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Encyclopedia > Italian unification
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Italian Republic (1945 – present) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1632 KB) Description: Angled shot of the Colosseum in Rome with a very small moon in frame Medium: Color photograph Location: Rome, Italy Date: August 18, 2002 Author: Jimmy Walker [1] Source: jaymce Flickr gallery [2] Camera: Canon PowerShot S110... United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... A simplified map showing the Terramare culture c 1200 BC (blue area). ... Villanovan Culture in 900BC The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age Terramare culture and giving way in the 7th century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders, which was followed without a severe break by... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... This is an overview of the history of Italy during Roman times. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This is the history of Italy during the Middle Ages. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as... This is the history of Italy during foreign domination and the unification. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ...

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The military history of Italy chronicles a vast time period, lasting from the overthrow of Tarquinius Superbus in 509 BC, through the Roman Empire, Italian unification, and into the modern day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ...

Italian Unification (Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence") was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ...


There is a lack of consensus on the exact dates for the beginning and the end of Italian reunification, but many scholars agree that the process began with the end of Napoleonic rule and the Congress of Vienna in 1815, and approximately ended with the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, though the last città irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until the Italian victory in World War I. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors, from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from November 1, 1814, to June 8, 1815. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Background

Italian unification process.
Italian unification process.

The establishment of the Italian Republic and later of the Kingdom of Italy, ruled by Napoleon, began to encourage nationalism in those who lived in the regions. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, other national monarchs he had installed tried to keep their thrones by feeding those nationalistic sentiments, setting the stage for the revolutions to come. Among these monarchs were the viceroy of Italy, Eugène de Beauharnais, who tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the Kingdom of Italy, and Joachim Murat, who called for Italian patriots' help for the unification of Italy under his rule.[1] Following the defeat of Napoleonic France, the Congress of Vienna (1815) was convened to redraw the European continent. In Italy, the Congress restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, either directly ruled or strongly influenced by the prevailing European powers, particularly Austria. Download high resolution version (964x1541, 333 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (964x1541, 333 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The flag of the Kingdom of Italy was a rectangular version of the flag of the Italian Republic, with Napoleons emblem on the green field. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Eugène Rose de Beauharnais (September 3, 1781 - February 21, 1824) was the first child and only son of Joséphine de Tascher de la Pagerie and Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors, from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from November 1, 1814, to June 8, 1815. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors, from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from November 1, 1814, to June 8, 1815. ...


But groups in several Italian states began to push the idea of a unified Italian state again, feeding the flames of nationalism that had already been ignited in the populace. At the time, the struggle for Italian unification was perceived to be waged primarily against the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, since they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of present-day Italy and were the single most powerful force against unification. The Austrian Empire vigorously repressed nationalist sentiment growing on the Italian peninsula, as well as in the other parts of Habsburg domains. Austrian Chancellor Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, an influential diplomat at the Congress of Vienna, stated that the word Italy was nothing more than "a geographic expression." [2] Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 – June 11, 1859) was an Austrian politician, statesman and one of the most important diplomats of his era. ...


Artistic and literary sentiment also turned towards nationalism, and perhaps the most famous of proto-nationalist works was Alessandro Manzoni's I Promessi Sposi (The Betrothed). Some read this novel as a thinly veiled allegorical critique of Austrian rule. The novel was published in 1827 and extensively revised in the following years. The 1840 version of I Promessi Sposi used a standardized version of the Tuscan dialect, a conscious effort by the author to provide a language commonly used by most Italians. Alessandro Manzoni (Francesco Hayez, 1841, Brera Art Gallery). ... I Promessi Sposi (in English, The Betrothed) is an Italian historical novel by Alessandro Manzoni. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Those in favor of unification also faced opposition from the Holy See, particularly after failed attempts to broker a confederation with the Papal States, which would have left the Papacy with some measure of autonomy over the region. The pope at the time, Pius IX, feared that giving up power in the region could mean the persecution of Italian Catholics.[3] Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... The Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, ( May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878) was pope for a record pontificate of over 31 years, from June 16, 1846 until his death. ...


Even among those who wanted to see the peninsula unified into one country, different groups could not agree on what form a unified state would take. Vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under rulership of the Pope. His book,Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians, was published in 1843 and created a link between the Papacy and the Risorgimento. Many leading revolutionaries wanted a republic, but eventually it was a king and his chief minister who had the power to unite the Italian states as a monarchy. The Carbonari (charcoal burners[1]) were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-century Italy. ... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. ... Count Camilio Benso di Cavour (August 10, 1810 - June 6, 1861) was a statesman who was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification and the first Prime Minister of the new Kingdom of Italy. ...

Giuseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini

One of the most influential revolutionary groups was the Carbonari (coal-burners), a secret organization formed in southern Italy early in the 19th century. Inspired by the principles of the French Revolution, its members were mainly drawn from the middle class and intellectuals. After the Congress of Vienna divided the Italian peninsula among the European powers, the Carbonari movement spread into the Papal States, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy of Modena and the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. The revolutionaries were so feared that the reigning authorities passed an ordinance condemning to death anyone who attended a Carbonari meeting. The society, however, continued to exist and was at the root of many of the political disturbances in Italy from 1820 until after unification. The Carbonari condemned Napoleon III to death for failing to unite Italy, and the group almost succeeded in assassinating him in 1858. Many leaders of the unification movement were at one time members of this organization. Photo of Giuseppe Mazzini. ... The Carbonari (charcoal burners[1]) were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-century Italy. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ... The Duchy of Modena (in full, the Duchies of Modena and Reggio) was a small Italian state that existed (with a break between 1796 and 1814) from 1452 to 1859. ... The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Italian: ; German: ) (1815 - 1866) was established after the defeat of Napoleon, according to the decisions of the Congress of Vienna (9 June 1815). ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Two prominent radical figures in the unification movement were Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi. Among the more conservative constitutional monarchic figures, Count Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II, who would later become the first king of a united Italy. Giuseppe Mazzini (June 22, 1805 – March 10, 1872) was an Italian patriot, philosopher and politician. ... Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian patriot and General of the Risorgimento. ... Count Camilio Benso di Cavour (August 10, 1810 - June 6, 1861) was a statesman who was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification and the first Prime Minister of the new Kingdom of Italy. ... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. ... The House of Savoy was a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy (a small region between Piedmont, Italy, and France). ...


Mazzini's activity in revolutionary movements caused him to be imprisoned soon after he joined. While in prison, he concluded that Italy could - and therefore should - be unified and formulated his program for establishing a free, independent, and republican nation with Rome as its capital. After Mazzini's release in 1831, he went to Marseille, where he organized a new political society called La Giovine Italia (Young Italy). The new society, whose motto was "God and the People," sought the unification of Italy. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... La Giovine Italia (Italian for Young Italy) was a political movement founded in 1831 by Giuseppe Mazzini. ...


Garibaldi, a native of Nice (then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia), participated in an uprising in Piedmont in 1834, was sentenced to death, and escaped to South America. He spent fourteen years there, taking part in several wars, and returned to Italy in 1848. Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Early revolutionary activity (1820–1830)

Carbonari insurrections (1820–1821)

In 1814 the Carbonari began organizing revolutionary activities. The Carbonari (charcoal burners[1]) were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-century Italy. ...


Two Sicilies insurrection

In 182038909465049268, Spaniards successfully revolted over disputes about the constitution, which influenced the development of a similar movement in Italy. Inspired by the Spaniards, (who, in 1812, had created their constitution) a regiment in the army of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, commanded by Guglielmo Pepe, a Carbonaro, mutinied, conquering the peninsular part of Two Sicilies. The king, Ferdinand I, agreed to enact a new constitution. The revolutionaries, though, failed to court popular support and fell to Austrian troops of the Holy Alliance. Ferdinand abolished the constitution and began systematically persecuting known revolutionaries. Many supporters of revolution in Sicily, including the scholar Michele Amari, were forced into exile during the decades that followed. Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration... Guglielmo Pepe (1783-1855), Neapolitan general, was born at Squillace in Calabria. ... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ... The Holy Alliance was a coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia, signed by the three powers in Vienna on September 26, 1815. ... Michele Amari (1806-1889) was an Italian patriot, born at Palermo, devoted a great part of his life to the history of Sicily, and took part in its emancipation; was an Orientalist as well; he is famous for throwing light on the true character of the Sicilian Vespers. ...


