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Encyclopedia > Italy
Repubblica Italiana
Italian Republic
Flag of Italy Coat of arms of Italy
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Il Canto degli Italiani
(also known as Fratelli d'Italia)
Location of  Italy  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green) Flag of the Napoleonic Italian Republic Italian Republic (It: Repubblica Italiana) was the name taken by the former Cisalpine Republic of north-central Italy in 1802, following the change in its constitution that allowed French First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte to become its president. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Italy-Emblem. ... National flag and state ensign. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Republic. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Goffredo Mameli, author of the text of the Italian national anthem Michele Novaro, composer of the music Il Canto degli Italiani (The Song of the Italians) is the Italian national anthem. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2056 × 1710 pixel, file size: 178 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Rome
41°54′N, 12°29′E
Official languages Italian1 (Italiana, Italiano)
Demonym Italian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Giorgio Napolitano
 -  Prime Minister Romano Prodi
Formation
 -  Unification 17 March 1861 
 -  Republic 2 June 1946 
Accession to
the
 European Union
25 March 1957 (founding member)
Area
 -  Total 301,318 km² (71st)
116,346.5 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2.4
Population
 -  2006 estimate 59,131,287 [1] (23rd)
 -  October 2001 census
 -  Density 196.2 /km² (54th)
507.9 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $1.956 trillion [1] (8th)
 -  Per capita $31,200 [2] (20th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $2.150 billion [3] (7th)
 -  Per capita $36.359 [4] (21st)
Gini? (2000) 36 (medium
HDI (2004) 0.940 (high) (17th)
Currency Euro ()² (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .it³
Calling code +39
1 French is co-official in the Aosta Valley; German is co-official in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol; Ladin is co-official in the province of Bolzano-Bozen. Sardinian, Catalan and Corsican in Sardinia, Albanian and Greek in Southern Italy, Occitan in Piedmont, Ladin in the Province of Belluno, and Friulan and Slovenian in Friuli-Venezia Giulia are also officially recognized at different degrees.
2 Prior to 2002: Italian Lira.
3 The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Italy (Italian: Italia), officially the Italian Republic, (Italian: Repubblica Italiana), is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia. Italy shares its northern Alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within the Italian Peninsula, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. Not to be confused with capitol. ... Demography of Italy. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... The President of the Italian Republic is the head of State of Italy, and represents national unity. ... Giorgio Napolitano (born June 29, 1925), is an Italian politician and former lifetime senator, the eleventh and current President of the Italian Republic. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ...   (born 9 August 1939) is an Italian politician. ... Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The birth of the Italian Republic (officially on June 2, 1946) is a key event of Italian contemporary history. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .it is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Italy. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... Country Code: 39 International Call Prefix: 00 Italy changed to a closed numbering plan in 1998. ... The Aosta Valley (Italian: Valle dAosta, French: Vallée dAoste, Arpitan: Val dOuta) is a mountainous Region in north-western Italy. ... Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol[1] (Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige; German: Trentino-Südtirol; Ladin: Trentin-Adesc Aut, also Trentin-Sudtirol [2][3]) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy. ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-South Tyrol and Veneto. ... The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen[1][2] (Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: Provinzia autonòma de Balsan), also called Alto Adige (Italian: Alto Adige; German: Hochetsch or Oberetsch; Ladin: Adesc Aut[3] ) or South Tyrol (Italian: Sudtirolo; German: Südtirol; Ladin: Sudtirol), is an autonomous province of Italy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Catalan can refer to: Catalan people Catalan language An inhabitant of Catalonia A Catalan speaker, whether or not from Catalonia proper (see Catalan Countries). ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-South Tyrol and Veneto. ... Belluno (It. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ISO 4217 Code ITL User(s) Italy, San Marino, Vatican City, but not Campione dItalia Inflation 2. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Border (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map showing the location of the Campione enclave near the center. ...


Italy has been the home of many European cultures, such as the Etruscans and the Romans, and later was the birthplace of the movement of the Italian Renaissance. Italy's capital Rome has been the center of Western Civilization, and is the center of the Catholic Church. The Culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures of Europe. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ...


Today, Italy is a democratic republic, and a developed country with the 7th-highest GDP (nominal) and the 17th-highest Human Development Index rating in the world. It is a founding member of what is now the European Union (having signed the Treaty of Rome in 1957), and also a member of the G8, the Council of Europe, the Western European Union, and the Central European Initiative. Beginning January 1, 2007, Italy became a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Also Italy is a modern Great power[2], and a Regional power. World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden...  â€¢  â€¢  â€¢ Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Establishment Treaty of Brussels  -  Signed 17 March 1948  The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the... The Central European Initiative or CEI, is a cultural and scientific international cooperative of at present 17 countries, founded in 1991/92 as a successor of the Pentagonale group1. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Since 1966, the UN Security Council has included 10 elected (non-permanent) members. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ...

Contents

Etymology

The origin of the term "Italy" (It: Italia), from Latin Ītalia, is uncertain. According to one of the more common explanations, the term was borrowed through Greek, from Oscan Víteliú, meaning "the land of young cattle" and named for the god of cattle, Mars[3]. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italian tribes and is often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Samnite Wars. Oscan, the language of the Osci, is in the Sabellic branch of the Italic language family, which is a branch of Indo-European and includes Umbrian, Latin and Faliscan. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and either Jupiter or a magical flower. ... Combatants Roman Republic Samnium The Samnite Wars were three wars between the early Roman Republic and the tribes of Samnium. ...


The name Italia applied to a part of what is now southern Italy. According to Antiochus of Syracuse, it originally only referred to the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula (modern Calabria), but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to use the name "Italia" for a greater region, but it was not until the time of the Roman conquests that the term was expanded to cover the entire peninsula [4]. Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... Antiochus of Syracuse, Greek historian, flourished about 420 BC Nothing is known of his life, but his works, of which only fragments remain, enjoyed a high reputation because of their accuracy. ... Calabria, formerly Brutium, is a region in southern Italy which occupies the toe of the Italian peninsula south of Naples. ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Ancient Italic people settled in a territory of remarkably big dimensions including todays southern Italian region of Basilicata and the northern part of Calabria. ... For the mountain in Canada named after Lucania, see Mount Lucania. ...


History

Main article: History of Italy

United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ...

Prehistory to Magna Graecia

Excavations throughout Italy reveal human presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period (the "Old Stone Age") some 200,000 years ago. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, driven by unsettled conditions at home, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea and Massilia (what is now Marseille, France). They included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of the boot of Italy Magna Graecia (Latin, “Greater Greece”), since it was so densely inhabited by Greeks[5] [6] [7]. The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ...


Ancient Rome

The Colosseum in Rome, perhaps the most enduring symbol of Italy
The Colosseum in Rome, perhaps the most enduring symbol of Italy

Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 8th century BC to a colossal empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. In its twelve-century existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy, to a republic based on a combination of oligarchy and democracy, to an autocratic empire. It came to dominate Western Europe and the entire area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea through conquest and assimilation. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (4827 × 2833 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (4827 × 2833 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... A portion of the Tabula Peutingeriana, a Roman map of the 4th century, depicting the southern part of Italia. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Central New York City. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single person. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ...


Italia, under the Roman Republic and later Empire, was the name of the Italian Peninsula. During the Republic, Italia (which extended at the time from Rubicon to Calabria) was not a province, but rather the territory of the city of Rome, thus having a special status: for example, military commanders were not allowed to bring their armies within Italia, and Julius Caesar passing the Rubicon with his legions marked the start of the civil war. This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Presumed course of the Rubicon For other uses, see Rubicon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


From the 3rd century, the Roman empire went into decline. The western half of the empire, including Hispania, Gaul, and Italy, broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. The eastern empire, governed from Constantinople, is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire after 476, the traditional date for the "fall of Rome" and for the subsequent onset of the Early Middle Ages, also known as the Dark Ages. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the English historian, Edward Gibbon. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ...


The Early, Mid and Late Middle Ages

The Iron Crown with which Lombard rulers were crowned. They established a Kingdom of Italy which lasted until 774, when it was conquered by the Franks. Their influence on Italian political geography is plainly visible in the regional appellation Lombardy.
The Iron Crown with which Lombard rulers were crowned. They established a Kingdom of Italy which lasted until 774, when it was conquered by the Franks. Their influence on Italian political geography is plainly visible in the regional appellation Lombardy.

In the sixth century AD the Emperor Justinian reconquered Italy from the Ostrogoths. The invasion of a new wave of Germanic tribes, the Lombards, doomed his attempt to resurrect the Western Roman Empire but the repercussions of Justinian's failure resounded further still. For the next thirteen centuries, whilst new nation-states arose in the lands north of the Alps, the Italian political landscape was a patchwork of feuding city states, petty tyrannies, and foreign invaders. This is the history of Italy during the Middle Ages. ... Image File history File links Iron Crown of Lombardy File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Iron Crown of Lombardy File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea) is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe. ... The medieval Kingdom of Italy was a state originally comprising the northern two thirds of modern-day Italy, which formed from the break-up of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ...


For several centuries the armies and Exarchs, Justinian's successors, were a tenacious force in Italian affairs - strong enough to prevent other powers such as the Arabs, the Holy Roman Empire, or the Papacy from establishing a unified Italian Kingdom, but too weak to drive out these "interlopers" and recreate Roman Italy. Later Imperial orders such as the Carolingians, the Ottonians and Hohenstaufens also managed to impose their overlordship in Italy. But their successes were as transitory as Justinian's and a unified Italian state remained a dream until the nineteenth century. In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was an essentially military viceroy who governed a part of the empire at some remove from the central (oriental) authorities, the Emperor and the Patriarch of Constantinople. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... Ottonian dynasty is a name sometimes given to a ruling dynasty of German kings, sometimes regarded as the first dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, (though Charlemagne is commonly viewed as the original founder. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ...


No ultramontane Empire could succeed in unifying Italy - or in achieving more than a temporary hegemony - because its success threatened the survival of medieval Italy's other powers: the Byzantines, the Papacy, and the Normans. These - and the descendants of the Lombards, who became fused with earlier Italian ethnic groups - conspired against, fought, and eventually destroyed any attempt to create a dominant political order in Italy. It was against this vacuum of authority that one must view the rise of the institutions of the Signoria and the Communi. “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ...


Comuni and Signorie

Palazzo Vecchio, originally called the Palazzo della Signoria.
Palazzo Vecchio, originally called the Palazzo della Signoria.

In Italian history the rise of the Signorie (sing.: Signoria) is a phase often associated with the decline of the medieval commune system of government and the rise of the dynastic state. In this context the word Signoria (here to be understood as "Lordly Power") is used in opposition to the institution of the Commune or city republic. Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 486 KB) Summary Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy Own photo - photo made by Georges Jansoone on 12 October 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Palazzo Vecchio Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 486 KB) Summary Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy Own photo - photo made by Georges Jansoone on 12 October 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Palazzo Vecchio Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the...


Indeed, contemporary observers and modern historians see the rise of the Signoria as a reaction to the failure of the Communi to maintain law-and-order and suppress party strife and civil discord. In the anarchic conditions that often prevailed in medieval Italian city states, people looked to strong men to restore order and disarm the feuding elites. In times of anarchy or crisis, cities sometimes offered the Signoria to individuals perceived as strong enough to save the state. For example, the Tuscan state of Pisa offered the Signoria to Charles VIII of France in the hope that he would protect the independence of Pisa from its long term enemy Florence. Similarly, Siena offered the Signoria to Cesare Borgia. Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... Cesare Borgia. ...


Types of Signoria

The composition and specific functions of the Signoria varied from city to city. In some states (such as Verona under the Della Scala family or Florence in the days of Cosimo de Medici and Lorenzo the Magnificent) the polity was what we would term today a single party state in which the dominant party had vested the Signoria of the state in a single family or dynasty. Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. ... The noble family Scaliger (Scaligeri) were lords of Verona. ... Cosimo di Giovanni de Medici (April 10, 1389 - August 1, 1464), was the first of the Medici political dynasty, effective rulers of Florence during most of the Italian Renaissance; also know as Cosimo the Elder and Cosimo Pater Patriae. ... The exact same full name was also carried by his grandson Lorenzo (1492 - 1519), Duke of Urbino, with whom he is sometimes confused. ... For other uses, see Polity (disambiguation). ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ...


In Florence this arrangement was unofficial as it was not constitutionally formalized before the Medici were expelled from the city in 1494. For the board game, see Medici (board game). ...


