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Encyclopedia > Italian people
Italians
(Italiani)

Total population

120 - 140 million (est.) Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. ... Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (February 18, 1745 - March 5, 1827) was an Italian physicist known especially for the development of the electric battery in 1800. ... Guglielmo Marconi, Marchese, GCVO (25 April 1874-20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor, best known for his development of a radiotelegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide. ... The Mona Lisa Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer. ... Giordano Bruno. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Italy Italy      56 million (95% population of Italy)
Flag of Brazil Brazil 25 million [7]
Flag of Argentina Argentina 18 million
Flag of the United States United States 16.6 million [8]
Flag of France France 1.5 million (see note) [9]
Flag of Venezuela Venezuela 1-2 million
Flag of Uruguay Uruguay 1.5 million
Flag of Canada Canada 1.3 million [10]
Flag of Australia Australia 1 million [11]
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 750,000 [1]
Flag of Germany Germany 611,000 [12]
Flag of Belgium Belgium 280,000 [13]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 133,000 [13]
Flag of Chile Chile 150,000 [13]
Flag of Paraguay Paraguay 100,000
Flag of Spain Spain 95,337 [14]
Flag of South Africa South Africa 35,000 [13]
Flag of Mexico Mexico 30,000 [15]
Flag of San Marino San Marino 28,000
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 20,000
Flag of Croatia Croatia 19,636 [16]
Flag of Monaco Monaco 10,500 [17]
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand 5,000
Languages
Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian
Religions

predominantly Roman Catholic Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Marino. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: ) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); close dialects are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, parts of Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Emiliano-Romagnolo language is spoken by about 2 million people in the Emilia-Romagna region of northwestern Italy. ... The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related dialects spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions), in Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... Piedmontese (also known as Piemontèis, and Piemontese in Italian) is a language spoken by over 2 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-South Tyrol and Veneto. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


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The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. Their native language is Italian, and historically Italian dialects and languages. Their religion is predominantly Roman Catholic. Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... The term Italian Diaspora refers to the large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy in the period roughly between the unification of Italy in 1861 and the beginning of World War I in 1914. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1], Central America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


The Italian people have varied origins, due to Italy's long history. Northern Italy had a strong Celtic presence until the Romans conquered and colonised the area in the 2nd century BC, which lead to thousands of Romans and Italians migrating to the North. The Central portion of the Italian peninsula was settled by the Etruscans and Latin peoples. The South was mostly Greek and other Italic peoples such as the Bruttii and Samnites. Sicily was predominately Greek in the East and coastal areas and a had a strong Phoenician presence known as the Carthaginians in the West of Sicily. The appellation Italian is possibly derived from the Greeks who used the term to describe the Ancient Italic peoples, who pre-date the coming of Indo-European languages. This article is about the European people. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Look up Italic, italic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Bruttii The Bruttii were an ancient people of southern Italy, occupying the interior of Bruttium (modern Calabria). ... Samnite warriors Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south... Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ...


There are almost 56 million autochthonous Italians in Italy, about 750,000 Italians in Switzerland,[1] and about 28,000 in San Marino. There is also a large but undefined, autochthonous population in France (Nice, Corsica, Savoie). Smaller groups can also be found in Slovenia and Croatia. There is a notable population of Italian descent in Brazil (Italian Brazilians), Argentina, the United States (Italian Americans), Venezuela, Uruguay, Canada (Italian Canadians), Australia (Italian Australians), and throughout Europe- mainly in Belgium, United Kingdom (Italian-Scots/Britalian), France and Germany (Italo-Germans). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Corsican” redirects here. ... Savoie is a French département located in the Alps. ... Italian Brazilian (Italian: italiano-brasiliano, Portuguese: ítalo-brasileiro) is an Italian born in Brazil. ... An Italian-American is an American of Italian descent either born in America or someone who has immigrated. ... Italian-Canadians are Canadians of Italian descent. ... It has been suggested that List of Italian Australians be merged into this article or section. ... Italian-Scots, or Scots-Italian, designates an ethnic minority of Scottish and Italian descent. ... Italian Briton, British Italian are citizens of the United Kingdom whose ancestry originates in Italy. ... Italo-Germans is the term to describe people of a social identity with backgrounds in Italy and Germany. ...

