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Encyclopedia > Ithaca
Ithaca
Ιθάκη

Vathi, South Ithaca
Geography
Coordinates: 38°21′N 20°39′E / 38.35, 20.65
Island Chain: Ionian Islands
Area:[6] 117.812 km² (45 sq.mi.)
Highest Mountain: Nirito (806 m (2,644 ft))
Government
Flag of Greece Greece
Periphery: Ionian Islands
Prefecture: Kefalonia and Ithaka
Capital: Vathy, Ithaca
Statistics
Population: 3,084 (as of 2001)
Density: 26 /km² (68 /sq.mi.)
Postal Code: 283 00, 283 01
Area Code: 26740
License Code: KE
Website
www.ithaki.gr

Ithaca or Ithaka (in Greek, Ιθάκη, Ithaki) is an island in the Ionian Sea, in Greece, with an area of 118 km² (45 sq. miles) and three thousand inhabitants. It is an independent municipality of the prefecture of Kefalonia and Ithaka, and lies off the northeast coast of Kefalonia. The municipality of Ithaca includes some smaller islands as well. The capital, Vathy, has one of the world's largest natural harbours. Ithaca is an island in Greece and the home of Odysseus in Homers Odyssey. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ionioi Nisoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι; Ancient Greek: Ionioi Nesoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι) are a group of islands in Greece. ... Kefalonia and Ithaka (Greek: ) is a nomos (prefecture) in Greece, containing the Ionian islands of Kefalonia and Ithaka. ... The Ionian Sea. ... Kefalonia and Ithaka (Greek: ) is a nomos (prefecture) in Greece, containing the Ionian islands of Kefalonia and Ithaka. ...

Contents

Origin of Name

There are various interpretations as to the origin the name Ithaca, it is believed that it comes from:

  • Ithacos, the hero from mythology;
  • the Greek word "ithy" which means "cheerful;"
  • the Greek adjective "ithys" which means "straight" (or, metaphorically, just or true)[1]
  • the Phoenician word "utica" which means "colony."

The name Ithaca has remained unchanged since ancient times, but it has been noticed that in written documents of different periods, it referred to other names such as:

  • Nerikii (7th century BC);
  • Val di Compare (Valley of the Bestman), Piccola (Small) Cephallonia, Anticephallonia (Middle Ages till the beginning of the Venetian period);
  • Ithaki nisos (island), Thrakoniso, Thakou, Thiakou (Byzantine period);
  • Fiaki (Turkish period);
  • Teaki (Venetian period); and
  • Thiaki (before the Venetian period, also called so by the sailors and has remained the name used by the inhabitants).

History

The origin of the first people to inhabit the island, which was during the last years of the Neolithic Period (4000-3000 BC), is unknown. The traces of buildings, walls and a road from this time period prove that life existed and continued to do so during the Early Hellenic era (3000-2000 BC). In the pre-Mycenaean years (2000-1500 BC), some of the population migrated to the southern part of the island. The buildings and walls that were excavated showed the lifestyle of this period had remained primitive. The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ...


Mycenaean Era

Further information: Mycenaean Greece

During the Mycenaean period (1500-1100 BC), Ithaca rose to the highest level of its ancient history. The island became the capital of the Cephalonian states, which included the surrounding lands, and was referred to as one of the most powerful states of that time. The Ithacans were characterized as great navigators and explorers with daring expeditions reaching further than the Mediterranean Sea. Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... The Mycenean Period covers the latter part of the Bronze Age on the Greek mainland. ... Geography The capital of the Cephallonia prefecture is Argostoli. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The epic poems of Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey, may shed some light on Bronze-Age Ithaca. Those poems are generally thought to have been composed sometime within the 8th to 6th centuries BC, but are based on older mythological and poetic traditions; their depiction of the hero Odysseus, and his rule over Ithaca and the surrounding islands and mainland, may preserve some memories of the political geography of the time. For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia)) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... For other meanings, see Odysseus crater, 1143 Odysseus “Ulysses” redirects here. ...


