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Encyclopedia > Ivan Turgenev
Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910)
Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910)

Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (Russian: Ива́н Серге́евич Турге́нев IPA: [ɪˈvan sʲɛˈrgʲejɪvʲɪtɕ tuˈrgʲenʲɪf]) (November 9 [O.S. October 28] 1818September 3 [O.S. August 22] 1883) was a major Russian novelist and playwright. His novel Fathers and Sons is regarded as a major work of 19th-century fiction. from the Swedish wiki 19th century photograph. ... from the Swedish wiki 19th century photograph. ... Nadar (self-portrait) Nadar (Gaspard-Félix Tournachon) - Self-portrait For the Tamil caste, see Nadar caste. ... Turgenev may refer to: Ivan Turgenev, a Russian novelist and playwright. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... Fathers and Sons is an 1862 novel by Ivan Turgenev, his best known work. ... For the periodical, see Nineteenth Century (periodical). ... Fiction (from the Latin fingere, to form, create) is storytelling of imagined events and stands in contrast to non-fiction, which makes factual claims about reality. ...

Contents

Life

Turgenev was born into a landed and wealthy family in Oryol, Russia, on October 28, 1818. His father Sergei Nikolaevich Turgenev, a colonel in the Imperial Russian cavalry, died when he was sixteen, leaving Turgenev and his brother Nicholas to be brought up by their abusive mother, Varvara Petrovna Lutovinova. After the standard schooling for a child of a gentleman's family, Turgenev studied for one year at the University of Moscow and then moved to the University of St Petersburg, focusing on the classics, Russian literature and philology. He was sent in 1838 to the University of Berlin to study philosophy (particularly Hegel) and history. Turgenev was impressed with German Central-European society, and returned home a "Westernizer", as opposed to a "Slavophile", believing that Russia could best improve itself by imitating the West. Like many of his educated contemporaries, he was particularly opposed to serfdom. Oryol or Orel (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, administrative center of Oryol Oblast. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Moscow State University campus M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Московский Государственный Университет име&#1085... Seal of Saint Petersburg State University Saint Petersburg State University (Санкт-Петербургский Государственный Универ&#1089... In the traditional sense of the term, a classic book is one written in ancient Greece or ancient Rome (see classics). ... Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia or its émigrés, and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Russia or the Soviet Union. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der... This article is 58 kilobytes or more in size. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ... A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ...


A family serf read to him verses from the Rossiad of Kheraskov, a celebrated poet of the eighteenth century. Turgenev's early attempts in literature, poems, and sketches had indications of genius and were favorably spoken of by Belinsky, then the leading Russian literary critic. During the latter part of his life, Turgenev did not reside much in Russia; he lived either at Baden-Baden or Paris, often in proximity to the family of the celebrated singer Pauline Garcia-Viardot, with whom he had a life-long affair. Mikhail Matveyevich Kheraskov (1733-1807) was regarded as the most important Russian poet by Catherine the Great and her contemporaries. ... Vissarion Grigorievich Belinskii (Виссарио́н Григо́рьевич Бели́нский) (1811 - 1848) was Russian writer, literary critic, philosopher and revolutionary activist (a Westernizer). ... Baden-Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Germany Baden-Baden is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Pauline Garcia-Viardot (July 18, 1821 – May 18, 1910) was a 19th century French mezzo-soprano and composer. ...


Turgenev never married, although he had a daughter with one of his family's serfs. Tall and broad, Turgenev's personality was timid, restrained and soft-spoken. His closest literary friend was Gustave Flaubert. His relations with Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky were often strained, as the two were slavophiles, opposing Turgenev in this respect. His rocky friendship with Tolstoy in 1861 wrought such animosity that Tolstoy challenged Turgenev to a duel, afterwards apologizing. The two did not speak for 17 years. Dostoevsky would parody Turgenev in his 1872 novel, Demons, through the character of the novelist, Karamazinov. Dostoevsky's 1880 famous speech at the unveiling of the Pushkin monument brought about his reconciliation with Turgenev. Turgenev occasionally visited England, and in 1879 the degree of D.C.L. was conferred upon him by the University of Oxford. He died at Bougival, near Paris, on 4 September 1883. On his deathbed he pleaded with Tolstoy: "My friend, return to literature!" Tolstoy after this wrote such works as The Death of Ivan Ilych and The Kreutzer Sonata. Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) [] was a French novelist who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) was a Russian novelist, writer, essayist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker, and an influential member of the Tolstoy... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) is considered one of the greatest Russian writers as well as one of the greatest writers internationally. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The demon Satan In folklore, mythology, and religion, a demon is a supernatural being that is generally described as an evil spirit, but is also depicted to be good in some instances. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... Bougival is a city of 8500 in the country of France, region of Ile de France, departement of Yvelines. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Death of Ivan Ilyich, first published in 1886, is a novella by Leo Tolstoy. ... The Kreutzer Sonata is a novella by Leo Tolstoy, published in 1889 and promptly censored by the Russian authorities. ...


