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Encyclopedia > Ivan Shuvalov
Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by Fyodor Rokotov.
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Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by Fyodor Rokotov.

Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov (1 November 172714 November 1797) was called the Maecenas of the Russian Enlightenment and the first Russian Minister of Education. Russia's first theatre, university, and academy of arts were instituted with his active participation. Lady in a pink dress, 1770s Fyodor Stepanovich Rokotov (Fedor Rokotov) (Фёдор Степанович Рокотов 1736-1809) was a distinguished Russian painter who specialized in portraits. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Events June 11 - George, Prince of Wales becomes King George II of Great Britain. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Gaius or Cilnius Maecenas (70 - 8 BC) was a confidant and political advisor to Augustus Caesar, as well as an important sponsor of young poets. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and doctor) in a variety of subjects. ... Academy of Arts (or Academy of Art) can mean: Academy of Art University (United States), the largest private school of art and design in the United States, located in San Francisco, California China Academy of Art (China), an art school of mainland China, founded in 1928 by the government of...

Contents


Love affair with the Empress

He was born in Moscow, the only son of an army captain, who died when he was 10. The Shuvalov family fortunes changed drastically in 1741, when Elizaveta Petrovna ascended the Russian throne with some help from Ivan's powerful cousins — Peter Shuvalov and Alexander Shuvalov. The following year, they had the 14-year-old Ivan attached to the imperial court as a page. Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: (help· info)) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... Pyotr Shuvalov Count Pyotr Andreyevich Shuvalov (граф Пётр Андреевич Шувалов) (1827 - 1889), was a Russian statesman and a counselor to Tsar Alexander II. Referring to his reactionary policies, his more liberal opponents sometimes called him Arakcheev II. Biography Pyotr Shuvalov came from a Russian family which rose to distinction in the person Peter Ivanovich... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Empress Elizaveta Petrovna (1709-62) Yelizaveta Petrovna (Елизаве́та Петро́вна) (December 29, 1709 - January 5, 1762) was an Empress of Russia (1741 - 1762) who took the country into the War of Austrian succession (1740 - 1748) and the Seven Years War (1756-63). ... Count Peter Andreyevich Shuvalov (Schouvaloff) (Пётр Андреевич Шувалов in Russian) (1827 - 1889) was a Russian diplomat. ... Look up Page in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Page may mean: In graphic design, typography, or printing: Page header, typography Page footer, typography Page (paper), a leaf or one side of a leaf, as of a book An apprentice, assistant or errand boy: Page (servant), a servant or knights...


In July 1749, when Ivan was visiting his brother-in-law Prince Galitzine at his country estate near Moscow, the Shuvalov brothers arranged his meeting with the Empress, who was making a pilgrimage to the Monastery of St. Sabbas. The Shuvalovs were not deceived in their calculations: the 49-year-old Empress took notice of the handsome page, who was 27 years her junior, and bid him to accompany her in the upcoming pilgrimage to the New Jerusalem Monastery. Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Peter I permitted the Galitzines to take an emblem of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as their coat of arms The Galitzines, more correctly the Golitsyns (Russian: Голицын), are one of the largest and noblest princely houses of Russia. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: (help· info)) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... One of Rublevs icons from Zvenigorod. ...


Three months later, Shuvalov was appointed a kammer-junker and his liaison with the Empress began. Although the cousins planned to use him as a pawn in their court intrigues, Shuvalov refused to get enmeshed in their machinations. As his biographers like to point out, Shuvalov was "mild and generous to all" and "had no enemies whatsoever".

Ivan Shuvalov. Portrait from the Imperial Academy of Arts.
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Ivan Shuvalov. Portrait from the Imperial Academy of Arts.

His position at court grew stronger during Elizaveta's declining years, when he de-facto served as a master of petitions to her, eclipsing her previous favourite and rumoured husband, Aleksey Razumovsky. Promoted general in 1760, Shuvalov refused most other honours that the Empress wished to bestow upon him, including the title of count. Count A. G. Razumovsky Count Alexei Grigorievich Razumovsky (Алексей Григорьевич Разумовский) (1709–1771), was a Ukrainian Cossack who rose to become lover and, probably, a secret spouse of the Russian Empress Elizaveta Petrovna. ...