After the end of the Mycenaean period, Ithaca's influence diminished, and it came under the jurisdiction of the nearest large island.


Hellenistic Era

Further information: Hellenistic Greece

During the ancient Hellenic prime (800-180 BC) the Corinthians neglected the small and barren island. Independent organized life continued in the northern and southern part of the island. In the southern part, in the area of Aetos, the town Alalcomenae was founded. From this period, many objects were found during excavations, which were of important historical value. Among these objects were the coins imprinted with the name Ithaca and the image of Odysseus and that it was self-governed. The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... Hellenic may refer to: the Hellenic Republic (the modern Greek state) the Hellenes, itself a term for either ancient or modern Greeks anything related to Greece in general or Ancient Greece in particular. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC - 800s BC - 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC Events and Trends 804 BC - Hadad-nirari IV of Assyria conquers Damascus. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 185 BC 184 BC 183 BC 182 BC 181 BC - 180 BC - 179 BC 178 BC... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... For other meanings, see Odysseus crater, 1143 Odysseus “Ulysses” redirects here. ...


According to the different periods, the conquerors and the circumstances, the population of the island kept changing. Although there is not definite numerical information until the Venetian period, it is believed that from the Mycenaean to the Byzantine period the number of inhabitants was several thousand, who lived mainly at the northern part of the island. During the Middle Ages, the population decreased due to the continuous invasions of the pirates, which forced the people to live on the mountains establishing settlements. Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Ottoman Era

Further information: Ottoman Greece

In 1479, Turkish forces landed on the islands setting villages on fire, plundering, killing people and taking captives. Many of the people fled from the island out of fear of the Turkish occupiers. Those that remained were hiding up in the mountains to avoid the pirates who controlled the channel between Cephallonia and Ithaca and the bays of the island. In the following five years, the Turks, Toques and Venetians placed claims on the islands diplomatically. The possession of the islands were finally given the Turkish Empire (1484-1499 AD).During this time, the Venetians had strengthened into major power with an organized fleet. The Ionian Islands were part of their pursuits, and in 1499, a war between the Venetians and the Turks started. The allied fleets of the Venetians and the Spanish besieged Ithaca, and the other islands. The fleets prevailed, and from 1500 AD, the Venetians controlled the islands. According to a treaty of 1503, Ithaca, Cephallonia and Zante belonged to the Venetians, and Lefkada to the Turks. Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821. ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... Kefalonia also known as Cephalonia, Kefallinia, or Cefalonia (Ancient Greek: Κεφαλλήνια Modern Greek: Κεφαλλονιά), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece. ... Venice is known for its waterways and gondolas Gondola. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ionioi Nisoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι; Ancient Greek: Ionioi Nesoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι) are a group of islands in Greece. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Zakýnthos (Ζάκυνθος, also known as Zante), the third largest of the Ionian Islands, covers an area of 410 square kilometers and its coastline is roughly 123 kilometers in length. ... Lefkada, or Lefkas (Greek: Modern: Λευκάδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -as) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge, as well as the islands capital city. ...


French Era

A few years after the French Revolution, the Ionian area came under the rule of the First French Republic (1797-1798), and the island became the honorary capital of Cephallonia, Lefkada, and part of the Greek mainland, which formed the Ithacan country. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The French people proclaimed Frances First Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. ...


The population welcomed the French, who took care in the control of the administrative and judicial systems, but later the heavy taxation they demanded, caused a feeling of indignation among the people. During this short historical period, the new ideas of system and social structure greatly influenced the inhabitants of the island. At the end of 1798, the French were succeeded by Russia and Turkey (1798-1807), which were allies at that time. Corfu became the capital of the Ionian States, and the form of government was democratic with a fourteen-member senate in which Ithaca had one representative. This article is about the Borat island sex mania known in English as jacking off or Corcyra. ...