Turgenev's brain was weighed in 1883 at an incredible 2021 grams. 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Career

Turgenev first made his name with A Sportsman's Sketches (Записки охотника), also known as Sketches From a Hunter's Album or Notes of a Hunter. Based on the author's own observations while hunting birds and hares in his mother's estate of Spasskoye, the work appeared in a collected form in 1852. In 1852, between Turgenev's Sketches and his first important novels, he wrote his (now notorious) obituary to his idol Gogol in the Saint Petersburg Gazette. The key passage reads: "Gogol is dead!...what Russian heart is not shaken by those three words?...He is gone, that man whom we now have the right, the bitter right given to us by death, to call great." The censor of St. Petersburg did not approve of this idolatry and banned its publication, but Turgenev managed to fool the Moscow censor into printing it. These underhanded tactics landed the young writer in prison for a month, and he was forced into exile to his estate for nearly two years. A Sportsmans Sketches was an 1852 collection of short stories by Ivan Turgenev that is often credited with persuading Tsar Alexander II of Russia to liberate the serfs in 1861. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol (Russian: Николай Васильевич Гоголь) (March 31, 1809 - March 4, 1852) was a Ukrainian-born Russian writer. ... Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol (Russian: Николай Васильевич Гоголь) (March 31, 1809 - March 4, 1852) was a Ukrainian-born Russian writer. ...


In the 1840s and early 50s during the rule of Tsar Nicholas I, the political climate in Russia was stifling for many writers. This is evident in the despair and subsequent death of Nikolay Gogol, the notorious oppression, and the persecution and arrests of artists, scientists, and writers, including Dostoevsky. During this time, thousands of Russian intellectuals (Russian intelligents) emigrated to Europe. Among them were Alexander Hertzen and Turgenev himself. In the late 1840s and 50s Turgenev wrote several short novels (povesti in Russian): The Diary of a Superfluous Man, Faust, The Lull. In them Turgenev expressed the anxieties and hopes of people of his generation. In 1858 he wrote the novel A Nest of Nobles (Дворянское гнездо, published 1859), a story of the nostalgia for the beauty of the lost, which contains one of his most memorable female characters, Elena. Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Intelligentsia. ... Alexander Herzen in 1867 Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) (April 6, 1812 - January 21, 1870) was a major Russian pro_Western writer and thinker known as the...


In 1855 Alexander II became the Russian tsar, and the political climate in Russia became more relaxed. In 1859 Turgenev wrote the novel On the Eve (Накануне), in which he portrayed the Bulgarian revolutionary Dmitri. In 1862 Fathers and Sons (Отцы и дети), his most enduring work, was published. Its lead character, Basarov, is heralded as a representative of the new people character of the 1860s Russian novel. Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 17 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ... Fathers and Sons is an 1862 novel by Ivan Turgenev, his best known work. ...


Critics of the day did not take Fathers and Sons seriously and after the relative critical failure of his masterpiece, Turgenev was disillusioned and started to write less. His next novel, Smoke (Дым), was published in 1867 and was again received less than enthusiastically in his native country. His last work of any length, Virgin Soil (Новь), was published in 1877. Shorter stories, such as Torrents of Spring (Вешние воды), First Love, and Asya were also written around this time. These were later collected into three volumes. His last works were Poetry in Prose and Clara Milich, which appeared in the European Messenger. Turgenev is considered one of the great Victorian novelists, ranked with Thackeray, Hawthorne, and Henry James, though his style was much different from these American and British writers. Turgenev has often been compared to his Russian contemporaries, Leo Tolstoy and Feodor Dostoevsky, who wrote around the same time and on similar issues. Torrents of Spring, also known as Spring Torrents, was a short story written by Ivan Turgenev during 1870 and 1871 when he was in his fifties. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... William Makepeace Thackeray William Makepeace Thackeray (18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was an English novelist of the 19th century. ... Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 - May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) was a Russian novelist, writer, essayist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker, and an influential member of the Tolstoy... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ...