Contents

Historical background

Main article: History of Italy

The history of the Italian people is ancient and stretches back millennia to Paleolithic times. With the rise of agriculture by the 6th millennium BC, Italy's population grew. Indo-European languages reached Italy between 2000 and 1200 BC and their speakers mingled with the local Italic tribes. The Bronze Age by the 2nd millennium BC shows mutual influences involving the Aegean and the first folks of the Italian Peninsula and his islands. Minoan and Mycenaean influences can be seen in archaeological finds in the Lipari islands near Sicily, while Sardinian influences can be found in the Greek buildings and artcrafts of Mycenae and Minoa. While, early Latin peoples dominated the north, Greeks settled parts of the south Italy and the small islands of Sicily. The use of iron is seen as evidence of a strong influence from the north as the Latin language developed near the Tiber region. United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... This cranium, of Homo heidelbergensis, a Lower Paleolithic predecessor to Homo neanderthalensis, dates to between 400,000 BCE to 500,000 BCE The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... The Minoan Civilisation was a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization which arose on Crete, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... Lipari Castle above the town of Lipari. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The term Sardinian can refer to either: Sardinia the Sardinian language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, (Latium Vetus - Old Latium), in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balkanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Tiber River in Rome The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis), the third-longest river in Italy at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that cross the suburbs...


By the 8th century BC, ancient Rome bore, while Phoenician Semites settled the wetsern part of Sicily and the Greek colonists settled in eastern Sicily and along the coast near modern Naples. These early Greeks formed independent city-states that often fought each other, but mainly prospered as more Greeks arrived due to overpopulation and political struggles in Greece. Around the same time period, Etruscans began to develop a state of their own. The origins of the Etruscans remain a mystery; speculation points towards their early forebears coming from Lydia or Troy in western Anatolia, while other sources contend that they were an indigenous Italian people. Etruscan language remains undeciphered. Trade with the Greeks to the south brought prosperity to Italy. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC Etruscan was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of what are now Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy. ...


Etruscans and Greeks began to lose their holdings in Italy as Gauls (a Celtic group) invaded the north and Romans overthrew their Etruscan rulers to become masters of the peninsula. From 509 to 202 BC, the Roman Republic conquered all of Italy and engaged in the Punic wars led by Scipio Africanus against Carthage and the legendary general Hannibal Barca. The Romans prevailed and ended Carthaginian power, to become masters of the Mediterranean and North Africa. More territory was acquired throughout the republican era by gifted generals such as Gaius Marius, Pompey the Great and Julius Caesar including the Near East and much of Europe. This expansion led to the start of a new empire the likes of which had not been seen in Europe. Until the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius,the Roman Empire which lasted from 27 BC to 476 AD knew few rivals in the world. It slowly declined due to Germanic invaders from the north, pressures from the Persians in the east and most importantly, an enormous economic recession in part caused by the weak central government, outsourcing of their military and massive civil wars of the 3rd Century. Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the European people. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Hannibal Barca (247 BC – c. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article refers to the Roman General. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ...


Remnants of the empire survived and during the reign of Constantine I The Christian faith emerged as the main religion and completely transformed the early Italians. Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Lombards, and other Germanic peoples conquered Italy in the 5th and 6th centuries, but were themselves romanized. Bulgars also came with the Lombards. A small group, Alcek (also transliterated as 'Altsek' and 'Altzek'), led by Emnetzur, settled in northeast of Naples.[2] Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Romanization was a gradual process of cultural assimilation, in which the conquered barbarians (non-Greco-Romans) gradually adopted and largely replaced their own native culture (which in many cases were quite developed, like the culture of the Gauls or Carthage) with the culture of their conquerors - the Romans. ...


In 652 AD, the island of Sicily was invaded starting the period of Arab influence in Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia and Apulia especially Bari. When the Normans (a Christian people of Viking origins) conquered the Arab controlled regions they began an extensive system of conversion of the Siculo muslims, converting the majority of the populations island and sending the few remaining Muslims into Lucera in Southern Italy and some returned to North Africa. Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... “Corsican” redirects here. ... Cagliari, the chief town. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... Norman conquests in red. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors, pirates and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia (referred to as Varangians by the Russian Primary... Siculo Arabic was a dialect of Arabic spoken in Sicily between the ninth and the fourteenth centuries. ... Country Italy Region Puglia Province Foggia (FO) Mayor Elevation 250 m Area 338 km² Population  - Total (as of 2005) 34,911  - Density 103/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Lucerini Dialing code 0881 Postal code 71036 Frazioni Regente, San Giusto Patron Santa Maria  - Day August 15 Location of...


