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Encyclopedia > Italy in the Middle Ages
History of Italy
By time period

Ancient Italic peoples / Prehistoric Italy
(Terramare · Villanovan · Etruscan)
Etruscan civilization
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Italian Republic Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1632 KB) Description: Angled shot of the Colosseum in Rome with a very small moon in frame Medium: Color photograph Location: Rome, Italy Date: August 18, 2002 Author: Jimmy Walker [1] Source: jaymce Flickr gallery [2] Camera: Canon PowerShot S110... United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... A simplified map showing the Terramare culture c 1200 BC (blue area). ... The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age Terramare culture and giving way in the 7th century to an increasingly Orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders, which was followed without a severe break by the Etruscan civilization. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... This is an overview of the history of Italy during Roman times. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as... This is the history of Italy during foreign domination and the unification. ... Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ...

By topic

Military history
Cultural history
Economic history
Social history The military history of Italy chronicles a vast time period, lasting from the overthrow of Tarquinius Superbus in 509 BC, through the Roman Empire, Italian unification, and into the modern day. ...

This is the history of Italy during the Middle Ages. United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...

Contents

Late Antiquity, Gothic Wars and the Lombard conquest

Italy was invaded by the Visigoths in the 5th century, and Rome was sacked by Alaric in 410. The last Western Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus, was deposed in 476 by an Eastern Germanic general, Odoacer. He subsequently ruled in Italy for seventeen years as rex gentium, theoretically under the suzerainty of the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno, but practically in total independence. The administration remained the same than under the Western Roman Empire, and give freedom of cult to the Christians. Odoacer fought against the Vandals, who had occupied Sicily, and other Germanic tribes that periodically invaded the peninsula. Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flavius Zeno (c. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


In 489, however, Emperor Zeno decided to oust the Ostrogoths, a foederatum people living in the Danube, by sending them into Italy. On February 25, 493 Theodoric the Great defeated Odoacer and became the king of the Ostrogoths. The capital was moved to Ravenna. Theodoric, who had lived long in Constantinople, is now generally considered a Romanized German, and he in fact ruled over Italy largely through Roman personnel. The Goth minority, of Arian confession, constituted an aristocracy of landowners and militaries, but its influence over the country remained minimal; the Latin population was still subject to Roman laws, and maintained the freedom of creed received by Odoacer. The reign of Theodoric is generally considered a period of recovery for the country. Infrastructures were repaired, frontiers were expanded, and the economy well cared for. The Latin culture flourished for the last time with figures like Boethius, Theodoric's minister; the Italian Kingdom was again the most powerful political entity of the Mediterranean. However, Theodoric's successors were not equal to him. This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 25 - Odoacer agrees to a mediated peace with Theodoric the Great, and is later killed by him personally. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... There are several persons called Bo thius: Philosophers: Anicius Manlius Severinus thius - to many scholars this is the Bo thius, a late-Roman writer best known for his works in philosophy and theology. ...


The eastern half of the Empire, now centred on Constantinople, invaded Italy in the early 6th century, and the generals of emperor Justinian, Belisarius and Narses, conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom after years of warfare, ending in 552. This conflict, known as Gothic Wars, destroyed much of the town life that had survived the barbarian invasions. Town life did not disappear, but towns in the Dark Ages were smaller and considerably more primitive than they had been in Roman times. Subsistence agriculture employed the bulk of the Italian population. Wars, famines, and disease epidemics had a dramatic effect on the demographics of Italy. The agricultural estates of the Roman era did not disappear. They produced an agricultural surplus that was sold in towns; however slavery was replaced by other labour systems such as serfdom. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus, Greek: Ιουστινιανός;) commonly known as Justinian I, or (among Eastern Orthodox Christians) as Saint Justinian the Great; c. ... Belisarius may be the bearded figure on Emperor Justinian Is right in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna that celebrates the reconquest of Italy, performed by the Byzantine army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius himself. ... Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ... Events July - Battle of Taginae: The Byzantine general Narses defeats and kills Totila, king of the Ostrogoths. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Ostrogoths Franks Visigoths Commanders Belisarius Narses Mundalias Germanus Liberius Theodoric the Great Witigis Totila See also Gothic War (377–382) for the war on the Danube. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Costumes of slaves or serfs, from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel from original documents in European libraries. ...


