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Encyclopedia > Ivan III of Russia
"Albus rex" Ivan III
"Albus rex" Ivan III

Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the "grand duke of all the Russias". Sometimes referred to as the "gatherer of the Russian lands", he quadrupled the territory of his state, claimed Moscow to be a Third Rome, built the Moscow Kremlin, and laid foundations for the Russian autocracy. He was the longest-reigning Russian ruler ever. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... New Rome is a term that can be applied to a city or a country. ... The Moscow Kremlin, as seen from the Balchug. ... An Autocracy is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual. ...

Contents

Background

Ivan's parents were Vasily II and Maria of Borovsk. He was co-regent with his father during the later years of his life and succeeded him in 1462. Ivan tenaciously pursued the unifying policy of his predecessors. Nevertheless, he was cautious to the point of timidity. He avoided as far as possible any violent collision with his neighbors until all the circumstances were exceptionally favorable, always preferring to attain his ends gradually and circuitously. Muscovy had by this time become a compact and powerful state, whilst her rivals had grown weaker, a state of affairs very favorable to the speculative activity of a statesman of Ivan III's peculiar character. Vasili II Vasiliyevich Tyomniy (Blind) (Василий II Васильевич Тёмный in Russian) (March 10, 1415 – March 27, 1462) was the Grand Prince of Moscow whose long reign (1425-1462) was plagued by the greatest civil war of medieval Russian history. ... Borovsk Monastery of St Paphnutius. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ...


Gathering of Russian lands

His first enterprise was a war with the republic of Novgorod, which, alarmed at the growing dominance of Muscovy, had placed itself under the protection of Casimir IV, king of Poland, an alliance regarded at Moscow as an act of apostasy from orthodoxy. Ivan took the field against Novgorod in 1470, and after his generals had twice defeated the forces of the republic, at Shelona and on the Dvina, during the summer of 1471, the Novgorodians were forced to sue for peace, which they obtained on engaging to abandon for ever the Polish alliance, ceding a considerable portion of their northern colonies, and paying a war indemnity of 15,500 roubles. The Novgorod Republic was an early republic that existed in the North-West territory of modern day Russia, in Novgorod lands between 1136 and 1478. ... Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Władyslaw II Jagiełło Zofia Holszańska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka Władys&#322... The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho (right, correct) and doxa (thought, teaching, glorification), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ...

The Palace of Facets (1487-91) was commissioned by Ivan from Italian architects.

From then on Ivan continually sought a pretext for destroying Novgorod altogether; but the attitude of the republic was so wary that though he frequently violated its ancient privileges in minor matters, his looked-for opportunity did not come till 1477. In that year the ambassadors of Novgorod played into his hands by addressing him in public audience as Gosudar (sovereign) instead of Gospodin (sir) as heretofore. Ivan at once seized upon this as a recognition of his sovereignty, and when the Novgorodians repudiated their ambassadors, he marched against them. Deserted by Casimir IV, and surrounded on every side by the Muscovite armies, which included a Tatar contingent, the republic recognized Ivan as autocrat, and surrendered (January 14, 1478) all her prerogatives and possessions (the latter including the whole of northern Russia from Lapland to the Urals) into his hands. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1482 KB) Le Palais à facettes (place des cathédrales au Kremlin de Moscou) Author: fr:User:Gérard Janot Août 2004 - licence GFDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1482 KB) Le Palais à facettes (place des cathédrales au Kremlin de Moscou) Author: fr:User:Gérard Janot Août 2004 - licence GFDL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... The Palace of the Facets (Грановитая Палата) is part of what is now known as the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


Subsequent revolts (1479-1488) were punished by the removal en masse of the richest and most ancient families of Novgorod to Moscow, Vyatka and other central Russian cities. After this, Novgorod, as an independent state, ceased to exist. The rival republic of Pskov owed the continuance of its own political existence to the readiness with which it assisted Ivan against its ancient enemy. The other principalities were virtually absorbed, by conquest, purchase or marriage contract: Yaroslavl in 1463, Rostov in 1474, and Tver in 1485. Pskov Feudal Republic (Псковская феодальная республика in Russian) was a Russian medieval state between the second half of the 13th century and early 16th century. ... A public building in Yaroslavl Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ...


Ivan's refusal to share his conquests with his brothers, and his subsequent interference with the internal politics of their inherited principalities, involved him in several wars with them, from which, though the princes were assisted by Lithuania, he emerged victorious. Finally, Ivan's new rule of government, formally set forth in his last will to the effect that the domains of all his kinsfolk, after their deaths, should pass directly to the reigning grand duke instead of reverting, as hitherto, to the princes heirs, put an end once and for all to these semi-independent princelings.