Piedmont insurrection

The leader of the 1821 revolutionary movement in Piedmont was Santorre di Santarosa, who wanted to remove the Austrians and unify Italy under the House of Savoy. The Piedmont revolt started in Alessandria, where troops adopted the green, white and red tricolore of the Cisalpine Republic. The king's regent, prince Charles Albert, acting while the king Charles Felix was away, approved a new constitution to appease the revolutionaries, but when the king returned he disavowed the constitution and requested assistance from the Holy Alliance. Di Santarosa's troops were defeated, and the would-be Piedmontese revolutionary fled to Paris. Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... For other uses, see Alessandria (disambiguation). ... The flag of Italy (often referred to in Italian as Il Tricolore) is a tricolour featuring three equally sized vertical bands of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side. ... The flag of the Cisalpine Republic was the Transpadane Republic vertical Italian tricolour, with the square shape of the Cispadane Republic The Cisalpine Republic (Italian: Repubblica Cisalpina) was a French client republic in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802. ... Charles Albert (Italian: Carlo Alberto Amedeo di Savoia; October 2, 1798 – July 28, 1849) was the King of Sardinia from 1831 to 1849. ... Charles Felix I of Sardinia (Carlo Felice Giuseppe Maria, April 6, 1765–April 27, 1831) was the Duke of Savoy, Piedmont, Aosta and King of Sardinia from 1821 to 1831. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


1830 insurrections

By 1830, revolutionary sentiment in favor of a unified Italy began to experience a rsurgence, and a series of insurrections laid the groundwork for the creation of one nation along the Italian peninsula.


The Duke of Modena, Francis IV, was an ambitious noble, and he hoped to become king of Northern Italy by increasing his territory. In 1826, Francis made it clear that he would not act against those who subverted opposition toward the unification of Italy. Encouraged by the declaration, revolutionaries in the region began to organize. The Duchy of Modena (in full, the Duchies of Modena and Reggio) was a small Italian state that existed (with a break between 1796 and 1814) from 1452 to 1859. ... Francis IV Este (Italian: Francesco IV dEste) (1779 - 1846) was Duke of Modena, Reggio, Mirandola (from 1815), Duke of Massa and Prince of Carrara (from 1829), royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Cavaliere dellordine del Toson Doro. ...


During the July Revolution of 1830 in France, revolutionaries forced the king to abdicate and created the July Monarchy with encouragement from the new French king, Louis-Philippe. Louis-Philippe had promised revolutionaries such as Ciro Menotti that he would intervene if Austria tried to interfere in Italy with troops. Fearing he would lose his throne, though, Louis-Philippe did not intervene in Menotti's planned uprising. The Duke of Modena abandoned his Carbonari supporters, arrested Menotti and other conspirators in 1831, and reconquered his duchy with help from the Austrian troops. Menotti was executed, and the idea of a revolution centered in Modena faded. // The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the last of the House of Bourbons, and the ascension of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc dOrléans, who himself, after eighteen precarious years on the throne, would in turn... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of the French  - 1830-1848 Louis-Phillipe Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Chamber of Peers  - Lower house Chamber of Deputies History  - July Revolution 1830  - Revolution of 1848 1848 Currency French Franc The July Monarchy (1830-1848) was a period of liberal monarchy rule... Louis-Philippe of France (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy. ... Ciro Menotti (January 22, 1798 - May 23, 1831) was an Italian patriot. ...


At the same time, other insurrections arose in the Papal Legations of Bologna, Forlì, Ravenna, Imola, Ferrara, Pesaro and Urbino. These successful revolutions, which adopted the tricolore in favor of the Papal flag, quickly spread to cover all the Papal Legations, and their newly installed local governments proclaimed the creation of a united Italian nation. The term Papal Legation, in a teritorial sense, refers to certain northern administrative regions of the erstwhile Papal States: specifically the Legations of Ferrara, Bologna, and Romagna. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... Forlì is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì and of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, at the nearby comune of Predappio. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Imola (Iômla in the local dialect) is a town, comune in the province of Bologna, located on the Santerno river, in the Emilia-Romagna region of north-central Italy. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... Pesaro is a town and comune in the Italian region of the Marche, capital of the Pesaro e Urbino province, on the Adriatic. ... Panorama of Urbino with the cathedral and the palazzo ducale Urbino is a city in the Marche in Italy, southwest of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site with a great cultural history during the Renaissance as the seat of Federico da Montefeltro. ...


The revolts in Modena and the Papal Legations inspired similar activity in the Duchy of Parma, where the tricolore flag was adopted. The Parmese duchess Marie Louise left the city during the political upheaval. The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered around the city of Parma. ... Marie Louise (December 12, 1791 - December 17, 1847) was the second wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and Empress of the French. ...


Insurrected provinces planned to unite as the Province Italiane unite (united Italian Provinces), which prompted Pope Gregory XVI to ask for Austrian help against the rebels. Metternich warned Louis-Philippe that Austria had no intention to let Italian matters be, and that French intervention would not be tolerated. Louis-Philippe withheld any military help and even arrested Italian patriots living in France. Pope Gregory XVI (September 18, 1765 – June 1, 1846), born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, named Mauro as a member of the religious order of the Camaldolese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1831 to 1846. ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 – June 11, 1859) was an Austrian politician, statesman and one of the most important diplomats of his era. ...


In the spring of 1831, the Austrian army began its march across the Italian peninsula, slowly crushing resistance in each province that had revolted. This military action suppressed much of the fledging revolutionary movement, and resulted in the arrest of many radical leaders, including Menotti.


Revolutions of 1848–1849

Camillo Benso, count of Cavour
Camillo Benso, count of Cavour

In January 1848, the revolutionary disturbances began on January 5 with a civil disobedience strike in Lombardy, as citizens stopped smoking and playing the lottery, which denied Austria the associated tax revenue. Shortly after this, revolts began on the island of Sicily against King Ferdinand, who conceded as he had in 1821 and granted Sicily a constitution, as well as releasing political prisoners. Disquiet spread to Naples, where the Neapolitan liberals demanded that they should also be granted a constitution. Ferdinand granted Naples a constitution on 29 January, a document that was identical to its Sicilian counterpart. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2508, 217 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Camillo Benso di Cavour Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 79 × 64 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Mailand Current location (gallery): de: Pinacoteca di Brera Other... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2508, 217 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Camillo Benso di Cavour Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 79 × 64 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Mailand Current location (gallery): de: Pinacoteca di Brera Other... Count Camilio Benso di Cavour (August 10, 1810 _ June 6, 1861) was a statesman who was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification and the first Prime Minister of the new Kingdom of Italy. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A lottery is a popular form of gambling which involves the drawing of lots for a prize. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In February 1848 there were revolts in Tuscany that were relatively nonviolent, after which Ferdinand granted the Tuscans a constitution. A breakaway republican provisional government formed in Tuscany during February shortly after this concession. On 21 February, Pope Pius IX granted a constitution to the Papal States, which was both unexpected and surprising considering the historical recalcitrance of the Papacy. On February 23, King Louis Philippe of France was forced to flee Paris, and a republic was proclaimed. By the time the revolution in Paris occurred, three states of Italy had constitutions — four if one considers Sicily to be a separate state. For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis-Philippe of France (October 6, 1773–August 26, 1850), served as the Orleanist king of the French from 1830 to 1848. ...