The withdrawal of Byzantine armies allowed another Germanic people, the Lombards, to invade Italy. Cividale del Friuli was the first main centre to fall, while the Byzantine resistance concentrated in the coast areas. The Lombards soon overran most of the peninsula, establishing a Kingdom with capital in Pavia, divided into a series of dukedoms. The areas in central-northern Italy which remained under Byzantine control (mostly the current Lazio and Romagna, plus a short corridor between Umbria that connected them, as well as Liguria) became the Exarchate of Ravenna. Southern Italy, with the exception of Apulia, current Calabria and Sicily, were also occupied by the two semi-independent Lombard duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. Under the Imperial authority remained also much of the ports, which eventually turned into actually independent city-states (Gaeta, Naples, Venice). Cividale del Friuli (Friulian Cividât, Slovenian Čedad) is a town in Northern Italy, close to Udine. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ... Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... Cliffside dwellings in Tropea. ... The independent Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in southern Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald. ... The Duchy of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy, centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ...


See also:

Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Ostrogoths Franks Visigoths Commanders Belisarius Narses Mundalias Germanus Liberius Theodoric the Great Witigis Totila See also Gothic War (377–382) for the war on the Danube. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... The following is a list of barbarian kings of Italy: Maximinus Thrax (235-238) Odoacer (476-493) Ostrogothic Kings of Italy Theoderic (493-526) Athalaric (526-534) Theodahad (534-536) Witiges (536-540) Heldebadus (540-541) Totila (541-552) Teias (552) Teias was killed by the Byzantine general Narses, and... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... The Duchy of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy, centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno. ... The independent Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in southern Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald. ...

Rise of the Catholic Church (4th century-8th century)

The Church (and especially the bishop of Rome, the pope) had played an important political role since the times of Constantine, who tried to include it in the imperial administration. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


In the politically unstable situation after the fall of the western empire, the Church often became the only stable institution and the only source of learning. Even the barbarians had to rely on clerics in order to administrate their conquests. Furthermore, the Catholic monastic orders, such as the Benedictines had a major role both in the economic life of the time, and in the preservation of the classical culture. Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to devote ones life fully to spiritual work. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Culture (Culture from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate,) generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ...


After the Lombard invasion, the popes (i.e. St. Gregory) were nominally subject to the eastern emperor, but often received little help from Constantinople, and had to fill the lack of stately power, providing essential services (ex. food for the needy) and protecting Rome from Lombard incursions; in this way, the popes started building an independent state. Saint Gregory redirects here. ...


Collapse of the Exarchate

At the end of the 8th century the popes definitely aspired to independence, and found a way to achieve it by allying with the Carolingian dynasty of the Franks: the Carolingians needed someone who could give legitimacy to a coup against the powerless Merovingian kings, while the popes needed military protection against the Lombards. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... There are other articles with similar names; see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ...


In 751 the Lombards seized Ravenna and the Exarchate of Ravenna was abolished. This ended the Byzantine presence in central Italy (although some coastal cities and some areas in south Italy remained under Byzantine control until the eleventh century). Facing a new Lombard offensive, the papacy appealed to the Franks for aid. In 756 Frankish forces defeated the Lombards and gave the Papacy legal authority over all of central Italy, thus creating the Papal States. However, the remainder of Italy stayed under Lombard or Byzantine control. The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ...


