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Encyclopedia > Ivan Ilyin
Ivan Ilyin
Ivan Ilyin

Ivan Alexandrovich Ilyin (Russian: Иван Александрович Ильин) (March 28, 1883 - December 21, 1954) was a Russian religious and political philosopher, and émigré anti-communist publicist associated with the White movement. Image File history File links Iljin02. ... Image File history File links Iljin02. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ... A publicist is a person whose job is to generate and manage publicity for a public figure, especially a celebrity, or for a work such as a book or movie. ... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the...

Contents

Young years

Ivan Ilyin was born in Moscow in an aristocratic family of Rurikid descent. His father Alexander Ivanovich Ilyin was born and spent his childhood in the Grand Kremlin Palace since Ilyin's grandfather served as the commandant of the Palace. Alexander Ilyin's godfather was tsar Alexander II. Ilyin was born and brought up also in the centre of Moscow not far from Kremlin in Naryshkin Lane. In 1901 he entered the Law faculty of the Moscow State University. Ilyin generally disapproved of the Russian Revolution of 1905 and did not participate actively in student riots. While a student Ilyin became interested in philosophy under influence of Professor Pavel Novgorodtsev. In 1906 he graduated with a law degree and began working there as a scholar from 1909 on. Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Rurik Dynasty ... The exterior of the Grand Kremlin Palace incorporates many details characteristic for the medieval Russian and Byzantine architecture. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevitch (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born April 17, 1818 in Moscow; died March 13, 1881 in St. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени Ðœ.Ð’.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and arguably the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Before the revolution

Portrait of Ivan Ilyin by Mikhail Nesterov
Portrait of Ivan Ilyin by Mikhail Nesterov

In 1911 Ilyin moved for a year to Western Europe in order to work on his thesis "Crisis of rationalistic philosophy in Germany in the XIX century". After his return he resumed to work in the University. He delivered series of lecture called "Introduction into the Philosophy of Law". Later on Novgorodtsev offered Ilyin to lecture on theory of law in general in Moscow Commerce Institute. In total, he lectured in different schools for 17 hours a week. At that time Ilyin studied philosophy of Hegel, namely Hegel's teaching of philosophy of state and law. He regarded this work not only as a study of Hegel, but also as preparation for his own work on theory of law. His thesis on Hegel was finished in 1916 and published in 1918. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1077x1182, 130 KB) Mikhail Nesterov Thinker (Portraint of en:Ivan Ilyin Russian Museum Photography is mine (Alex Bakharev) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mikhail Nesterov Ivan... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1077x1182, 130 KB) Mikhail Nesterov Thinker (Portraint of en:Ivan Ilyin Russian Museum Photography is mine (Alex Bakharev) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mikhail Nesterov Ivan... Holy Vision to Youth Bartholomew (1890) Mikhail Vasilyevich Nesterov (May 19, 1862, Ufa - October 18, 1942, Moscow) was a leading representative of religious Symbolism in Russian art. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...


In 1914 after the breakout of the WWI Professor Prince Evgeny Trubetskoy arranged series of public lectures devoted to the "ideology of the war". Ilyin contributed to this with several lectures, the first of which was called "Spiritual sense of the war". He was utter opponent of any war in general, but believed that since Russia had already been involved in the war the duty of every Russian was to support his country. Ilyin's position was different from the one of many Russian jurists, who equally disliked Germany and Tsarist Russia. WWI may be an acronym for: World War I World Wrestling Industry This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Revolution and exile

At first Ilyin perceived the February Revolution as the liberation of the people. Along with many other intellectuals he generally approved of it. However, with the October revolution complete disappointment followed. On the Second Moscow Conference of Public Figures he said that "The revolution turned into self-interested plundering of the state". Later he assessed the revolution as the most terrible catastrophe in the history of Russia, the collapse of the whole state. However, unlike many adherents of the old regime Ilyin did not emigrate. In 1918 Ilyin became a professor of law in the Moscow University, his scholarly thesis on Hegel was published. The February Revolution (N.S.: March Revolution) of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution or November Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ...