Meanwhile in Lombardy tensions increased until the Milanese and Venetians rose up in revolt on 18 March 1848. The insurrection in Milan succeeded in expelling the Austrian garrison after five days of street fights ("Cinque giornate di Milano"). An Austrian army under Radetzky besieged Milan, but due to defection and the popularity of the Milanese, they were forced to retreat. Soon, Charles Albert, the King of Sardinia (whose kingdom was actually centered around Piedmont and Savoy), urged by the Venetians and Milanese to aid their cause, decided that this was the moment to unify Italy and declared war on Austria. After initial successes at Goito and Peschiera, he was decisively defeated at the Battle of Custoza on July 24, by the Austrian Marshal Josef Radetzky. An armistice was quickly agreed to, and Radetzky was able to regain control of all of Lombardy-Venetia save Venice itself, where a republic was proclaimed under Daniele Manin. is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Josef Graf von Radetzky Johann Josef Wenzel Graf Radetzky von Radetz (English: , Czech: ) (November 2, 1766 – January 5, 1858) was a Bohemian nobleman and Austrian general, immortalised by Johann Strauss Is Radetzky March. ... Charles Albert (Italian: Carlo Alberto Amedeo di Savoia; October 2, 1798 – July 28, 1849) was the King of Sardinia from 1831 to 1849. ... The Battle of Custoza (1848) was fought (23-25 July 1848) during the Austro-Sardinian War (also known as First Independence War within Italian unification process) between the armies of the Austrian Empire, led by Field Marshal Radetzky, and of the Kingdom of Sardinia, led by king Charles Albert of... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Radetzky von Radetz (Czech: Jan Josef Václav hrabě Radecký z Radče) (November 2, 1766 - January 5, 1858) was a Czech nobleman and soldier, immortalised by Johann Strauss Is Radetzky March. ... Danièle Manin (May 13, 1804 - September 22, 1857), Venetian patriot and statesman, was born in Venice. ...

While Radetzky consolidated control of Lombardy-Venetia and Charles Albert licked his wounds, matters began to take a more serious turn in other parts of Italy. The monarchs who had so reluctantly agreed to constitutions in March began to come into conflict with their constitutional ministers, often leading to outright conflict. At first, the republics had the upper hand, forcing the monarchs to flee their capitals, including Pope Pius IX. Image File history File links Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian soldier. ... Image File history File links Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian soldier. ... Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian patriot and General of the Risorgimento. ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ...


Pius IX had been initially seen as something of a reformer, but conflicts with the revolutionaries led him to sour on the idea of constitutional government. In November 1848, following the assassination of his Minister Pellegrino Rossi, Pius IX fled Rome. Subsequently, Garibaldi and other patriots arrived in Rome. In early 1849, elections were held for a Constituent Assembly, which proclaimed a Roman Republic on February 9. On February 2, 1849, at a political rally held in the Apollo Theater, a young Roman priest, the Abbé Arduini, had made a speech in which he had declared that the temporal power of the popes was a "historical lie, a political imposture, and a religious immorality." [4]. In early March 1849, Mazzini arrived in Rome and was appointed Chief Minister. In the Constitution of the Roman Republic[5], religious freedom was guaranteed by article 7, the independence of the pope as head of the Catholic Church was guaranteed by article 8 of the Principi fondamentali, while the death penalty was abolished by article 5, and free public education was provided by article 8 of the Titolo I. Pellegrino Rossi was the Ministry of Justice in the government of the Papal States, under Pope Pius IX. His assassination, on 15 November 1848 was the beginning of the series of events that led to the proclamation of the Roman Republic. ... Military flag of the Roman Republic. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Before the powers had a chance to respond to the founding of the Roman Republic, Charles Albert, whose army had been trained in the meanwhile by the exiled Polish general Albert Chrzanowski, determined to renew the war with Austria. He was quickly defeated by Radetzky at Novara on March 23, 1849. This time the defeat was final. Charles Albert himself abdicated in favor of his son, Victor Emmanuel II, and all Piedmontese ambitions to unite Italy or conquer Lombardy were, for the moment at least, brought to an end. The war was formally ended by a treaty signed on August 9. A popular revolt broke out in Brescia in the very day of the Novara defeat, but was fiercely suppressed by the Austrians ten days later. For the 1513 Battle of Novara, see Battle of Novara (1513). ... Novara is a city of Piedmont, in North-west Italy, to the west of Milan. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy Victor Emmanuel II (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820—January 9, 1878) was the King of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia from 1849–1861, and King of Italy from 1861 until his death in 1878. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ten Days of Brescia were a revolt broken out in the city of northern Italy with that name, and which laster from March 23 to April 1, 1849. ... The Capitoline Temple. ...


There remained the Roman and Venetian Republics. In April a French force under Nicolas Oudinot was sent to Rome. Apparently, the French wished to mediate between the Pope and his subjects, but soon the French were forced to take sides, and determined to restore the Pope. After a two month siege, Rome capitulated on June 29, 1849, and the Pope was restored. Garibaldi and Mazzini once again fled into exile — in 1850 Garibaldi became a resident of New York City. Meanwhile, the Austrians besieged Venice, which was forced to surrender on August 24. The Austrians also moved to restore order in central Italy, restoring the princes who had been expelled and establishing their control over the Papal Legations. The revolutions were thus completely crushed. Nicolas Charles Oudinot (April 25, 1767 - September 13, 1847), duke of Reggio, was a marshal of France. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Papal Legation, in a teritorial sense, refers to certain northern administrative regions of the erstwhile Papal States: specifically the Legations of Ferrara, Bologna, and Romagna. ...


Creation of the Italian State

The War of 1859 and its aftermath

Victor Emmanuel II
Victor Emmanuel II

Although Charles Albert had been crushingly defeated in his bid to drive the Austrians from Italy, the Piedmontese did not abandon all hope of aggrandizement. Camillo di Cavour, who became president of the Council of Ministers in 1852, also had expansionist ambitions. Cavour, however, saw that Piedmont would not be able to singlehandedly add to its teritory. Instead, he hoped to secure aid from Britain and France in expelling the Austrians from the Italian peninsula. An attempt to gain British and French favor by supporting them in the Crimean War, which Piedmont entered in 1855, was unsuccessful, as Italian matters were ignored at the Congress of Paris. Nevertheless, the war achieved a useful objective — it left Austria, which had uncomfortably tried to balance between the two sides during the war, dangerously isolated. Combatants Second French Empire Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon III Victor Emmanuel II Giuseppe Garibaldi Ferencz Graf Gyulai Franz Josef I Strength 206,000 242,000 The Second War of Italian Independence, Franco-Austrian War, or Austro-Sardinian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Count Camilio Benso di Cavour (August 10, 1810 _ June 6, 1861) was a statesman who was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification and the first Prime Minister of the new Kingdom of Italy. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... The Congress of Paris took place in 1856 for the purpose of making peace after the Crimean War. ...


On January 14, 1858, an Italian nationalist Felice Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III, the French Emperor. Writing from his prison cell, Orsini did not plea for his life, accepting death for his role in the failed assassination attempt, but rather appealed to Napoleon III to fulfill his destiny by aiding the forces of Italian nationalism. Napoleon, who had belonged to the Carbonari in his youth, and who saw himself as an advanced thinker, in tune with the ideas of the day, became convinced that it was his destiny to do something for Italy. In the summer of 1858, Cavour met with Napoleon III at Plombières and the two signed a secret agreement, which was known as the Patto di Plombières ("Pact of Plombières").[6] Cavour and Napoleon III agreed to a joint war against Austria. Piedmont would gain the Austrian territories in Italy (Lombardy and Venetia), as well as the Duchies of Parma and Modena, while France would be rewarded with Piedmont's transalpine territories of Savoy and Nice. Central and Southern Italy would remain largely as it was, although there was some talk that the Emperor's cousin Prince Napoleon would replace the Habsburgs in Tuscany. In order to allow the French to intervene without appearing as the aggressors, Cavour was to provoke the Austrians into aggression by encouraging revolutionary activity in Lombardy. is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Felice Orsini (1819 - March 13, 1858) was an Italian revolutionary who tried to assassinate Napoleon III. Felice Orsini was born at Meldola in Romagna. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... The Carbonari (charcoal burners[1]) were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-century Italy. ... The Thermes Napoléon in Plombières-les-Bains Plombières-les-Bains is a commune and spa town of France, situated in the the French département of Vosges in the region of Lorraine. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte (Trieste, Italy, September 9, 1822-Rome, Italy March 17, 1891) was the son of Jerome Bonaparte and Catharina of Württemberg. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ...