The Holy Roman Empire (9th-10th centuries)

Map of Italy in 1050

In 774, upon a Papal invitation, the Franks invaded the Kingdom of Italy and finally annexed the Lombards; as a reward the Frankish king Charlemagne received papal support. Later, on December 25, 800, Charlemagne was also crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by the pope, triggering controversy and disputes over the Roman name. A war between the two empires soon followed; in 812 the Byzantines agreed to recognize the existence of two Roman Empires in return for an assurance that the remaining Byzantine possessions in Italy would remain unattacked. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (994x1050, 246 KB) From the 1923 The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd via [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (994x1050, 246 KB) From the 1923 The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd via [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Events Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards. ... Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


The Imperial authority never extended much south of the Italian peninsula. Southern Italy was divided amongst the two Lombards duchies of Spoleto and Benevento, who accepted Charlemagne's suzerainty only formally (812), and the Byzantine Empire. Coastal cities like Gaeta, Amalfi, Naples on the Tyrrhenian Sea, and Venice on the Adriatic, were Latin-Greek enclaves who were becoming increasingly independent from Byzantium. A conquest of Benevento, otherwise, would have meant the total encompassment of the Papal territories, and probably Charlemagne thought it was good for his relationships with the Pope to avoid such a move. The King's strong hold over his empire, on the other side, thwarted the ambitious program of Popes like Hadrian I, whose looser interpretation of the Donation of Pepin (confirmed by Charlemagne in 774) extended ideally Papal authority over far territories including even Histria and Corsica. Such a vision would imply an almost total independence of the Pope, and Charlemagne was able enough to choke it. The Pope, by himself, had no other choice but to submit. His local forces were feeble, or even rebellious: all the incoronation events were spurred by the attempt of a Roman party member to kill the Pope. The Lombard dukes were over, or untrustworthy. The Byzantines had little to give, and Charles had sharply left untouched their possessions in his campaigns in order to maintain peace with them. Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Spoleto (Latin: Spoletium), 42°44′ N 12°44′ E, an ancient town in the Italian province of Perugia in east central Umbria, at 385 meters (1391 ft) above sea-level on a foothill of the Apennines. ... Benevento is a town and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. ... Events Births April 12 - Muhammad at-Taqi, Shia Imam (d. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Charlemagne comes to the aid of Pope Adrian I Adrian, or Hadrian I, (died December 25, 795) was pope from 772 to 795. ... The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended papal temporal rule beyond the traditional diocese and duchy of Rome. ... Events Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards. ... Coat of arms Istria (Istra, pronounced in Croatian and Slovenian; Istria, pronounced in Italian, Istrien, pronounced in German) is the biggest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... “Corsican” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The age of Charlemagne was therefore one of stability for Italy, though it was generally dominated by non-Italian interests. The separation with the Eastern world continued to increase. Leo III was the first Pope to date his Bulls from the year of Charlemagne's reign (795) instead of those of Byzantine emperors. This process of isolation from the Eastern Empire and connection with the Western world of France and Germany, which had started three centuries before, was completed at the beginning of the 9th centuries. Sicily, Calabria, Puglia and the marine cities were the main exceptions to this rule. Pope Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816. ... Events Leo III becomes pope Earliest recorded Viking raid on Ireland. ... This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. ...


After the death of Charlemagne (814) the new empire soon disintegrated under his weak successors. The equilibrium created through the great emperor's charisma fell apart. This crisis was due also to the emergence of external forces, including the Saracen attacks and the rising power of the marine republics. Charlemagne had announced its division of the Empire in 806: the Lombard-Frank reign, together with Bavaria and Alamannia, was to be handed over to his son Pippin of Italy. Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... Events April 12 - Nicephorus elected patriarch of Constantinople, succeeding Tarasius. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Alamannia was the territory inhabited by the Alamanni after their break through the Roman Limes in 213. ... Pippin of Italy (April, 773 – July 8, 810) was the son of Charlemagne and king of Italy (781-810) under the authority of his father. ...


After Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious died in 840, the treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the empire. Louis' eldest surviving son Lothar I became Emperor and ruler of the Central Franks. His three sons in turn divided this kingdom between them, and Northern Italy became the Kingdom of Italy under Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor in 839. Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Events After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight over the division of the empire, with Lothar succeeding as Emperor. ... Geopolitical divisions according to the Treaty of Verdun. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Lothar (in older English texts, sometimes Lothair) (795 - March 2, 855), Holy Roman Emperor, was the eldest son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Irmengarde (Ermengarde), daughter of Ingramm (Ingerman), the Duke of Hesbaye. ... Louis II, (825 – 875), Holy Roman Emperor (sole ruler 855 – 875), eldest son of the emperor Lothair I, became the designated king of Italy in 839, and taking up his residence in that country was crowned king at Rome by Pope Sergius II on June 15, 844. ... Events Louis the Pious attempts to divide his empire among his sons. ...


The first half of the 9th century saw other troubles for Italy as well. In 827, Muslim Arabs known as Aghlabids invaded and conquered Sicily; their descendants, the Kalbids, ruled the island until 1053 . In 846, Muslim Arabs invaded Rome, looted St. Peter's Basilica, and stole all the gold and silver in it. In response, Pope Leo IV started building the Leonine walls of the Vatican City in 847; they were completed in 853. Events Succession of Pope Valentine, then Pope Gregory IV. Arabs invade Sicily. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Kalbids were a Muslim dynasty in Sicily, which ruled from 948 to 1053. ... Events The Moors temporarily recapture León. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Basilica of Saint Peter, officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly called Saint Peters Basilica, is one of four major basilicas of Rome (St. ... Leo IV, pope from 847 to 855, was a Roman by birth, and was unanimously chosen to succeed Sergius II. His pontificate was chiefly distinguished by his efforts to repair the damage done by the Saracens during the reign of his predecessor to various churches of the city, especially those... The Leonine Walls, which enclose part of the Vatican City, as seen from Rome. ... Events Succession of Pope Leo IV, (847 - 855) Births Alfred the Great (d. ... Events A Byzantine fleet destroys Damiette (in Egypt) Births Deaths Categories: 853 ...


Throughout this period, some coastal regions remained under Byzantine control. In the late ninth century the Byzantines and the Franks launched a joint offensive against the Arabs in southern Italy; however, only the Byzantines won any territory in that campaign.


In 951? the thrones of Italy and Germany were united. The ruler of the new realm, Otto I, claimed that the union revived the empire of Charlemagne and received the title of Holy Roman Emperor in 962. Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Events February 2 - Pope John XII crowns Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor. ...


Even the papacy went through an age of decadence, which ended only in 999 when emperor Otto III selected Silvester II as a pope. Events Silesia is incorporated into territory ruled by Boleslaus I of Poland Pope Silvester II succeeds Pope Gregory V Sigmundur Brestisson introduces christianity in the Faroe Islands Deaths December 16 - Saint Adelaide of Italy (b. ... Otto III in a medieval manuscript Otto III (980 – January 23, 1002, Paterno, Italy) was the fourth ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Gerbert of Aurillac, later known as pope Silvester II, (or Sylvester II), (ca. ...


Southern Italy under the Lombards, Arabs, Greeks, and Normans (774 – 1194)

Further information: History of Islam in southern Italy

With Charlemagne's conquest of 774, the north of Italy was politically separated from the south completely. Though the Greeks had continued to hold most of Apulia and Calabria and the Lombard duchies of the south had been aloof of Pavian policies for a century, the situation was exacerbated by the loss of a centralising Lombard authority in the north. Immediately, the duke of Benevento, Arechis II, proclaimed himself a sovereign prince and set about opposing Charlemagne's assumption of Lombard kingship. The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details). ... Arechis II (also Aretchis, Arichis, Arechi or Aregis; died August 26, 787) was Duke (and later Prince) of Benevento, in southern Italy, from 758 until his death. ...