Also to note in the early 16th century, the expanding Spanish Empire included the southern half of Italy (i.e. Calabria, Naples, Apulia, Sardinia and Sicily) and some Spanish features in culture and language appeared in local identities, though Spanish rule in southern Italy (later they became the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies) lasted only until the late 1700s. [citation needed] Capital Toledo (1492-1561) Madrid (since 1561) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1516-1556 Charles I  - 1886-1902 Maria Christina of Austria, Regent during the minority of king Alphonse XIII History  - Discovery of the Americas 1492  - Conquest of the Aztec Empire 1519-1521  - Conquest of the... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the new name that the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV of Naples gave to his domain (including Southern Italy and Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration of his power in 1816. ...


Italy emerged from the Middle Ages as an important centre of religion, as the Papacy gave the region significant political clout and authority throughout the Christian world. The Normans conquered southern Italy and Sicily by the 11th century, but over time they were absorbed by the local population. Numerous city-states maintained a high degree of autonomy that led to literally hundreds of Italian dialects that were often unintelligible to other Italians. The age of the Renaissance can be traced to the creative and commercial activity that began in Italy with the international trade and exchange of ideas coming through the powerful city-states such as Florence, Milan, Rome and Venice. The Italian Renaissance was carried later in France, UK, Spain and Denmark. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Kingdom of Sicily (in green) in 1154, representing the extent of Norman conquest in Italy. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ...


By the 15th century, many of the Italian city-states began to be dominated by the "Principati" (regional States). This system of regional States (Milan, Venice, Florence, Rome, Naples) maintained a political balance for most of the 15th Century, but experienced a sharp crisis following 1498 (French invasion). The Italian Wars, fought by the nation-states of Spain and France, in movable alliances with the Italian states, gave way to the predominance of Spain and then of the Habsburg Austrian Empire until the rise of Italian nationalism. Napoleon's efforts in fusing Italy into a single unit inspired many local nationalists in both the north and south to seek some form of unification. This risorgimento period in the 19th century was, for various reasons, supported by France and Great Britain, while the Habsburg Empire was the principal target of conspirations and insurrections. Italy with the exception of Rome and Venice became a nation-state led by the King of Sardinia, from the House of Savoy in 1861 and other charismatic leaders such as Giuseppe Garibaldi and his famous redshirts. After ten years of resistance from the Pope and the clergy, Rome was incorporated with the rest of Italy and made the capital of the new state, Italy was finally unified for the first time since the end of the 6th century AD. Major changes began to unfold in 1896, the country experienced unparalleled industrial growth and social progress. Following numerous conflicts including World War I, the Axis Alliance in World War II along with the rise and fall of a short lived Italian Empire, Italy emerged in its modern incarnation with borders that largely corresponded to an Italian majority population. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Garibaldi in 1866. ... Redshirts ( ) is the name given to the volunteers who followed Giuseppe Garibaldi in southern Italy during his Mille expedition to southern Italy, but sometimes extended to other campaigns of him. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Axis Powers is a term for the loose alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Italian empire in 1940 The Italian Empire was a 20th century empire, which lasted from 9 May 1936 to September 1943. ...


Origins of Italian people

The Italian peninsula has been populated by a number of people throughout history besides the original Italic tribes. The Gauls in the north, the Etruscans in Central Italy (Tuscany and parts of Umbria and Latium) and the Phoenician Semites in Sicily and Greeks in the south preceded the Romans, who in turn "Latinized" the whole country and preserved unity until the 5th century AD. Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Central Italy, encompasses six of the countrys 20 autonomous regions: Abruzzo Lazio Marche Molise Toscana Umbria Although the regions of Abruzzo and Molise are geographically located in Central Italy, the European office for statistics (Eurostat) lists these two regions within Southern Italy. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Semitic is an adjective which in common parlance mistakenly refers specifically to Jewish things, while the term actually refers to things originating among speakers of Semitic languages or people descended from them, and in a linguistic context to the northeastern subfamily of Afro-Asiatic. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


After the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West in 476 AD, the Italian peninsula was invaded by Germanic peoples crossing the Alps, establishing settlements in north-central Italy and to a lesser degree in the south. The Germanic tribes underwent rapid Latinisation and were assimilated into the native Latin-speaking majority. There is a German minority in Northern Italy. Most Italians are descended from the Romans [citation needed]. The Roman Empire encompassed a large number of people that included Greeks, Germans, North Africans, Celts, Jews and Syrians, evident by the multi-ethnicity of the Roman emperors, which for centuries prior was ruled only by Romans and Italians until the reign of Septimius Severus in 197 AD. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In literature, latinisation is the practice of writing a name in a Latin style when writing in Latin so as to more closely emulate Latin authors, or to present a more impressive image. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... “Celts” redirects here. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ...