The Ithacan fleet flourished when it was allowed to carry cargo up to the ports of the Black Sea. In 1807, according to an agreement with Turkey the Ionian Islands once again came under the French rule (1807-1809 AD). The French quickly began preparing to face the English fleet, which had become very powerful, by building a fort in Vathy. For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


It is worth pointing out of the role, which it played during the struggle of the Greeks against the Turks. Prominent citizens of Ithaki participated in the secret "Filiki Etairia" which was instrumental in organizing the Greek Revolution of 1821, and Greek fighters found refuge there. In addition, the participation of Ithacans during the siege of Messologi and the naval battles with Turkish ships at the Black Sea and Danube were significant. Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


The island has been inhabited since the 2nd millennium BC. It was the capital of Cephalonia during the Mycenaean period. The Romans occupied the island in the 2nd century BC, and later it became part of the Byzantine Empire. The Normans ruled Ithaca in the 12th and 13th century, and after a short Turkish rule it fell into Venetian hands. Geography The capital of the Cephallonia prefecture is Argostoli. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Norman conquests in red. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ...


Ithaca was then occupied by France under the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio. It was liberated by a joint Russo-Turkish force in 1798, before becoming part of the Septinsular Republic. It became a French possession again in 1807, until it was liberated by the United Kingdom in 1809. Under the 1815 Treaty of Paris, Ithaca became a state of the United States of the Ionian Islands, an amical protectorate of the United Kingdom. Under the 1864 Treaty of London, Ithaca, along with the islands, were ceded to Greece as a mark of cordiality with Greece's new king, the Anglophile George I.[2] 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... A republic that existed from 1800 to 1807 under joined Russian-Turkish sovereignity in the Ionian Islands. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Treaty of Paris of 1815 was signed on November 20, 1815, following the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, 18 June. ... Most countries with a federal constitution are made up of a number of entities called states. ... Capital Corfù[1] Largest city  - 1856 (est. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Treaty of London in 1864 was in regards to the United Kingdom ceding the United States of the Ionian Islands to Greece. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... George I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Γεώργιος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (December 24, 1845 – March 18, 1913) was King of the Hellenes (Greece) from 1863 to 1913. ...


Modern Ithaca

Much of the island's architecture was destroyed in an earthquake in 1953. In the 1970s, Kalamos split from the province and became part of the prefecture of Lefkada, and the province of Ithaca became a non-provincial municipality. Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Kalamos, known in antiquity as Karnos (ΚΑΡΝΟΣ), is a mountainous Greek island in the Ionian Sea. ... Lefkada, or Lefkas (Greek: Modern: Λευκάδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -as) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge, as well as the islands capital city. ...


Home of Odysseus?

Main article: Homer's Ithaca
The big island in the center is Kefalonia. Ithaca is the island on its right. (NASA World Wind satellite picture)
The big island in the center is Kefalonia. Ithaca is the island on its right. (NASA World Wind satellite picture)

Since antiquity, Ithaca has been identified as the home of the mythological hero Odysseus. In the Odyssey of Homer, Ithaca is described thus (13.21-27): Homer Where was Homers Ithaca? There have been many suggestions as to where, exactly, the Ithaca of the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer was geographically located: as many, perhaps, as the theories which once fought among themselves over whether Troy ever really existed, and if so where it was. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 599 pixels Full resolution (768 × 767 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The islands of Kefallonia and Ithaki, Greece. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 599 pixels Full resolution (768 × 767 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The islands of Kefallonia and Ithaki, Greece. ... Kefalonia, also known as Cephallenia, Cephallonia, Kefallinia, or Kefallonia (Ancient Greek: Κεφαλληνία; Modern Greek: Κεφαλλονιά or Κεφαλονιά), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece with an area of 350 sq. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Odysseus crater, 1143 Odysseus “Ulysses” redirects here. ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia)) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ...

"I dwell in shining Ithaca. There is a mountain there,
high Neriton, covered in forests. Many islands
lie around it, very close to each other,
Doulichion, Same, and wooded Zacynthos--
but low-lying Ithaca is farthest out to sea,
towards the sunset, and the others are apart, towards the dawn and sun.
It is rough, but it raises good men."