In other states (such as the Milan of the Visconti) the dynasty's right to the Signoria was a formally recognized part of the Commune's constitution, which had been "ratified" by the People and recognized by the Pope or the Holy Roman Empire. For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Visconti was a noble family that ruled Milan during the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance period. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


Maritime Republics

Main article: Repubbliche Marinare
Ensign of the Italian Navy, sporting the coat of arms of the four main Repubbliche Marinare
Ensign of the Italian Navy, sporting the coat of arms of the four main Repubbliche Marinare[8]

Italy at this time was notable for its merchant Republics, including the Republic of Florence and the Maritime Republics. They were city-states and they were generally republics in that they were formally independent, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire (the main exceptions being Genoa and Pisa). All these cities during the time of their independence had similar (though not identical) systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power. Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracy, the relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement. The Repubbliche Marinare ( ) is the collectie name of a number of important city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia in the Middle Ages. ... Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_Italy. ... A republic in its basic sense, is constitutional government. ... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ...


The four classic Maritime Republics in Italy are Venice, Genoa, Pisa, Amalfi and they are always given in that order, reflecting the temporal sequence of their dominance. However, other towns in Italy also have a history of being Maritime Republics, though historically less prominent. These include Gaeta, Ancona, Molfetta, Trani and, in Dalmatia (under Italian cultural influence), Ragusa and Zara. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... Ruins of the ducal palace at Gaeta. ... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... Molfetta is a city and comune of the province of Bari in the southern Italian region of Puglia, on the Adriatic coast, at sea-level. ... Trani is a seaport of Apulia, southern Italy, on the Adriatic Sea, in the province of Bari, and 40 km by railway west northwest of that town. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Borders of the Republic of Ragusa, 1426-1808 Capital Ragusa Language(s) Latin, Italian since 1492 Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Duke  - 1808 Auguste Marmont Historical era Renaissance  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Invasion by France January 31, 1808  - Annexed October 14, 1808 Area  - 1808? 1,500 km2 579... For other uses, see Zadar (disambiguation). ...


Venice and Genoa were Europe's gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of silk, wool, banks and jewelry. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned. The Maritime Republics were heavily involved in the Crusades, providing support but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars. The Fourth Crusade, notionally intended to "liberate" Jerusalem, actually entailed the Venetian conquest of Zara and Constantinople. Venetian glass is a type of glass object made in Venice, Italy, world-renowned for being colorful, elaborate, and skilfully made. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Each of the Maritime Republics over time had dominion over different overseas lands, including many of the islands of the Mediterranean and especially Sardinia and Corsica, lands on the Adriatic, and lands in the Near East and North Africa. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Renaissance

Leonardo Da Vinci, Italian Renaissance man.
Leonardo Da Vinci, Italian Renaissance man.

The unique political structures of late Middle Ages Italy have led some to theorize that its unusual social climate allowed the emergence of a rare cultural efflorescence. Italy was divided into smaller city states and territories: the kingdom of Naples controlled the south, the Republic of Florence and the Papal States the center, the Genoese and the Milanese the north and west, and the Venetians the east. Fifteenth-century Italy was one of the most urbanised areas in Europe. Most historians agree that the ideas that characterized the Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence, in particular with the writings of Dante Alighieri (12651321) and Francesco Petrarch (13041374), as well as the painting of Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 382 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (420 × 659 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Leonardo da Vinci was a genius from the Renaissance period. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 382 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (420 × 659 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Leonardo da Vinci was a genius from the Renaissance period. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... From the c. ... Events 20 July - Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Events June 24 - Dancing mania begins in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), possibly due to ergotism King Gongmin is assassinated and King U ascends to the Goryeo throne Births April 11 - Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, heir to the throne of England (died 1398) Leonardo Bruni, Italian humanist (died 1444... Giotto di Bondone (c. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall. ...


The Renaissance was so called because it was a "rebirth" of certain classical ideas that had long been lost to Europe. It has been argued that the fuel for this rebirth was the rediscovery of ancient texts that had been forgotten by Western civilization, but were preserved in some monastic libraries and in the Islamic world, and the translations of Greek and Arabic texts into Latin. Monastery of St. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Renaissance scholars such as Niccolò de' Niccoli and Poggio Bracciolini scoured the libraries in search of works by such classical authors as Plato, Cicero and Vitruvius. The works of ancient Greek and Hellenistic writers (such as Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, and Ptolemy) and Muslim scientists were imported into the Christian world, providing new intellectual material for European scholars. Niccolò de Niccoli (1364 - 1437) was an Italian Renaissance humanist. ... This article or section should be merged with Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini Gianfrancesco (or Giovanni Francesco) Poggio Bracciolini (February 11, 1380 - October 10, 1459) was one of the most important Italian Renaissance humanists. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born ca. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... For other uses, see Euclid (disambiguation). ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ...


The Black Death in 1348 inflicted a terrible blow to Italy, killing one third of the population[9]. This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ...


The recovery from the disaster led to a resurgence of cities, trade and economy which greatly stimulated the successive phase of the Humanism and Renaissance (15th-16th centuries) when Italy again returned to be the centre of Western civilization, strongly influencing the other European countries with Courts like Este in Ferrara and De Medici in Florence. See also the specific life stance known as Humanism For the Renaissance liberal arts movement, see Renaissance humanism Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


Foreign Domination (16th century - 19th century)

A map depicting Western Europe's borders after the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt.
A map depicting Western Europe's borders after the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt.

After a century where the fragmented system of Italian states and principalities were able to maintain a relative independence and a balance of power in the peninsula, in 1494 the French king Charles VIII opened the first of a series of invasions, lasting half of the sixteenth century, and a competition between France and Spain for the possession of the country. Ultimately Spain prevailed (the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559 recognised the Spanish possession of the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples) and for almost two centuries became the hegemon in Italy. The holy alliance between Habsburg Spain and the Holy See resulted in the systematic persecution of any Protestant movement, with the result that Italy remained a Catholic country with marginal Protestant presence. During its long rule on Italy, Spain systematically spoiled the country and imposed an heavy taxation. Moreover, Spanish administration was slow and inefficient. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 752 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1576 × 1257 pixel, file size: 388 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beschreibung: Landkarte Europa 1713 nach dem Frieden von Utrecht Quelle: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 752 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1576 × 1257 pixel, file size: 388 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beschreibung: Landkarte Europa 1713 nach dem Frieden von Utrecht Quelle: http://www. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... The Treaty of Rastatt, in March 7, 1714, was essentially part of the Treaty of Utrecht. ... Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis is an agreement reached between Elizabeth I of England and Henry II of France on April 2 and between Henry II and Philip II of Spain on April 3, 1559, at Cateau-Cambrésis, around fifty kilometres south-east of Cambrai, that ended the... The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1395 to 1797. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... Hegemony is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; or more broadly, that cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ...


Austria succeeded Spain as Hegemon in Italy after the Peace of Utrecht (1713), having acquired the State of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples. The Austrian domination, thanks to the Enlightenment embraced by Habsburgic emperors, was a considerable improvement. The northern part of Italy, under the direct control of Vienna, gained economic dynamism and intellectual fervour. The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... “Wien” redirects here. ...


The French Revolution and the Napoleonic War (1796-1815) introduced the ideas of equality, democracy, law and nation. The peninsula was not a main battle field as in the past but Napoleon (born in Corsica in 1769, one year after the cession of the island from Genoa to France) changed completely its political map, destroying in 1799 the Republic of Venice, which never recovered its independence. The states founded by Napoleon with the support of minority groups of Italian patriots were short-lived and did not survive the defeat of the French Emperor in 1815. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Napoleonic Wars lasted from 1804 until 1815. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ...


Risorgimento (1848-1870)

Giuseppe Garibaldi, the "Hero of the Two Worlds"

The creation of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of concerted efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... Image File history File links Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian soldier. ... Image File history File links Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian soldier. ... Garibaldi in 1866. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ...


The Kingdom of Sardinia industrialized from 1830 onward. A constitution, the Statuto Albertino was enacted in the year of revolutions, 1848, under liberal pressure. Under the same pressure, the First Italian War of Independence was declared on Austria. After initial success the war took a turn for the worse and the Kingdom of Sardinia lost. Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... The so-called Statuto Albertino (Albertine Statute) is the constitution that King Charles Albert of Savoy conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia (including also most parts of north-western Italy, such as Piedmont) on March 4, 1848. ... The First Italian War of Independence was fought in 1848 between the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Empire. ...


After the Revolutions of 1848, the apparent leader of the Italian unification movement was Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi. He was popular amongst southern Italians.[10] Garibaldi led the Italian republican drive for unification in southern Italy, but the northern Italian monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia whose government was led by Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour, also had the ambition of establishing a united Italian state. Though the kingdom had no physical connection to Rome (deemed the natural capital of Italy), the kingdom had successfully challenged Austria in the Second Italian War of Independence, liberating Lombardy-Venetia from Austrian rule. The kingdom also had established important alliances which helped it improve the possibility of Italian unification, such as Britain and France in the Crimean War. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Garibaldi in 1866. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour (or Camillo di Cavour; August 10, 1810 – June 6, 1861) was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Combatants Image:Second-empire. ... The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Italian: ; German: ) (1815 - 1866) was established after the defeat of Napoleon, according to the decisions of the Congress of Vienna (9 June 1815). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought...


In 1866 Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck offered Victor Emmanuel II an alliance with the Kingdom of Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War. In exchange Prussia would allow Italy to annex Austrian-controlled Venice. King Emmanuel agreed to the alliance and the Third Italian War of Independence began. The victory against Austria allowed Italy to annex Venice. The one major obstacle to Italian unity remained Rome. “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The Third Italian War of Independence was a conflict which paralleled the Austro-Prussian War, and was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire. ...


In 1870, Prussia went to war with France starting the Franco-Prussian War. To keep the large Prussian army at bay, France abandoned its positions in Rome in order to fight the Prussians. Italy benefited from Prussia's victory against France by being able to take over the Papal State from French authority. Italian unification was completed, and shortly afterward Italy's capital was moved to Rome. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian...


Liberalism to Fascism (1870-1922)

Main article: History of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars

In Northern Italy, industrialisation and modernisation began in the last part of the nineteenth century. The south, at the same time, was overcrowded, forcing millions of people to search for a better life abroad. It is estimated that around one million Italian people moved to other European countries such as France, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg. Parliamentary democracy developed considerably in the twentieth century. The Sardinian Statuto Albertino of 1848, extended to the whole Kingdom of Italy in 1861, provided for basic freedoms, but the electoral laws excluded the non-propertied and uneducated classes from voting. In 1913 male universal suffrage was allowed. The Socialist Party became the main political party, outclassing the traditional liberal and conservative organisations. Starting from the last two decades of the nineteenth century, Italy developed its own colonial Empire. Italian colonies were Somalia and Eritrea. In addition, in 1911, Giovanni Giolitti's government agreed to sending forces to occupy Libya. Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire which held Libya. The annexation of Libya and of the Dodecanese (a group of island in the Aegean Sea) caused nationalists to advocate Italy's domination of the Mediterranean Sea by occupying Greece as well as the Adriatic coastal region of Dalmatia.[11] This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... Northern Italy encompasses nine of the countrys 20 autonomous regions: Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Liguria Lombardia Piemonte Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Valle dAosta Veneto Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige and Valle dAosta are regions with a special statute. ... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelled Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial one... Modernization is the process of changing the conditions of a society, an organisation or another group of people in ways that change the privileges of that group according to modern technology or modern knowledge. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The so-called Statuto Albertino (Albertine Statute) is the constitution that King Charles Albert of Savoy conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia (including also most parts of north-western Italy, such as Piedmont) on March 4, 1848. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Giovanni Giolitti (October 27, 1842–July 17, 1928) was an Italian statesman. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


The path to a modern liberal democracy was interrupted by the tragedy of the First World War (1914-1918). At first Italy stayed neutral, but in 1915, under pressure from United Kingdom and France, Italy signed the London Pact by which she became an allied belligerent. In return, the two Powers promised that, at the end of the war, Italy would receive Trento, Trieste, Istria, Dalmatia and some territories in Turkey. Italy defeated the Austrian-Hungarian Empire in November 1918. During the war, 600,000 Italians died and the economy collapsed with high inflation and unemployment. In the Peace treaty, Italy obtained just Trento, Trieste and Istria but not other lands scheduled from the Pact of London, so this victory was defined as "mutilated". Subsequently, after the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922, Italy formally annexed the Dodecanese (Possedimenti Italiani dell'Egeo), that she had occupied during the war. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra) was a secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in London on April 26, 1915 by Italy, Great Britain, France and Russia. ... Official languages In Cisleithenia, German and minority tongues. ... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, İsmet İnönü, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus village protectors) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... The Dodecanese (Greek Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, Turkish Onikiada, both meaning twelve islands; Italian Dodecaneso) are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey. ...