The Byzantine Greeks were an important power in Italy for five centuries, fighting for supremacy first against the Ostrogoths and later against the Germanic Lombards of Benevento. Greek speakers were fairly common in Calabria and Apulia until the 11th century when their rule ended: a few small Greek-speaking communities still exist in southern Italy and Sicily. Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, southern Balkans, the Greek islands, the coasts of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the large urban centres of Near East and... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Benevento is a town and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. ... Cliffside dwellings in Tropea. ... This article is about the Italian region. ...


In 652 AD, the island of Sicily was invaded starting the period of Arab influence in Sicily and Apulia especially Bari. Arabs, Jews and Berbers settled Sicily and Apulia until the Norman Christians (of Viking and Celtic origin) conquered much of southern Italy and Sicily and began converting the mahority of Arab and Siculo muslim population and sending the remaining Muslims into exile in Lucera were they lived until the 14th century. Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors, pirates and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia (referred to as Varangians by the Russian Primary... This article is about the European people. ... Siculo Arabic was a dialect of Arabic spoken in Sicily between the ninth and the fourteenth centuries. ... Country Italy Region Puglia Province Foggia (FO) Mayor Elevation 250 m Area 338 km² Population  - Total (as of 2005) 34,911  - Density 103/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Lucerini Dialing code 0881 Postal code 71036 Frazioni Regente, San Giusto Patron Santa Maria  - Day August 15 Location of...


Starting from the 15th to 16th centuries, southern Italy especially experienced a wave of refugees from Albania where their descendants, language, customs and religious elements still exist in communities in Calabria, Apulia and Sicily, and are collectively know as Arbereshe. Cliffside dwellings in Tropea. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Arbëreshë are Albanian people living in southern Italy. ...


There are still small Greek fishing villages, Maltese-Italian residents whose family originated from Malta under Italian and then British rule from the 18th to the mid 20th centuries, and Catalan communities in Sardinia to this day. The Catalans are an ethnic group or nationality whose homeland is Catalonia, or the Principality of Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya, or Principat de Catalunya), which is a historical region in southern Europe, embracing a territory situated in the north-east of Spain and an adjoining portion of southern France. ... Cagliari, the chief town. ...


For more than 500 years (12th to 17th centuries) after Norman rule, Swabian (German), and Angevin (French) swapped control of regions in Italy, predominately southern Italy and Sicily. During the 11th through 16th century the majority of city-states from Northern and Central Italy remained independent. This independence led to great wealth and a strong economy, the rise of courtly and papal patronage, the development of perspective in painting, and advancements in science and architect, and a revival of learning based on classical sources of Roman history and culture now known as the Renaissance. In the 13th century, Norman rule in Sicily ended to be succeeded by the Aragonese the Spanish in southern Italy. Some Spanish features in culture and language appeared in the identity of the occupied areas. Palazzo dei Normanni, the palace of the Norman kings in Palermo. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... King of Aragons arms in 15th century The Crown of Aragon or Aragonese Empire was the regime of a large portion of what is now Spain, plus numerous Mediterranean possessions, for much of the later Middle Ages. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a...


In 1720, Sicily came under Austrian Habsburg rule and was swapped between various European powers until Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Southern Italy, allowing for the annexation of the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies into the new Italian state in 1860. The House of Austrian Habsburgs came into being after the April 21, 1521 assignment of the Austrian lands to Ferdinand I from his brother Emperor Charles V (also King Charles I of Spain) (1516 - 1556). ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the new name that the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV of Naples gave to his domain (including Southern Italy and Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration of his power in 1816. ...


In very general terms, many Northern Italians tend to have fairer complexions, somewhat similar to central Europeans, along with a higher frequency of light-coloured hair (see image) and eyes. Most Southern Italians tend to have darker features, similar to other peoples of Southern Europe such as the Spaniards and the Greeks.[3] Due to population movements throughout Italy's history, these physical characteristics are not greatly pronounced. For the Y-chromosome and mtDNA genetic lineages of the Italian and other peoples, see: Y Haplogroups of the World and Atlas of Human Journey. Complexion describes ones physical appearance. ... Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... An evolutionary lineage (also called a clade) is composed of species, taxa, or individuals that are related by descent from a common ancestor. ...