It has sometimes been argued that this description does not match the topography of modern Ithaca. Three features of the description have been seen as especially problematic. First, Ithaca is described as "low-lying" (χθαμαλὴ), but Ithaca is mountainous. Second, the words "farthest out to sea, towards the sunset" (πανυπερτάτη εἰν ἁλὶ ... πρὸς ζόφον) are usually interpreted to mean that Ithaca must be the island furthest to the west, but Kefalonia lies to the west of Ithaca. Lastly, it is unclear which modern islands correspond to Homer's Doulichion and Same. Dulichium or or Dolicha or Doliche (Greek: Δολίχη) was a place noted by numerous ancient writers that was either a city on, or an island off, the Ionian Sea coast of Acarnania, Greece. ...


The Greek geographer Strabo, writing in the 1st century AD, identified Homer's Ithaca with modern Ithaca. Following earlier commentators, he interpreted the word translated above as "low-lying" to mean "close to the mainland", and the phrase translated as "farthest out to sea, towards the sunset" as meaning "farthest of all towards the north." Strabo identified Same as modern Kefalonia, and believed that Homer's Doulichion was one of the islands now known as the Echinades. Ithaca lies farther north than Kefalonia, Zacynthos, and the island that Strabo identified as Doulichion, consistent with the interpretation of Ithaca as being "farthest of all towards the north." The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... In Homeric Greece the islands of Taphos lay in the Ionian Sea off the coast of Acarnania in northwestern Greece, home of sea-going and piratical inhabitants, the Taphians. ...


Strabo's explanation has not won universal acceptance. In the last few centuries, some scholars have argued that Homer's Ithaca was not modern Ithaca, but a different island. Perhaps the best known proposal is that of Wilhelm Dörpfeld, who believed that the nearby island of Leukas was Homer's Ithaca.[3] Wilhelm Dörpfeld Wilhelm Dörpfeld (or Doerpfeld) (26 December 1853 – 25 April 1940) was a German architect, best known for his contributions to classical archaeology. ... Lefkada, or Lefkas (Greek: Modern: Λευκάδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -as) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge, as well as the islands capital city. ...


It has also been suggested that Paliki, the western peninsula of Kefalonia, is Homer's Ithaca. This identification has been proposed several times; in a recent book, Odysseus Unbound, Robert Bittlestone argues that at the time the Odyssey was composed, Paliki was an island, separated from Kefalonia by a narrow channel. One of the main points of the book attempts to suggest that Ithaki has no sunset views. However, the northern part of Ithaki has a much higher elevation than Kefalonia; and it is flatter than the other Ionian Islands. Cephalonia and Ithaca, elevation map Paliki (Παλική PalikÄ“) is a peninsula off Kefalonia, one of the Ionian islands of western Greece, at , . It is also the ancient name of Lixouri, the main city on the peninsula (YPES code 2707). ... Paliki, Kefalonia (Cephalonia) & Ithaki (the traditional Ithaca) : click map to show scale -- Homer said Ithaca was low-lying According to Robert Bittlestones Odysseus Unbound (2005), written with the assistance of Professor James Diggle of Cambridge University and Professor John Underhill of the University of Edinburgh, Paliki, a peninsula of...


Despite any difficulties with Homer's description of the island, in classical and Roman times the island now called "Ithaca" was universally held to be the home of Odysseus; the Hellenistic identifications of Homeric sites, such as the identifications of Lipari as the island of Aeolus, are usually taken with a grain of salt, and attributed to the ancient tourist trade. Lipari Castle above the town of Lipari. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The island has been known as Ithaca from an early date, as coins and inscriptions show. Coins from Ithaca frequently portray Odysseus, and an inscription from the 3rd century BC refers to a local hero-shrine of Odysseus and games called the Odysseia.[4] The Archaeological site of "School of Homer" on modern Ithaca is the only place between Lefkas-Kefalonia-Ithaca Triangle where Linear B has been found, commonly near royal facilities. Modern scholars generally accept the identification of modern Ithaca with Homeric Ithaca, and explain discrepancies between the Odyssey's description and the actual topography as the product of lack of first-hand knowledge of the island, or as poetic license.[citation needed]