This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


Bibliography

Novels

  • 1857 - Рудин (Rudin)
  • 1859 - Дворянское Гнездо (Dvoryanskoye Gnezdo or Home of the Gentry, A Nest of Gentlefolk, or A Nest of Nobles)
  • 1860 - Накануне (Nakanune or On the Eve)
  • 1862 - Отцы и Дети (Ottsy i Deti or Fathers and Sons)
  • 1867 - Дым (Dym or Smoke)
  • 1877 - Новь (Virgin Soil)

Short Stories This article is about a Russian nineteenth century novel. ... Home of the Gentry (Russian: Дворянское гнездо) is a novel published by Ivan Turgenev in 1859. ... On the Eve (Накануне in Russian) is the third novel by famous Russian writer Ivan Turgenev, best known for his short stories and the novel Fathers and Sons. ... Fathers and Sons is an 1862 novel by Ivan Turgenev, his best known work. ...

  • 1850 - Дневник Лишнего Человека (Dnevnik Lishnego Cheloveka or The Diary of a Superfluous Man)
  • 1851 - Провинциалка (Provintsialka or The Provincial Lady)
  • 1852 - Записки Охотника (Zapiski Okhotnika or The Hunter's Sketches)
  • 1855 - Yakov Pasynkov
  • 1856 - Faust: A Story in Nine Letters
  • 1858 - Aся (Asia )
  • 1860 - Первая Любовь (Pervaia Liubov' or First Love)
  • 1870 - Stepnoy Korol' Lir (A Lear of the Steppes)
  • 1872 - Вешние Воды (Veshinye Vody or Torrents of Spring or Spring Torrents)
  • 1881 - Песнь Торжествующей Любви (The Song of the Triumphant Love)
  • 1882 - Klara Milich (The Mysterious Tales)

Plays A Sportsmans Sketches was an 1852 collection of short stories by Ivan Turgenev that is often credited with persuading Tsar Alexander II of Russia to liberate the serfs in 1861. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Torrents of Spring, also known as Spring Torrents, was a short story written by Ivan Turgenev during 1870 and 1871 when he was in his fifties. ...

  • 1843 - Неосторожность
  • 1847 - Где тонко, там и рвется
  • 1849/1856 - Zavtrak u Predvoditelia
  • 1850/1851 - Razgovor na Bol'shoi Doroge (A Conversation on the Highway)
  • 1846/1852 - Bezdenezh'e (Fortune's Fool)
  • 1857/1862 - Nakhlebnik (The Family Charge)
  • 1855/1872 - Mesiats v Derevne (A Month in the Country)
  • 1882 - Vecher V Sorrente (An Evening in Sorrento)

Bates and Langella on the poster for the 2002 Broadway production Fortunes Fool is a play by Ivan Turgenev. ...

See also

3323 Turgenev is a small main belt asteroid. ... Insert non-formatted text hereItalic textLee Hoiby (born 1926) is an American classical pianist and composer. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ivan Turgenev - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (999 words)
Turgenev was born into an old and wealthy family at Orel, Russia, in the province of the same name, on October 28, 1818.
Turgenev's early attempts in literature, poems and sketches, had indications of genius and were favorably spoken of by Belinsky, then the leading Russian critic.
Turgenev occasionally visited England, and in 1879 the degree of D.C.L. was conferred upon him by the University of Oxford.
Ivan Turgenev - definition of Ivan Turgenev in Encyclopedia (826 words)
Turgenev was born into an old and wealthy family at Orel, in the government of the same name, in 1818.
After the normal schooling for a child of a gentleman's family, Ivan studied for a year at the university of Moscow, then at St Petersburg, and was finally sent in 1843 to Berlin.
For his first acquaintance with the literature of his country the future novelist was indebted to a serf of the family, who used to read to him verses from the Rossiad of Kheraskov, a once celebrated poet of the eighteenth century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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