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Encyclopedia > Italic languages
Italic
Geographic
distribution:
Originally in Southern Europe; today worldwide
Genetic
classification
:
Indo-European
 Italic
Subdivisions:
Latino-Faliscan
Sabellic
ISO 639-2: gem

Indo-European topics A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The Latino-Faliscan languages are a group of languages that belong to the Italic language family of the Indo-European languages. ... Osco-Umbrian languages are a group of languages that belong to the Italic language family of the Indo-European languages. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ...

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Armenian · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian)
Italic · Slavic  

extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian,
Phrygian, Thracian) · Tocharian For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic[1]) are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language The only remnant of them is Albanian, but it is still disputed which language was its ancestor. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people of the central Asia Minor. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ...

Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans
Iranians · Latins · Slavs

historical: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians)
Celts (Galatians, Gauls) · Germanic tribes
Illyrians · Italics  · Sarmatians
Scythians  · Thracians  · Tocharians
Indo-Iranians (Rigvedic tribes, Iranian tribes)  For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... http://www. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... Charlemagne, first to unify the Germanic tribal confederations. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Distribution of the Luwian language (after Melchert 2003) Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish. ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... The Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rigveda are described as semi-nomadic pastoralists, subdivided into villages (vish) and headed by a tribal chief (raja) and administered by a priestly caste. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ...

Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis
Anatolia · Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies
Approximate distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC.
Approximate distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC.

The Italic subfamily is a member of the Indo-European language family's Centum branch. It includes the Romance languages (Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, etc.), and a number of extinct languages of the Italian Peninsula, including Latin, Umbrian, and Oscan. The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the seventh to fifth millennium BC. The Anatolian hypothesis of Proto-Indo-European origin is the suggestion that the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) lived in Anatolia during the Neolithic era, and associates the distribution of historical Indo-European languages with... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... Image File history File links Iron_Age_Italy. ... Image File history File links Iron_Age_Italy. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Centum is the collective name for the branches of Indo-European in which the so-called Satem shift, the change of palato-velar *k^, *g^, *g^h into fricatives or affricates, did not take place, and the palato-velar consonants merged with plain velars (*k, *g, *gh). ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC Umbrian, an Italic language, is a dead language formerly spoken in the ancient Italian region of Umbria. ... Denarius of Marsican Confederation with Oscan legend. ...

Contents

Phonetic changes

A partial list of regular phonetic changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Italic: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ...

  • Palatovelars merge with plain velars
    • > k
    • ǵʱ > ɡʱ
    • ǵ > ɡ
  • Voiced labiovelars unround or lenite
    • ɡʱʷ > ɡʱ
    • ɡʷ > ɡ or w
  • Voiced aspirates become first unvoiced, then fricativize
    • > > ɸ > f
    • > > θ
    • ɡʱ > > x
  • s > θ before r; unchanged elsewhere
  • Resonants and remaining stops (m n l r w b d ɡ p t k kʷ) unchanged

Further changes occurred during the evolution of the individual Italic languages, such as f > b between vowels and θ > f in Latin. Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ...


Irregular changes include p > in e.g. Latin quinque, "five", from PIE *penkʷe, and Latin coquere, "to cook", from PIE *pekʷ-.


Branches

The Italic family has two known branches:


The Italic speakers were not native to Italy, but migrated into the Italian Peninsula in the course of the 2nd millennium BC and were apparently related to the Celtic tribes that roamed over a large part of Western Europe at the time. Archaeologically, the Apennine culture (inhumations) enters the Italian Peninsula from ca. 1350 BC, east to west. Before the Italic arrival, Italy was populated primarily by non-Indo-European groups (perhaps including the Etruscans). The first settlement on the Palatine hill dates to ca. 750 BC, settlements on the Quirinal to 720 BC (see Founding of Rome). Osco-Umbrian languages are a group of languages that belong to the Italic language family of the Indo-European languages. ... Denarius of Marsican Confederation with Oscan legend. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC Umbrian, an Italic language, is a dead language formerly spoken in the ancient Italian region of Umbria. ... Volscian was a Sabellic Italic language, which was spoken by the Volsci and closely related to Oscan and Umbrian, but also to Latin, more distantly. ... Aequian is an extinct language that was part of the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family, closely related to Umbrian. ... Silver denarius of the Marsian Confederation, during the Social War (89 BC). ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC South Picene is an extinct Italic language, belonging to the Sabellic subfamily. ... The Latino-Faliscan languages are a group of languages that belong to the Italic language family of the Indo-European languages. ... Falisci, a tribe of Sabine origin or connections, but speaking a dialect closely akin to Latin, who inhabited the town of Falerii, as well as a considerable tract of the surrounding country, probably reaching as far south as to include the small town of Capena. ... Falerii (now Cività Castellana), one of the twelve chief cities of Etruria, situated about one mile west of the ancient Via Flaminia, 32 miles north Rome. ... Civita Castellana (anc. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The Romance languages include 47 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken in Europe; this language group is a part of the Italic language family. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... This article is about the European people. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Apennine culture is a late Bronze Age culture in the Apennines of Italy, dating from around 1350 to 1150 BC. It is contemporary to the late Terramare culture and succeeded by the Villanovan culture. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... An etching of the Hill, crowned by the mass of the Palazzo del Quirinale, from a series I Sette Colli di Roma antica e moderna published in 1827 by Luigi Rossini (1790 - 1857): his view, from the roof of the palazzo near the Trevi Fountain that now houes the Accademia... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The ancient Venetic language, as revealed by its inscriptions (including complete sentences), was also closely related to the Italic languages and is sometimes even classified as Italic. However, since it also shares similarities with other Western Indo-European branches (particularly Germanic), some linguists prefer to consider it an independent Indo-European language. Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language that was spoken in ancient times in the Veneto region of Italy, between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps. ...


The Italic languages are first attested in writing from Umbrian and Faliscan inscriptions dating to the 7th century BC. The alphabets used are based on the Old Italic alphabet, which is itself based on the Greek alphabet. The Italic languages themselves show minor influence from the Etruscan and somewhat more from the Ancient Greek languages. Note: This article contains special characters. ... This page contains special characters. ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC Etruscan was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of what are now Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ...


As Rome extended its political dominion over the whole of the Italian Peninsula, Latin became dominant over the other Italic languages, which ceased to be spoken perhaps sometime in the 1st century AD. From so-called Vulgar Latin the Romance languages emerged. This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...


See also

Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... Italo-Celtic refers to the hypothesis that the Italic languages and the Celtic languages are descended from a common ancestor, Proto-Italo-Celtic, making them genetically related more closely than to any other language outside that group. ...

References

  • Ernst Pulgram: Tongues of Italy, Prehistory and History
  • Rix, Helmut (2004). Ausgliederung und Aufgliederung der italischen Sprachen. Languages in Prehistoric Europe. ISBN 3-8253-1449-9
Helmut Rix (1926 – December 3, 2004) was a German linguist and professor of the Sprachwissenschaftliches Seminar of Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg, Germany. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Italic Languages - MSN Encarta (325 words)
The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family.
Italic languages, subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages that may be divided into two groups.
Italic Languages, subdivision of the Indo-European languages, in its broadest sense considered to be a subfamily that includes Latin, its modern descendants, the Romance languages, and certain other tongues spoken in ancient Italy.
Italic languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (378 words)
The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Italic languages are first attested in writing from Umbrian and Faliscan inscriptions dating to the 7th century BC.
The ancient Venetic language, as revealed by inscriptions (including complete sentences) is considered by many linguists to have been very close to the Italic languages and it is sometimes even classified as Italic.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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