Italian society and culture

Historically, Italians have been more loyal to their town and region than to the state. This is still evident in Italian culture today, even as the Italian language replaced the numerous dialects and Italic languages, such as Sicilian, Venetian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Lombard, Sardinian, Piedmontese, Ligurian (also known as Genoese), Friulian, Ladin, Franco-Provençal and Neapolitan. Standard Italian originated in literature of the 12th to 15th centuries, and was based on the dialects of Tuscany, along with influences of Sicilian and Venetian. In the 19th Century, Standard Italian became more common and helped unify the country. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[1] primarily in Italy and Switzerland. ... The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ... Look up Italic, italic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Areas where Emiliano-Romagnolo is spoken Emiliano-Romagnolo (also known as Emilian-Romagnolo) is a Romance language mostly spoken in Emilia-Romagna. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related dialects spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions), in Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Piedmontese (also known as Piemontèis, and Piemontese in Italian) is a language spoken by over 2 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy. ... The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures. ... Genoese (Zeneize) is the variety of the ligurian language spoken in Genoa, the capital city of Liguria (Italy) . The Ligurian is listed by Ethnologue as a language in its own right (not to be confused with the ancient Ligurian language). ... Friulian (friulano in Italian, Furlan in Friulian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaetian languages family, spoken in the north-east of Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia province) by about 600,000 people. ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-South Tyrol and Veneto. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: ) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); close dialects are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, parts of Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and... The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ... Sicilian (Lu Sicilianu, Lingua Siciliana) is the Romance language spoken in Sicily, Italy. ... Venetian could mean of Venice of the venetia territory of the Republic of Venice of the venet nation the Venetian language The Venetian, a hotel and casino in Las Vegas, Nevada A venetian blind - a horizontally slatted window blind. ...


Some non-Italian speaking minorities live within Italy. Thousands of German Bavarian speakers remain in the extreme north region of South Tyrol. Portions of the Friuli-Venezia-Giulia region have small Slovene and Serbo-Croatian-speaking minorities of Slavic origin. A small cluster of French-speaking people live in the province of Aosta and a small Catalan-speaking enclave in Sardinia goes back five centuries after first settled by Catalans from Catalonia in Spain. Two minor Italic languages are spoken outside of modern Italy- Corsican in Corsica, France and Romansch in eastern Switzerland. Austro-Bavarian or Bavarian is a major group of Upper German varieties. ... The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen[1][2] (Italian: Provincia autonoma di Bolzano; German: Autonome Provinz Bozen; Ladin: Provinzia autonòma de Balsan), also called Alto Adige/Südtirol (Italian: Alto Adige; German: Südtirol; Ladin: Adesc Aut[3][4] or Sudtirol; English: Alto Adige or South Tyrol), is an... With an area of 7844 km² and 1. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (also Croatian or Serbian, Serbian or Croatian) (srpskohrvatski or cрпскохрватски or hrvatskosrpski or hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, was an official language of Yugoslavia (along with Slovenian, Macedonian). ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Aosta Cathedral. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Cagliari, the chief town. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... “Corsican” redirects here. ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. ...


Since the 19th century, the economic disparity between the industrial north and the agrarian southern and north-eastern regions resulted in mass migration from the southern regions to the Americas, northern Italy and to other parts of Western Europe such as France and Belgium. Economic conditions in the poorer regions of Italy improved, even in the south, to the point that even the less-developed regions of the Mezzogiorno receive immigrants rather than send immigrants outwards. Today, Italy is less urban than other countries in Europe, with 67% of Italians living in a major urban area- compared to 76% of French, 88% of Germans and 90% of Britons. The vast majority of Italians live outside of the large (over 1,000,000 population) cities.[4] Northern Italy encompasses nine of the countrys 20 autonomous regions: Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Liguria Lombardia Piemonte Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Valle dAosta Veneto Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige and Valle dAosta are regions with a special statute. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... UK redirects here. ...


Some recent global IQ testing (2006) suggests that Italians have the highest IQ scores in Europe.[2]


Italian diaspora and Italians abroad

Main article: Italian diaspora

There is a history of Italians working and living outside of the Italian peninsula since ancient times. Italian bankers and traders expanded to all parts of Europe and the Mediterranean, sometimes creating outposts. Since the Renaissance, the services of Italian architects and artists were sought by many of Europe's noble courts. This migration, though generally small in numbers and sometimes ephemeral, pre-dates the unification of Italian states. The term Italian Diaspora refers to the large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy in the period roughly between the unification of Italy in 1861 and the beginning of World War I in 1914. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ...