At first, things did not work out as planned. The Austrians, ignorant of the secret agreement signed at Plombières, were surprisingly patient in dealing with the Piedmontese-inspired insurrections. The Piedmontese mobilization in March 1859 was then something of an admission of defeat, as it appeared that the strategy of provoking the Austrians into aggression had failed. Without Austrian aggression, the French could not intervene, and without French support, Cavour was unwilling to risk war. At this time however, the Austrians conveniently made their opponents' task easier by sending an ultimatum to the Piedmontese demanding demobilization. This the Piedmontese could conveniently reject and, by making Austria seem the aggressor, allowed the French to intervene.


The war itself was quite short. The Austrian advance into Piedmont was incompetent, and they were unable to secure the Alpine passes before the arrival of the French army, led personally by Napoleon. At the Battle of Magenta on June 4, the French and Sardinians were victorious over the Austrian army of Count Gyulai, leading to Austrian withdrawal from most of Lombardy and a triumphal entry by Napoleon and Victor Emmanuel into Milan. On June 24, a second battle was fought between the two armies at Solferino. This bloody engagement, at which the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph had also taken personal command of his troops, saw little skill demonstrated by the leaders on either side, but the French were again victorious. The Austrians withdrew behind the Quadrilateral of fortresses on the borders of Venetia. Combatants French Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon III Ferencz Gyulaj Strength 59,100 91 guns 125,000 [2] Casualties 657 dead 3,858 wounded 1,368 dead 4,538 wounded 4,500 captured Map of the Second Italian War of Independence The Battle of Magenta was fought... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants French Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon III Victor Emmanuel II Franz Joseph Strength 118,600 about 100,000 Casualties 2,492 dead 12,512 wounded 2,922 captured or missing 3,000 dead 10,807 wounded 8,638 captured or missing The Battle of Solferino, also... Franz Joseph I Franz Joseph (in English also Francis Joseph) (August 18, 1830 - November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ... The word quadrilateral can mean: In geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with 4 sides. ...


There were many reasons Napoleon III sought peace at this point. Fear that a long and bloody campaign would be necessary to conquer Venetia, fear for his position at home, worry at the intervention of German states, and fear of a too-powerful Piedmont-Sardinia led him to look for a way out. On July 11, he met privately with Franz Joseph at Villafranca, without the knowledge of his Piedmontese allies. Together, the two agreed on the outlines of a settlement to the conflict. The Austrians would retain Venetia, but would cede Lombardy to the French, who would then immediately cede it to Piedmont (the Austrians were unwilling to themselves cede the area to Piedmont). Otherwise, the Italian borders would remain unchanged. In Central Italy, where the authorities had universally been expelled following the outbreak of war, the rulers of Tuscany, Modena, and Parma, who had fled to Austria, would be restored, while Papal control of the Legations would be resumed. Because Napoleon had not fulfilled the terms of his agreement with Piedmont, he would not gain Savoy and Nice. Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont, with Savoia upper left (pink) and Nizza (Nice) lower left (brown) both now French, and Sardinia in the inset The Kingdom of Sardinia is a former kingdom in Italy. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Villafranca di Verona (population est. ...


The Sardinians were outraged at this betrayal by their ally. Cavour demanded that the war be carried on regardless, and resigned when the more realistic Victor Emmanuel determined that acquiescence was the only realistic option. But the Villafranca agreement would prove a dead letter long before it was formalized into the Treaty of Zurich in November. Piedmontese troops occupied the smaller Italian states and the Legations, and the French proved unwilling to pressure them to withdraw and allow the restoration of the old order, while the Austrians no longer had the power to compel it. In December, Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and the Legations were unified into the United Provinces of Central Italy, and, encouraged by the British, were seeking annexation by the Kingdom of Sardinia. The Treaty of Zurich was signed by the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia (allied to the French Empire) on November 10, 1859. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ...


Cavour, who triumphantly returned to power in January 1860, wished to annex the territories, but realized that French acquiescence was necessary. Napoleon III agreed to recognize the Piedmontese annexation in exchange for Savoy and Nice. On March 20, 1860, the annexations occurred. Now the Kingdom of Sardinia encompassed most of Northern and Central Italy. is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


The Mille expedition

Carte De Visite of a Garibaldino and member of the Thousand Red Shirts. He wears the rare 'Medal of the Thousand' or 'Marsala Medal', issued by the city of Palermo in 1865.

Thus, by the spring of 1860, only four states remained in Italy - the Austrians in Venetia, the Papal States (now minus the Legations), the new expanded Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. There is no special reason to think that Cavour now envisaged the unification of the rest of Italy under Piedmontese rule, but events proved to have a life of their own. Combatants Kingdom of Italy/Kingdom of Sardinia Aid by United Kingdom Second French Empire Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Commanders Giuseppe Garibaldi Nino Bixio Enrico Cialdini Francis II of the Two Sicilies Ferdinando Lanza Giosuè Ritucci Pietro Carlo Maria Vial de Maton A photograph of Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1860. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 359 × 599 pixels Full resolution (775 × 1293 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 359 × 599 pixels Full resolution (775 × 1293 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ...


Francis II of the Two Sicilies, the son and successor of Ferdinand II (the infamous "King Bomba"), had a well-organized army of 150,000 men. But his father's tyranny had inspired many secret societies, and the kingdom's Swiss Mercenaries were unexpectedly recalled home according to a new Swiss law, leaving Francis only his mostly unreliable native troops. It was a critical opportunity for the unification movement. In April 1860, separate insurrections began in Messina and Palermo in Sicily, both of which demonstrated a history of opposing Neapolitan rule. These rebellions were easily suppressed by loyal troops. Francis II (Francesco dAssisi Maria Leopoldo, January 16, 1836 – December 27, 1894), was King of the Two Sicilies from 1859 to 1861. ... Ferdinand II (Ferdinando Carlo, January 12, 1810 – May 22, 1859) was the King of the Two Sicilies (Southern Italy) from 1830 until his death. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... Swiss mercenaries crossing the Alps (Luzerner Schilling) Swiss mercenaries were soldiers notable for their service in foreign armies, especially the armies of the Kings of France, throughout the Early Modern period of European history, from the Later Middle Ages into the Age of the European Enlightenment. ... Location within Italy Messina with a population of about 260,000 is the third largest city on the island of Sicily, Italy and the capital of the province of Messina. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ...


In the meantime, Garibaldi, a native of Nice, was deeply resentful of the French annexation of his home city. He hoped to use his supporters to regain the territory. Cavour, terrified of Garibaldi provoking a war with France, convinced Garibaldi to instead concentrate his forces on the Sicilian rebellions. On May 6, 1860, Garibaldi and his cadre of about a thousand Italian volunteers (called I Mille), steamed from Quarto near Genoa, and after a stop in Talamone on May 11 landed near Marsala on the west coast of Sicily. Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... During the Italian Risorgimento, the volunteers that followed Garibaldi in southern Italy were called Redshirts (Camicie rosse) because of the colour of their shirts (complete uniforms were beyond the finances of the italian patriots). ... Quarto has several meanings: In bookbinding and publishing, quarto indicates the book size which results when four leaves of the book are created from a standard size sheet of paper. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Talamone from the sea. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marsala is a seaport city located in the Province of Trapani on the island of Sicily in Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Near Salemi, Garibaldi's army attracted scattered bands of rebels, and the combined forces defeated the opposing army at Calatafimi on May 13. Within three days, the invading force had swelled to 4,000 men. On May 14, Garibaldi proclaimed himself dictator of Sicily, in the name of Victor Emmanuel. After waging various successful but hard-fought battles, Garibaldi advanced upon the Sicilian capital of Palermo, announcing his arrival by beacon-fires kindled at night. On May 27, the force laid siege to the Porta Termina of Palermo, while a mass uprising of street and barricade fighting broke out within the city. Country Italy Region Sicily Province Trapani (TP) Mayor Biagio Mastrantoni (since June 10, 2003) Elevation 446 m Area 181 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 11,436  - Density 64/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Salemitani Dialing code 0924 Postal code 91018 Patron St. ... Calatafimi a small town in the Trapani province, in Sicily, Italy. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Closeup of a collection of blinker equipped barricades A barricade is any object or structure that creates a barrier or obstacle to control, block passage or force the flow of traffic in the desired direction. ...