Patronage of Lomonosov

Unlike self-seeking favourites of Catherine the Great, Shuvalov determined to put his good fortune to constructive use for the advancement of education and the promotion of fine arts in his country. A model of the enlightened courtier, he maintained a correspondence with the leading French thinkers — Helvetius, d'Alembert, Diderot, and Voltaire. He supplied the latter with materials necessary for his Histoire de l'empire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand and was later instrumental in publishing it in Russia. Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from June 28, 1762, to her death on November 6, 1796. ... Claude Adrien Helvétius (January 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de la Tour Jean Le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Denis Diderot Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 - July 31, 1784) was a French writer and philosopher. ... The last of Voltaires statues by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1781). ...


Shuvalov's activity brought him in touch with Mikhail Lomonosov, a Russian scholar who aspired to establish a university in Russia. Lomonosov found a loyal patron in Shuvalov and paid trubute to his accomplishments in his dedication of a couple of odes and "meditations" to him. On January 25, 1755 — the name-day of Shuvalov's mother Tatiana Rodionovna — the Empress endorsed their project to set up the Moscow University "for all sorts and conditions of people". The Tatiana Day is still celebrated as the Day of Russian Students. Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов) (November 19 (November 8, Old Style), 1711 – April 15 (April 4, Old Style), 1765) was a Russian writer and polymath who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and doctor) in a variety of subjects. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Moscow State University campus M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Московский Государственный Университет имени М.В.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is considered the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ...


Shuvalov became the university's first curator and attracted the finest scholars to teach there. He came up with the idea of establishing The Moscow News (Московские ведомости), a newspaper published by the university press, which was also founded at Shuvalov's instigation. Apart from two colleges affiliated with the Moscow University, he also helped establish the first Russian college outside Moscow — in Kazan. A curator of a cultural heritage institution (e. ... Kazan (Tatar Qazan, Казан; Russian Казань) is the capital city of Tatarstan and one of Russias largest cities. ...


Academy of Arts

In 1757, Shuvalov submitted to the Senate his project for establishing the Academy of Three Noble Arts at his own palace in Saint Petersburg. This institution — later transformed into the Imperial Academy of Arts — was envisioned by him for the education of the most gifted boys from all strata of society. At first no formal examination was required to enter the Academy; even peasants' children — like Fyodor Rokotov and Fedot Shubin — were admitted on Shuvalov's personal recommendation. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The edifice for the academy was built in 1764-89 to a design by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe and Alexander F. Kokorinov. ... Lady in a pink dress, 1770s Fyodor Stepanovich Rokotov (Fedor Rokotov) (Фёдор Степанович Рокотов 1736-1809) was a distinguished Russian painter who specialized in portraits. ... Marble statue of Catherine II (1789-90). ...

View of Ivan Shuvalov's art gallery.
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View of Ivan Shuvalov's art gallery.

Shuvalov served as the Academy's first president until 1763, when he was succeeded by Ivan Betskoy. In 1758, he donated to the Academy his own collection of Western drawings and paintings, which formed a nucleus of its formidable holdings of fine art. At the time, his palace also hosted performances by Russia's first theatrical troupe, led by Fyodor Volkov and Ivan Dmitrievsky. 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Fyodor Grigorievich Volkov (1729-1763) is known as the father of Russian theatre. ...


Upon Elizaveta's death and the ascension of Catherine II, Shuvalov set off for Europe, ostensibly with the purpose of improving his frail health. During fourteen years of foreign travels, he acquired choice artworks for the Academy and the Hermitage Museum. He also commissioned copies of the finest statuary he was able to find in Rome, Florence and Naples and later presented these to the Academy of Arts. Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from June 28, 1762, to her death on November 6, 1796. ... The Hermitage Museum (Эрмитаж) in St. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Founded 59 BC as Florentia Region Tuscany Mayor Leonardo Domenici (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  102 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 356,000 almost 500,000 3,453/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 43°47 N 11°15 E www. ... Naples panorama Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ...