Creation of independent moieties (774 – 849)

Under Arechis and his successors, it was the Beneventan policy to do homage to the Carolingian emperors and ignore their rulings. De facto independence of both Frankish and Byzantine authority was the result. The principality of Benevento reached its territorial peak under Sicard in the 830s. At his time, the Mezzogiorno was suffering the ravages of the Saracens, against whom Sicard warred constantly. He also warred against his Greek neighbours, especially Sorrento, Naples, and Amalfi. It was in a war with Naples, that Duke Andrew II first called in Saracen mercenaries, thus precipitating a problem that would plague the land for the next two centuries. The Duchy of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy, centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno. ... Sicard (d. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... Sorrento is the name of many cities and towns: Sorrento, Italy Sorrento, Florida, United States of America Sorrento, Louisiana, USA Sorrento, Maine, USA Sorrento, a township on the Mornington Peninsula, Victoria, Australia Sorrento, suburb of Perth, Western Australia, Australia Sorrento, Hong Kong, the largest residential development on Kowloon Station Sorrento... The Duchy of Naples (Latin: Ducatus Neapolitanus), born as a Byzantine province governed by a military commander (dux), rapidly became a de facto independent state, lasting more than five centuries during the Early and High Middle Ages. ... The Amalfi coast. ... Andrew II was the duke of Naples from 834 to 840. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


In 839, Sicard was assassinated and a civil war broke out which illustrated the nature of political power in the south. It was still largely in the hands of the land-owning aristocracy, who had the power to choose a prince. In 839, some chose Radelchis I, the treasurer and assassin, and some chose Siconulf, who was installed at Salerno. This civil war continued apace for a decade, during which the gastaldates of Benevento took the opportunity to entrench their independence, especially Capua, which sided with Siconulf. In 849, the Emperor Louis II, in one of his first acts as King of Italy, descended the peninsula and imposed his will for peace on the dueling Lombards. He divided the principality into two: one at Benevento, one at Salerno. Thenceforward, the history of the Lombard south is one of declining, competing powers. Events Louis the Pious attempts to divide his empire among his sons. ... Radelchis I (also Radalgis) (d. ... Siconulf (also Siconolf, Siconolfo, or Siconulfus) was the first prince of Salerno, the brother of Sicard, prince of Benevento (832-839), who was assassinated by Radelchis. ... Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ... The Principality of Capua was a Lombard state in Southern Italy, usually de facto independent, but under the varying suzerainty of Western and Eastern Roman Empires. ... Events Births Deaths August 18 - Walafrid Strabo, German monk and theologian Categories: 849 ... Louis II, (825 – 875), Holy Roman Emperor (sole ruler 855 – 875), eldest son of the emperor Lothair I, became the designated king of Italy in 839, and taking up his residence in that country was crowned king at Rome by Pope Sergius II on June 15, 844. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ...

Castle of Itri, probably dating from Docibilis I's reign.
Castle of Itri, probably dating from Docibilis I's reign.

In the Tyrrhenian Greek cities, the violence raging inland, between them and their fellow Greeks on toe and heel, fostered the circumstances of de facto independence. Naples, in particular, had a history of differences with Byzantium and had in the past sought to make herself dependent on other authorities, often papal. In 801, the Byzantine patrician of Sicily succeeded in make one Anthimus duke, but he was unable to control the cities under his rule, Gaeta and Amalfi. Subsequent to Anthimus, the patrician tried to appoint his own candidate without imperial approval. The people rebelled and accepted Stephen III in 821. Over his decade of rule, Naples severed all legal ties to Constantinople and even began minting her own coins. In 840, after a brief flirtation with Frankish servitude, to Lothair I, and a Frankish duke, in the person of Duke Contard, the Neapolitan citizenry elected Sergius I their magister militum. Sergius established a dynasty, the Sergi, that was to rule the duchy for the next three hundred years. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1149 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1149 pixel, file size: 1. ... Itri is a small city in the central Italian region of Latium and the Province of Latina. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Events December 28 - Louis the Vrome occupies Barcelona. ... Anthimus or Anthemus was the Duke of Naples for from 801 until around 818, when the patrician of Sicily reestablished Byzantine control over the ducatus. ... Stephen III (died 832) was the duke of Naples during an important transitionary period in its history, from 821 to his death. ... Events Tang Mu Zong becomes emperor of China Births Deaths February 11 - Benedict of Aniane, monastic founder and saint December 18 - Theodulf, Bishop of Orléans Coenwulf, king of Mercia Categories: 821 ... Events After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight over the division of the empire, with Lothar succeeding as Emperor. ... Lothair I Lothair I (German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 2 March 855), king of Italy (818 – 855) and Holy Roman Emperor (840 – 855), was the eldest son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingerman, duke of Hesbaye. ... Contard (also Contardus or Contardo), a Frank, was briefly the Duke of Naples in 840. ... Sergius I (died 864) was the first duke of Naples of his dynasty, often dubbed the Sergi, which ruled over Naples for almost three centuries from his accession in 840 until the death of his namesake Sergius VII in 1137. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


