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Encyclopedia > Ivan Mazepa
Ivan Mazepa
Ivan Mazepa

In office
1687 – 1708

Born ca. 1640
Bila Tserkva, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Died 1709
Bendery, Ottoman Empire

Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Ukrainian: Іван Степанович Мазепа historically spelled as Mazeppa; circa 16441709), Cossack Hetman (Ataman) of the Hetmanate in Left-bank Ukraine, in 16871708. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hetman of Ukraine, the title of the head of the Ukrainian state known as the Cossack Hetmanate. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (364x601, 250 KB) Summary Herb Obojga Narodów Coat of arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth see also Image:PB PLC CoA.png Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Location Government Country Oblast Raion Ukraine Kiev Oblast Bila Tserkva City Municipality Founded 1032 Magdeburg Rights 1589 Head of City Council Vasyl Savchuk Geographical characteristics Area  - City 34 km² Population  - City (01-01-2004) 203,300 Coordinates , , Other Information Postal Code 09100-09117 Dialing Code +380 4463 Sister cities Barysaw... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: ; Moldovan Cyrillic: Тигина) is a city in Transnistria, the breakaway region of Moldova. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... Left-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Лівобережна Україна Russian: Левобережная Украина, Polish: Lewobrzeżna Ukraina ): historic name of... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J...

Contents

Early life

Mazepa was born circa in 1644 near Bila Tserkva, then a part of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, into a noble family. He was educated first in the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, then at a Jesuit college in Warsaw and abroad. From 1659 he served at the court of the Polish king, John II Casimir. // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Location Government Country Oblast Raion Ukraine Kiev Oblast Bila Tserkva City Municipality Founded 1032 Magdeburg Rights 1589 Head of City Council Vasyl Savchuk Geographical characteristics Area  - City 34 km² Population  - City (01-01-2004) 203,300 Coordinates , , Other Information Postal Code 09100-09117 Dialing Code +380 4463 Sister cities Barysaw... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, NaUKMA (Ukrainian: Національний університет «Києво-Могилянська ак&#1072... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... Reign From November, 1648 until September 16, 1668 Elected In November 1648 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 19, 1649 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Anna Austriaczka Consorts Ludwika Maria Children with Ludwika Maria Maria Anna Teresa...


Cossack general

In 16691673, Mazepa served under Hetman Petro Doroshenko, and in 16741681, under Hetman Ivan Samoylovych. A young educated Mazepa quickly rose through the Cossack ranks and in 16821686, he served as a General Yesaul. // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Hetman Petro Doroshenko Ukrainian hryvnia coin depicting Petro Doroshenko Petro Doroshenko (Ukrainian: Петро Дорошенко) (1627–1698) was a Cossack political and military leader, Hetman of Right-bank Ukraine (1665–1672) and Muscovite voyevoda. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Ivan Samoylovych was the Hetman of Left-bank Ukraine from 1672 to 1687. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Yesaul (Turkic: yasaul=chief; Russian: есау́л), a post and a rank in the Cossack units. ...


Hetman

10 Hryvnia banknote depicting Ivan Mazepa.

In 1687, Ivan Mazepa accused Samoylovych of conspiring to secede from Russia, secured his ouster and was elected the Hetman of the Left-bank Ukraine, with the support of Vasily Galitzine's Muscovite government. Image File history File links Ivan_Mazepa. ... Image File history File links Ivan_Mazepa. ... The hryvnia (Ukrainian гривня) has been the national currency of Ukraine since 1996 when it replaced the coupon (or karbovanets), the temporary currency used after Ukraine left the Soviet Union and the ruble zone. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... Left-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Лівобережна Україна Russian: Левобережная Украина, Polish: Lewobrzeżna Ukraina ): historic name of... Peter I permitted the Galitzines to take an emblem of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as their coat of arms Galitzine, more correctly Golitsyn (Russian: Голицын), is one of the largest and noblest princely houses of Russia. ...


Gradually, Mazepa accumulated great wealth, becoming one of Europe's biggest land owners. A multitude of churches were built all over Ukraine during his reign in the Ukrainian Baroque style. He expanded the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, the primary educational institution of Ukraine at the time, to accommodate 2,000 students, founded schools and printing houses. Many Cossacks, however, grew increasingly frustrated with the repressive and authoritarian rule of the Hetmanate nobility (starshyna). Several uprisings against his rule, started in the Zaporizhian Sich, failed. The Vydubychi Monastery in Kiev is an example of Ukrainian Baroque architecture. ... National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, NaUKMA (Ukrainian: Національний університет «Києво-Могилянська ак&#1072... Starshina, or Starshyna (Ukrainian and Russian: , from старший, starshyi, senior), had a number of meanings, all related to the position of chiefdom. ... Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: ,Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ...