Fascism and World War II (1922-1945)

After the devastations of World War I, many Italian workers joined lengthy strikes to demand more rights and better working conditions. Some, inspired by the Russian Revolution, began taking over their factories, mills, farms and workplaces. The liberal establishment, fearing a socialist revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist Party, led by Benito Mussolini, whose violent reaction to the strikes (by means of the "Blackshirts" party militia) was often compared to the relatively moderate reactions of the government. After several years of struggle, in October 1922 the fascists attempted a coup (the "Marcia su Roma", i.e. March on Rome); the fascist forces were largely inferior, but the king ordered the army not to intervene, formed an alliance with Mussolini, and convinced the liberal party to endorse a fascist-led government. Over the next few years, Mussolini (who became known as "Il Duce", Italian for "the leader") eliminated all political parties (including the liberals) and curtailed personal liberties under the pretext of preventing revolution. Image File history File links Benito_Mussolini_1. ... Image File history File links Benito_Mussolini_1. ... “Mussolini” redirects here. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... “Mussolini” redirects here. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere or squadristi) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. The term was later applied to a similar group serving the British Union of Fascists before the War. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ...


In 1935, Mussolini declared war on Ethiopia on a territorial pretext. Ethiopia was subjugated in a few months. This resulted in the alienation of Italy from its traditional allies, France and the United Kingdom, and its support for Nazi Germany. A first pact with Germany was concluded in 1936, and in 1938 (the Pact of Steel). Italy supported Franco's revolution in the Spanish civil war and Hitler's pretensions in central Europe, accepting the annexation of Austria to Germany in 1938, although the disappearance of a buffer state between Germany and Italy was unfavourable for the country. 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ciano, the Italian Foreign Minister. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


In October 1938 Mussolini brought together the United Kingdom, France and Germany at the expense of Czechoslovakia's integrity. For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ...

The Italian empire in 1940.
The Italian empire in 1940.

On April 7,1939, Italy occupied Albania, a de-facto protectorate for decades, but in September 1939, after the invasion of Poland, Mussolini decided not to intervene on Germany's side, due to the poor preparation of the armed forces. Italy entered the war in 1940 when France was beaten. Mussolini hoped that Italy would be able to win in a very short time. Image File history File links Italian_empire_1940. ... Image File history File links Italian_empire_1940. ... The Italian empire in 1940 The Italian Empire was a 20th century empire, which lasted from 9 May 1936 to September 1943. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Italy invaded Greece in October 1940 via Albania but was forced to withdraw after a few months. After Italy conquered British Somalia in 1940, a counter-attack by the Allies led to the loss of the whole Italian empire in the Horn of Africa. Italy was also defeated by Allied forces in North Africa and was saved only by the German armed forces led by Erwin Rommel. Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ensign of British Somaliland The British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Italian empire in 1940 The Italian Empire was a 20th century empire, which lasted from 9 May 1936 to September 1943. ... The Horn of Africa. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most famous German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname “The Desert Fox” (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he...


After several defeats, Italy was invaded in June 1943. King Vittorio Emanuele and a group of fascists set themselves against Mussolini. In July 1943, Mussolini was arrested. As the old pre-Fascist political parties resurfaced, secret peace negotiations with the Allies were started. In September 1943, Italy surrendered. Immediately Germany invaded the country and Italy was divided for almost two years and became a battlefield. The Nazi-occupied part of the country, where a fascist state under Mussolini was reconstituted, saw a savage civil war between Italian partisans ("partigiani") and Nazi and fascist troops. The country was liberated on April 25, 1945. The liberation is still celebrated on April 25. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. It became massive after the capitulation of the Italian Royal Army on September 8, 1943. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The First Republic (1946-1992)

In 1946 the Vittorio Emanuele III's son,Umberto II arose. Italy became a Republic after the result of a popular referendum held on June 2, 1946, a day celebrated since as Republic Day. This was the first election in Italy allowing women to vote.[12] The republic won with a 9% margin. The Republican Constitution was approved and came into force on January 1, 1948. After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolinis fascist regime, Italys history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats) party for forty years, while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI); this condition endured until the Tangentopoli scandal and operation Mani pulite... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Victor Emmanuel III Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III) (November 11, 1869 - December 28, 1947), nicknamed The Soldier, was the King of Italy (July 29, 1900 - May 9, 1946), and claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II, (September 15, 1904 - March 18, 1983), the last King of Italy, nicknamed the King of May (Italian Re di Maggio), was born the Prince of Piedmont. ... The birth of the Italian Republic (officially on June 2, 1946) is a key event of Italian contemporary history. ... The Constitution of Italy provides for legally binding referenda. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Republic Day is the name of a public holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they first became republics. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Under the Paris Peace Treaties of 1947, the eastern border area was annexed by Yugoslavia. In 1954, the free territory of Trieste was divided between Italy and Yugoslavia. In 1949, Italy became an ally of the United States, which helped to revive the Italian economy through the Marshall Plan. Moreover, Italy became a member of the European Economic Community, which later transformed into the European Union (EU). In 1950s and 1960s the country enjoyed prolonged economic growth. This page is about the partial formal conclusion of World War II. For other Paris peace treaties see article Treaty of Paris. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Italy underwent political ferment in the 1970s, which ended in the 1980s. Known as the Years of Lead, this period was characterized by widespread social conflicts and terrorist acts carried out by extra-parliamentary movements. The assassination of the leader of the Christian Democracy (DC), Aldo Moro, led at the end of a "historic compromise" between the DC and the Communist Party (PCI). In the 1980s, for the first time, two governments were managed by a republican and a socialist (Bettino Craxi) rather than by a member of DC. Italy crossed a period a political turmoil in the 1970s, which progressively ended in the early 1980s. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... Aldo Moro (September 23, 1916 – May 9, 1978) was an Italian politician and five time Prime Minister of Italy, from 1963 to 1968, and then from 1974 to 1976. ... The term Historic Compromise (Italian:compromesso storico) most commonly refers to the accommodation between the Italian Christian Democrats (DC) and the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in the 1970s, after the latter embraced eurocommunism. ... The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ... Benedetto (Bettino) Craxi (Milan, February 24, 1934 – Hammamet, Tunisia, January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician, Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987 and head of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993. ...


At the end of the Lead years, the PCI gradually increased their votes thanks to Enrico Berlinguer. The Socialist party (PSI), led by Bettino Craxi, became more and more critical of the communists and of the Soviet Union; Craxi himself pushed in favour of US president Ronald Reagan's positioning of Pershing missiles in Italy. Enrico Berlinguer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Benedetto (Bettino) Craxi (Milan, February 24, 1934 – Hammamet, Tunisia, January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician, Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987 and head of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993. ... “Reagan” redirects here. ... Pershing was a family of solid-fueled two-stage medium-range ballistic missiles designed and built by Martin Marietta to replace the PGM-11 Redstone missile as the Armys primary theater-level weapon. ...


In 2000, a Parliament Commission report from the Olive Tree left-of-center coalition concluded that the strategy of tension had been supported by the United States to "stop the PCI, and to a certain degree also the PSI, from reaching executive power in the country".[13][14] The report was dismissed by the centrist Republican party, which called it "worthy of a 1970s Maoist group". A source in the US Embassy in Rome characterized the report "allegations that have come up over the last 20 years" and have "absolutely nothing to them", while other commentators deemed it nothing more than "a manoeuvre dictated primarily by domestic political considerations".[5] For the Italian political alliance see Olive Tree, and the color, olive (color). ...


The Second Republic (1992-present)

Bettino Craxi, viewed by many as the symbol of Tangentopoli, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, is greeted by a salvo of coins as a sign of loathing by protesters.
Bettino Craxi, viewed by many as the symbol of Tangentopoli, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, is greeted by a salvo of coins as a sign of loathing by protesters.

From 1992 to 1997, Italy faced significant challenges as voters disenchanted with political paralysis, massive government debt, extensive corruption, and organized crime's considerable influence collectively called the political system Tangentopoli. As Tangentopoli was under a set of judicial investigations by the name of Mani pulite (Italian for "clean hands"), voters demanded political, economic, and ethical reforms. The Tangentopoli scandals involved all major parties, but especially those in the government coalition: between 1992 and 1994 the DC underwent a severe crisis and was dissolved, splitting up into several pieces, among whom the Italian People’s Party and the Christian Democratic Center. The PSI (and the other governing minor parties) completely dissolved. Image File history File links Craxi_coins. ... Image File history File links Craxi_coins. ... Benedetto (Bettino) Craxi (Milan, February 24, 1934 – Hammamet, Tunisia, January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician, Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987 and head of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993. ... Bettino Craxi, viewed by many as the symbol of Tangentopoli, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, is greeted by a salvo of coins as a sign of loathing by protesters contesting him. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bettino Craxi, viewed by many as the symbol of Tangentopoli, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, is greeted by a salvo of coins as a sign of loathing by protesters contesting him. ... Mani pulite (Italian for clean hands) was a nationwide Italian police investigation into political corruption held in the 1990s, following the scandal of Banco Ambrosiano in 1982, which implicated mafia, Vatican Bank and P2. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... This party is a member of the House of Freedom Alliance currently in power in Italy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The 1994 elections also swept media magnate Silvio Berlusconi (leader of "Pole of Freedoms" coalition) into office as Prime Minister. Berlusconi, however, was forced to step down in December 1994 when the Lega Nord withdrew support. The Berlusconi government was succeeded by a technical government headed by Prime Minister Lamberto Dini, which left office in early 1996.   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... The Pole of Freedoms (Polo delle Libertà) was an centre-right electoral coalition in Italy, launched by Silvio Berlusconi in 1994. ... A technical government is a non-party government made up of unelected technocrats such as civil servants, magistrates or experts from outside the political circle such as bankers instead of members of the countrys legislature. ... Lamberto Dini (right) with William Cohen Lamberto Dini (born in Florence, March 1, 1931), is a former Italian Prime Minister (1995-1996) and Foreign Minister (1996-2001). ...


In April 1996, national elections led to the victory of a center-left coalition under the leadership of Romano Prodi. Prodi's first government became the third-longest to stay in power before he narrowly lost a vote of confidence, by three votes, in October 1998. A new government was formed by Democrats of the Left leader and former communist Massimo D'Alema, but in April 2000, following poor performance by his coalition in regional elections, D'Alema resigned. The succeeding center-left government, including most of the same parties, was headed by Giuliano Amato (social-democratic), who previously served as Prime Minister in 1992-93, from April 2000 until June 2001. In 2001 the centre-right formed the government and Silvio Berlusconi was able to remain in power for a complete five year mandate, became the longest government in post-war Italy. Berlusconi participated in the US-led military coalition in Iraq.   (born 9 August 1939) is an Italian politician. ... The Democrats of the Left (Democratici di Sinistra, DS) is the main Italian left-wing political party, part of the Olive Tree electoral coalition. ... Massimo DAlema (born on April 20, 1949 in Rome, Italy) is an Italian journalist and politician, a former prime minister and a former national secretary of the PDS, Partito Democratico della Sinistra. ... Giuliano Amato (born May 13, 1938) is an Italian politician. ... A national general election was held in Italy on May 13, 2001 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... The Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I), also known as the Coalition, are the nations whose governments have military personnel in Iraq as part of the American-led war effort. ...


The last elections in 2006 returned Prodi in the government with a slim majority (only 0,06%). In the first year of his government, Mr. Prodi has followed a cautious policy of economic liberalization and reduction of public debt. A general election for the renewal of the two Chambers of the Parliament of Italy was held on April 9 and April 10, 2006. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Italy

It has been suggested that Extreme points of Italy be merged into this article or section. ... [Image:Example. ... [Image:Example. ...