With Palermo deemed insurgent, Neapolitan general Ferdinando Lanza, arriving in Sicily with some 25,000 troops, furiously bombarded Palermo nearly to ruins. With the intervention of a British admiral, an armistice was declared, leading to the Neapolitan troops' departure and surrender of the town to Garibaldi and his much smaller army. A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ...


This resounding success demonstrated the weakness of the Neapolitan government. Garibaldi's fame spread and many Italians began to consider him a national hero. Doubt, confusion and dismay overtook the Neapolitan court — the king hastily summoned his ministry and offered to restore an earlier constitution, but these efforts failed to rebuild the peoples' trust in Bourbon governance. This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion _ Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ...


Six weeks after the surrender of Palermo, Garibaldi attacked Messina. Within a week its citadel surrendered. Having conquered Sicily, Garibaldi proceeded to the mainland, crossing the Straits of Messina with the Neapolitan fleet at hand. The garrison at Reggio Calabria promptly surrendered. Progressing northward, the populace everywhere hailed him and military resistance faded. At the end of August Garibaldi was at Cosenza, and on September 5 at Eboli, near Salerno. Meanwhile, Naples had been declared in a state of siege, and on September 6 the king gathered the 4,000 troops still faithful to him and retreated over the Volturno river. The next day Garibaldi, with a few followers, entered Naples, whose people openly welcomed him. Satellite photo of the Strait of Messina, taken June 2002. ... Reggio Calabria (officially Reggio di Calabria, Rìggiu in Calabrian dialect, Righi in Greek-Calabrian), is the largest and the oldest city in Calabria, Italy, dating back to the 8th century BC (see history below). ... Cosenza is a town and comune in the Calabria region of southern Italy, on the Crati River. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eboli (ancient: Eburum) is a town of Campania, Italy, in the province of Salerno, from which it is 16 miles east by rail, situated 470 feet above sea level, on the south edge of the hills overlooking the valley of the Sele. ... Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Volturno (ancient Latin name Volturnus, from volvere, to roll) is a river in south-central Italy. ...


Defeat of Naples

Though Garibaldi had easily taken the capital, the Neapolitan army had not joined the rebellion en masse, holding firm along the Volturno River. Garibaldi's irregular bands of about 25,000 men could not drive away the king or take the fortresses of Capua and Gaeta without the help of the Sardinian army. The Volturno is a river in south-central Italy. ... Capua is a city in the province of Caserta, (Campania, Italy) situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Napoli, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ...


The Sardinian army, however, could only arrive by traversing the Papal States, which extended across the entire center of the peninsula. Ignoring the political will of the Holy See, Garibaldi announced his intent to proclaim a "Kingdom of Italy" from Rome, the capital city of Pope Pius IX. Seeing this as a threat to the domain of the Catholic Church, Pius threatened excommunication for those who supported such an effort. Afraid that Garibaldi would attack Rome, Catholics worldwide sent money and volunteers for the Papal Army, which was commanded by General Louis Lamoricière, a French exile. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière (5 September 1806 - 11 September 1865) was a French general. ...


The settling of the peninsular standoff now rested with Louis Napoleon. If the French emperor had let Garibaldi have his way the latter would likely have ended the temporal sovereignty of the pope and made Rome the capital of Italy. Napoleon, however, may have arranged with Cavour to leave the king of Sardinia free to take possession of Naples, Umbria and the other provinces, provided that Rome and the "patrimony of St. Peter" were left intact. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ...


It was in this situation that a Sardinian force of two army corps, under Fanti and Cialdini, marched to the frontier of the Papal States, its objective being not Rome but Naples. The Papal troops under Lamoricière advanced against Cialdini, but were quickly defeated and besieged in the fortress of Ancona, finally surrendering on September 29. On October 9, Victor Emmanuel II arrived and took command. There was no longer a papal army to oppose him, and the march southward proceeded unopposed. Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. ...

Victor Emmanuel II meets Garibaldi near Teano.
Victor Emmanuel II meets Garibaldi near Teano.

Garibaldi distrusted the pragmatic Cavour, particularly due to Cavour's role in the French annexation of Nice, Garibaldi's birthplace. Nevertheless, he accepted the command of Victor Emmanuel. When the king entered Sessa Aurunca at the head of his army, Garibaldi willingly handed over his dictatorial power. After greeting Victor Emmanuel in Teano with the title of King of Italy, Garibaldi entered Naples riding beside the king. Garibaldi then retired to the island of Caprera, while the remaining work of unifying the peninsula was left to Victor Emmanuel. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... Sessa Aurunca, a town and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, in the province of Caserta, on the south west slope of the extinct volcano of Rocca Monfina, 27 miles by rail west north west of Caserta and 202 miles east of Formia by the branch railway to Sparanise, 666 feet... Teano (Roman Teanum Sidicinum), a town of Campania, Italy, in the province of Caserta, 21 miles north-west of that town on the main line to Rome from Naples, forming conjointly with Calvi an episcopal see. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Caprera is a small island of 6 square miles (15. ...


The progress of the Sardinian army compelled Francis II to give up his line along the river, and he eventually took refuge with his best troops in the fortress of Gaeta. His courage boosted by his resolute young wife, Duchess Marie Sophie of Bavaria, Francis mounted a stubborn defense that lasted three months. But European allies refused him aid, food and munitions became scarce, and disease set in, so the garrison was forced to surrender. Nonetheless, ragtag groups of Neapolitans loyal to Francis would fight on against the Italian government for years to come. Francis II (Francesco dAssisi Maria Leopoldo, January 16, 1836 – December 27, 1894), was King of the Two Sicilies from 1859 to 1861. ...


The fall of Gaeta brought the unification movement to the brink of fruition — only Rome and Venetia remained to be added. On February 18, 1861, Victor Emmanuel assembled the deputies of the first Italian Parliament in Turin. On March 17, 1861, the Parliament proclaimed Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy, and on March 27, 1861 Rome was declared Capital of Italy. Three months later Cavour, having seen his life's work nearly complete, died. When he was given the last rites, Cavour purportedly said: "Italy is made. All is safe."[7] Venetia is a name used mostly in a historical context for the area of north-eastern Italy formerly under the control of the Republic of Venice and corresponding approximately to the present-day Italian administrative regions of the Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy Victor Emmanuel II (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820—January 9, 1878) was the King of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia from 1849–1861, and King of Italy from 1861 until his death in 1878. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Roman Question

Main article: Roman Question

Mazzini was discontented with the perpetuation of monarchical government, and continued to agitate for a republic. With the motto "Free from the Alps to the Adriatic," the unification movement set its gaze on Rome and Venice. There were obstacles, though. A challenge against the Pope's temporal domain was viewed with great distrust by Catholics around the world, and French troops were stationed in Rome. Victor Emmanuel was wary of the international repercussions of attacking the Papal States, and discouraged his subjects from participating in revolutionary ventures with such intentions. The Roman Question was a political dispute between the Italian Government and the Papacy from 1861 to 1929. ... Alp redirects here. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...


Nonetheless, Garibaldi believed that the government would support him if he attacked Rome. Frustrated at inaction by the king, and bristling over perceived snubs, he organized a new venture. In June 1862, he sailed from Genoa and landed again at Palermo, where he gathered volunteers for the campaign, under the slogan Roma o Morte (Rome or Death). The garrison of Messina, loyal to the king's instructions, barred their passage to the mainland. Garibaldi's force, now numbering two thousand, turned south and set sail from Catania. Garibaldi declared that he would enter Rome as a victor or perish beneath its walls. He landed at Melito on August 14, and marched at once into the Calabrian mountains. The Roman Odeon. ... Country Italy Region Calabria Province Province of Reggio Calabria (RC) Mayor Elevation 28 m Area 35. ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ...