In 1702, the Cossacks of Right-bank Ukraine, under the leadership of hetman Semen Paliy, began an uprising against Poland, which after early successes was defeated. Mazepa convinced Russian Tsar Peter I to allow him to intervene, which he successfully did, taking over major portions of Right-bank Ukraine, while Poland was weakened by invasion of Swedish king Charles XII. Fearing the popularity of Paliy, Mazepa had him exiled to Siberia. Right-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Правобережна Україна Russian: Правобережная Украина; Polish: Prawobrzeżna Ukraina), a... Semen Paliy depicted on Ukrainian Obolon beer label Semen Paliy (Ukrainian: Семен Палiй) (circa 1645- 1710) was a Ukrainian Cossack polkovnyk (colonel). ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Right-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Правобережна Україна Russian: Правобережная Украина; Polish: Prawobrzeżna Ukraina), a... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


The Great Northern War

In the beginning of the 18th Century, as the Russian Empire suffered setbacks in the Great Northern War, Peter I decided to reform the Russian army and to centralize control over his realm. In Mazepa's opinion, the strengthening of Russia's central power could put at risk the broad autonomy granted to the Hetmanate under the Treaty of Pereyaslav in 1654. Attempts to assert control over the Cossacks included demands of having them fight in any of the tsar's wars, instead of just defending their own land against regional enemies as was agreed to in the treaty. Now Cossack forces had to fight in distant wars in Livonia and Lithuania, instead of protecting their own homes from the Tatars and Poles. Unequipped and not properly trained to fight on par with the modern European armies, Cossacks suffered heavy losses and lowered morale, as their commanders were Russians and Germans who often did not much value their lives and military abilities. The population of Ukraine had to bear the presence of the Russian army, which was accused of disrespectful behaviour and looting in Ukrainian cities where it was stationed. The hetman himself started to feel his post threatened in the face of increasing calls to replace him with one of the abundant foreign generals of the Russian army, or with a Russian. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... This article is about the people. ...


Change of sides

the Mazepa family coat-of-arms.

The last straw in the souring relations with Tsar Peter was his refusal to commit any significant force to defend Ukraine against the Polish King Stanislaus Leszczynski, an ally of Charles XII of Sweden, who threatened to attack the Cossack Hetmanate in 1708. Peter did so because he was waiting for an incoming attack from king Charles of Sweden and decided he could spare no forces. In the opinion of Mazepa, this blatantly violated the Treaty of Pereyaslav, since Russia refused to protect Ukraine's territory and left it to fare on its own. As the Swedish and Polish armies advanced towards Ukraine, Mazepa allied himself with them on October 28, 1708. Only about 3,000 Cossacks followed their hetman, while others remained loyal to the tsar. This was partly due to Orthodox clergymen's agitation for the tsar. The Russian army, however, sought revenge by razing the Cossack capital Baturyn, killing the defending garrison and all of its population. The Russian army was ordered to tie up the dead Cossacks to crosses, and float them down the Dnieper River all the way to the Black Sea. This was in the hope of scaring all the people loyal to Mazepa who lived along the river. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... Baturyn (Батурин in Ukrainian), is a town in Chernihiv region in central Ukraine with a population of about 3,600. ... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ...


Those Cossacks who did not side with Mazepa elected a new hetman, Ivan Skoropadsky, on November 11, 1708. The fear of other reprisals and suspicion of Mazepa's newfound Swedish ally prevented most of Ukraine's population from siding with him. Surprisingly, the only significant support which he gathered came from the Zaporizhian Sich, which, though at odds with the hetman in the past, considered him and the nobility he represented a lesser evil compared with the tsar. The Sich Cossacks paid dearly for their support of Mazepa, seen as a traitor by Russians. The Sich was destroyed in 1709 and a decree was issued to execute any active Zaporizhian Cossack. Ivan Skoropadsky (Ukrainian: Іван Скоропадський) (reigned 1708-1722) was a Hetman of the Ukrainian Cossacks, and the successor to the famous Hetman Ivan Mazepa. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: ,Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ...


Decisive battle

Charles XII and Mazepa at the Dnieper River after Poltava by unknown artist.
Charles XII and Mazepa at the Dnieper River after Poltava by unknown artist.