Topography

Italy is a long peninsula shaped like a boot, surrounded on the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea and on the east by the Adriatic Sea. It is bounded by France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia to the north. The Apennine Mountains form the peninsula's backbone; the Alps form its northern boundary. The largest of its northern lakes is Garda (143 sq mi; 370 km²); the Po, its principal river, flows from the Alps on Italy's western border and crosses the Padan plain to the Adriatic Sea. Several islands form part of Italy; the largest are Sicily (9,926 sq mi; 25,708 km²) and Sardinia (9,301 sq mi; 24,090 km²). Tyrrhenian Sea. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... The Alps is the collective name for one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east, through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west. ... Lake Garda (Italian Lago di Garda or Benaco) is the largest lake in Italy. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... The Padan Plain (Pianura Padana in Italian) is a major geographical feature of Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ...


Volcanoes

Main article: Volcanism in Italy

There are several active volcanoes in Italy: Etna the largest active volcano in Europe, Vulcano, Stromboli and Vesuvius the only active volcano on mainland Europe. Italy is a volcanically active country, containing the only active volcano in mainland Europe. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... For other meanings of Etna, see Etna (disambiguation). ... Vulcano and the Aeolian Islands. ... Sciara del fuoco For other uses see Stromboli (disambiguation) Stromboli is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy. ... Mount Vesuvius (Italian: Monte Vesuvio) is a volcano east of Naples, Italy, located at 40°49′N 14°26′ E. It is the only active volcano on the European mainland, although it is not currently erupting. ...


Climate

Main article: Climate of Italy

The climate in Italy is highly diverse and can be far from the stereotypical Mediterranean climate depending on the location. Most of the inland northern areas of Italy (for example Turin, Milan, and Bologna) have a continental climate often classified as Humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). The coastal areas of Liguria and most of the peninsula south of Florence generally fit the Mediterranean stereotype (Köppen climate classification Csa). The coastal areas of the peninsula can be very different from the interior higher altitudes and valleys, particularly during the winter months when the higher altitudes tend to be cold, wet, and often snowy. The coastal regions enjoy mild winters and warm and generally dry summers, although lowland valleys can be quite hot in summer. The climate in Italy is highly diverse and can be far from the stereotypical Mediterranean climate and land of sun, depending on the location. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... “Torino” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ...


Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Italy

The 1948 Constitution of Italy established a bicameral parliament (Parlamento), consisting of a Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati) and a Senate (Senato della Repubblica), a separate judiciary, and an executive branch composed of a Council of Ministers (cabinet) (Consiglio dei ministri), headed by the prime minister (Presidente del consiglio dei ministri). The Politics of Italy takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Italy is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Giorgio Napolitano (born June 29, 1925), is an Italian politician and former lifetime senator, the eleventh and current President of the Italian Republic. ... The President of the Italian Republic is the head of State of Italy, and represents national unity. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The Parliament of Italy (Italian: Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. ... Back side of Palazzo Montecitorio designed by architect Ernesto Basile. ... Palazzo Madama house of the Senate of the Republic. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ...


The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica) is elected for seven years by the parliament sitting jointly with a small number of regional delegates. The president nominates the prime minister, who proposes the other ministers (formally named by the president). The Council of Ministers must retain the support (fiducia) of both houses. The President of the Italian Republic is the head of State of Italy, and represents national unity. ...


The houses of parliament are popularly and directly elected through a complex electoral system (latest amendment in 2005) which combines proportional representation with a majority prize for the largest coalition (Chamber). All Italian citizens older than 18 can vote. However, to vote for the senate, the voter must be at least 25 or older. The electoral system in the Senate is based upon regional representation. During the elections in 2006, the two competing coalitions were separated by few thousand votes, and in the Chamber the centre-left coalition (L'Unione; English: The Union ) got 345 Deputies against 277 for the centre-right one (Casa delle Libertà; English: House of Freedoms), while in the Senate l'Ulivo got only two Senators more than absolute majority. The Chamber of Deputies has 630 members and the Senate 315 elected senators; in addition, the Senate includes former presidents and appointed senators for life (no more than five) by the President of the Republic according to special constitutional provisions. As of May 15, 2006, there are seven life senators (of which three are former Presidents). Both houses are elected for a maximum of five years, but both may be dissolved by the President before the expiration of their normal term if the Parliament is unable to elect a stable government. In the post war history, this has happened in 1972, 1976, 1979, 1983, 1994 and 1996. A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... Cover of an Italian Biometric passport issued in 2006 Inside cover of an Italian Biometric passport issued in 2006 Italian nationality law, like that of many European countries, favors jus sanguinis. ... The Italian Senate (Italian: Senato della Repubblica, Senate of the Republic) is the upper house of the Parliament of Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Union (Italian: LUnione) is an Italian centre-left political party coalition. ... Casa delle Libertà (CDL; literally translated from Italian to English as House of the Liberties but most often translated as House of Freedoms), is a major Italian center-right political alliance led by national media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi. ... Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati, one house of the bicameral parliamentary system, seats 630 members of which 475 are directly elected and 155 by regional proportional representation. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A senator for life is a member of the Italian Senate appointed by the President of the Italian Republic for outstanding merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field. Former Presidents of the Republic are ex officio life senators. ...


A peculiarity of the Italian Parliament is the representation given to Italian citizens permanently living abroad (about 2.7 million people). Among the 630 Deputies and the 315 Senators there are respectively 12 and 6 elected in four distinct foreign constituencies. Those members of Parliament were elected for the first time in April 2006 and they enjoy the same rights as members elected in Italy. Legislative bills may originate in either house and must be passed by a majority in both. The Italian judicial system is based on Roman law modified by the Napoleonic code and later statutes. The Constitutional Court of Italy (Corte Costituzionale) rules on the conformity of laws with the Constitution and is a post-World War II innovation. The Parliament of Italy (Italian: Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. ... Cover of an Italian Biometric passport issued in 2006 Inside cover of an Italian Biometric passport issued in 2006 Italian nationality law, like that of many European countries, favors jus sanguinis. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... The Constitutional Court of Italy (Italian: Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana) is the supreme court of Italy. ...

See also: List of Prime Ministers of Italy

The prime minister of Italy is officially the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: ). // List of Presidents of the Italian Republic Politics of Italy History of Italy Italian Minister of the Interior Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs Italian Minister of Defense Italian Minister of Justice Italian Minister of Public...

Foreign relations

Massimo D'Alema, Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, and U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.
Massimo D'Alema, Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, and U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.

Italy was a founding member of the European Community--now the European Union (EU). Italy was admitted to the United Nations in 1955 and is a member and strong supporter of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the Council of Europe. Its recent turns as rotating Presidency of international organisations include the CSCE (the forerunner of the OSCE) in 1994 G-8, the EU in 2001 and from July to December 2003. This article describes the foreign relations of Italy. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Massimo DAlema (born on April 20, 1949 in Rome, Italy) is an Italian journalist and politician, a former prime minister and a former national secretary of the PDS, Partito Democratico della Sinistra. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2002. ...


Italy supports the United Nations and its international security activities. Italy deployed troops in support of UN peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Mozambique, and East Timor and provides support for NATO and UN operations in Bosnia, Kosovo and Albania. Italy deployed over 2,000 Alpini troops to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in February 2003. Italy still supports international efforts to reconstruct and stabilize Iraq, but it has withdrawn its military contingent of some 3,200 troops, maintaining only humanitarian workers and other civilian personnel. The troops have remained in Iraq under UN mandate and at the request of the sovereign Iraqi Government until December 2006. This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The Alpini are a highly decorated elite infantry corps of the Italian Army. ...


In August 2006 Italy sent about 3,000 soldiers to Lebanon for the ONU peacekeeping mission UNIFIL.[15] Furthermore, since 2 February 2007 an Italian, Claudio Graziano is the commander of the UN force in the country. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... UNIFIL (United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon) was created in 1978 by the United Nations to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore the international peace and security, and help the Lebanese Government restore its effective authority in the area. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

See also: Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs

This is a list of Italian Ministers of Foreign Affairs since 1943. ...

Military

Main article: Military of Italy

Article 11 of the Italian Constitution says: "Italy rejects war as an instrument of aggression against the freedoms of others peoples and as a means for settling international controversies; it agrees, on conditions of equality with other states, to the limitations of sovereignty necessary for an order that ensures peace and justice among Nations; it promotes and encourages international organizations having such ends in view". Military branches Esercito Italiano (Army) Marina Militare (Navy) Aeronautica Militare (Air Force) Carabinieri (Military police) The Guardia di Finanza is a specialized police and fight against financial crimes, illegal drugs trafficking, customs and borders control. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Iveco is a European truck, bus, and diesel engine manufacturer, based in Turin, Italy. ... Oto Melara is a Italian defence company with factories in Brescia and La Spezia. ... This article is about the tank. ... Ariete Tanks of the Italian Ariete Tank Brigade on exercise Three Bersaglieri ride in a Dardo The Italian Army has recently become a professional all-volunteer force of some 112,000 active duty personnel, around 70% male, 30% female. ... The Constitution of Italy (Italian: Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) is the supreme law of Italy. ...


The Italian armed forces are divided into four branches: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The Italian armed forces are under the command of the Italian Supreme Defense Council, presided over by the President of the Italian Republic. The total number of military personnel is approximately 308,000. Italy has the eighth highest military expenditure in the world.[citation needed] Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Capo Teulada Soldiers of the 33rd Field Artillery Regiment Acqui on parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ... Coat of arms of the Italian Air Force The Aeronautica Militare Italiana (AMI) is the air force of Italy. ... Marina Militare naval jack Marina Militare (the Italian Navy) is one of the four branches of the military forces of Italy. ... The Carabinieri are the gendarmerie and military police of Italy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The President of the Italian Republic is the head of State of Italy, and represents national unity. ... Source: SIPRI Military Expenditure Project Website Military expenditure is an indicator of the economic resources devoted to military purposes. ...


The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. It has recently (July 29th, 2004) become a professional all-volunteer force of 115,687 active duty personnel. Its most famous combat vehicles are Dardo, Centauro and Ariete, and Mangusta attack helicopters, recently deployed in UN missions; but the Esercito Italiano also has at its disposal a large number of Leopard 1 and M113 armored cars. In the United States military active duty refers to military members who are currently serving full time in their military capacity. ... Three Bersaglieri ride their Dardo The Dardo is the new Infantry Fighting Vehicle of the Italian Army. ... The Centauro is a wheeled tank-destroyer developed by a consortium of manufacturers, the Consorzio Iveco Fiat - Oto Melara. ... This article is about the tank. ... The Agusta A129 Mangusta (Mongoose) is an attack helicopter manufactured by Agusta (part of AgustaWestland) of Italy. ... The Leopard is the primary post-WWII German tank design, a design that has been in use as the primary main battle tank for most European countries in various versions since the early 1960s. ... The M113 is an armored personnel carrier family of vehicles in use with the US military and many other nations. ...

Agusta A129 Mangusta
Agusta A129 Mangusta

The Aeronautica Militare Italiana (AMI) is the air force of Italy. It was founded as an independent service arm on the 28th March, 1923, by King Vittorio Emanuele III as the Regia Aeronautica (which equates to "Royal Air Force")[citation needed]. After World War II, when Italy was made a republic by referendum, the Regia Aeronautica was given its current name. Today the Aeronautica Militare has a strength of 45,879 and operates 585 aircraft, including 219 combat jets and 114 helicopters. As a stopgap and as replacement for leased Tornado ADV interceptors, the AMI has leased 30 F-16A Block 15 ADF and four F-16B Block 10 Fighting Falcons, with an option for some more. The coming years also will see the introduction of 121 EF2000 Eurofighter Typhoons, replacing the leased F-16 Fighting Falcons. Furthermore updates are foreseen on the Tornado IDS/IDT and the AMX-fleet. The transport capacity is guaranteed by a fleet of 22 C-130Js, also a completely-new developed G222, called C-27J Spartan (12 aircrafts ordered), will enter service replacing the G222's.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1365, 280 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Agusta A129 Mangusta Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1365, 280 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Agusta A129 Mangusta Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... An air force, in some countries called an air army, is a military or armed service that primarily conducts aerial warfare. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936–43) and King of Albania (1939–43). ... Insignia applied with a decal on the tail of the Règia Aeronautica aircraft (reconstruction). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine fighters, which was jointly developed by the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ... This article is about a fighter aircraft. ...


