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Encyclopedia > Ivan IV of Russia
Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov
Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: Иван IV Васильевич) (August 25, 1530, Moscow – March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar (or czar). His long reign saw the conquest of Tartary and Siberia and subsequent transformation of Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state. This tsar retains his place in the Russian tradition simply as Ivan Grozny (Russian: Ива́н Гро́зный listen ), which is traditionally translated into English as Ivan the Terrible. Ivan the Terrible can refer to: Ivan IV of Russia (aka Ivan the Terrible) Ivan the Terrible, a 1945 film by Sergei Eisenstein Ivan the Terrible, a 1970s sitcom A name given to a notorious SS guard at the Treblinka extermination camp, alleged to be John Demjanjuk A popular comedy... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1459x3049, 1353 KB) Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1459x3049, 1353 KB) Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Coat of arms The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Siberia Khanate is an anachronistic rendering of its actual name Khanate of Sibir, a Tatar khanate in the later Russian Siberia. ... Multiethnic societies, in contrast to nationalistic societies, integrate different ethnic groups irrespective of differences in culture, race, and history under a common social identity larger than one nation in the conventional sense. ... Image File history File links Ru-Ivan Grozny. ...

Contents

Early reign

Ivan was a long-awaited son of Vasili III. When Ivan was just three years old his father died from a pimple on his leg which turned out to be a deadly sore. Ivan was proclaimed the Grand Prince of Moscow at his father’s request. At first, his mother Elena Glinskaya acted as a regent, but she died when Ivan was merely eight years old. She was replaced as regent by boyars from the Shuisky family until Ivan assumed power in 1544. According to his own letters, Ivan customarily felt neglected and offended by the mighty boyars from the Shuisky and Belsky families. (These traumatic experiences may have contributed to his hatred of the boyars and to his mental instability. Alternatively, the negative feelings revealed in his letters may have been a reflection of his disagreeable temperament.) Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479–December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... Coat of arms The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ... A boyar (also spelt bojar; Romanian: boier) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Ruthenian (Russian) and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... Shuisky (Шуйские) was a Rurikid family of boyars descending from Grand Dukes of Vladimir-Suzdal. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Belsky (Russian: Бельский, pl. ...

Ivory throne of Ivan the Terrible.
Ivory throne of Ivan the Terrible.

Ivan was crowned king with Monomakh's Cap at the Cathedral of the Dormition at age sixteen on January 16, 1547. Despite calamities triggered by the Great Fire of 1547, the early part of his reign was one of peaceful reforms and modernization. Ivan revised the law code (known as the sudebnik), created a standing army (the streltsy), established the first Russian parliament of the feudal estates (the Zemsky Sobor), the council of the nobles (known as the Chosen Council), and confirmed the position of the Church with the Council of the Hundred Chapters, which unified the rituals and ecclesiastical regulations of the entire country. He introduced the local self-management in rural regions, mainly in the Northeast of Russia, populated by the state peasantry. During his reign the first printing press was introduced to Russia (although the first Russian printers Ivan Fedorov and Pyotr Mstislavets had to flee from Moscow to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1332, 141 KB) Photo of ivory throne of Ivan the Terrible, taken August 2003 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Ivan IV of Russia User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Miscellaneous ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1332, 141 KB) Photo of ivory throne of Ivan the Terrible, taken August 2003 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Ivan IV of Russia User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Miscellaneous ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The thrones for The Queen of Canada, and the Duke of Edinburgh in the Canadian Senate, Ottawa is usually occupied by the Governor General and her spouse at the annual State Opening of Parliament. ... Monomakhs Cap (Шапка Мономаха in Russian) is one of the symbols of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars. ... Cathedral of the Dormition, Moscow, in winter The Cathedral of the Dormition or Cathedral of the Assumption (in Russian, Uspensky Sobor (Успенский Собор)) is the name of several cathedrals in the world. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... A painting by an unknown painter depicts the uprising in Russia following the 1547 Fire of Moscow. ... Sudebnik of tsar Ivan IV (Russian: ), a revised code of laws instituted by his grandfather Ivan the Great. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... Streltsy (Стрельцы in Russian) were the units of Russian guardsmen (sl. ... The zemsky sobor (Russian: зе́мский собо́р) was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. ... The Stoglavi Sobor (Стоглавый Собор) or Council of a Hundred Chapters was a church council that was held in Moscow in 1551, with participation of the tsar Ivan IV and representatives of the Boyarskaya Duma. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... The first monument to Fedorov was opened in Moscow in 1909. ... Pyotr Timofeyevich Mstislavets (Timofeyev) (Пётр Тимофеевич Мстиславец (Тимофеев) in Russian) (? - ?) was a Russian printer and Ivan Fedorovs associate. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ...