Later years

As regards politics, Shuvalov's life abroad was not as exciting as the previous period of his career. On Catherine II's request, he would go on diplomatic errands, e.g., it was he who persuaded the Pope to replace Durini, a Russophobic nuncio at Warsaw, with the more pliable Count Giuseppe Garampi. A typical manifestattion of the modern Russophobia. ... From the ancient Latin Nuntius, meaning any envoy. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ...


His eventual return to Russia in 1777 occasioned Derzhavin's well-known epistle, while the Empress made him High Chamberlain. Shuvalov's mansion was to be frequented by the new generation of Russian intellectuals: Ekaterina Dashkova, Denis Fonvizin, Mikhail Kheraskov, Ivan Dmitriev, Aleksandr Shishkov — many of them products of the university he had established. While living at his palace, a poet Kostrov produced the first Russian translation of the Iliad. 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin (Гаврила Романович Державин, 1743 – 1816) was the greatest Russian poet before Alexander Pushkin. ... An epistle is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. ... Portrait of Princess Dashkov from the Hermitage Museum. ... Denis Fonvizin (1744?–92). ... Mikhail Matveyevich Kheraskov (1733-1807) was regarded as the most important Russian poet by Catherine the Great and her contemporaries. ... The Iliad (Ancient Greek: Ιλιάς, Iliás) tells part of the story of the siege of the city of Ilium, i. ...


After his imperial lover's demise Shuvalov never married and had no children. He passed away in the Shuvalov Palace, Saint Petersburg on 14 November 1797. His tomb is in the Annunciation Church of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery. In 2003, a memorial statue of Shuvalov was unveiled in the inner court of the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. Its author is Zurab Tsereteli, the current president of the Academy that Shuvalov founded. Another statue was erected in front of the Moscow University Library in 2004. Portrait of Countess Catherine P. Shuvalova, 1770s, by Greuze. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... View of the monastery in the early 19th century Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter the Great in 1710 at the southern end of the Nevsky Prospect in St Petersburg to house the relics of Alexander Nevsky, patron saint of the newly-founded Russian capital. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zurab Tsereteli (left) with Eunice Kennedy Shriver Tseretelis 96-meter-tall statue of Peter the Great on the Moskva Riverbank is one of the tallest in the world. ...


References

  • Pavel Bartenev. Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov: A Biography. Moscow, 1857.
  • Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov (1727-1797): prosveshchonnaya lichnost' v rossiiskoi istorii. SPb, 1998.

External links

  • (Russian) Ivan Shuvalov on the website of the Russian Academy of Arts

  Results from FactBites:
 
The book collection of I.Shuvalov at the Scientific library of the Academy of Arts of Russia (1786 words)
Probably, Shuvalov hadn't included these 30 volumes to his register of ouvrages and engravings, left at the Academy, by reason of their less value.
They have superexlibrises of Shuvalov and existed at the academic library before: they are 4-volumed "Discours sur l'Histoire Universelle" by J.-B.Bossuet (Amsterdam,1738) and "Dictionnaire iconologique" (Paris,1756), which was brought to the library by Shuvalov "not to lose the sight of the practical aim of mythology in the academic education".
To have a notion of the value of Shuvalov's investment to the academic library, it's enough to say that his collection amounted about a half of the existent at the Academy books at that time, not to mention high value of the books themselves.
Imperial Russia - quiz #1 (3625 words)
Ivan IV Their ancient right to leave the service of one prince for another was curtailed, as was their right to hold land without giving obligatory service to the tsar.
Shuvalovs plan to open secondary schools in provincial capitals and primary schools in larger towns was shelved, but two secondary schools opened in Moscow and one in Kazan.
Ivan VI Birons unscrupulousness had earned him general hatred, and shortly after he became regent a coup ousted and banished him (1741).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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