The Marina Militare (the Italian Navy) is one of the four branches of the military forces of Italy. It was created in 1946, as the Navy of the Italian Republic, from the Regia Marina. Today's Marina Militare is a modern navy with a strength of 35,261 and ships of every type, such as aircraft carriers, destroyers, modern frigates, submarines, amphibious ships and other smaller ships such as oceanographic research ships.[citation needed] Military branches Esercito Italiano (Army) Marina Militare (Navy) Aeronautica Militare (Air Force) Carabinieri (Military police) The Guardia di Finanza is a specialized police and fight against financial crimes, illegal drugs trafficking, customs and borders control. ... The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ...


The Marina Militare is now equipping herself with a bigger aircraft carrier (the Cavour), new destroyers, submarines and multipurpose frigates. In modern times, the Marina Militare, being a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), has taken part in many coalition peacekeeping operations. The Marina Militare is considered the fourth strongest navy of the world. Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... Cavour (550) is an Italian aircraft carrier (CVS). ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... Marina Militare naval jack Marina Militare (the Italian Navy) is one of the four branches of the military forces of Italy. ...


The Carabinieri are the gendarmerie and military police of Italy. At the Sea Islands Conference of the G8 in 2004, the Carabinieri was given the mandate to establish a Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (CoESPU) to spearhead the development of training and doctrinal standards for civilian police units attached to international peacekeeping missions.[16] A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ... The Singapore Armed Forces Military Police Command providing security coverage at the Padang in Singapore during the National Day Parade in 2000. ... Sea Island is an isolated resort island located in Glynn County just off the Atlantic coast of southern Georgia in the United States. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ...


Regions, provinces, and municipalities

Italy is subdivided into 20 regions (regioni, singular regione). Five of these regions enjoy a special autonomous status that enables them to enact legislation on some of their specific local matters, and are marked by an *. It is further divided into 109 provinces (province) and 8,101 municipalities (comuni). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (620x723, 34 KB) Summary Data can be used freely (no guarantees for their accuracy are given, as this usually depends on the source of the data), reference to the site, though, is welcome. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (620x723, 34 KB) Summary Data can be used freely (no guarantees for their accuracy are given, as this usually depends on the source of the data), reference to the site, though, is welcome. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... Municipalities of Italy In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ... Article 116 of the Italian Constitution contemplates that five of the 20 Italian regions shall benefit of particular conditions of autonomy. ...

Region Capital Area Population
1 Abruzzo L'Aquila 10,794 km² 1,305,000
2 Basilicata Potenza 9,992 km² 594,000
3 Calabria Catanzaro 15,080 km² 2,004,000
4 Campania Naples 13,595 km² 5,790,000
5 Emilia-Romagna Bologna 22,124 km² 4,187,000
6 Friuli-Venezia Giulia* Trieste 7,855 km² 1,208,000
7 Lazio Rome 17,207 km² 5,304,000
8 Liguria Genoa 5,421 km² 1,610,000
9 Lombardy Milan 23,861 km² 9,375,000
10 Marche Ancona 9,694 km² 1,528,000
11 Molise Campobasso 4,438 km² 320,000
12 Piedmont Turin 25,399 km² 4,341,000
13 Apulia Bari 19,362 km² 4,071,000
14 Sardinia* Cagliari 24,090 km² 1,655,000
15 Aosta Valley* Aosta 3,263 km² 123,000
16 Tuscany Florence 22,997 km² 3,619,000
17 Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol* Trento 13,607 km² 985,000
18 Umbria Perugia 8,456 km² 867,000
19 Sicily* Palermo 25,708 km² 5,017,000
20 Veneto Venice 18,391 km² 4,738,000

The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Abruzzo is a region of Italy bordering Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east and the Adriatic Sea to the east. ... City centre. ... Basilicata is a region in the south of Italy, bordering on Campania to the west, Puglia (Apulia) to the east, Calabria to the south, it has one short coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea and another of the Gulf of Taranto in the Ionian Sea to the south-east. ... Potenza (IPA: /poteηtsa/) is a town and comune in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata (former Lucania). ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Cathedral. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian, Croatian and Serbian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... // The Marche (plural, originally le marche de Ancona = the Marches of Ancona) are a region of Central Italy, bordering Emilia-Romagna north, Tuscany to the north-west, Umbria to west, Abruzzo and Latium to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. ... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... Molise is a region of central Italy, the second smallest of the regions. ... Campobasso is the capital city of the Molise region in Italy. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... “Torino” redirects here. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Cagliari City Hall Cagliari (Greek: ; Latin: Carales and Caralis[1]; Catalan: Càller; Sardinian: Casteddu) is the capital of the island of Sardinia, a region of Italy. ... The Aosta Valley (Italian: Valle dAosta, French: Vallée dAoste, Arpitan: Val dOuta) is a mountainous Region in north-western Italy. ... Aosta Cathedral. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol[1] (Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige; German: Trentino-Südtirol; Ladin: Trentin-Adesc Aut, also Trentin-Sudtirol [2][3]) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy. ... Trento (Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Trent or Trènt) is an Italian city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: , Country Region Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617 ft) Population (July 2006)[1]  - City 161,390  - Density 359/km² (929. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...

Demographics

Main article: Demography of Italy

Demography of Italy. ...

Population

The latest population estimate from ISTAT (Italian Statistics Office) shows 59,131,287 inhabitants in Italy in December 2006[6], an increase of 3 percent since 2001. Italy has the fourth largest population in the European Union (after Germany, France and the United Kingdom), and the 22nd in the world. Gradual increase of population is mainly supplemented by immigrants and an increase in life expectancy of 79.81 years[7]. Despite population growth, Italy is rapidly ageing. With a fertility of 1.35 children per woman[8], almost one in five Italian inhabitants is a pensioner; if this ageing trend continues, the Italian population could shrink by a quarter by 2050.[9] Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT) is the Italian national statistical institute, roughly corresponding to the United States Census Bureau. ...


Italy has the fifth highest population density in Europe with 196 persons per square kilometre. The highest density is in Northwestern Italy, as two regions out of twenty (Lombardy and Piedmont) combined, contain one quarter of the Italian population, where an estimated 7.4 million people live in the metropolitan Milan area[10]. The literacy rate in Italy is 98% overall, and school is mandatory for children aged 6 to 18[17]. Approximately two thirds of the population live in urban areas[11], which is much lower than other Western European nations. For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The city of San Luis Obispo, an example of an urban area. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Central Europe and Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ...


Largest cities

Italian cities with a population of 300,000 or more (ISTAT data, December 2006): Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Piazza Venezia with Trajans Column, seen from Vittorio Emmanuele II monument, Rome (Italy) Source: photo by Markus Bernet, 07/13/2004 License: File history... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Piazza Venezia with Trajans Column, seen from Vittorio Emmanuele II monument, Rome (Italy) Source: photo by Markus Bernet, 07/13/2004 License: File history... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... ISTAT may refer to: the International Society of Transport Aircraft Trading, an aircraft standards organization. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Pos. Common Region Prov. Inhabitants
1 Rome Lazio RM 2,705,603
2 Milan Lombardy MI 1,303,437
3 Naples Campania NA 1,005,139
4 Turin Piedmont TO 975,139
5 Palermo Sicily PA 666,552
6 Genoa Liguria GE 615,686
7 Bologna Emilia-Romagna BO 373,026
8 Florence Tuscany FI 365,966
9 Bari Apulia BA 325,052
10 Catania Sicily CT 301,564

Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... “Torino” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Italian region. ... The Roman Odeon. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 702 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1314 × 1123 pixel, file size: 1,009 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Milan Cathedral ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 702 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1314 × 1123 pixel, file size: 1,009 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Milan Cathedral ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ...

Metropolitan areas

According to the OECD[12], these are the major Italian metropolitan areas: The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...

Metropolitan area Inhabitants
Milan 7.4 million
Rome 3.8 million
Naples 3.1 million
Turin 2.4 million

For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... “Torino” redirects here. ...

Migration and ethnicity

During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Italy was a major source of immigrants to the Americas, Australia and other countries in Western Europe. However, Italy is now a destination for immigrants from all over the world with Eastern Europe, North Africa, and Asia being the chief contributor areas. At the beginning of 2006, foreigners comprised 4.56% of the population or 2,670,514[13] people, an increase of 268,357 or 10 percent from the previous year. In northern Italian cities, like Padua, Milan, and Brescia, immigrants make up a significant portion of the population. The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The Capitoline Temple. ...

The most recent wave of migration has been from Eastern Europe, replacing North Africans as a major source of migrants. As of 2006, some 1,025,874 Eastern Europeans lived in Italy, 40% of the total population of migrants in Italy. According to ISTAT, the five largest foreign nationalities in Italy are: Albanian (348,813), Moroccan (319,537), Romanian (297,570), Chinese (127,822), and Ukrainian (107,188).[18] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “Torino” redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... ISTAT may refer to: the International Society of Transport Aircraft Trading, an aircraft standards organization. ...

Ethnic group Population  % of total*
Ethnic Italian &&&&&&&056081000.&&&&&056,081,000 95.45%
Arab &&&&&&&&&0485000.&&&&&0485,000 0.82%
Albanian &&&&&&&&&0348000.&&&&&0348,000 0.6%
Asian (non-Chinese) &&&&&&&&&0326000.&&&&&0326,000 0.55%
Romanian (see note 1 below) &&&&&&&&&0297000.&&&&&0297,000 0.51%
Rom &&&&&&&&&0273000.&&&&&0273,000 0.46%
South American &&&&&&&&&0239000.&&&&&0239,000 0.41%
Black African &&&&&&&&&0210000.&&&&&0210,000 0.36%
Chinese &&&&&&&&&0128000.&&&&&0128,000 0.22%
Ukrainian &&&&&&&&&0107000.&&&&&0107,000 0.18%
Other &&&&&&&&&0257000.&&&&&0257,000 0.43%
* Percentage of total Italian population

[18] Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: , arabi) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the color black; for other uses, see Black (disambiguation). ...

Religion

Main article: Religion in Italy
Monreale Cathedral in Sicily.
Monreale Cathedral in Sicily.

Roman Catholicism is by far the largest religion in the country. Although the Catholic Church is no longer officially the state religion, it still plays a role in the nation's political affairs, partly due to the Holy See's location in Rome. 87.8% of Italians identified as Roman Catholic [14], although only about one-third of these described themselves as active members (36.8%). hbgi3rbtgirebt khoihwefjioeghijh tyhidss is dsoso gay italy sox shittwrtoeiuhdgouerghiroeghergjnbjhhhhhhhhjhbgi3rbtgirebt khoihwefjioeghijh tyhidss is dsoso gay italy sox shittwrtoeiuhdgouerghiroeghergjnbjhhhhhhhhjhbgi3rbtgirebt khoihwefjioeghijh tyhidss is dsoso gay italy sox shittwrtoeiuhdgouerghiroeghergjnbjhhhhhhhhjhbgi3rbtgirebt khoihwefjioeghijh tyhidss is dsoso gay italy sox shittwrtoeiuhdgouerghiroeghergjnbjhhhhhhhhjhbgi3rbtgirebt khoihwefjioeghijh tyhidss is dsoso gay italy sox shittwrtoeiuhdgouerghiroeghergjnbjhhhhhhhhjhbgi3rbtgirebt khoihwefjioeghijh tyhidss is dsoso gay italy sox shittwrtoeiuhdgouerghiroeghergjnbjhhhhhhhhjhbgi3rbtgirebt khoihwefjioeghijh... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1028 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 1028 pixel, file size: 1. ... Monreale (contraction of monte-reale, so-called from a palace built here by Roger I of Sicily) is a small city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy, on the slope of Monte Caputo, overlooking the beautiful and very fertile valley called La Conca doro (the Golden Shell... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Other Christian groups in Italy include more than 700,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians [15], including 470,000 newcomers [16]PDF (65.4 KiB) and some 180,000 Greek Orthodox, 550,000 Pentecostals and Evangelicals (0.8%), of whom 400,000 are members of the Assemblies of God, 235,685 Jehovah's Witnesses (0.04%) [17], 30,000 Waldensians [18], 25,000 Seventh-day Adventists, 22,000 Mormons, 15,000 Baptists (plus some 5,000 Free Baptists), 7,000 Lutherans, 5,000 Methodists (affiliated to the Waldensian Church) [19]. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: HellÄ“northódoxÄ“ EkklÄ“sía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal can... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... For other uses, see Assemblies of God (disambiguation). ... The Waldensians, Waldenses or Vaudois are a Christian denomination believing in poverty and austerity, promoting true poverty, public preaching and the literal interpretation of the scriptures. ... The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA), colloquially referred to as the Adventists, is an evangelical Protestant Christian denomination that grew out of the prophetic Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ...