Foreign policies

It was in the reign of Ivan III that Muscovy rejected the Tatar yoke. In 1480 Ivan refused to pay the customary tribute to the grand Khan Ahmed. When, however, the grand khan marched against him, Ivan's courage began to fail, and only the stern exhortations of the high-spirited bishop of Rostov, Vassian, could induce him to take the field. All through the autumn the Russian and Tatar hosts confronted each other on opposite sides of the Ugra, till the 11th of November, when Ahmed retired into the steppe. The Mongol Invasion of Rus was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... Akhmat (Ahmed) Khan (? - January 6, 1481) was a khan of the Big Horde between 1465 and 1481. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Vassian Patrikeyev, also known as Vassian Kosoy (Вассиан Патрикеев, Вассиан Косой in Russian; real name - knyaz Василий Ив&#1072... Miniature in russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step, Kazakh: - dala), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being...

Ivan III tearing the khan's letter to pieces
Ivan III tearing the khan's letter to pieces

In the following year the grand khan, while preparing a second expedition against Moscow, was suddenly attacked, routed and slain by Ivaq, the khan of the Nogay Horde, whereupon the Golden Horde suddenly fell to pieces. In 1487 Ivan reduced the khanate of Kazan (one of the offshoots of the Horde) to the condition of a vassal-state, though in his later years it broke away from his suzerainty. With the other Muslim powers, the khan of the Crimean Khanate and the sultans of Ottoman Empire, Ivan's relations were pacific and even amicable. The Crimean khan, Meñli I Giray, helped him against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and facilitated the opening of diplomatic intercourse between Moscow and Istanbul, where the first Russian embassy appeared in 1495. Aleksey D. Kivshenko (1851-96). ... Aleksey D. Kivshenko (1851-96). ... The Nogai Horde was the horde that controlled the Caucasus Mountain region after the Mongol invasion. ... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu) was a Turkic state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... St. ... The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Meñli I Giray (aka Mengli I Giray) (Crimean Tatar: I Meñli Geray) (1445–1515) was a khan of the Crimean Khanate and the sixth son of the khanate founder Haci Giray. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: Konstandinúpoli, historically known in English as Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and economic center. ... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Nordic affairs, Ivan III concluded an offensive alliance with Hans of Denmark and maintained a regular correspondence with Emperor Maximilian I, who called him a "brother". He built a strong citadel in Ingria (named Ivangorod after himself), which proved of great consequence to Russians in the war with Sweden, which had been preceded by Ivan's detention of the Hanseatic merchants trading in Novgorod. John of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden John, Johann, Johan II, Danish and Norwegian name Hans (2 February 1455 – 22 July 1513 ), was a Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1481 – 1513), Norway (1483 – 1513) Sweden (1497 – 1501), under the Kalmar Union, and also Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Emperor Maximilian I Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 - January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor Life and reign in the Habsburg hereditary lands Maximilian was born in Vienna as the son of the Emperor Frederick III and Eleanore of Portugal. ... The Ingrian flag Map of Karelia giving an idea of where Ingria lies. ... Ivangorod Fortress is a castle constructed near the town of Ivangorod, Russia. ... The Russo-Swedish War of 1496-1499 was a result of an alliance between Ivan III of Russia and Hans of Denmark, who was waging war against the Sture family of Sweden in the hope of regaining the Swedish throne. ...


The further extension of the Muscovite dominion was facilitated by the death of Casimir IV in 1492, when Poland and Lithuania once more parted company. The throne of Lithuania was now occupied by Casimir's son Alexander, a weak and lethargic prince so incapable of defending his possessions against the persistent attacks of the Muscovites that he attempted to save them by a matrimonial compact, and wedded Helena, Ivan's daughter. But the clear determination of Ivan to appropriate as much of Lithuania as possible at last compelled Alexander in 1499 to take up arms against his father-in-law. The Lithuanians were routed at Vedrosha (July 14, 1500), and in 1503 Alexander was glad to purchase peace by ceding to Ivan Chernigov, Starodub, Novgorod-Seversky and sixteen other towns. Reign From December 12, 1501 until August 19, 1506 Coronation On December 12, 1501 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Kazimierz IV JagielloÅ„czyk Elżbieta Rakuszanka Consorts Helena Children None Date of Birth August 5, 1461 Place of Birth Kraków, Poland Date of... Battle of Vedrosha was one of the greatest battles in the medieval history of Russia. ... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ... Starodub (Стародуб in Russian; could be translated as old oak), a town in the Bryansk Oblast in Russia. ... Novgorod-Seversky is a historic town in the Chernigov region of Ukraine, on the bank of the Desna River, only 45 km south from the Russian border. ...


Internal policies

Portrait from the 17th-century Titulyarnik
Portrait from the 17th-century Titulyarnik

The character of the government of Muscovy under Ivan III changed essentially and took on a new autocratic form. This was due not merely to the natural consequence of the hegemony of Moscow over the other Russian lands but to new imperial pretensions. After the fall of Constantinople, orthodox canonists were inclined to regard the Muscovite grand dukes as the successors by the Byzantine emperors. Ivan himself appeared to welcome the idea, and he began to style himself tsar in foreign correspondence. Download high resolution version (620x818, 128 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (620x818, 128 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... An Autocracy is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... // Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Loukas Notaras Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 5,000 militia soldiers plus 2,000 Italian mercenaries 80,000[1] - 150,000[1] Casualties Most of Byzantine defenders, some mercenaries, many civilians Heavy The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ...