Far from supporting this endeavour, the Italian government was quite disapproving. General Cialdini dispatched a division of the regular army, under Colonel Pallavicino, against the volunteer bands. On August 28 the two forces met in the Aspromonte. One of the regulars fired a chance shot, and several volleys followed, but Garibaldi forbade his men to return fire on fellow subjects of the Kingdom of Italy. The volunteers suffered several casualties, and Garibaldi himself was wounded; many were taken prisoner. Garibaldi was taken by steamer to Varignano, where he was honorably imprisoned for a time, but finally released. is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aspromonte is a mountain close by Reggio, overlooking the Strait of Messina, near which Garibaldi was defeated and captured in 1862 in the Battle of Aspromonte. ... Arco is a comune in the autonomous province of Trento in Italy. ...


Meanwhile, Victor Emmanuel sought a safer means to the acquisition of the Papal States. He negotiated the removal of the French troops from Rome through a treaty, the September Convention, with Napoleon III in September 1864, by which the emperor agreed to withdraw his troops within two years. The pope was to expand his own army during that time so as to be self-sufficient. In December 1866, the last of the French troops departed from Rome, in spite of the efforts of the pope to retain them. By their withdrawal Italy was freed from the presence of foreign soldiers for the first time probably in a thousand years. The September Convention was a treaty concluded in September 1864 between the Papal States and the new Kingdom of Italy, which had recently been founded after the Kingdom of Sardinia annexed most of the small states in the Italian peninsula and most of the territory of the Papal States. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ...


The seat of government was moved in 1865 from Turin, the old Sardinian capital, to Florence, where the first Italian parliament was summoned. This arrangement created such disturbances in Turin that the king was forced to leave that city hastily for his new capital. For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


Third Independence War (1866)

In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Austria contested with Prussia the position of leadership among the German states. The Kingdom of Italy seized the opportunity to capture Venetia from Austrian rule and allied itself with Prussia. Austria tried to convince the Italian government to accept Venetia in exchange for non-intervention. However, on April 8, Italy and Prussia signed an agreement that supported Italy's acquisition of Venetia, and on June 20, Italy declared war on Austria. Within the context of Italian unification, the Austro-Prussian war is called Third Independence War, after the First (1848) and the Second (1859–61). The Third Italian War of Independence was a conflict which paralleled the Austro-Prussian War, and was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Venetia is a name used mostly in a historical context for the area of north-eastern Italy formerly under the control of the Republic of Venice and corresponding approximately to the present-day Italian administrative regions of the Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Victor Emmanuel hastened to lead an army across the Mincio to the invasion of Venetia, while Garibaldi was to invade the Tyrol with his Hunters of the Alps. The enterprise ended in disaster. The Italian army encountered the Austrians at Custoza on June 24 and suffered a defeat. On July 20 the Regia Marina was defeated in the battle of Lissa. Italy's fortunes were not all so dismal, though. The following day, Garibaldi's volunteers defeated an Austrian force in the battle of Bezzecca, and moved toward Trento. Mincio (IPA: ) is a river in the Lombardy region of northern Italy. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and... The Hunters of the Alps (Cacciatori delle alpi) was a special corp created by Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1859 to help the regular army to free the northern part of Italy. ... Combatants Italy Austria Commanders Alfonso Ferrero la Marmora Archduke Albert of Habsburg Strength 120,000[1] 75,000 Casualties 8,147 dead, wounded, or captured 4,650 dead or wounded The Battle of Custoza took place on 24 June 1866 during the Third Italian Independence War in the Italian unification... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ... Combatants Italy Austria Commanders Carlo di Persano Wilhelm von Tegetthoff Strength 12 ironclads 10 cruisers 4 gunboats (approx 68,000 tons) 7 ironclads 1 steam battleship 6 cruisers 12 gunboats (approx 50,000 tons) Casualties 2 ironclads sunk 620 dead 40 wounded 38 dead 138 wounded The Battle of Lissa... Combatants Italy Austria Commanders Giuseppe Garibaldi Franz Kuhn The Battle of Bezzecca was fought on July 21, 1866 between Italy and Austria. ... Trento (Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Trent or Trènt) is an Italian city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. ...


Meanwhile, Prussian Prime Minister Bismarck saw that his own ends in the war had been achieved, and signed an armistice with Austria on July 26. Italy officially laid down its arms on August 12. Garibaldi was called back from his successful march and resigned with a brief telegram reading only "Obbedisco" ("I obey"). Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In spite of Italy's poor showing, Prussia's success on the northern front obligated Austria to cede Venetia. Under the terms of a peace treaty signed in Vienna on October 12, Emperor Franz Joseph had already agreed to cede Venetia to Napoleon III in exchange for non-intervention in the Austro-Prussian War and thus Napoleon III ceded Venetia to Italy on October 19 in exchange for the earlier Italian acquiescence to the French annexation of Savoy. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Franz Joseph I Franz Joseph (in English also Francis Joseph) (August 18, 1830 - November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ...


In the peace treaty of Vienna, it was written that the annexation of Venetia would have become effective only after a referendum — taken on October 21 and October 22 — to let the Venetian people express their will about being annexed or not to the Kingdom of Italy. Some historians suggest that the referendum in Venetia was held under military pressure,[8] as a mere 0.01% of voters (69 out of more than 642,000 ballots) voted against the annexation. [9] Many Venetian independence movements (see Venetism) refer to this deceit to claim for independence of Veneto. is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Venetism is a term used to define an autonomist movement demanding more autonomy for Veneto from Rome, if not the independence, refusing the validity of the result of the referendum with which Veneto was united with Italy in 1866 and wanting to re-discover the Republic of Venices traditions...


Austrian forces put up some opposition to the invading Italians, to little effect. Victor Emmanuel entered Venice in triumph, and performed an act of homage in the Piazza San Marco. Piazza San Marco with the Basilica, by Canaletto, 1730, looking just as it does today. ...


Rome

Mentana and Villa Glori

The national party, with Garibaldi at its head, still aimed at the possession of Rome, as the historic capital of the peninsula. In 1867 Garibaldi made a second attempt to capture Rome, but the papal army, strengthened with a new French auxiliary force, defeated his badly armed volunteers at Mentana. Subsequently, a French garrison remained in Civitavecchia until August 1870, when it was recalled following the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000...

Battle of Mentana.
Battle of Mentana.

Before the defeat at Mentana, Enrico Cairoli, his brother Giovanni and 70 companions had made a daring attempt to take Rome. The group had embarked in Terni and floated down the Tiber. Their arrival in Rome was to coincide with an uprising inside the city. On 22 October 1867, the revolutionaries inside Rome seized control of the Capitoline Hill and of Piazza Colonna. Unfortunately, when the Cairoli and their companions arrived at Villa Glori, on the northern outskirts of Rome, the uprising had already been suppressed. During the night of 22 October 1867, the group was surrounded by papal Zouaves, and Giovanni was severely wounded. Enrico was mortally wounded and bled to death in Giovanni's arms. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Italian volunteers France, Papal States Commanders Giuseppe Garibaldi Hermann Kanzler, Balthazar Alban Gabriel, baron de Polhès Strength ~8,100 ~22,000[1] The Battle of Mentana was fought on November 3, 1867 between French-Papal troops and the Italian volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, who were attempting to... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


At the summit of Villa Glori, near the spot where Enrico died, there is a plain white column dedicated to the Cairoli brothers and their 70 companions. About 100 meters to the left from the top of the Spanish Steps, there is a bronze monument of Giovanni holding the dying Enrico in his arm. A plaque lists the names of their companions. Giovanni never recovered from his wounds and from the tragic events of 1867. According to an eyewitness[10], when Giovanni died on 11 September 1869: is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

Negli ultimi momenti gli parve vedere Garibaldi e fece vista di accoglierlo con trasporto. Udii (così narra un amico presente) che disse tre volte: "L'unione dei francesi ai papalini fu il fatto terribile!" pensava a Mentana. Chiamò più volte Enrico, suo fratello, "perché lo aiutasse!" poi disse: "ma vinceremo di certo; andremo a Roma!"
In the last moments, he had a vision of Garibaldi and seemed to greet him with enthusiasm. I heard (so says a friend who was present) him say three times: "The union of the French to the papal political supporters was the terrible fact!" he was thinking about Mentana. Many times he called Enrico, that he might help him! then he said: "but we will certainly win; we will go to Rome!"