Geography

North Ithaca

There is also a strait situated in the western part of the island called the Strait of Ithaca. The capes in the island include Exogi, the westernmost but not in land, Melissa to the north, Mavronos and Agios Ilias to the east, Schinous, Sarakiniko and Agios Ioannis, the easternmost to the east and Agiou Andreou, the southernmost in the south. Bays include Afales Bay to the northwest, Frikes and Kioni Bays to the northeast and Ormos Gulf and Sarakiniko Bay to the southeast. The tallest mountain is Nirito (806 m), the second tallest is Merovigli (669 m). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Strait of Ithaca (Greek: Στενό Ιθάκης Steno Ithakis) is a strait separating the islands of Kefalonia to the west and Ithaca to the east. ... Kioni bay is positioned in the north east of the island of Ithaca. ...


Persons

1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Greek city. ... Ioannis Metaxas (Greek Ιωάννης Μεταξάς, April 12, 1871 – January 29, 1941) was a Greek General and the Prime Minister of Greece from 1936 until his death in 1941. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Anthony John Jereos Lucas (Lekatsas) (1862-1946) was in influential Greek Australian businessman noted for his philanthropic activities and construction of numerous public and private buildings in Melbourne, Australia. ... // Marino Lucas (1869? - 1931) was a Greek-Australian businessman residing originally in Greece and subsequently Melbourne, Hobart and Launceston, Australia. ...

Municipality

The municipality includes islands other than Ithaca including one near Cape Melissa, Atokos to the northeast and several islands in the east including Drakonero, Echinades, Oxeia and Petallades to the east near Aitoloacarnania. Atokos (Greek: Άτοκος), is a Greek island in the Ionian Islands. ... In Homeric Greece the islands of Taphos lay in the Ionian Sea off the coast of Acarnania in northwestern Greece, home of sea-going and piratical inhabitants, the Taphians. ... Oxeia (also Oxiés, Oxiá, or Oxia) is a Greek island. ...


Communities and villages

  • Agios Saranta
  • Aetos
  • Agios Ioannis
  • Anogi
  • Exogi
  • Frikes
  • Kalivia
  • Kioni
  • Kolieri
  • Lachos
  • Lefki
  • Perachori
  • Platrithia
  • Stavros

Further reading

Bittlestone, Robert; with James Diggle and John Underhill (2005). Odysseus Unbound: The Search for Homer’s Ithaca. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85357-5.  Odysseus Unbound website


CHRISTOS I. TZAKOS "ITHACA and HOMER, The Truth" The Advocacy of the Case. Translation: GEOFREY COX, The renowned island as described in the Odyssey. A short exposition on: The reasons for identifying it with present-day Ithaki & The necessary extrapolations in the logic of Homer's verse. [1]


See also

List of traditional Greek place names This is a list of traditional Greek place names. ...


References

  1. ^ Liddell and Scott
  2. ^ "Ionian Islands" (history), Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 Edition.
  3. ^ Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Alt-Ithaka (1927).
  4. ^ Frank H. Stubbings, "Ithaca", in Wace and Stubbings, eds., A Companion to Homer (New York 1962).
  5. ^ http://www.arsenis.info
  6. ^ Basic Characteristics. Ministry of the Interior. www.ypes.gr. Retrieved on 2007-08-07.

“LSJ” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ithaca :: The Encyclopedia of New York State :: Syracuse University Press (779 words)
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Ithaca's cultural life is rich, with an opera company, the Center for the Arts in Ithaca (1965) offering summer theater and arts education, and numerous smaller drama, choral, instrumental, and dance groups.
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