In 1547 Hans Schlitte, the agent of Ivan, employed handicraftsmen in Germany for work in Russia. However all these handicraftsmen were arrested in Lübeck at the request of Poland and Livonia. The German merchant companies ignored the new port built by Ivan on the river Narva in 1550 and continued to deliver goods in the Baltic ports owned by Livonia. Russia remained isolated from sea trade. Agency is an area of law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual relationship between at least two parties in which one, the principal, authorizes the other, the agent, to represent her or his legal interests and to perform legal acts that bind the principal. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Narva river is a river which flows at the border of Estonia and Russia. ...


Ivan formed new trading connections, opening up the White Sea and the port of Arkhangelsk to the Muscovy Company of English merchants. In 1552 he defeated the Kazan Khanate, whose armies had repeatedly devastated the Northeast of Russia,[1] and annexed its territory. In 1556, he annexed the Astrakhan Khanate and destroyed the largest slave market on the river Volga. These conquests complicated the migration of the aggressive nomadic hordes from Asia to Europe through Volga and transformed Russia into a multinational and multiconfessional state. He had St. Basil's Cathedral constructed in Moscow to commemorate the seizure of Kazan. Legend has it that he was so impressed with the structure that he had the architects blinded, so that they could never design anything as beautiful again. Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Ivan IV of Russia demonstrates his treasures to the English ambassador (1875) The Muscovy Company (also called Russian Company or Muscovy Trading Company, Russian: Московская компания), was a trading company chartered in 1555. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Categories: Historical stubs | Former countries | Tatars | Tatarstan history | History of Mongolia ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... St Basils Cathedral The Intercession Cathedral (Pokrovsky Cathedral, better known as the Cathedral of St. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ...

Ivan the Terrible at the deathbed of his first and most-beloved wife, Anastasia Romanovna. Ivan married 7 times, sometimes divorcing a wife a week after the marriage.
Ivan the Terrible at the deathbed of his first and most-beloved wife, Anastasia Romanovna. Ivan married 7 times, sometimes divorcing a wife a week after the marriage.

Other less positive aspects of this period include the introduction of the first laws restricting the mobility of the peasants, which would eventually lead to serfdom. The dramatic change in Ivan's personality is traditionally linked to his near-fatal illness in 1553 and the death of his first wife, Anastasia Romanovna in 1560. Ivan suspected boyars of poisoning his wife and of plotting to replace him on the throne with his cousin, Vladimir of Staritsa. In addition, during that illness Ivan had asked the boyars to swear an oath of allegiance to his eldest son, an infant at the time. Many boyars refused, deeming the tsar's health too hopeless to survive. This angered Ivan and added to his distrust of the boyars. There followed brutal reprisals and murders of innocent people, including Metropolitan Philip and Prince Alexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky. Image File history File links Georgiy Sedov. ... Image File history File links Georgiy Sedov. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vladimir Andreyevich (1533 - October 9, 1569) was the last appanage Russian prince. ... Malyuta Skuratov approaching Metropolitan Philip in order to kill him (painting from 1898). ... Prince Alexander Borisovich Gorbatyi-Shuisky was probably the most celebrated and popular general of Ivan the Terrible. ...


Also problematic was the 1565 formation of the Oprichnina. The Oprichnina was the section of Russia (mainly the Northeast) directly ruled by Ivan and policed by his personal servicemen, the Oprichniki. This whole system of Oprichnina has been viewed by some historians as a tool against the omnipotent hereditary nobility of Russia (boyars) who opposed the absolutist drive of the tsar, while others have interpreted it as a sign of the paranoia and mental deterioration of the tsar. // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ... The Oprichnina (Russian: Опричнина) formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible. ... Oprichnik (опричникъ) was a member of a private army (Oprichniks) devoted to the service of tsar Ivan the Terrible during the oprichina times (1565-1573). ... A boyar (also spelled bojar, Romanian: ) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Romanian, and Russian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th century through the 17th century. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ...


