) Pittosporaceae Griseliniaceae Torriceliaceae The Apiales are an order of flowering plants. ... Genera Aralia Fatsia Hedera - Ivy Panax - Ginseng Reynoldsia Schefflera and others, see text of article The Araliaceae is known as the Ivy or Ginseng family. ... Alanblazeonfire 19:54, 27 March 2007 (UTC) Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Hedera helix L. Hedera helix (Ivy or Common Ivy) is a species of ivy native to most of Europe and southwest Asia. ... Binomial name Hedera hibernica (Kirchn. ... A Silver Fir shoot showing three successive years of retained leaves In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant which retains its leaves year-round, with each leaf persisting for more than 12 months. ... Genera Aralia Fatsia Hedera - Ivy Panax - Ginseng Reynoldsia Schefflera and others, see text of article The Araliaceae is known as the Ivy or Ginseng family. ... Macaronesia Macaronesia, not to be confused with Micronesia, is a modern collective name for several groups of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean near Europe and North Africa belonging to three countries: Portugal, Spain, and Cape Verde. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... For other uses, see Tree (disambiguation). ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ...

They have two leaf types, with palmately lobed juvenile leaves on creeping and climbing stems, and unlobed cordate adult leaves on fertile flowering stems exposed to full sun, usually high in the crowns of trees or the top of rock faces. The juvenile and adult shoots also differ, the former being slender, flexible and scrambling or climbing with small roots to affix the shoot to the substrate (rock or tree bark), the latter thicker, self-supporting, and without roots. The flowers are produced in late autumn, individually small, in 3–5 cm diameter umbels, greenish-yellow, and very rich in nectar, an important late food source for bees and other insects; the fruit are small black berries ripening in late winter, and are an important food for many birds, though poisonous to humans. The seeds are dispersed by birds eating the fruit. The leaves are eaten by the larvae of some species of Lepidoptera such as Angle Shades, Lesser Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing, Scalloped Hazel, Small Angle Shades, Small Dusty Wave (which feeds exclusively on ivy), Swallow-tailed Moth and Willow Beauty. I am God “Foliage” redirects here. ... In botany, palmate refers to leaves that have veins radiating from the point where the leaf attaches to the petiole (stem). ... A Phalaenopsis flower A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... Families Andrenidae Apidae Colletidae Halictidae Megachilidae Melittidae Stenotritidae Bee collecting pollen Bees are flying insects, closely related to wasps and ants. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Template:Reddsfsfirect {{{subdivision_ranks}}} Many - see section below. ... The skull and crossbones symbol traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Superfamilies Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Acanthopteroctetoidea Alucitoidea Axioidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidea Choreutoidea Cossoidea Drepanoidea Epermenioidea Eriocranioidea Galacticoidea Gelechioidea Geometroidea Gracillarioidea Hedyloidea Hepialoidea Heterobathmioidea Hyblaeoidea Immoidea Incurvarioidea Lasiocampoidea Lophocoronoidea Micropterigoidea Mimallonoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Neopseustoidea Nepticuloidea Noctuoidea Palaephatoidea Pterophoroidea Pyraloidea Schreckensteinioidea Sesioidea Simaethistoidea Thyridoidea Tineoidea Tischerioidea Tortricoidea Urodoidea Whalleyanoidea Yponomeutoidea Zygaenoidea The order Lepidoptera... Binomial name Phlogophora meticulosa Linnaeus, 1758 The Angle Shades (Phlogophora meticulosa) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Noctua janthina Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 The Lesser Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing (Noctua janthina) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Odontopera bidentata Clerck, 1759 The Scalloped Hazel (Odontopera bidentata) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name Euplexia lucipara Linnaeus, 1758 The Small Angle Shades (Euplexia lucipara) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Idaea seriata Schrank, 1802 The Small Dusty Wave (Idaea seriata) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name Ourapteryx sambucaria Linnaeus, 1758 The Swallow-tailed Moth (Ourapteryx sambucaria) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name Peribatodes rhomboidaria Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 The Willow Beauty (Peribatodes rhomboidaria) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ...


Taxonomic note

The species are largely allopatric and closely related, and all have on occasion been treated as varieties or subspecies of H. helix, the first species described. Several additional species have been described in the southern parts of the former Soviet Union, but are not regarded as distinct by most botanists. Allopatric speciation, also known as geographic speciation, occurs when populations physically isolated by an extrinsic barrier evolve intrinsic (genetic) reproductive isolation such that if the barrier between the populations breaks down, individuals of the two populations can no longer interbreed. ...

Uses and cultivation

Ivies are very popular in cultivation within their native range, both for attracting wildlife, and for their evergreen foliage; many cultivars with variegated foliage and/or unusual leaf shape have been selected. They are particularly valuable for covering unsightly walls. Ivies have however proved to be a serious invasive weed in the parts of North America where winters are not severe, and their cultivation there is now discouraged in many areas. Similar problems exist in Australia where the plant was originally cultivated in gardens. This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Lantana Invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel; May 2, 2006 The term invasive species refers to a subset of those species defined as introduced species or non-indigenous species. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...

Much has been argued as to whether ivy climbing trees will harm the tree or not; the consensus in Europe is that they do not harm trees significantly, though they may compete for ground nutrients and water to a small extent, and trees with a heavy growth of ivy can be more liable to windthrow. Problems are greater in North America, where trees may be overwhelmed by the ivy to the extent they are killed; this could be because ivy in North America, being introduced, is without the natural pests and diseases that control its vigour in its native areas. A more serious problem is that ivy creates a vigorous, dense, shade-tolerant evergreen groundcover (precisely the characteristics for which it is often cultivated) that can spread over large areas and outcompete native vegetation. In forestry, windthrow refers to trees uprooted by wind, or to the phenomenon that causes such uprooting to occur. ...

Similar concerns are expressed about damage to walls. It is generally considered that a soundly mortared wall is impenetrable to the climbing roots of ivy and will not be damaged, and is also protected from further weathering by the ivy keeping rain off the mortar. Walls with already weak or loose mortar may however be badly damaged, as the ivy is able to root into the weak mortar and further break up the wall. Subsequent removal of the ivy can be difficult, and is likely to cause more damage than the ivy itself. Modern mortars that contain portland cement and little lime are stronger than older mortar mixes that were largely composed of just sand and lime. Most mortar mixes changed to contain portland cement in the 1930s. Soft mortar is still used when laying softer brick. Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... Sampling fast set Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. ...

Regional English names for ivy include Bindwood and Lovestone (for the way it clings and grows over stones and brickwork).

See also

Binomial name Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans or Rhus toxicodendron), in the family Anacardiaceae, is a woody vine that is well-known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant which for most people will cause an agonizing, itching rash. ...


  • McAllister, H. (1982). New work on ivies. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Yearbook 1981: 106-109.
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