Italy became an important source for emigrants after 1870. More than 10 million Italians emigrated between 1870 and 1920, mostly from the country's underdeveloped southern regions and the agrarian north-east regions.[citation needed] In the beginning (1870-1880), the main destination of the migrants were other European countries (France, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Luxembourg), where most Italians worked for some time and then returned to Italy. Many Italians also went to the Americas, especially to Brazil, Argentina and the United States. From about 1880 until the end of the early 1900s, the main destinations for Italian immigrants were Brazil, Argentina as well as Uruguay and Venezuela.[3] Brazil was in need of workers to embrace the vast coffee plantations, and Italian immigrants became a main source of manpower for that country. Argentina and Uruguay were rapidly industrializing and attracting immigrants for work and settlers to populate the country. Italian immigration heavily influenced the culture and development of these countries (Today, Argentina and Uruguay have the highest national concentrations of Italians outside of Europe - about 50% of the population in each country).[4] Starting in the early 20th century until the 1950s, the United States became a main destination for Italian immigrants, settling mainly in the New York metropolitan area, as well as cities such as Boston, Philadelphia, Detroit, and Chicago. Other countries that received large numbers of Italians, primarily from about 1940 to the 1970s, were Australia, Canada, and again Venezuela. Smaller migration patterns of Italians went to Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, Chile, Panama and Corsicans constituted a large proportion of immigrants to Puerto Rico. (see Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico). A cup of coffee. ... The New York metropolitan area is the most populous in the United States and the fourth most populous in the world (after Tokyo, Seoul, and Mexico City). ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Nickname: Motto: “Urbs in Horto” (Latin: “City in a Garden”), “I Will” Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Capital Ajaccio Area 8,680 km² Regional President Camille de Rocca-Serra Population  - 2004 estimate  - 1999 census  - Density 272,000 260,196 30/km² Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Départements Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Corsica (Corsican: Corsica; French: Corse) is the fourth largest country in the Mediterranean... In the 19th century hundreds of Corsican families left their homeland, the island of Corsica in the Mediterranean Sea, and emigrated to the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. ...


In other waves of Italian migration, from 1920 to the 1970s (peaking in the periods of WWI and WWII), Italian "guest workers" went mostly to Austria, Belgium, France, West Germany, and Luxembourg.[5] Like the earlier waves, most Italians returned to Italy, but some remained and assimilated in these countries. Gastarbeiter is a German word that literally means Guest Worker. It referred to people who had moved to Germany for jobs since the end of World War II, but is considered outdated. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ...


The migration of Italians has at times been very large and has influenced much of the world. It is estimated about 80 million people of Italian origin live outside Europe, primarily in the Americas.[citation needed] Large numbers of Italian descendants are found in Brazil (25 million people of Italian descent), Argentina (18 million), the United States (17 million -unofficial estimates claim as many as 26 million),[5] Australia, and Canada.[citation needed] World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1], Central America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Significant Italian expatriate population is noted in Cyprus, Egypt, Ethiopia, Greece, Israel, Malta, Morocco, Spain, Turkey and South Africa. Former Italian communities once thrived in their African colonies of Eritrea, Somalia and Libya (150,000 Italians settled in Libya, constituting about 18% of the total population) until the late 20th century.[6] Today, with the economic assimilation of the European Union Italians, as other Europeans, are mobile throughout Europe and can be found in most major centres in Europe. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ...


Within Italy

From the Lombard invasion until the mid-nineteenth century, Italy was not the nation-state as we know it today. The landmass was fractured into various kingdoms, duchies, and domains. Over the centuries, dialects or regional minority languages and customs evolved differently as a result of isolation of the kingdoms from one another, and their being influenced by foreign powers. While all these states were similar in that they retained basic elements of Roman language and culture, each one built upon this ancient culture to develop their own independent culture and ethnic identity. Even to this day, Italians living in their homeland define themselves by their home region or even by their home province, and many speak the local dialect or regional language in addition to standard Italian. In the 1980s and 1990s, small regional separatist movements (that never reached more than 5% of the national vote) developed in the Northern regions of Italy (where they promoted support for a new nation-state nicknamed Republic of Padania), in Sicily and in Sardinia. The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Map of languages of Italy Italy currently has one national language: Standard Italian. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 The Northern Leagues proposed Padanian flag, the Sun of the Alps, an ancient Celtic symbol, very common in Northern Italy Padania is an alternative name for Northern Italy, which was sparingly used until the beginning of the 1990s, when the Northern League political party (in... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Cagliari, the chief town. ...


Italians and Italia irredenta

Main article: Italia irredenta

The process of unification of the Italian people in a national State was not completed in the nineteenth century. Many Italians remained outside the borders of the Kingdom of Italy and this created the Italian irredentism. Italia Irredenta (English: Unredeemed Italy) was an Italian patriotic and political party, which was of importance in the last quarter of the 19th century. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ...