The country's oldest religious minority is the Jewish community, comprising roughly 45,000 people. It is no longer the largest non-Christian group. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


As a result of significant immigration from other parts of the world, some 825,000 Muslims [20] (1.4%) live in Italy, though only 50,000 are Italian citizens. In addition, there are 110,000 Buddhists (0.2%) [21] [22] [23]PDF (65.4 KiB), 70,000 Sikhs [24], and 70,000 Hindus (0.1%) in Italy. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Cover of an Italian Biometric passport issued in 2006 Inside cover of an Italian Biometric passport issued in 2006 Italian nationality law, like that of many European countries, favors jus sanguinis. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...

See also: Christianity in Italy, Islam in Italy, Jews in Italy, Buddhism in Italy, and List of Italian religious minority politicians

Italy is an overwhelmingly Catholic country (Catholics make up for the 87. ... The history of Islam in Italy started in the 9th century in Sicily until Normanns invasion. ... (In particular, more links are needed. ... Buddhism was first known in Italy at the start of the past century under the auspices of notable scholars like Giuseppe Tucci. ... This is a list of Italian politicians belonging to a religious group, different from the dominant Roman Catholicism. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Italy
The Borsa Italiana, based in Milan, is Italy's main stock exchange.
The Borsa Italiana, based in Milan, is Italy's main stock exchange.

According to GDP calculations, Italy was ranked as the seventh largest economy in the world in 2006, behind the United States, Japan, Germany, China, UK, and France, and the fourth largest in Europe. According to the OECD, in 2004 Italy was the world's sixth-largest exporter of manufactured goods. This capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less developed agricultural south. Italy's economy has an "underground" sector that is not included in the official data, which has recently been calculated by the Ministry of Finance to account for something close to one sixth of the official GDP. The Economy of Italy has changed hugely since the end of World War II. From an agriculturally based economy, it has developed into an industrial country ranked as the worlds sixth-largest economy in USD exchange-rate terms and seventh largest in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1360 pixel, file size: 755 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dettaglio dellingresso Palazzo della Borsa di Milano, in Piazza degli Affari. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1360 pixel, file size: 755 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dettaglio dellingresso Palazzo della Borsa di Milano, in Piazza degli Affari. ... The Borsa Italiana S.p. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ...


Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Over the past decade, Italy has pursued a tight fiscal policy in order to meet the requirements of the Economic and Monetary Union and has benefited from lower interest and inflation rates. Italy joined the Euro from its introduction in 1999. In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Italy's economic performance has at times lagged behind that of its EU partners, and the current government has enacted numerous short-term reforms aimed at improving competitiveness and long-term growth. It has moved slowly, however, on implementing certain structural reforms favoured by economists, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Italy's rigid labour market and expensive pension system, because of the economic slowdown and opposition from labour unions. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...

Italy has a smaller number of world class multinational corporations than other economies of comparable size. Instead, the country's main economic strength has been its large base of small and medium size companies. Some of these companies manufacture products that are technologically moderately advanced and therefore face increasing competition from China and other emerging Asian economies which are able to undercut them on labour costs. These Italian companies are responding to the Asian competition by concentrating on products with a higher technological content, while moving lower-tech manufacturing to plants in countries where labour is less expensive. The small average size of Italian companies remains a limiting factor, and the government has been working to encourage integration and mergers and to reform the rigid regulations that have traditionally been an obstacle to the development of larger corporations in the country. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2683x2112, 909 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2683x2112, 909 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano (internal code F139) is Ferraris 2-seat Gran Turismo flagship model, replacing the 575M Maranello in 2006 as a 2007 model. ...


Italy's major exports are motor vehicles (Fiat Group, Aprilia, Ducati, Piaggio), chemicals, petrochemicals and electric goods (Eni, Enel, Edison), aerospace and defence tech (Alenia, Agusta, Finmeccanica), firearms (Beretta) ; but the country's more famous exports are in the fields of fashion (Armani, Valentino, Versace, Dolce & Gabbana, Benetton, Prada, Luxottica), food industry (Barilla Group, Martini & Rossi, Campari, Parmalat), luxury vehicles (Ferrari, Maserati, Lamborghini, Pagani) and motoryachts (Ferretti, Azimut). Fiat S.p. ... An Aprilia RS125, model of 1998. ... Ducati Motor Holding is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer. ... Piaggio is a company based in Italy that produces cars, motorcycles, scooters and aeroplanes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Enel (Ente Nazionale per lenergia ELettrica) {ISE: IT0003128367) is an Italian energy provider and the third largest energy provider in the world. ... Edison S.p. ... Alenia Aeronautica Italian aeronautic company Alenia Difesa Italian defense products company Alenia Spazio Italian aerospace company [now called Alcatel Alenia Space] Alenia Marconi Systems or AMS Anglo-Italian electronic company Categories: Disambiguation ... A South African Air Force A109LUH Agusta (now part of AgustaWestland) is an Italian helicopter manufacturer. ... Finmeccanica S.p. ... Logo of Pietro Beretta This article is about a firearm manufacturer; for the car, see Chevrolet Beretta. ... Giorgio Armani is an Italian fashion designer (born 11 July 1934 in Piacenza, Italy), particularly noted for his menswear. ... For other uses, see Valentino (disambiguation). ... Gianni Versace S.p. ... Dolce & Gabbana (pronounced Dol-che Gabb-an-a) is a high-end fashion house started by the Italian designers Domenico Dolce, born near Palermo, Sicily, and Stefano Gabbana, born in Milan, Italy. ... Benetton Group S.p. ... Prada, S.p. ... Luxottica Group S.p. ... Logo For the plants or the plant product, see Barilla. ... Martini vermouth is a brand of Italian vermouth, named after the Martini & Rossi distillery in Turin which was partly founded by Alessandro Martini. ... A bottle of Campari Campari is an alcoholic aperitif obtained from the infusion of bitter herbs, aromatic plants and fruit in alcohol and water. ... Parmalat logo. ... For other uses, see Ferrari (disambiguation). ... A 1957 Maserati 200SI at the Scarsdale Concours Maserati Birdcage 1959 Maserati 5000 GT Coupe Maserati Sebring This article is about the automobile manufacturer. ... Automobili Lamborghini S.p. ... Pagani Automobili S.p. ... Ferretti Group is an Italian yachtbuilding conglomerate founded in 1968. ... Azimut is a power-boat builder based in Avigliana, Italy, it also has ship yards in Savona and Viareggio In 1969, Paolo Vitelli started his yacht charter business in Turin, while taking his University degree. ...


Tourism is very important to the Italian economy: with over 37 million tourists a year, Italy is ranked as the fifth major tourist destination in the world.[19] (see Tourism in Italy). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The World Tourism Organization compiles the World Tourism Rankings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Transport

Main article: Transport in Italy

The railway network in Italy totals 19,394 kilometres (12,051 mi), ranking the country 16th in the world,[citation needed] and is operated by Ferrovie dello Stato. High speed trains include ETR-class trains, of which the ETR 500 travels at 300 km/h (190 mph). Transport in Italy // Railways Local Train total: 19,394 km, also on Sardinia and Sicily. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... ETR 500 ETR-500 (ElettroTreno 500) is the Italian high-speed train, introduced in 1993. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... MI has several meanings. ... The FS rail station of Trieste The Ferrovie dello Stato (italian: State Railways) or FS is the operator of the Italian railway network. ... ETR is a TLA which may refer to: Estimated Time to Repair the East Turkistan Republic ElettroTreno, a series of Italian EMU trains, such as the ETR 200, ETR 450 and ETR 500 a technical journal, Educational Technology Review another technical journal, Electrical Technology Russia, the English-language version of... ETR 500 ETR-500 (ElettroTreno 500) is the Italian high-speed train, introduced in 1993. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ...


In 1991 Treno Alta Velocità SpA was created, a special purpose entity owned by RFI (itself owned by Ferrovie dello Stato) for the planning and construction of high-speed rail lines along Italy's most important and saturated transport routes. These lines are often referred as "TAV" lines. The purpose of TAV construction is to aid travel along Italy's most saturated rail lines and to add tracks to these lines, namely the Milan-Naples and Turin-Milan-Venice corridors. One of the focuses of the project is to turn the rail network of Italy into a modern and high-tech passenger rail system in accordance with updated European rail standards. A secondary purpose is to introduce high-speed rail to the country and its high-priority corridors. When demand on regular lines is lessened with the opening of dedicated high-speed lines, those regular lines will be used primarily for low-speed regional rail service and freight trains. With these ideas realised, the Italian train network can be integrated with other European rail networks, particularly the French TGV, German ICE, and Spanish AVE systems[citation needed]. Treno Alta Velocità SpA is special purpose entity owned by RFI for planning and construction of high-speed rail lines (TAV) along Italys most important and saturated transport routes. ... A special purpose entity (SPE) (sometimes, especially in Europe, special purpose vehicle) is a body corporate (usually a limited company of some type or, sometimes, a limited partnership) created to fulfill narrow, specific or temporary objectives, primarily to isolate financial risk, usually bankruptcy but sometimes a specific taxation or regulatory... Italian partly state-owned railway network, formerly part of Ferrovie dello Stato. ... The FS rail station of Trieste The Ferrovie dello Stato (italian: State Railways) or FS is the operator of the Italian railway network. ... French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ... For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see transposition of the great vessels. ... ICE 3 trainset near Ingolstadt The InterCityExpress or ICE (German pronunciation: ) is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and its neighbouring countries. ... For other uses, see AVE (disambiguation). ...


There are approximately 654,676 km(406,797 mi) of serviceable roadway in Italy, including 6,957 km (4,323 mi) of expressways [25].


There are approximately 133 airports in Italy, including the two hubs of Malpensa International (near Milan) and Leonardo Da Vinci International (near Rome). An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. ... Malpensa International Airport (IATA: MXP, ICAO: LIMC) is located in the province of Varese, near Milan, Italy. ... Leonardo da Vinci International Airport (IATA: FCO, ICAO: LIRF), also known as Fiumicino International Airport, is Italys largest airport, with over 30 million passengers in the year 2006. ...


There are 27 major ports in Italy, the largest is in Genoa, which is also the second largest in the Mediterranean Sea, after Marseille. 2,400 km (1,500 mi) of waterways traverse Italy. For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M...


Culture

Further information: List of Italian painters

Italy, as a state, did not exist until the unification of the country in 1861. Due to this comparatively late unification, and the historical autonomy of the regions that comprise the Italian Peninsula, many traditions and customs that we now recognise as distinctly Italian can be identified by their regions of origin. Despite the political and social isolation of these regions, Italy's contributions to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe remain immense. Italy is home to the greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites (41) to date. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This page is about the artist. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Italian literature is literature written in the Italian language, particularly by citizens of Italy. ... The music of Italy ranges across a broad spectrum of opera and instrumental classical music, the traditional styles of the countrys diverse regions, and a body of popular music drawn from both native and imported sources. ... Many different sports are played in Italy. ... The history of Italian cinema began just a few months after the Lumière brothers had discovered the medium, when Pope Leo XIII was filmed for a few seconds in the act of blessing the camera. ... Famous Italian painters (in alphabetical order): Francesco Albani,(1578-1660) Mariotto Albertinelli, (1474-1515) Fra Angelico, (1387-1445) Fra Bartolommeo, (1472-1517) Gentile Bellini, (c. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ...


Visual Art

Italy has seen many artistic and intellectual movements that spread throughout Europe and beyond, including the Renaissance and Baroque. Italy's artistic heritage includes the achievements of Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, Botticelli, Fra Angelico, Tintoretto, Caravaggio, Bernini, Titian and Raphael. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (Florence March 1, 1445 - May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... The Maestà (Madonna enthroned) with Saints Cosmas and Damian, Saint Mark and Saint John, Saint Lawrence and three Dominicans, Saint Dominic, Saint Thomas Aquinas and Saint Peter Martyr; San Marco, Florence. ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin) September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ...