Later reign

The later half of Ivan's reign was far less successful. Although Khan Devlet I Giray of Crimea repeatedly devastated Moscow region and even set Moscow on fire in 1571, the Czar supported Yermak's conquest of Tatar Siberia, adopting a policy of empire-building, which led him to launch a victorious war of seaward expansion to the west, only to find himself fighting the Swedes, Lithuanians, Poles, and the Livonian Teutonic Knights. This article is about the title. ... Devlet I Giray (Crimean Tatar: I Devlet Geray) (1512–1577) — a khan of the Crimean Khanate in 1551–1577. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... The Fire of Moscow (1571) occurred when the forces of the Crimean khan Devlet I Giray raided the city. ... Yermak Yermak Timofeyevich (Russian: Ерма́к Тимофе́евич, also Ermak) (born between 1532 and 1542 – August 5 or 6, 1585), Cossack leader and explorer of Siberia. ... This article is about the people. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Empire building is a business term that refers to a common problem in larger organizations, in which mid-level managers attempt to gather more control and funding in order to make themselves more powerful within the organization. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ...


For twenty-four years the Livonian War dragged on, damaging the Russian economy and military and failing to gain any territory for Russia. In the 1560s the combination of drought and famine, Polish-Lithuanian raids, Tatar invasions, and the sea-trading blockade carried out by the Swedes, Poles and the Hanseatic League devastated Russia. The price of grain increased by a factor of ten. Epidemics of the plague killed 10,000 in Novgorod. In 1570 the plague killed 600-1000 in Moscow daily.[2] Ivan's closest advisor, Prince Andrei Kurbsky, defected to the Lithuanians, headed the Lithuanian troops and devastated the Russian region of Velikiye Luki. This treachery deeply hurt Ivan. As the Oprichnina continued, Ivan became mentally unstable and physically disabled. In one week, he could easily pass from the most depraved orgies to prayers and fasting in a remote northern monastery. The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Polish-Lithuanian can refer to: Polish-Lithuanian Union from 1385 until 1569 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 untul 1795 Categories: Disambiguation ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Knyaz Andrey Mikhailovich Kurbsky (Андрей Михайлович Курбский in Russian) (1528-1583) was an intimate friend and then a leading political opponent of the Russian tsar Ivan the Terrible. ... Velikiye Luki (also transliterated as Velikie Luki, Russian &#1042;&#1077;&#1083;&#1080;&#1082;&#1080;&#1077; &#1051;&#1091;&#1082;&#1080;) - city in Russia, in Pskov Oblast. ...

Ivan the Terrible killing his son by Ilya Repin
Ivan the Terrible killing his son by Ilya Repin

Because he gradually grew unbalanced and violent, the Oprichniks under Malyuta Skuratov soon got out of hand and became murderous thugs. They massacred nobles and peasants, and conscripted men to fight the war in Livonia. Depopulation and famine ensued. What had been by far the richest area of Russia became the poorest. In a dispute with the wealthy city of Novgorod, Ivan ordered the Oprichniks to murder inhabitants of this city, which was never to regain its former prosperity. His followers burned and pillaged the city and villages.[3] As many as 60,000 might have been killed during the infamous Massacre of Novgorod in 1570;[4] many others were deported elsewhere.[5] Yet the official death toll named 1,500 of Novgorod big people (nobility) and only mentioned about the same number of smaller people. Many modern researchers estimate number of victims between two and three thousand. (After the famine and epidemics of 1560s the population of Novgorod perhaps did not exceed 10,000-20,000.)[6] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Ilya&#769; Yefi&#769;movich Re&#769;pin (&#1048;&#1083;&#1100;&#1103;&#769; &#1045;&#1092;&#1080;&#769;&#1084;&#1086;&#1074;&#1080;&#1095; &#1056;&#1077;&#769;&#1087;&#1080;&#1085;) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) &#8211; September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic... Grigory Lukyanovich Skuratov-Belsky, better known as Malyuta Skuratov (Григорий Лукьянович Скуратов-Бельский, Малюта Скуратов in Russian) (? - January 1, 1573) was one of the organizers and leaders of the oprichnina during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... The Massacre of Novgorod was a State-sponsored genocide that occoured in the city of Novgorod, Russia in 1570. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... This article is about large epidemics. ...