Capture of Rome

Main article: Capture of Rome

In July 1870, the Franco-Prussian War began. In early August, the French Emperor Napoleon III recalled his garrison from Rome, thus no longer providing protection to the Papal State. Widespread public demonstrations illustrate the demand that the Italian government take Rome. The Italian government took no direct action until the collapse of the Second French Empire at the Battle of Sedan. King Victor Emmanuel II sent Count Ponza di San Martino to Pius IX with a personal letter offering a face-saving proposal that would have allowed the peaceful entry of the Italian Army into Rome, under the guise of offering protection to the pope. The Papacy, however, exhibited something less than enthusiasm for the plan: The breach of Porta Pia, on the right, in a contemporary photograph. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Combatants Prussia Bavaria France Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Napoleon III Patrice MacMahon Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot Strength 200,000 774 cannon 120,000 564 cannon Casualties 2,320 dead 5,980 wounded 700 missing (9,000 total) 3,000 dead 14,000 wounded 21,000 captured 82,000 surrendered... The Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, ( May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878) was pope for a record pontificate of over 31 years, from June 16, 1846 until his death. ...

The Pope’s reception of San Martino (10 September 1870) was unfriendly. Pius IX allowed violent outbursts to escape him. Throwing the King’s letter upon the table he exclaimed, "Fine loyalty! You are all a set of vipers, of whited sepulchres, and wanting in faith." He was perhaps alluding to other letters received from the King. After, growing calmer, he exclaimed: "I am no prophet, nor son of a prophet, but I tell you, you will never enter Rome!" San Martino was so mortified that he left the next day.[11]

The Italian Army, commanded by General Raffaele Cadorna, crossed the papal frontier on 11 September and advanced slowly toward Rome, hoping that a peaceful entry could be negotiated. The Italian Army reached the Aurelian Walls on 19 September and placed Rome under a state of siege. Although now convinced of his unavoidable defeat, Pius IX remained intransigent to the bitter end and forced his troops to put up a token resistance. On September 20, after a cannonade of three hours had breached the Aurelian Walls at Porta Pia, the Bersaglieri entered Rome and marched down Via Pia, which was subsequently renamed Via XX Settembre. 49 Italian soldiers and four officers, and 19 papal troops died. Rome and Latium were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy after a plebiscite held on October 9. is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Raffaele Cadorna (1815-1897) was an Piedmontese general who served as one of the major Italian leaders responsible for the unification of Italy during the mid-19th century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... South section of the walls The Aurelian Walls were city walls built between 270 and 273 in Rome during the reign of the Roman Emperor Aurelian. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... South section of the walls The Aurelian Walls were city walls built between 270 and 273 in Rome during the reign of the Roman Emperor Aurelian. ... The internal face of Porta Pia Porta Pia, new gate in the Aurelian Walls. ... The Bersaglieri are a corps of the Italian army created by General Alessandro Lamarmora in 1836. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Initially the Italian government had offered to let the pope keep Leonine City, but the Pope rejected the offer because acceptance would have been an implied endorsement of the legitimacy of the Italian kingdom's rule over his former domain. Pius IX declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican, although he was not actually restrained from coming and going. Rather, being deposed and stripped of much of his former power also removed a measure of personal protection — if he had walked the streets of Rome he might have been in danger from political opponents who had formerly kept their views private. Officially, the capital was not moved from Florence to Rome until July 1871. The Leonine City is that part of the city of Rome around which Pope Leo IV commissioned the construction of a wall for military defense during the 9th century. ... A prisoner in the Vatican is the description given to the popes from Pope Pius IX through Pius XI, after the invading armies of King Victor Emmanuel II captured the Papal States and ended the millenial temporal rule of the popes (see Italian unification). ...


Historian Raffaele de Cesare made the following observations about Italian unification:

The Roman question was the stone tied to Napoleon’s feet — that dragged him into the abyss. He never forgot, even in August 1870, a month before Sedan, that he was a sovereign of a Catholic country, that he had been made Emperor, and was supported by the votes of the Conservatives and the influence of the clergy; and that it was his supreme duty not to abandon the Pontiff. [12]
For twenty years Napoleon III had been the true sovereign of Rome, where he had many friends and relations…. Without him the temporal power would never have been reconstituted, nor, being reconstituted, would have endured. [13]

Risorgimento in the Modern era

The process of unification of the Italian people in a national State was not completed in the nineteenth century. Many Italians remained outside the borders of the Kingdom of Italy and this situation created the Italian irredentism. Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ...

Dialects of the Italians during the unification of Italy
Dialects of the Italians during the unification of Italy

Italia irredenta (Unredeemed Italy) was an Italian nationalist opinion movement that emerged after Italian unification. It advocated irredentism among the Italian people as well as other nationalities who were willing to become Italian and as a movement; it is also known as "Italian irredentism." Not a formal organization, it was just an opinion movement that claimed that Italy had to reach its "natural borders". Similar patriotic and nationalistic ideas were common in Europe in the 19th century. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 475 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (609 × 768 pixels, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) dialetti italiani 1935 source: author: G. Tagliavicini (died in 1928). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 475 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (609 × 768 pixels, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) dialetti italiani 1935 source: author: G. Tagliavicini (died in 1928). ... Italia Irredenta (English: Unredeemed Italy) was an Italian patriotic and political party, which was of importance in the last quarter of the 19th century. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ...


Irredentism and the two World Wars

Italian irredentism succeeded in World War I with the annexation of Trieste and Trento, with the respective territories of Venezia Giulia and Trentino. During the post-unification era, some Italians were unsatisfied with the current state of the Italian Kingdom since they wanted the kingdom to include Trieste, Istria and other areas around as well. This discontent was finally resolved with the annexation of the region. irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Trento (Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Trent or Trènt) is an Italian city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. ... Venezia Giulia is region in the easternmost part of Italy. ... Trentino-Alto Adige or Trentino-South Tyrol (in German: Trentino-Südtirol, in Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige) is an autonomous region in northern Italy. ...


The Kingdom of Italy had declared neutrality at the beginning of the war, officially because the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary was a defensive one, requiring its members to come under attack first. Many Italians were still hostile to Austrian historical and continuing occupations of ethnically Italian areas, and Italy chose not to enter. Austria-Hungary requested Italian neutrality, while the Triple Entente (which included Great Britain, France and Russia) its intervention. With the London Pact, signed in April 1915, Italy accepted to declare war against the Central Powers, in exchange for the irredent territories of Friuli, Trentino and Dalmatia (see Italia irredenta). There have been numerous alliances known as the Triple Alliance: Aztec Triple Alliance - Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopán. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra) was a secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in London on April 26, 1915 by Italy, Great Britain, France and Russia. ... Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I European military alliances in 1914. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Italia Irredenta (English: Unredeemed Italy) was an Italian patriotic and political party, which was of importance in the last quarter of the 19th century. ...


Italian irredentism obtained an important result after World War I, when Italy gained Trieste, Gorizia, Istria and the city of Zara. During WWII, after the Axis aggresion against Yugoslavia, Italy created the "Governatorato di Dalmazia" (from 1941 to September 1943), so the Kingdom of Italy annexed temporarily even Spalato (Split), Cattaro (Kotor) and most of coastal Dalmatia. From 1942 to 1943 even Corsica (Corse) and Nizza (Nice) were temporarily annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, nearly totally fulfilling in those years the requests of the Italian irredentism. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Gorizia (Slovenian: Gorica, German: Görz, Friulian: Gurize) is a small town at the foot of the Alps, in northeastern Italy, on the border with Slovenia. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... For other uses, see Zadar (disambiguation). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Kotor. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... This article is about the Mediterranean island. ... Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ...