Literature

Dante, author of the Divine Comedy
Dante, author of the Divine Comedy

With the basis of the modern Italian language established through the Florentine poet, Dante Alighieri, whose greatest work, the Divina Commedia, is considered amongst the foremost literary statements produced in Europe during the Middle Ages, there is no shortage of celebrated literary figures; the writers and poets Boccaccio, Giacomo Leopardi, Alessandro Manzoni, Tasso, Ludovico Ariosto, and Petrarch, whose best known vehicle of expression, the sonnet, was invented in Italy. Prominent philosophers include Bruno, Ficino, Machiavelli, and Vico. Modern literary figures and Nobel laureates are nationalist poet Giosuè Carducci in 1906, realist writer Grazia Deledda in 1926, modern theatre author Luigi Pirandello in 1936, poets Salvatore Quasimodo in 1959 and Eugenio Montale in 1975, satiryst and theatre author Dario Fo in 1997[20]. Download high resolution version (1053x684, 156 KB)Dante (detail), Domenico di Michelino, Florence 1465 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (1053x684, 156 KB)Dante (detail), Domenico di Michelino, Florence 1465 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[2] primarily in Italy. ... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... Giacomo Leopardi, Count (June 29, 1798 – June 14, 1837) is generally considered, along with such figures as Dante, Petrarca, Ariosto and Tasso, to be among Italys greatest poets and one of its greatest thinkers. ... Alessandro Manzoni Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Manzoni (March 7, 1785–May 22, 1873) was an Italian poet and novelist. ... Torquato Tasso (March 11, 1544 - April 25, 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered; 1575), in which he describes the imaginary combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem. ... Statue of the poet in Reggio Emilia. ... From the c. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ... Giordano Bruno. ... Marsilio Ficino (also known by his Latin name, Marsilius Ficinus) (Figline Valdarno, October 19, 1433 - Careggi, October 1, 1499) was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance, astrologer, and a reviver of Neoplatonism who was in touch with every major academic thinker and writer of... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Giosuè Carducci. ... Grazia Deledda (September 27, 1871 – August 15, 1936), born in Nuoro, Sardinia, was an Italian writer whose works won her a Nobel Prize for Literature in 1926. ... Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, and short story writer awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934. ... Salvatore Quasimodo (August 20, 1901 - June 14, 1968) was an Italian author. ... Eugenio Montale Eugenio Montale (October 12, 1896, Genoa – September 12, 1981, Milan) was an Italian poet, prose writer, editor and traslator, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1975. ... Dario Fo (born March 24, 1926) is an Italian satirist, playwright, theater director, actor, and composer. ...


Science

In science, Galileo Galilei made advancements toward the scientific revolution, and Leonardo da Vinci was the quintessential Renaissance Man. Italy has been the home of scientists and inventors: the physicist Enrico Fermi, one of the fathers of quantum theory and head of the Manhattan Project; the astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini; the physicist Alessandro Volta, inventor of the electric battery; the mathematicians Lagrange and Fibonacci; Nobel Prize in Physics laureate Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of the radio; and Antonio Meucci, inventor of the telephone. ImageMetadata File history File links Galileo. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Galileo. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... The event which many historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... “Renaissance man” redirects here. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... Fig. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... Giovanni Domenico (Jean-Dominique) Cassini Portrait Giovanni Domenico Cassini (June 8, 1625–September 14, 1712) was an Italian astronomer, engineer, and astrologer. ... This article is about the physicist Alessandro Volta. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... Joseph-Louis Lagrange, comte de lEmpire (January 25, 1736 – April 10, 1813; b. ... For the number sequence, see Fibonacci number. ... Guglielmo Marconi [gue:lmo marko:ni] (25 April 1874 - 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor, best known for his development of a radiotelegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide. ... Antonio Meucci. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ...

Music

From folk music to classical, music has played an important role in Italian culture. Having given birth to opera, Italy provides many of the foundations of the classical music tradition. Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy, and many of the existing classical music forms can trace their roots back to innovations of sixteenth and seventeenth century Italian music (such as the symphony, concerto, and sonata). Italy's most famous composers include the Renaissance composers Palestrina and Monteverdi, the Baroque composers Corelli and Vivaldi, the Classical composers Paganini and Rossini, and the Romantic composers Verdi and Puccini. Modern Italian composers such as Berio and Nono proved significant in the development of experimental and electronic music. Italian folk music has a deep and complex history. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ... Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526[1] - 2 February 1594) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Arcangelo Corelli (February 17, 1653 – January 8, 1713) was an influential Italian violinist and composer of Baroque music. ... “Vivaldi” redirects here. ... Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (October 27, 1782 – May 27, 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist and composer. ... Portrait Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 – November 13, 1868)[1] was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... Luciano Berio (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. ... Grave of Nono in the San Michele Cemetery, Venice Luigi Nono (born January 29, 1924 in Venice; died May 8, 1990 in Venice) was an Italian composer of classical music and intellectual, one of the most important composers of the 20th century. ...


Sport

Popular sports include football, basketball (2nd national team sport since the '50s), volleyball, waterpolo, fencing, rugby, cycling, ice hockey (mainly in Milan, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), roller hockey and F1 motor racing. The Italians also enjoy many other sports. A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... This article is about the sport. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... Water polo is a team water sport, which can be best described as a combination of swimming, football (soccer), basketball, ice hockey, and wrestling. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation, and a sport. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Roller hockey is a form of hockey played on a dry surface using skates with wheels. ... Formula One, abbreviated to F1 and also known as Grand Prix racing, is the highest class of single-seat open-wheel auto racing. ...


Winter sports are popular, with Italians competing in international games and Olympic venues. Sports are incorporated into Italian festivities like Palio (see also Palio di Siena), and the Gondola race (regatta) that takes place in Venice on the first Sunday of September. A winter sport is a sport commonly played during winter, usually a sport played on snow or ice. ... Palio is the name given in Italy to an annual athletic contest, very often of a historical character, pitting the neighbourhoods of a town or the hamlets of a comune against each other. ... Thousands of spectators, coming from all the world, fill the Piazza del Campo to capacity on the day of the Palio di Siena. ... A Venetian gondola A gòndola is a traditional Venetian rowing boat. ... A regatta is a boat race or series of boat races. ...


Sports venues have extended from the Gladiatorial games of Ancient Rome in the Colosseum to the Stadio Olimpico of contemporary Rome, where football clubs compete. For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... Stadio Olimpico is the major stadium of Rome, Italy. ...


The most popular sport in Italy is football, the Serie A being one of the best competitions in the world. A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... This article is about the Italian football league. ...


Languages

Main article: Languages of Italy
See also: Italian dialects
Gondolas in Venice; Rialto Bridge in background

The official language of Italy is Standard Italian, a descendant of the Tuscan dialect and a direct descendant of Latin (Some 75 percent of Italian words are of Latin origin). The Tuscan dialect (or Florentine dialect) spoken in Tuscany was promoted as the standard in large part due to its literary heritage (Dante's Divine Comedy is often credited with the emergence of the Tuscan dialect as a standard). Pietro Bembo, influenced by Petrarch, also promoted Tuscan as the standard literary language (volgare illustre). The spread of the printing press and literary movements (such as petrarchism and bembismo) also furthered Italian standardization. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ... Gondola in Venice with Daniela Palacios. ... Gondola in Venice with Daniela Palacios. ... A Venetian gondola A gòndola is a traditional Venetian rowing boat. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The Rialto Bridge Rialto Bridge The Rialto Bridge (Italian: Ponte di Rialto) The Rialto Bridge (Italian: Ponte di Rialto) spans the Grand Canal in Venice. ... Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[2] primarily in Italy. ... The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... Detail of a manuscript in Milans Biblioteca Trivulziana (MS 1080), written in 1337 by Francesco di ser Nardo da Barberino, showing the beginning of Dantes Comedy. ... Pietro Bembo (May 20, 1470 - 18 January 1547), Italian cardinal and scholar. ... From the c. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... ...


When Italy was unified in 1861, Italian existed mainly as a literary language. Many Romance regional languages were spoken throughout the Italian Peninsula (Italian dialects), each with local variants. Following Italian unification Massimo Taparelli, marquis d'Azeglio, one of Cavour's ministers, is said to have stated that having created Italy, all that remained was to create Italians (a national identity). A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ... Francesco Hayez: Massimo dAzeglio 1860 Massimo Taparelli, marquis dAzeglio (Turin, October 24, 1798 - January 15, 1866), was an Italian statesman, novelist and painter. ... Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour (or Camillo di Cavour; August 10, 1810 – June 6, 1861) was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. ... For publications of this name, see also Nation (disambiguation) A nation is a community of people who live together in an area (or, more broadly, of their descendants who may now be dispersed); and who regard themselves, or are regarded by others, as sharing some common identity, to which certain...


The establishment of a national education system led to a decrease in variation in the languages spoken across the country. Standardization was further expanded in the 1950s and 1960s thanks to economic growth and the rise of mass media and television (the state broadcaster RAI helped set an Italian standard). Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Public broadcasting is a form of public service broadcasting (PSB) intended to serve the diverse needs of the listening public. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some historic romance languages spoken in Italy are not considered Italian dialects, but are languages in their own right. These include Friulian, Neapolitan, Sardinian, Sicilian, Venetian and other Gallo-Italian languages of the north. In general, these languages are not standardized and have given way to regional varieties of Italian. Today, despite regional variations in the form of accents and vowel emphasis, Italian dialects are in most cases mutually intelligible. Nevertheless, variety remains and is often used in idioms and folk songs. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: ) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); close dialects are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, parts of Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... Traditional Music is a quasi-synonym for folk music. ...


In addition to the regional linguistic varieties and dialects of standard Italian, a number of languages enjoying some form of official recognition are spoken:

  • In Sardinia there is the largest group of non-Italian speakers, some 1.3 million people, they speak Sardinian, a Romance language which retains pre-Latin words.
  • A community of 700,000 in Friuli speak Friulian, a Rhaeto-Romance language.
  • The province of Bolzano-Bozen has a majority German-speaking population (Upper German). This area was annexed from Austro-Hungary by Italy under the terms of the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye after World War I. Some German-speaking communities also exist in other parts of north Italy. Cimbrian is a German language related to Austro-Bavarian spoken in some parts of Veneto (Asiago, Luserna) and the Walsers in Val'Aosta (Gressoney). In total some 300,000 or so Italians speak German as their first language. Some identify themselves as ethnic Austrians.
  • A community of 175.000 in Province of Sassari speak Sassarese, a diasystem of the Corsican and Sardinian with ligurian, catalan and spanish influences.
  • The province of Olbia-Tempio has a majority gallurese-speaking population (87%), in total some 129.000; cause the migration of a large group of Corsicans from south-Corsica from 15th to 19th century.
  • Some 120,000 people live in the Aosta Valley region, where a dialect of Franco-Provençal is spoken that is similar to dialects spoken in France. About 1,400 people living in two isolated towns in Foggia speak another dialect of Franco-Provençal.
  • The Arbëreshë, of whom there are around 100,000 in southern Italy and in central Sicily, the result of past migrations, are speakers of the Arbëresh dialect of Albanian.
  • About 80,000 Slovene-speakers live in the north-eastern region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia near the border with Slovenia.
  • In the Dolomite mountains of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto there are some 40,000 speakers of the Rhaeto-Romance language Ladin.
  • Scattered across southern Italy (Salento and Calabria) are some 30,000 Greek-speakers—considered to be the last surviving traces of the region's Magna Graecia heritage. They speak a Greek dialect, Griko.
  • Some 15,000 Catalan speakers reside around the area of Alghero in the north-west corner of Sardinia; cause the migration of a large group of Catalans from Barcelona.
  • Some 12,000 Ligurian speakers reside in Carloforte and Calasetta, in the south-west corner of Sardinia; cause the migration of a large group of ligurians from Tabarka, Tunisia.
  • In the Molise region of central-south Italy some 4,000 people speak Molise Croatian. These are the Molise Croats, descendants of a group of people who migrated from the Balkans in the Middle Ages.