In 1581, Ivan beat his pregnant daughter-in-law for wearing immodest clothing, which may have caused a miscarriage. His son, also named Ivan, upon learning of this, engaged in a heated argument with his father, which resulted in Ivan striking his son in the head with his pointed staff, causing his son's (accidental) death. This event is depicted in the famous painting by Ilya Repin, Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan on Friday, November 16, 1581 better known as Ivan the Terrible killing his son. Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... Ilya&#769; Yefi&#769;movich Re&#769;pin (&#1048;&#1083;&#1100;&#1103;&#769; &#1045;&#1092;&#1080;&#769;&#1084;&#1086;&#1074;&#1080;&#1095; &#1056;&#1077;&#769;&#1087;&#1080;&#1085;) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) &#8211; September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic...


Death and legacy

Ivan's murder of his son brought about the extinction of the Rurik Dynasty and the Time of Troubles.
Ivan's murder of his son brought about the extinction of the Rurik Dynasty and the Time of Troubles.

Although it is thought by many that Ivan died while setting up a chess board, it is more likely that he died while playing chess with Bogdan Belsky on March 18, 1584. When Ivan's tomb was opened during renovations in the 1960s, his remains were examined and discovered to contain very high amounts of mercury, indicating a high probability that he was poisoned. Modern suspicion falls on his advisors Belsky and Boris Godunov (who became tsar in 1598). Three days earlier, Ivan had allegedly attempted to rape Irina, Godunov's sister and Feodor's wife. Her cries attracted Godunov and Belsky to the noise, whereupon Ivan let Irina go, but Belsky and Godunov considered themselves marked for death. The tradition says that they either poisoned or strangled Ivan in fear for their own lives. The mercury found in Ivan's remains may also be related to treatment for syphilis, which it is speculated that Ivan had. Upon Ivan's death, the ravaged kingdom was left to his unfit and childless son Feodor. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (817x634, 131 KB)Vyacheslav Grigorievich Schwarz (1838-69). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (817x634, 131 KB)Vyacheslav Grigorievich Schwarz (1838-69). ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus, Rus principalities, and early Russia from 862 to 1598. ... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of the Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Bogdan Yakovlevich Belsky (Богдан Яковлевич Бельский in Russian) (? - 1611) was a Russian statesman and a close associate of Ivan the Terrible. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... Feodor presents a golden chain to Boris Godunov. ...


Epistles

D.S. Mirsky called Ivan "a pamphleteer of genius". The epistles attributed to him are the masterpieces of old Russian (perhaps all Russian) political journalism. They may be too full of texts from the Scriptures and the Fathers, and their Church Slavonic is not always correct. But they are full of cruel irony, expressed in pointedly forcible terms. Bookcover of the biography of Dmitry Mirsky D.S. Mirsky is the English pen-name of Dmitry Petrovich Mirsky (1890–1939), a Russian political and literary historian who promoted the knowledge and translations of Russian literature in Britain and of the English literature in Soviet Russia. ... The word epistle is from the Greek word epistolos which means a written letter addressed to a recipient or recipients, perhaps part of exchanged correspondence. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Ivan's repentance: he asks a father superior of the Pskovo-Pechorsky Monastery to let him take the tonsure at his monastery.
Ivan's repentance: he asks a father superior of the Pskovo-Pechorsky Monastery to let him take the tonsure at his monastery.

The shameless bully and the great polemicist are seen together in a flash when he taunts runaway Kurbsky with the question: "If you are so sure of your righteousness, why did you run away and not prefer martyrdom at my hands?" Such strokes were well calculated to drive his correspondent into a rage. "The part of the cruel tyrant elaborately upbraiding an escaped victim while he continues torturing those in his reach may be detestable, but Ivan plays it with truly Shakespearian breadth of imagination".[7]. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1888x1400, 316 KB) Царь Иван Грозный просит игумена Корнилия постричь его в монахи. Холст, масло Tsar Ivan the Terrible asks hiegumen Kornily to admit him into monks, Oil on canvas From http://lj. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1888x1400, 316 KB) Царь Иван Грозный просит игумена Корнилия постричь его в монахи. Холст, масло Tsar Ivan the Terrible asks hiegumen Kornily to admit him into monks, Oil on canvas From http://lj. ... View of Pskovo-Pechorsky Monastery Pskovo-Pechorsky Monastery or The Holy Dormition Pskovo-Pechersky monastery (Russian: Псково-Печерский Свято-Успенский мужской монастырь) is a male monastery, located on the Pechora River in Pechory, Pskov Oblast in Russia some 18 km from the Estonian border. ... Polemic is the art or practice of disputation or controversy, as in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ...