After April 1918 Ilyin was imprisoned several times for alleged anti-communist activity. His teacher Novgorodtsev was also briefly imprisoned. In 1922, he was sentenced to death but was eventually expelled among some 160 prominent intellectuals, on the so-called "philosophers' ship" the same year. 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Emigration

Between 1923 and 1934 Ilyin worked as a professor of the Russian Scientific Institute in Berlin. He was offered professorship in Russian faculty of law in Prague under his teacher Novgorodtsev but he refused. He became the main ideologue of the Russian White movement in emigration and between 1927 and 1930 was a publisher and editor of "Russian Kolokol (Bell)" journal. He lectured in Germany and other European countries. In 1934 the German Nazis fired Ilyin and put him under police surveillance. In 1938 with financial help from Sergei Rachmaninoff he was able to leave Germany and continue his work in Geneva, Switzerland. He died in Zollikon near Zürich on December 21, 1953. 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasil’evič Rahmaninov, April 1, 1873 (N.S.) or March 20, 1873 (O.S.) – March 28, 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German: //, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... Zollikon is a municipality in the district of Meilen, in the canton of Zürich, Switzerland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Doctrine

Ilyin's works about Russia

Ivan Ilyin was a conservative Russian monarchist in the Slavophile tradition. Starting from his 1918 thesis on Hegel's philosophy, he authored many books on political, social and spiritual topics pertaining to the historical mission of Russia. One of the problems he worked on was the question: what has eventually led Russia to the tragedy of the revolution? His answered that the reason was "the weak, damaged self-respect" of Russians. As a result, mutual distrust and suspicion between the state and the people emerged. The authorities and nobility constantly misused their power, subverting the unity of the people. Ilyin thought that any state must be established as a corporation in which a citizen is a member with certain rights and certain duties. Therefore Ilyin recognized inequality of people as a necessary state of affairs in any country. But that meant that educated upper classes had a special duty of spiritual guidance towards uneducated lower classes. This did not happen in Russia. A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...


The other point was the wrong attitude towards private property among common people in Russia. Ilyin wrote that many Russians believed that private property and large estates are gained not through hard labour but through power and maladministration of officials. Therefore property becomes associated with dishonest behaviour.


The concept of conscience of law

The two above mentioned factors led to striving for egalitarism and to the revolution. The alternative way of Russia according to Ilyin was to develop due conscience of law (правосознание) of an individual based on morality and religiousness. Ilyin developed his concept of the conscience of law for more that twenty years until his death. He understood it as a proper understanding of law by an individual and ensuing obedience to the law. During his life he refused to publish his major work About the Essence of Conscience of Law (О сущности правосознания) and continued to rewrite it. He considered the conscience of law essential for the very existence of law. Without proper understanding of law and justice the law would not be able to exist.


Attitude towards monarchy

Another Ilyin's major work "On Monarchy" was not finished. He planned to write book concerning the essence of monarchy in the modern world and its differences from the republic consisting of twelve chapters but he died having written introduction and seven chapters. Ilyin argued that the main difference lay not in legal matters but in the conscience of law of common people. According to Ilyin the main distinctions were the following:

  • in monarchy the conscience of law tends to unite the people within the state while in republic the conscience of law tends to disregard the role of the state for the society;
  • monarchical conscience of law tends to perceive the state as a family and the monarch as a pater familias while the republican conscience of law denies this notion. Since the republican conscience of law praises individual freedom in the republican state people do not recognize the people of the state as a family;
  • monarchical conscience of law is very conservative and prone to keeping traditions while republican conscience of law is always eager to rapid changes