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Friulian Coats of Arms Friuli (Furlan: Friûl, German: Friaul, Slovenian: Furlanija) is an area in northeastern Italy, comprising the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen[1][2] (Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: Provinzia autonòma de Balsan), also called Alto Adige (Italian: Alto Adige; German: Hochetsch or Oberetsch; Ladin: Adesc Aut[3] ) or South Tyrol (Italian: Sudtirolo; German: Südtirol; Ladin: Sudtirol), is an autonomous province of Italy. ... Some basics of Germanic linguistics : in linguistics, German and Germanic do not have the same meaning: see Germanic. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new Republic of Austria on the other. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Northern Italy encompasses eight of the countrys 20 regions. ... Cimbrian refers to any of several local Upper German dialects spoken in northeastern Italy. ... Austro-Bavarian or Bavarian is a major group of Upper German varieties. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... Asiago (Cimbrian: Schleghe, German: Schlägen) is the name of both a minor township (population roughly 6,500, ) and the surrounding plateau region (the Altopiano di Asiago) in the Province of Vicenza in the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy. ... Luserna (Italian: Luserna; Cimbrian: Lusèrn; German: Lusern) is a comune (municipality) in the Autonomous Province of Trento in the Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about 25 km southeast of Trento. ... Distribution of Highest Alemannic dialects The Walser are German-speaking people (more specifically, they speak Walser German dialects) that live in the alps of Switzerland, Italy, Liechtenstein and Austria. ... Gressoney-La-Trinité is a town and comune in the Aosta Valley region of north-western Italy. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sassari (It. ... Sassarese is a diasystem of the Sardinian and Corsican languages, spoken in some areas of the north-western part of Sardinia, in Italy, such as Sassari and a few other places, such as Porto Torres and Sorso. ... In linguistics, a diasystem is a term used in structural dialectology, to refer to a single genetic language which has two or more standard forms. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia , and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Olbia-Tempio is the name of a new province in the autonomous region of Sardinia, Italy (Regional Law no. ... Gallurese (gadduresu) is a diasystem of the Sardinian language, spoken in the Gallura (Gaddura), north-eastern part of Sardinia including the town of Tempio Pausania (Tempiu). ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Aosta Valley (Italian: Valle dAosta, French: Vallée dAoste, Arpitan: Val dOuta) is a mountainous Region in north-western Italy. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... The Province of Foggia (Italian: Provincia di Foggia) is a province in the Apulia (Puglia) region of Italy. ... Arbëreshë are an Albanian-speaking community living in southern Italy and Sicily. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // The Dolomites (Italian: Dolomiti; German: Dolomiten; Friulian: Dolomitis) are a section of the Alps. ... Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol[1] (Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige; German: Trentino-Südtirol; Ladin: Trentin-Adesc Aut, also Trentin-Sudtirol [2][3]) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... Rhaeto-Romance languages are a Romance language sub-family which includes a few languages spoken in Switzerland and North-Eastern Italy. ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-South Tyrol and Veneto. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... Salento Salento (Salentu in dialect) is the south-eastern extremity of the Apulia region of Italy. ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a Modern Greek dialect which is spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy and Sicily, and it is otherwise known as the Grecanic language. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia , and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Alghero (LAlguer in Catalan and SAlighèra in Sardinian), is a town of about 35,000 inhabitants (down from 54,300 inhabitants since early 20th century) in Italy. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures. ... Carloforte is a fishing and resort town of 3,000 located on San Pietro Island, approximately 4 nautical miles off the South Western Coast of Sardinia. ... Calasetta is a small town (population 2,745) located on the island of SantAntioco off the Southwestern coast of Sardinia. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Tabarka (Arabic: ‎) (Phoenician name Thabraca) is a coastal town located in north-western Tunisia, at about , close to the border with Algeria. ... Molise is a region of central Italy, the second smallest of the regions. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-naÅ¡o) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Å tifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Molise Croats are Croatian subgroup, found in the Molise region of Italy. ...

See also

Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This is the history of Italy during the Middle Ages. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as... This is the history of Italy during foreign domination and the unification. ... Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolinis fascist regime, Italys history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats) party for forty years, while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI); this condition endured until the Tangentopoli scandal and operation Mani pulite... The military history of Italy chronicles a vast time period, lasting from the overthrow of Tarquinius Superbus in 509 BC, through the Roman Empire, Italian unification, and into the modern day. ... The Politics of Italy takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Italy is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Constitutional Court of Italy (Italian: Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana) is the supreme court of Italy. ... The President of the Italian Republic is the head of State of Italy, and represents national unity. ... The Parliament of Italy (Italian: Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. ... Palazzo Madama house of the Senate of the Republic. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ... Back side of Palazzo Montecitorio designed by architect Ernesto Basile. ... The Court of Cassation (Corte di Cassazione in Italian) is the main court of last resort in Italy. ... Elections in Italy gives information on election and election results in Italy. ... Political parties in Italy are organized into two dominant political coalitions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ... Northern Italy encompasses nine of the countrys 20 autonomous regions: Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Liguria Lombardia Piemonte Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Valle dAosta Veneto Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige and Valle dAosta are regions with a special statute. ... Central Italy, encompasses six of the countrys 20 autonomous regions: Abruzzo Lazio Marche Molise Toscana Umbria Although the regions of Abruzzo and Molise are geographically located in Central Italy, the European office for statistics (Eurostat) lists these two regions within Southern Italy. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... For a better list, see Category:Towns in Italy. ... The Italian national parks cover about five percent of the country. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... Municipalities of Italy In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ... Headquarters Rome Established 1893 Governor Mario Draghi Central Bank of Italy Website bancaditalia. ... This is a list of companies from Italy. ... The Borsa Italiana S.p. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 26. ... Demography of Italy. ... Cover of an Italian Biometric passport issued in 2006 Inside cover of an Italian Biometric passport issued in 2006 Italian nationality law, like that of many European countries, favors jus sanguinis. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Sistine Chapel ceiling in Rome painted by Michelangelo, one of the most famous examples of Italian art Italian art describes the visual arts in Italy from ancient times to the present. ... This is a list of notable Italians In alphabetical order. ... Holidays in Italy: Categories: Public holidays by country | Italy ... Italian literature is literature written in the Italian language, particularly by citizens of Italy. ... The music of Italy ranges across a broad spectrum of opera and instrumental classical music, the traditional styles of the countrys diverse regions, and a body of popular music drawn from both native and imported sources. ... // Art Music Art music is a somewhat broader term than classical music and may be defined for the purposes of this article as establishment music (either religious or secular) that is composed for pubic or private performance. ... Italian opera can be divided into three periods, the Baroque, the Romantic and the modern. ... // Italian pop stars have included Lucio Dalla, Renato Zero, Adriano Celentano, Gianni Morandi, Fabio Concato, Pupo, Mina, Eros Ramazzotti, Umberto Tozzi, Andrea Bocelli, Ornella Vanoni, Vasco Rossi, Luca Carboni, Francesco De Gregori, Fabrizio De André, Francesco Guccini, Giorgio Gaber, Gianni Togni, Laura Pausini, Claudio Baglioni, Angelo Branduardi, Michele Zarrillo, Riccardo... Italy is a European country, and has had a long relationship with rock and roll, a style of music which spread to the country by the early 1960s from the United States. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Republic. ... National flag and state ensign. ... This gallery of flags of regions of Italy shows the flags of the 20 Regions of Italy (five of them being autonomous regions). ...

Notes

1 According to Mitrica, an October 2005 Romanian report estimates that 1,061,400 Romanians are living in Italy, constituting 37.2% of 2.8 million immigrants in that country [21] but it is unclear how the estimate was made, and therefore whether it should be taken seriously.
2 See also (in Italian): L. Lepschy e G. Lepschy, La lingua italiana: storia, varietà d'uso, grammatica, Milano, Bompiani
3 Official French maps show the border detouring south of the main summit, and claim the highest point in Italy is Mont Blanc de Courmayeur (4,748 m), but these are inconsistent with an 1861 convention and topographic watershed analysis.

References

  1. ^ Istat - Monthly demographic balance (January–December 2006). Istituto Nazionale di Statistica.. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  2. ^ see for example Heineman, Ben W.. "The Long War Against Corruption". Foreign affairs (May/June 2006). ; which speaks of Italy as a major country or "player" along with Germany, France, Japan, and the United Kingdom.
  3. ^ Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy and Dearborn, 1997: p. 24
  4. ^ Guillotining, M., History of Earliest Italy, trans. Ryle, M & Soper, K. in Jerome Lectures, Seventeenth Series, p.50
  5. ^ Luca Cerchiai, Lorena Jannelli, Fausto Longo, Lorena Janelli, 2004. The Greek Cities of Magna Graecia and Sicily (Getty Trust) ISBN 0-89236-751-2
  6. ^ T. J. Dunbabin, 1948. The Western Greeks
  7. ^ A. G. Woodhead, 1962. The Greeks in the West
  8. ^ Clockwise, starting from the upper left: Venice, Genoa, Pisa, Amalfi.
  9. ^ Stéphane Barry and Norbert Gualde, "The Biggest Epidemics of History" (La plus grande épidémie de l'histoire, in L'Histoire n°310, June 2006, pp.45-46
  10. ^ (Smith, Dennis Mack (1997). Modern Italy; A Political History. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472108956, pp. 15.)
  11. ^ (Bosworth (2005), pp. 49.)
  12. ^ (Italian) Italia 1946: le donne al voto, dossier a cura di Mariachiara Fugazza e Silvia Cassamagnaghi
  13. ^ (Italian) Commissione parlamentare d'inchiesta sul terrorismo in Italia e sulle cause della mancata individuazione dei responsabili delle stragi (1995 Parliamentary Commission of Investigation on Terrorism in Italy and on the Causes of the Failing of the Arrests of the Responsibles of the Bombings) (1995). Retrieved on 2006-05-02.
  14. ^ (English)/(Italian)/(French)/(German) Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay-Behind Armies. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology / International Relation and Security Network. Retrieved on 2006-05-02.
  15. ^ "Italian soldiers leave for Lebanon Il Corriere della Sera, 30 August 2006
  16. ^ http://www.usip.org/pubs/usipeace_briefings/2006/coespu.pdf
  17. ^ Society and Culture
  18. ^ a b La popolazione straniera residente in Italia (Italian) (2007-10-17). Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  19. ^ International Tourism Receipts (PDF). UNWTO Tourism Highlights, Edition 2005 12. World Tourism Organization. Retrieved on 2006-05-24.
  20. ^ All Nobel Laureates in Literature
  21. ^ Mitrica, Mihai Un milion de romani s-au mutat in Italia ("One million Romanians have moved to Italy"). Evenimentul Zilei, October 31, 2005. Visited April 11, 2006.
Other references can be found in the more detailed articles linked to in this article.
Italy Portal

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Corriere della Sera is an Italian newspaper printed in Milan. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... World Tourism Organization Building in Madrid The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is a United Nations agency dealing with questions relating to tourism. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ...

External links

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Government

  • Italia.it Official Tourism Website
  • President of the Republic of Italy (Italian)
  • Parliament (Italian)
  • Chamber of Deputies
  • Senate (Italian)
  • Main Institutional Portal (Italian)
  • Council of Ministries
  • Constitutional Court
  • Supreme Court
  • Court of Accounts
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Ministry of the Interior (Italian)
  • Ministry of Education
  • Ministry of Education - International Exchanges
  • Ministry of Health
  • Ministry of Defence
  • Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare
  • Ministry for Economic Development
  • Ministry of Agriculture
  • Ministry of Justice

Public institutions

  • National Statistics Office (Italian)
  • ENIT Italian State Tourism Board
  • ENIT North America
  • Italian Railways
  • Italian National and Regional Parks

Additional profiles

  • by the BBC News
  • by the CIA Factbook
  • by the Economist
  • by the U.S. Department of State
  • by the Italian Hotels Industry

Others

  • History of Italy: Primary Documents
  • List and maps of archaeological sites in Italy
  • WWW-VL: History: Italy at IUE

Travel

Geographic locale
International membership

Image File history File links from en:Latin Europe File links The following pages link to this file: Latin Europe ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Italy travel guide - Wikitravel (8065 words)
Italy and the large islands of Sicily and Sardinia have very changeable weather in autumn, winter, and spring in marked contrast to the settled sunny weather of summer.
Signposts used in Italy are patterned according to EU recommendations and use mostly pictograms (not text) but there are minor differences (example: highways directions are written on green background while the white stands for local roads and blue for the remaining).
Before reaching Italy, have a quick overview on most important regional types (of the region you are planning to go to) and when on site ask the waiter for one of them (not too young, not too old), he/she will suggest you 4/5 wines (always choose the second or the third one).
Architecture of Italy - Great Buildings Online (1193 words)
Ospedale Degli Innocenti, by Filippo Brunelleschi, at Florence, Italy, 1424 to 1445.
Ponte Vecchio, by Taddeo Gaddi, at Florence, Italy, 1345 and 1564.
Maria degli Angeli, by Filippo Brunelleschi, at Florence, Italy, 1434 to 1437.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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