Besides his letters to Kurbsky he wrote other satirical invectives to men in his power. The best is his letter to the abbot of the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, where he pours out all the poison of his grim irony on the unascetic life of the boyars, shorn monks, and those exiled by his order. His picture of their luxurious life in the citadel of ascetism is a masterpiece of trenchant sarcasm. Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, properly translated in English as The Assumption monastery of St Cyril, has always rivalled the Solovetsky Monastery as the strongest fortress and the richest landowner of the Russian North. ...


Sobriquet

The English word terrible is usually used to translate the Russian word grozny in Ivan's nickname, but the modern English usage of terrible, with a pejorative connotation of bad or evil, does not precisely represent the intended meaning. Grozny's meaning is closer to the original usage of terrible—inspiring fear or terror, dangerous (as in Old English in one's danger), formidable, threatening, or awesome. Perhaps a translation closer to the intended sense would be Ivan the Fearsome, or Ivan the Formidable. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Old English redirects here. ...

Preceded by
Vasili III
Grand Prince of Moscow
1533–1547
Succeeded by
became Tsar
Preceded by
None
Tsar of Russia
1547–1584
Succeeded by
Feodor I

Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479 – December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Feodor presents a golden chain to Boris Godunov. ...

See also

The image created of Ivan IV of Russia throughout Russian folklore is a direct contrast to that which is typically painted of him and his rule by historians. ... Nikolai Cherkasov as Ivan the Terrible in Eisensteins film of the same name Faina Ranevskaya as Princess Staritskaya in Ivan The Terrible, Part I (1942) Ivan The Terrible was a film about Ivan IV of Russia in three parts made by Russian director Sergei Eisenstein. ... Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet Russian film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ... Leonid Iovich Gaidai (Russian: Леонид Иович Гайдай) (1923–1993) is one of the most popular Soviet comedy directors, enjoying immense popularity and broad public recognition in the former USSR & modern Russia. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Russian chronicles record about forty attacks of Kazan Khans on the Russian territories (mainly the regions of Nizhniy Novgorod, Murom, Vyatka, Vladimir, Kostroma, and Galich) in the first half of the 16th century. In 1521, the combined forces of Khan Muhamed Giray and his Crimean allies attacked Russia and captured more than 150,000 slaves. The Full Collection of the Russian Annals, vol.13, SPb, 1904
  2. ^ R.Skrynnikov, "Ivan Grosny", M., AST, 2001
  3. ^ Novgorod, Russia (Capital)
  4. ^ Ivan the Terrible, Russia, (r.1533-84)
  5. ^ According to the Third Novgorod Chronicle, the massacre lasted for five weeks. Almost every day 500 or 600 people were killed or drowned. The First Pskov Chronicle estimates the number of victims at 60,000.
  6. ^ Having investigated the report of Maljuta Skuratov and commemoration lists (sinodiki), R. Skrynnikov considers, that the number of victims was 2,000-3,000. (Skrynnikov R. G., "Ivan Grosny", M., AST, 2001)
  7. ^ D.S. Mirsky. A History of Russian Literature. Northwestern University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8101-1679-0. Page 21.

Area  - Total 260,000 mi² Population  - City (2003)  - Metropolitan 1,334,249 2 million approx. ... Murom downtown sprawls along the bank of the Oka Murom (Russian: ; Old Norse: Moramar) is a historic city in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, which sprawls majestically along the left bank of Oka River, about 300 km east of Moscow, at 55°34′N 42°02′E. Population is 145,500 (2002). ... Kirov (&#1050;&#1080;&#769;&#1088;&#1086;&#1074;) is a city in eastern European Russia, on the Vyatka River, capital of Kirov Oblast. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude Vladimir (Russian: ) is an old city in Russia. ... Fire-observation watchtower in Kostroma (1825-28). ... The name may refer to Halych, of Galicia (Central Europe) Galich, Russia Alexander Galich, a Russian dissident bard This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bookcover of the biography of Dmitry Mirsky D.S. Mirsky is the English pen-name of Dmitry Petrovich Mirsky (1890–1939), a Russian political and literary historian who promoted the knowledge and translations of Russian literature in Britain and of the English literature in Soviet Russia. ...