In Gaeta, as in Naples, the violent situation inland required special defence. The Gaetans received their first imperial hypati around the time of the Beneventan civil war. While the first hypati remained Byzantine loyals, in 866, the sudden appearance of a new dynasty with Docibilis I forces the conclusion that Gaeta, too, had moved away from Byzantium and Naples towards independence. The first elected ruler of Amalfi was a prefect appearing in 839, simlutaneous with the death of Sicard and the appearance of a Gaetan hyaptus. However, Naples, Gaeta, Amalfi, the Tyrrhenian cities, and Venice (in North Italy) retained some allegiance to Byzantium until the eleventh century-long after becoming de facto independent. Hypatus or ypatus (pl. ... Events Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent of Japan, starting the Fujiwara regentship. ... The square tower of the Castle of Itri, attributed to Docibilis I. Docibilis I (Italian: ; died before 914) was the Hypatus of Gaeta from 867 until his death. ... The medieval Republic of Amalfi was ruled, in the tenth and eleventh centuries, by a series of dukes (Latin: duces). ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... Events Louis the Pious attempts to divide his empire among his sons. ...


Period of confusion (849 – 915)

The period following the Beneventan civil war was one of confusion, brought on by the independence movements in the various cities and provinces and by the Saracen onslaught. In Salerno, a palace coup removed Siconulf's successor Sico II in 853 and destabilised that principality until a new dynasty, the Dauferidi, came to power in 861. Sico II (died 855) was the first prince of Salerno. ... Events A Byzantine fleet destroys Damiette (in Egypt) Births Deaths Categories: 853 ... Events Carloman revolts against his father Louis the German. ...

Louis II at the capture of Bari, 871.
Louis II at the capture of Bari, 871.

In 852, the Saracens took Bari and founded an emirate there. Greek power being significantly threatened, as well as Adriatic commerce, the Byzantine emperor requested an alliance from Louis II of Italy. Similarly, the new prince of Benevento, Adelchis, an independent-minded ruler, also sought his aid. Louis came down and retook Bari in 871 after a great siege. Louis then tried to set up greater control over all the south by garrisoning his troops in Beneventan fortresses. The response of Adelchis to this action was to imprison and rob the emperor while he was staying the princely palace at Benevento. A month later, the Saracens had landed with a new invasive force and Adelchis released Louis to lead the armies against it. Adelchis forced Louis to vow never to re-enter Benevento with an army or to take revenge for his detention. Louis went to Rome in 872 and was released from his oath by Pope Adrian II on 28 May. His attempts to punish Adelchis were not very successful. Adelchis vacillated between nominal fealty to the Carolingian and Byzantine emperors, but, in fact, by his alterations to the Edictum Rothari, he acknowledged himself as the legitimate Lombard "king." Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Events Boris I Michael succeeds the duumvirate of Malamir and Presian as monarch of Bulgaria. ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Adelchis was the son of Radelchis I, Prince of Benevento, and successor of his brother Radelgar in 854. ... Events Nine battles are fought between the Danes and Wessex. ... Events Battle of Hafrsfjord in Norway, Harald Finehair first king of Norway. ... Adrian II (also known as Hadrian II), (792–872), pope from 867 to 872, was a member of a noble Roman family, and became pope in 867, at an advanced age. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Edictum Rothari (also Edictus Rothari or Edictum Rotharis) was the first written compilation of Lombard law, codified and promulgated 22 November 643 by King Rothari. ...