The Swedish and the Russian armies spent the first half of 1709 maneuvering for the advantageous position in the anticipated big battle, as well as trying to secure the support of the local population. Finally in June, the Battle of Poltava took place. It was won by Russia, which put an end to Mazepa's hopes of transferring Ukraine under control of Sweden, which had promised independence in an earlier treaty. He fled to the Turkish fortress of Bendery together with Charles XII, where he died shortly thereafter. Image File history File links Charles_XII_and_Mazepa_at_the_Dnieper_River_after_Poltava. ... Image File history File links Charles_XII_and_Mazepa_at_the_Dnieper_River_after_Poltava. ... Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa (Іван Степанович Мазепа in Ukrainian; Иван Степанович Мазепа in Russian) (circa 1640 &#8212... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Combatants Swedish Empire Russian Empire Commanders Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld # Peter the Great Strength 17,000 troops attacking, 8,000 besieging Poltava, 42,000–45,000 troops, 130 cannons (about 100 participated in the battle) 3,000 Kalmyks arrived at the end of battle Casualties 6,900 killed, wounded or... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Combatants Swedish Empire Russian Empire Commanders Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld # Peter the Great Strength 17,000 troops attacking, 8,000 besieging Poltava, 42,000–45,000 troops, 130 cannons (about 100 participated in the battle) 3,000 Kalmyks arrived at the end of battle Casualties 6,900 killed, wounded or... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Tighina, or Tigina, is a city in Moldova. ...


Historical legacy

Mazepa's decision to abandon his allegiance to the Russian Empire was considered treason by the Russian tsar and a violation of the Treaty of Pereyaslav. However others argue that it was Imperial Russia who broke the treaty, because it failed to even try to protect the Cossack homeland while busy fighting abroad. The image of a disgraceful traitor persisted throughout Russian and Soviet history. The Russian Orthodox Church excommunicated him. A positive view of Mazepa was taboo in the Soviet Union and considered as a sign of "Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism". During the years of Perestroika, however, many historical works saw light which viewed Mazepa differently. After Ukraine's independence in 1991, Mazepa became a national hero in Ukraine's historiography and mainstream media, because he was the first post-Pereyaslav Treaty hetman to take a stand against the Tsar, who failed to ratify that Treaty. This view however is still disputed by the pro-Russian factions. Mazepa's portrait is found on Ukrainian currency - the 10 hryvnia bill. Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Bourgeois nationalism is a term from Marxist phraseology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The hryvnia (Ukrainian гривня) has been the national currency of Ukraine since 1996 when it replaced the coupon (or karbovanets), the temporary currency used after Ukraine left the Soviet Union and the ruble zone. ...


Cultural legacy

"Mazeppa" by Théodore Géricault; based on an episode in Byron's poem when the young Mazeppa is punished by being tied to a wild horse.
"Mazeppa" by Théodore Géricault; based on an episode in Byron's poem when the young Mazeppa is punished by being tied to a wild horse.

The historical events of Mazepa's life have inspired many literary and musical works: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2104 pixel, file size: 399 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2104 pixel, file size: 399 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Monument at Gericaults tomb. ...

Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... This article is about the poem by Lord Byron, for other uses see Mazeppa Mazeppa is an epic poem written by Lord Byron in 1818. ... “Pushkin” redirects here. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (IPA: ) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Juliusz SÅ‚owacki. ... Franz Liszt (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a virtuoso pianist and composer. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October... Mazeppa, also Mazepa (Russian: ) is an opera in three acts (six scenes) by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by Victor Burenin, based on Pushkins poem Poltava. ... Michael William Balfe (May 15, 1808 - October 20, 1870), was an Irish composer, best known today for his opera The Bohemian Girl. ... Taras Shevchenko Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (Ukrainian: ) (March 9, 1814 [O.S. February 25] – March 10, 1861 [O.S. February 26]) was a Ukrainian poet, also an artist and a humanist. ... Kondraty Fyodorovich Ryleyev (Russian: , September 29 (September 18 O.S.), 1795, - July 25 (July 13 O.S.), 1826) was a Russian poet and revolutionary, and one of the leaders in the Decembrist revolt. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0323279/

External links

  • Mazepa article in online at Encyclopedia of Ukraine.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ivan Mazepa Summary (1862 words)
Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Ukrainian: Іван Степанович Мазепа, Russian: Иван Степанович Мазепа, historically spelled as Mazeppa; circa 1640—August 28, 1709), Cossack Hetman (Ataman) of the Hetmanate in Left-bank Ukraine, in 1687–1708.
In 1687, Ivan Mazepa accused Samoylovych of conspiring to secede from Russia, secured his ouster and was elected the Hetman of the Left-bank Ukraine, with the support of Vasily Galitzine's Muscovite government.
Mazepa's decision to abandon his allegiance to the Russian Empire was considered treason by the Russian tsar and a violation of the Treaty of Pereyaslav.
Ivan Mazepa (256 words)
Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa (Іван Степанович Мазепа in Ukrainian; Иван Степанович Мазепа in Russian) (circa 1640 — August 28, 1709), Hetman of the Leftbank Ukraine in 1687—1708.
Mazepa was born into a noble family and educated first in the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy then in a Jesuit collage in Warsaw and abroad.
In 1687, Ivan Mazepa became the Hetman of the Left-bank Ukraine and one of the biggest land owners.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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