Italia irredenta (Unredeemed Italy) was an Italian nationalist opinion movement that emerged after Italian unification. It advocated irredentism among the Italian people as well as other nationalities who were willing to become Italian and as a movement; it is also known as Italian irredentism. Not a formal organization, it was just an opinion movement that claimed that Italy had to reach its "natural borders". Similar patriotic and nationalistic ideas were common in Europe in the 19th century. Italia Irredenta (English: Unredeemed Italy) was an Italian patriotic and political party, which was of importance in the last quarter of the 19th century. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ...


Italian irredentism obtained an important result after World War I, when Italy gained Trieste, Gorizia, Istria and the city of Zara. During WWII Italy defeated Yugoslavia and created the "Governatorato di Dalmazia" (from 1941 to September 1943), so the Kingdom of Italy annexed temporarily Spalato (Split), Cattaro (Kotor) and most of coastal Dalmatia. From 1942 to 1943 even Corsica (Corse) and Nizza (Nice) were temporarily annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, nearly totally fulfilling in those years the requests of the Italian irredentism. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian, Croatian and Serbian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... Gorizia (Slovenian: Gorica, German: Görz, Friulian: Gurize) is a small town at the foot of the Alps, in northeastern Italy, on the border with Slovenia. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Zara may refer to: // Zara is the Venetian, Austrian and Italian name of the Adriatic port city of Zadar (official 13th-20th century), former capital of Dalmatia, in Croatia Zara (Turkish district), a district in the Turkish province of Sivas Zara, Eritrea, a city in central-western Eritrea. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ... Coordinates Mayor Marija Ćatović (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 335 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 1,331 22,947 {{{density}}} No. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... This article is about the Mediterranean island. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The movement had for its avowed purpose the emancipation of all Italian lands still subject to foreign rule after Italian unification. The Irredentists took language as the test of the alleged Italian nationality of the countries they proposed to emancipate, which were Trentino, Trieste, Dalmatia, Istria, Gorizia, Ticino, Nice (Nizza), Corsica and Malta. Austria-Hungary promoted Croatian interests in Dalmatia and Istria to weaken Italian claims in the western Balkans before WWI. After WWII the irredentism movement has faded away in the Italian politics. Only a few thousands Italians actually remain in Istria and Dalmatia as a consequence of the Italian defeat in WWII and of the forced removal of Italians (Istrian exodus) by Tito's Yugoslavia. Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... Trentino-Alto Adige or Trentino-South Tyrol (in German: Trentino-Südtirol, in Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige) is an autonomous region in northern Italy. ... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian, Croatian and Serbian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Gorizia (Slovenian: Gorica, German: Görz, Friulian: Gurize) is a small town at the foot of the Alps, in northeastern Italy, on the border with Slovenia. ... This article is about the Swiss canton Ticino. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Corsican” redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Ethnic distribution in Istria in 1910:  Italians  Croats  Slovenes  Istro-Romanians The expression Istrian exodus or Istrian-dalmatian exodus is used to indicate the diaspora of ethnic Italians from Istria, Fiume and dalmatian Zara lands, who were under Italian rule since World War I according to the Treaty of Rapallo... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


Contribution to humanity

Main articles: Italian culture, History of Italy, and List of Italians

The people of Italy have contributed significantly to world culture and scientific, and technological, progress continuously since ancient times. In the Arts, Italy produced some of the most influential sculptors, writers and painters. Notable examples include Michelangelo, Dante, Pirandello and Raphael. Italian composers and musicians, such as Vivaldi and Verdi, contributed to the evolution of western music, and Italians are cited with the creation of the opera. Great Italian scientists include Alessandro Volta, Guglielmo Marconi, Galileo and Giordano Bruno. Italian contributions to architecture and engineering are unparalelled since ancient times. Renown architects include Brunelleschi, Bernini and Renzo Piano. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... This is a list of notable Italians In alphabetical order. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Though anyone who creates a written work may be called a writer, the term is usually reserved for those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... The following list is a partial list of painters. ... Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Luigi Pirandello (June 28, 1867 – December 10, 1936) was an Italian dramatist and novelist, awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1934. ... Raphael Sanzio or Raffaello (April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520) was an Italian master painter and architect of the Florentine school in High Renaissance, celebrated for the perfection and grace of his paintings. ... Composers are people who write music. ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... Antonio Vivaldi Antonio Vivaldi (March 4, 1678, Venice – July 28, 1741, Vienna), nicknamed Il Prete Rosso, meaning The Red Priest, was an Italian priest and baroque music composer. ... VERDI is an acronym for the Italian unification movement, named after the composer Giuseppe Verdi (ardent supporter of the movement) VERDI stands for Vittorio Emmanuelle, Re D Italia (Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy) Categories: Historical stubs ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... For a List of scientists, see: List of anthropologists List of astronomers List of biologists List of chemists List of computer scientists List of economists List of engineers List of geologists List of inventors List of mathematicians List of meteorologists List of physicists Scientist pairs List of scientist pairs See... Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (February 18, 1745 - March 5, 1827) was an Italian physicist known especially for the development of the electric battery in 1800. ... Guglielmo Marconi, Marchese, GCVO (25 April 1874-20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor, best known for his development of a radiotelegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... Giordano Bruno. ... Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377 - 1446, was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... The Padre Pio Pilgrimage Church in San Giovanni Rotondo. ...