The successors of Adelchis were weak and the principality of Benevento declined just as Salernitan power was beginning to make itself felt. Guaifer of Salerno was on friendly terms with the Saracens, a habit which annoyed the popes and often put a ruler at odds with his neighbours. The south Italian lords continually rotating in their allegiances. Guaifer's successor, Guaimar I, made war on the Saracens. Guaifer had originally associated Guaimar with him as co-ruler, a practice which became endemic to the south and was especially evident in Capua. Guaifer (also Guaifar, Waifer, Waifar, or Guaiferio) (c. ... Guaimar I (also Waimar, Gaimar, or Guaimario; c. ...


The Tenth Century

While the Franks had not benefited from the joint Frankish-Byzantine offensives in Southern Italy against the Arabs, the Byzantines had. During the late ninth century the amount of territory under direct Byzantine rule (which in the early ninth century was limited to the toe and heel of the peninsula) expanded dramatically. The Catapanate of Italy was set up to administer the newly-acquired territory. The rest of Southern Italy remained divided among the Lombard kings and the Italian cities. Both sets of principalities were de-facto independent, but paid nominal allegiance to Byzantium. In 890 the Byzantines defeated the Saracens in southern Italy. ...


The Byzantine gains in the southern Italian mainland were, however, accompanied by setbacks in Sicily. In 878 the Arabs captured the crucial city of Syracuse, and by 902 the entire island was under Arab rule.


Norman Rule

In the eleventh century, the Normans occupied the Lombard and Byzantine possessions in Southern Italy, ending the six century old presence of both powers in the peninsula. The independent city-states were also subdued. During the same century, the Normans also ended Muslim rule in Sicily. Norman rule in what had once been Byzantine territory naturally angered Byzantium, which in the twelfth century attempted to reassert its authority in Southern Italy. Norman conquests in red. ...


Byzantine invasion

In 1155 the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus attempted to invade southern Italy. The Emperor sent his generals Michael Palaeologus and John Ducas with Byzantine troops and large quantities of gold to invade Apulia (1155). The two generals were instructed to enlist the support of German emperor Frederick Barbarossa, since he was hostile to the Normans of Sicily and was south of the Alps at the time, but he declined. Nevertheless, with the help of disaffected local barons including Count Robert of Loritello, Manuel's expedition achieved astonishingly rapid progress as the whole of southern Italy rose up in rebellion against the Sicilian Crown. There followed a string of spectacular successes as numerous strongholds yielded either to force or the lure of gold. This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Manuel I Comnenus (Greek: Μανουήλ Α ο Κομνηνός; November 28, 1118 – September 24, 1180), was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. ... Michael Palaeologus (d. ... John Ducas (born about 1126; died about 1200) was the eldest son of Theodora Comnena porphyrogenita and Constantine Angelus. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... Robert II of Bassunvilla (also Basunvilla and Bassonville) (died in 1182) was the count of Conversano (from 1138) and Loritello (from 1154). ...


The City of Bari, which had been the capital of the Byzantine Catapanate of Southern Italy for centuries before the arrival of the Normans, opened its gates to the Emperor's army, and the overjoyed citizens tore down the Norman citadel as a hated symbol of Norman oppression. Encouraged by the success, Manuel dreamed of restoration of the Roman Empire at cost of union between Orthodox and Catholic Church, a prospect which would frequently be offered to the Pope during negotiations and plans for alliance. Negotatiations were hurriedly carried out, and an alliance was formed between Manuel and Pope Adrian IV. The future looked bleak for the Sicilians. Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... The Catapanate of Italy was a province of the Byzantine Empire, comprised of mainland Italy south of a line drawn from Monte Gargano to the Gulf of Salerno. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Adrian IV (also known as Hadrian IV), born Nicholas Breakspear ( 1100 - September 1, 1159) was pope from 1154 to 1159. ...