References

  • Bobrick, Benson. Ivan the Terrible. Edinburgh: Canongate Books, 1990 (hardcover, ISBN 0-86241-288-9).
  • Madariaga, Isabel de. Ivan the Terrible. First Tsar of Russia. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-300-09757-3); 2006 (paperback, ISBN 0-300-11973-9).
  • Payne, Robert; Romanoff, Nikita. Ivan the Terrible. Lanham, MD: Cooper Square Press, 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-8154-1229-0).
  • Troyat, Henri. Ivan the Terrible. New York: Buccaneer Books, 1988 (hardcover, ISBN 0-88029-207-5); London: Phoenix Press, 2001 (paperback, ISBN 1-84212-419-6).
  • Ivan IV, World Book Inc, 2000. World Book Encyclopedia.

Henri Troyat (born Levon Aslan Torossian (or Lev Aslanovich Tarasov), November 1, 1911 - March 4, 2007) is a French author, biographer, historian and novelist of Armenian descent. ...

Further reading

  • Cherniavsky, Michael. "Ivan the Terrible as Renaissance Prince", Slavic Review, Vol. 27, No. 2. (Jun., 1968), pp. 195–211.
  • Hunt, Priscilla. "Ivan IV's Personal Mythology of Kingship", Slavic Review, Vol. 52, No. 4. (Winter, 1993), pp. 769–809.
  • Perrie, Maureen. The Image of Ivan the Terrible in Russian Folklore (Cambridge Studies in Oral and Literate Culture; 14). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987 (hardcover, ISBN 0-521-33075-0); 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-521-89100-0).
  • Perrie, Maureen. The Cult of Ivan the Terrible in Stalin's Russia (Studies in Russian and Eastern European History and Society) . New York: Palgrave, 2001 (hardcopy, ISBN 0-333-65684-9).
  • Perrie, Maureen; Pavlov, Andrei. Ivan the Terrible (Profiles in Power). Harlow, UK: Longman, 2003 (paperback, ISBN 0-582-09948-X).
  • Platt, Kevin M.F.; Brandenberger, David. "Terribly Romantic, Terribly Progressive, or Terribly Tragic: Rehabilitating Ivan IV under I.V. Stalin", Russian Review, Vol. 58, No. 4. (Oct., 1999), pp. 635–654.

The Slavic Review is the leading international journal in Slavic studies with the coverage centered on Russia, Central Eurasia and Eastern and Central Europe. ... The Slavic Review is the leading international journal in Slavic studies with the coverage centered on Russia, Central Eurasia and Eastern and Central Europe. ... The Russian Review is a major independent peer-reviewed multi-disciplinary academic journal devoted to the history, literature, culture, fine arts, cinema, society, and politics of the Russian Federation, former Soviet Union and former Russian Empire. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ivan IV
Persondata
NAME Ivan IV Vasilyevich
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Ivan the Terrible
SHORT DESCRIPTION Czar of Russia
DATE OF BIRTH August 25, 1530
PLACE OF BIRTH Moscow, Russia
DATE OF DEATH March 18, 1584
PLACE OF DEATH Moscow, Russia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ivan IV of Russia (0 words)
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: Иван IV Васильевич) (August 25, 1530, Moscow – March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar (or czar).
Ivan was crowned tsar with Monomakh's Cap at the Cathedral of the Dormition at age sixteen on January 16 1547.
Ivan revised the law code (known as the sudebnik), created a standing army (the streltsy), established the Zemsky Sobor, the council of the nobles (known as the Chosen Council), and confirmed the position of the Church with the Council of the Hundred Chapters, which unified the rituals and ecclesiastical regulations of the entire country.
Ivan IV of Russia (0 words)
Ivan IV of Russia (August 25, 1530 - March 18, 1584), first tsar of all Russia.
Ivan came to the throne at age three and was crowned Tsar at age sixteen on January 16, 1547.
In 1581, Ivan Grozny in a feat of rage accidentally killed his capable son, Ivan (following confrontation after beating the latter's pregnant wife so hard that she miscarried).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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