This movement coincided with a change in the family circumstances of Ivan III. After the death of his first consort, Maria of Tver (1467), at the suggestion of Pope Paul II (1469), who hoped thereby to bind Russia to the holy see, Ivan III wedded Sophia Paleologue (also known under her original Greek and Orthodox name of Zoe), daughter of Thomas Palaeologus , despot of Morea, who claimed the throne of Constantinople as the brother of Constantine XI, last Byzantine emperor. Frustrating the Pope's hopes of re-uniting the two faiths, the princess endorsed Orthodoxy. Due to her family traditions, she encouraged imperial ideas in the mind of her consort. It was through her influence that the ceremonious etiquette of Constantinople (along with the imperial double-headed eagle and all that it implied) was adopted by the court of Moscow. And it was her son Vasily, not Maria of Tver's son, Ivan, who was ultimately crowned co-regent with his father (April 14, 1502). Pope Paul II, né Pietro Barbo (February 23, 1418 - March 22, 1471), was pope from 1464 to 1471. ... Zoe Palaiologina (Greek Ζωή Παλαιολόγου, Russian Софья Фоминична Палеолог, around 1455 - April 7, 1503), Grand Duchess of Moscow, was a niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI and second wife of Ivan III of Russia. ... Thomas Palaeologus or Thomas Palaiologos (1409-1465) was Despot of Morea from 1449 until Ottoman conquest in 1460. ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... Constantine XI: The last Byzantine emperor is considered a saint by the Orthodox Church. ... Etiquette, also known as decorum, is the code that governs the expectations of social behavior, the conventional norm. ... == The origins of the symbol == I. The oriental origine of the Two-headed eagle A/ The apparition of the symbol with the Hittites It seems that two-headed symbols are known for long time. ... Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479 – December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... Maria Borisovna of Tver (Мария Борисовна in Russian) (1442? - 1467) was the first wife of Grand Prince Ivan III and daughter of Boris Alexandrovich of Tver. ... Ivan Ivanovich (also known as Ioann Ioannovich and Ivan Molodoy) (Иван Иванович, Иоанн Иоаннович, Иван Молодой in Russian) (February...


The grand duke increasingly held aloof from his boyars. The old patriarchal systems of government vanished. The boyars were no longer consulted on affairs of state. The sovereign became sacrosanct, while the boyars were reduced to dependency on the will of the sovereign. The boyars naturally resented this revolution and struggled against it, at first with some success.


It was in the reign of Ivan III that the new Russian Sudebnik, or law code, was compiled by the scribe Vladimir Gusev. Ivan did his utmost to make his capital a worthy successor to Constantinople, and with that object invited many foreign masters and artificers to settle in Moscow. The most noted of these was the Italian Ridolfo di Fioravante, nicknamed Aristotle because of his extraordinary knowledge, who built several cathedrals and palaces in the Kremlin. This extraordinary monument of the Muscovite art remains a lasting symbol of the power and glory of Ivan III. Sudebnik of 1497 (Судебник in Russian, or Code of Law), a collection of laws, which was introduced by Ivan III and played a big part in the centralization of the Russian state, creation of the nationwide Russian Law and elimination of feudal division. ... A legal code is a moral code enforced by the law of a state. ... Vladimir Gusev (born 4 July 1982) is a Russian professional road racing cyclist since 2004. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Aristotile Fioravanti (ca. ... The Moscow Kremlin, as seen from the Balchug. ...


Further reading

Siegmund (Sigismund) Freiherr von Herberstein[1], (or Baron Sigismund von Herberstein), (August 23, 1486—March 28, 1566), Austrian diplomat, writer and historian. ... Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii (1549) (literally Notes on Muscovite Affairs) was a book in Latin by Baron Sigismund von Herberstein on the geography, history and customs of Muscovy (the 16th century Russian state). ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ivan III of Russia
  • Sudebnik
Preceded by
Vasili II
Grand Prince of Moscow
1462–1505
Succeeded by
Vasili III

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ivan III of Russia - Slider (1246 words)
Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 – October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the "grand duke of all the Russias".
Ivan's refusal to share his conquests with his brothers, and his subsequent interference with the internal politics of their inherited principalities, involved him in several wars with them, from which, though the princes were assisted by Lithuania, he emerged victorious.
It was in the reign of Ivan III that Muscovy rejected the Tatar yoke.
Ivan III - LoveToKnow 1911 (1185 words)
Ivan at once seized upon this as a recognition of his sovereignty, and when the Novgorodians repudiated their ambassadors, he marched against them.
Ivan's refusal to share his conquests with his brothers, and his subsequent interference with the internal politics of their inherited principalities, involved him in several wars with them, from which, though the princes were assisted by Lithuania, he emerged victorious.
It was in the reign of Ivan III.
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