However, the invasion soon stalled. Michael was recalled to Constantinople. Although his arrogance had slowed the campaign, he was a brilliant general in the field, and his loss was a major blow to the campaign. The turning point was the Battle for Brindisi, where the Sicilians launched a major counter attack by both land and sea. At the approach of the enemy, the mercenaries that had been hired with Manuel's gold demanded impossible rises in their pay. When this was refused, they deserted. Even the local barons started to melt away, and soon John Ducas was left hopelessly outnumbered. The naval battle was decided in the Sicilians' favour, and John was captured. The defeat at Brindisi put an end to the restored Byzantine reign in Italy, and by 1158 the Byzantine army had left Italy, with only a few permanent gains.


The end of the Middle Ages (11th-14th centuries)

In the eighth and ninth centuries towns such as Amalfi and Venice began to prosper because of intra-Italian and international trade in goods such as salt and silks. Italian traders reached cities such as Alexandria and Constantinople. Salt from the Venetain lagoon was sold to other Italians. However, the amount of urban activity remained small.


The 11th century signalled the end of the darkest period in the Middle Ages. Trade slowly picked up, especially on the seas, where the four Italian cities of Amalfi, Pisa, Genoa and Venice became major powers. The papacy regained its authority, and started a long struggle with the empire, about both ecclesiastical and secular matter. The first episode was the Investiture controversy. In the twelfth century those Italian cities which lay in the Holy Roman Empire launched a successful effort to win autonomy from the Holy Roman Empire (see Lombard League); this made north Italy a land of quasi-independent or independent city-states until the nineteenth century (see Italian city-states and history of every city). The revolts were funded by Byzantium, which hoped to expel the Germans from Italy; this sponsorship was, like the invasion of the South, part of a twelfth-century Byzantine effort to regain the influence it had held on the peninsula during the reign of Justinian. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... Genoa (Genova [] in Italian - Zena [] in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... The Investiture Controversy, also known as the lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Lombard League was an alliance formed around 1167, which at its apex included most of the cities of northern Italy (although its membership changed in time), including, among others, Milan, Piacenza, Cremona, Mantua, Bergamo, Brescia, Bologna, Padua, Treviso, Vicenza, Verona, Lodi, and Parma, and even some lords, such as... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Meanwhile, the South and Sicily were invaded by Normans, who eventually conquered what remained of the Byzantine holdings in mainland Italy along with the Arab possessions in Sicily (see Kingdom of Sicily). Norman conquests in red. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ...


See also

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  • Bostom, Andrew G. The Legacy of Jihad: Islamic Holy War and the Fate of Non-Muslims. Prometheus Books, 2005.
  • Roberts, J. M. The Penguin History of Europe. Penguin.
Middle Ages by region

Armenia · Bosnia · Bulgaria · Britain · Byzantine Empire · Croatia · Crusader states · Czech lands · France · Germany · Italy · Kievan Rus′ · Poland · Romania · Scotland · Serbia · Spain The Byzantines restored control over Bosnia at the end of 10th century, but not for long as it was soon taken by the Czar of Bulgarians Samuil. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Crusader states, c. ... This article describes the history of the Czech lands in the Middle Ages. ... Coat of arms Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... The Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations: Rascia/RaÅ¡ka (present-day Western Serbia and Northern Montenegro), Bosnia [1] (indistinct from Rascia until the 12th century), Zachumlie/Zahumlje (western Herzegovina), Trebounia/Travunija (eastern Herzegovina), Pagania/Paganija (middle Dalmatia) and...


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