The rise of humanism and modern commerce can be attributed to conditions found in Italy during the Renaissance. This ambience also lead to the rise of the "universal man", of which Leonardo da Vinci can be considered the prime example. Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... The characters from the movie The Incredibles are a colorful collection of superheroes, supervillains, and others. ... The Mona Lisa Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer. ...


See also

This is a list of notable Italians In alphabetical order. ... This is a list of famous people from Sardinia. ... Despite a continuous presence for over 2000 years, the Italian Jewish community – the Italkim – has numbered no more than 50,000 since it was fully emancipated in 1870. ... Demography of Italy. ... Cover of an Italian Biometric passport issued in 2006 Inside cover of an Italian Biometric passport issued in 2006 Italian nationality law, like that of many European countries, favors jus sanguinis. ... The term Italian Diaspora refers to the large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy in the period roughly between the unification of Italy in 1861 and the beginning of World War I in 1914. ... African Italians are people of fairly recent Arabic or sub-Saharan African, and Italian ancestry, or Italian nationals of recent African descent. ... An Italian-American is an American of Italian descent either born in America or someone who has immigrated. ... It has been suggested that List of Italian Australians be merged into this article or section. ... Italo-Brazilian or Italian-Brazilian (Italian: italo-brasiliano, Portuguese: ítalo-brasileiro) is a Brazilian citizen of full or partial Italian ancestry. ... Italian Briton, British Italian are citizens of the United Kingdom whose ancestry originates in Italy. ... Almost 1. ... Italians have lived in Egypt for centuries. ... Italo-Germans is the term to describe people of a social identity with backgrounds in Italy and Germany. ... An Italian-Mexican or Italo-Mexican (Italian: italo-messicano, Spanish: ítalo-mexicano) is a Mexican citizen of Italian descent or origin. ... The Italians (italieni in Romanian) are an ethnic minority in Romania, numbering 3,331 people according to the 2002 census. ... Italian-Scots, or Scots-Italian, designates an ethnic minority of Scottish and Italian descent. ... Languages Portuguese, Spanish, and others Religions Predominantly Christian (mainly Roman Catholic); minorities practicing Judaism, Islam, or no religion Related ethnic groups Portuguese, Italians, Germans, Spaniards, Dutch, Poles, Arabs, White Americans, White Africans, Ashkenazi Jews, Lebanese, Lithuanians Of Latin Americas total population of close to 550 million people, about one... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

References

  1. ^ a b CIA - The World Factbook - Switzerland. CIA.gov (April 17, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  2. ^ Maenchen-Helfen, Otto (1973). The Langobards and the 'Vulgares' in Historia Langobardorum. The World of the Huns, Studies in Their History and Culture p.127-129. University of California Press. Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  3. ^ Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca; Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza [1994-06-05] (1996-08-05). History and Geography of Human Genes, abridged paperback edition. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691029054. OCLC 35527063. 
  4. ^ 2005 World Development Indicators - Urbanization. Worldbank.org (2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  5. ^ Order Sons of Italy in America. OSIA.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  6. ^ Libya - Italian colonization
  7. ^ Lee, Adam (April 3, 2006). If in Brazil Everyone Seems to Be Italian That's Because They Are. Brazzil Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  8. ^ Detailed Tables - American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau (2002). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  9. ^ http://www.migranti.torino.it/Documenti%20%20PDF/italianial%20ster05.pdf not including autochthonous population of est. 6 million
  10. ^ Canada - Ethnic Origins. Statcan.ca (2001). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  11. ^ World Cup: World Cup fever had Asians in its grip. Taipei Times (July 11, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  12. ^ Immigration Laws: October, 2003 - Number #14. MigrationInt.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  13. ^ a b c d Elenco Riassuntivo Degli Italiani All'Estero (Italian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1998). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  14. ^ Demographía (Spanish). Ine.es (2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, Census 2001. DZS.hr (2001). Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  17. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Monaco. CIA.gov including native Monegasque (April 17, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-09.

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The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia.
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