The Vittoriano in Rome, the architectural symbol of the Risorgimento, built after the italian victory in WWI
The Vittoriano in Rome, the architectural symbol of the Risorgimento, built after the italian victory in WWI

The movement had for its avowed purpose the emancipation of all Italian lands still subject to foreign rule after Italian unification. The Irredentists took language as the test of the alleged Italian nationality of the countries they proposed to emancipate, which were Trentino, Trieste, Dalmatia, Istria, Gorizia, Ticino, Nice (Nizza), Corsica and Malta. Austria-Hungary promoted Croatian interests in Dalmatia and Istria to weaken Italian claims in the western Balkans before WWI. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2016x1338, 1354 KB) Oggetto Rome, Monument to king Vittorio Emanuele II (Vittoriano or Altare della Patria) at sunset. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2016x1338, 1354 KB) Oggetto Rome, Monument to king Vittorio Emanuele II (Vittoriano or Altare della Patria) at sunset. ... Trentino-Alto Adige or Trentino-South Tyrol (in German: Trentino-Südtirol, in Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige) is an autonomous region in northern Italy. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Gorizia (Slovenian: Gorica, German: Görz, Friulian: Gurize) is a small town at the foot of the Alps, in northeastern Italy, on the border with Slovenia. ... For the river, see Ticino river. ... Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Balkan redirects here. ...


After World War II

After WWII the irredentism movement faded away in Italian politics. Only a few thousand Italians remain in Istria and Dalmatia as a consequence of the Italian defeat in WWII and of the slaughter of approximately 2,000 Italians (mostly soldiers) and the subsequent choice of Italian citizenship by an additional 200,000 - 250,000 people in what became known as the Istrian exodus. Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Italians in Istria in 1910. ...


Secession movements

The Italian unification process was generally popular with contemporary people living in the Italian peninsula, especially with regard to the end to Austrian rule. Nevertheless, dissenters were present in the 19th century (in particular, the rulers of the annexed states), and regionalist sympathies continue to the present day. There are two chief secession movements (that reach less than 5% of the national electoral votes) represented by active political parties: one in the North (Lega Nord), and one in the South (Due Sicilie). This southern secession movement was mainly the result of peasants revolting against the new government. The former has elected several representatives to the national parliament. The Lega Nord (Northern League, LN), whose complete name is Lega Nord for the Independence of Padania, is an Italian political party founded in 1991 as a federation of several regional parties in northern Italy, most of which had arisen, and all of which had expanded their share of the... Due Sicilie (Italian for Two Sicilies) is a secession movement in southern Italy. ...


The Italian region of Alto Adige/South Tyrol had a strong secession movement, headed by the Austro-Germanic majority in the region, for unification with Austria. The movement was strongest after the Second World War. Secessionist parties still exist, but the secessionist movement has been mostly pacified by the granting of substantial autonomy by the Italian government. The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen[1][2] (Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: Provinzia autonòma de Balsan), also called Alto Adige (Italian: Alto Adige; German: Hochetsch or Oberetsch; Ladin: Adesc Aut[3] ) or South Tyrol (Italian: Sudtirolo; German: Südtirol; Ladin: Sudtirol), is an autonomous province of Italy. ...


Italy in the European Union

In the last fifty years the process of unification of Italy merged with the process of European unification, and Italy was one of the founding members of the European Economic Community. Ideas similar to those that promoted the Risorgimento among the Italian people are in part responsible for the wide acceptance in Italy of the political ideas related to the formation of the European Union. The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ...


Maps of italian unification

Notes

  1. ^ Proclamation of Rimini (1815). Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  2. ^ Astarita, Tommaso (2000). Between Salt Water And Holy Water: A History Of Southern Italy, p. 264. 
  3. ^ E.E.Y. Hales (1954). Pio Nono: A Study in European Politics and Religion in the Nineteenth Century. P.J. Kenedy. 
  4. ^ Ridley, Jasper. Garibaldi, p. 268. 
  5. ^ Constituzione
  6. ^ Hayes, Brian J. (2008). [http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/history/italian_unification.html Italian Unification. Cavour, Garibaldi and the Making of Italy]. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  7. ^ Holt, Edgar (1971). The Making of Italy: 1815-1870. New York: Murray Printing Company, p.258. 
  8. ^ G. Thaon di Revel: "La cessione del Veneto - ricordi di un commissario piemontese incaricato alle trattative" (translation: "The cession of Veneto - memories of the piedmontese commissary for the negotiations"). Academic Press, 2002
  9. ^ Beggiato, E.: "1866: la grande truffa" (translation: "1866: the great deceit"). Venice Academic Press, 1999
  10. ^ Michele Rosi, I Cairoli, L. Capelli Ed., Bologna, 1929, pp223–224
  11. ^ De Cesare, Raffaele (1909). The Last Days of Papal Rome. Archibald Constable & Co, p. 444. 
  12. ^ De Cesare, Raffaele (1909). The Last Days of Papal Rome. Archibald Constable & Co, p. 440. 
  13. ^ De Cesare, Raffaele (1909). The Last Days of Papal Rome. Archibald Constable & Co, p. 443. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Banti, Alberto Mario. La nazione del Risorgimento: parentela, santità e onore alle origini dell'Italia unita. Torino, Einaudi, 2000 (Biblioteca di cultura storica; 225)
  • Banti, Alberto Mario. Il Risorgimento italiano. Roma-Bari, Laterza, 2004 (Quadrante Laterza; 125)
  • Davis, John A. Italy in the Ninetenth Century. London: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • De Cesare, Raffaele. The Last Days of Papal Rome, Archibald Constable & Co, London (1909)
  • Ghisalberti, Carlo. Istituzioni e società civile nell'età del Risorgimento. Roma-Bari, Laterza, 2005 (Biblioteca universale Laterza; 575)
  • Hales, E.E.Y. Pio Nono: A Study in European Politics and Religion in the Nineteenth Century. P.J. Kenedy, 1954.
  • Hales, E.E.Y. The Catholic Church in the Modern World. New York: Doubleday, 1958.
  • Holt, Edgar. The Making of Italy 1815–1870, New York: Atheneum, 1971.
  • Peruta, Franco Della. L'Italia del Risorgimento: problemi, momenti e figure. Milano, Angeli, 1997 (Saggi di storia; 14)
  • Peruta, Franco Della. Conservatori, liberali e democratici nel Risorgimento. Milano, Angeli, 1989 (Storia; 131)
  • Riall, Lucy. Il Risorgimento: storia e interpretazioni. Roma, Donzelli, 1997 (Universale; 2)
  • Romeo, Rosario. Risorgimento e capitalismo. Roma-Bari, Laterza, 1998 (Economica Laterza; 144) (1ª ed. 1959)
  • Scirocco, Alfonso. L'Italia del risorgimento: 1800-1860. (vol. 1 di Storia d'Italia dall'unità alla Repubblica), Bologna, Il mulino, 1990 (Le vie della civiltà)
  • Scirocco, Alfonso. In difesa del Risorgimento. Bologna, Il mulino, 1998 (Collana di storia contemporanea)
  • Smith, Denis Mack. Il Risorgimento italiano: storia e testi. (Nuova ediz.), Roma-Bari, Laterza, 1999 (Storia e società)
  • Woolf, Stuart J. Il risorgimento italiano. Torino, Einaudi, 1981 (Piccola biblioteca Einaudi; 420)

Edward Elton Young Hales was an English Catholic historian. ... Edward Elton Young Hales was an English Catholic historian. ...

See also

Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian patriot and General of the Risorgimento. ... Giuseppe Mazzini (June 22, 1805 – March 10, 1872) was an Italian patriot, philosopher and politician. ... For the aircraft carrier, see Cavour (550). ... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy Victor Emmanuel II (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820—January 9, 1878) was the King of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia from 1849–1861, and King of Italy from 1861 until his death in 1878. ... The birth of the Italian Republic (officially on June 2, 1946) is a key event of Italian contemporary history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... The Roman Question was a political dispute between the Italian Government and the Papacy from 1861 to 1929. ... This is a list of currently active autonomist and secessionist movements around the world. ... // The Italian states in 1848 As with Germany, there was no Italy at the time of the Revolutions of 1848, but a hodge-podge of states. ...

External links


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