As is said before Ilyin was a monarchist. He believed that monarchical conscience of law corresponds to such values as religious piety and family. His ideal was the monarch who would serve for the good of the country, would not belong to any party and would embody the union of all people whatever they beliefs are. However he was critical about the monarchy in Russia. He believed that Nicholas II was to a large degree the one responsible for collapse of Imperial Russia in 1917. His abdication and abdication of his brother Mikhail Alexandrovich were a crucial mistake which led to the abolition of monarchy and consequent troubles. He was also critical of many figures of the emigration including the Grand Prince Cyril Vladimirovich who had proclaimed himself the new tsar in exile. Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаи́л Александрович Рома́нов) (November 22, 1878 (O.S.) – about June 12, 1918) was the controversial younger brother of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. ... Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovitch of Russia, (Kirill Vladimirovitch Romanov) (October 12 (N.S.), 1876—October 12, 1938) was a member of the Russian Royal Family. ...


Afterlife

Ilyin's views influenced other 20th century Russian authors such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn as well as many Russian nationalists. As of 2005, 23 volumes of Ilyin's collected works have been republished in Russia. In spring 1995, Communist leader Zyuganov was put in charge of the Organizing Committee of the Spiritual Heritage movement, a patriotic organization which declared Ivan Ilyin as its ideologue.[1] During the 2000 presidential elections, Zyuganov and the Spiritual Heritage parted ways. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: ; born in Kislovodsk, Russia, on December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Russian filmmaker Nikita Mikhalkov, in partuclar, was instrumental in propagating Ilyin's ideas in post-Soviet Russia. He authored several articles about Ilyin and came up with the idea of transferring his remains from Switzerland to the Donskoy Monastery in Moscow, where the philosopher had dreamed to find his last retreat. The ceremony of reburial was held in October 2005. Nikita Mikhalkov in the 2005 Fandorin movie The Councillor of State. ... Our Lady of the Don, by Theophanes the Greek. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in October 28: Richard Smalley 26: Emil Kyulev 24: José Azcona del Hoyo 24: Rosa Parks 23: Stella Obasanjo 22: Liam Lawlor 22: Shirley Horn 20: Endon Mahmood 17: Ba Jin 10: Milton Obote 7: Charles...


Following the death of Ilyin's wife in 1963, Ilyin scholar Nikolai Poltoratzky had Ilyin's manuscripts and papers brought from Zurich to Michigan State University, where he was a professor of Russian. In May 2006, MSU transferred Ilyin's papers to the Russian Culture Fund, affiliated with the Russian Ministry of Culture. [1] Michigan State University (MSU) is a public university in East Lansing, Michigan. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.panorama.ru/works/oe/zyuganoe.html

Major works

  • Resistance to Evil By Force (О сопротивлениии злу силою, 1925)
  • The Way of Spiritual Revival (1935)
  • Foundations of Struggle for the National Russia (1938)
  • The Basis of Christian Culture (Основы христианской культуры, 1938)
  • About the Future Russia (1948)
  • On the Essence of Conscience of Law (О сущности правосознания, 1956)
  • The Way to Insight (Путь к очевидности, 1957)
  • Axioms of Religious Experience (Аксиомы религиозного опыта, 2 volumes, 1953)
  • On Monarchy and Republic (О монархии и республики, 1978)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ivan Ilyin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1541 words)
Ivan Alexandrovich Ilyin (Russian: Иван Александрович Ильин) (March 28, 1883 - December 21, 1954) was a Russian religious and political philosopher, and émigré anti-communist publicist associated with the White movement.
Ivan Ilyin was born in Moscow in an aristocratic family of Rurikid descent.
Ivan Ilyin was a conservative Russian monarchist in the Slavophile tradition.
www.rian.ru (287 words)
Ilyin's works are frequently quoted by President Vladimir Putin in his speeches.
Ilyin, a philosopher of religion, was known as an outspoken critic of Bolsheviks and was forced to flee Soviet Russia after the 1917 revolutions.
In 2005, the remains of Ilyin and General Anton Denikin, a leader of the anti-Bolshevik "White" movement, were reburied in Russia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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