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Encyclopedia > Italian language
Italian
Italiano 
Pronunciation: /itaˈljano/
Spoken in: Italy, San Marino, Slovenia, Switzerland, Croatia, Vatican City.

Used by a significant part of population in: Monaco, Albania, France (Corsica and Nice), Croatia (Istria), Slovenia (Kars Littoral),Malta, Montenegro ,Eritrea and Somalia. Significant immigrant communities are found throughout the Americas (primarily Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Uruguay, United States and Venezuela), Australia, and Western Europe (primarily in Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, and the United Kingdom). For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Foncet Garden, Nice County of Nice flag County of Nice coat of arms The County of Nice or Niçard Country (Niçard Occitan: Comtat de Niça / País Niçard, French: Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, Italian: Contea di Nizza / Paese Nizzardo) is a historical region of... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Slovenian Littoral in Slovenia The Slovenian Littoral (Slovenian: ; Italian: ; German: ) is a traditional region of Slovenia that itself consists of the regions of GoriÅ¡ka and Slovenian Istria (Slovenska Istra). ... The Republic of Venice in 1560 and the Albania veneta shown as the pink area south of the Republic of Ragusa around Cattaro (Kotor) Albania Veneta (English: Venetian Albania) was the name for the possessions of the Republic of Venice in southern Dalmatia from 1420 to 1797. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... British Italians or Italian Britons are British citizens whose ancestry originates in Italy. ...

Total speakers: as maternal language between 60 [1] and 70 million [2]; as cultural language around 110-120 million [3] 
Ranking: 19
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Italo-Dalmatian
     Italian 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Europe European Union
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland
Flag of San Marino San Marino
Flag of the Vatican City Vatican City
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Flag of Croatia Croatia (Istria)
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia
(Pirano, Isola d'Istria and Capodistria)
Flag of Brazil Brazil (Villa Velha, Santa Teresa
Regulated by: Accademia della Crusca
Language codes
ISO 639-1: it
ISO 639-2: ita
ISO 639-3: ita – Italian (generic)
Italian language
Dante Alighieri
Accademia della Crusca
Alphabet
Dialects
Grammar
Literature
Pronunciation
Profanity
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Italian (italiano , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[4] primarily in Italy. In Switzerland, Italian is one of four official languages. It is also the official language of San Marino. It is also widely spoken in Vatican City, although Latin is the official language. Standard Italian, adopted by the state after the unification of Italy, is based on Tuscan and is somewhat intermediate between Italo-Dalmatian languages of the South and Northern Italian dialects of the North. This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Marino. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Sovereign_Military_Order_of_Malta. ... Motto Tuitio Fidei et Obsequium Pauperum(Latin) Defence of the faith and assistance to the poor Anthem (Latin) Hail, thou White Cross Capital Palazzo Malta, Rome Official languages Italian Government  -  Grand Master Fra Andrew Bertie Currency Scudo The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Istria county (Croatian: Istarska županija; Italian: Regione istriana) is the westernmost county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula (2820 out of 3160 km²). Area is called Istra in Croatian and Slovenian, and Istria in Italian. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Piran city core Saint Piran is the patron saint of Cornwall. ... Area: 28. ... Capodistria may refer to: John Capodistria, a Greek diplomat of the Russian Empire and later first head of state of independent Greece, Capodistria, the Italian name for the port of Koper, Slovenia Category: ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Santa Teresa may refer to: Santa Teresa, ES, Brazil Santa Teresa, New Mexico Santa Teresa, neighborhood of San Jose, California This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Accademia della Crusca is an Italian institution that brings together scholars and experts in Italian linguistics and philology. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (680x932, 148 KB) Summary Permission from www. ... The Accademia della Crusca is an Italian institution that brings together scholars and experts in Italian linguistics and philology. ... The Italian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Italian language. ... The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ... Italian grammar is the study of grammar of the Italian language. ... Italian literature is literature written in the Italian language, particularly by citizens of Italy. ... // Phonology Vowels Notes: In Italian there is no phonemic distinction between long and short vowels. ... Italian profanity (parolacce) is a set of words considered blasphemous or inflammatory in the Italian language. ... Image File history File links It-italiano. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Language distribution in Switzerland  French (Romandy)  German  Italian  Romansh The linguistic geography of Switzerland is on the main tripartite, with the Swiss German region (Deutschschweiz) in the northeast, the Swiss French part (Romandie) in the west and the Swiss Italian Ticino in the south. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ... Italo-Western is the largest sub-group of Romance languages. ... The Mezzogiorno is generally viewed as encompassing Basilicata, Campania, Calabria, Apulia, and Sicily, which lie in Italys south, as well as Molise and Abruzzo, which are geographically in central or south-central Italy. ... Northern Italian (traditional name in Romance linguistics) or Padanian (recent name) or Cisalpine (rare name) is a linguistic set with different definitions. ... Northern Italy comprises of two areas belonging to NUTS level 1: North-West (Nord-Ovest): Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Lombardy, Liguria North-East (Nord-Est): Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Aosta Valley are regions with a...


Unlike most other Romance languages, Italian has retained the contrast between short and long consonants which existed in Latin. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. Of the Romance languages, Italian is considered to be one of the closest resembling Latin in terms of vocabulary,[5] though Romanian most closely preserves the noun declension system of Classical Latin, and Spanish the verb conjugation system (see Old Latin), while Sardinian is the most conservative in terms of phonology. In phonetics, consonant length is when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The vocabulary of a person is defined either as the set of all words that are understood by that person or the set of all words likely to be used by that person when constructing new sentences. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... Conjugation may refer to: Grammatical conjugation, the modification of runnign a verb from its basic form Latin conjugation, Spanish conjugation and The English verb, each with complex conjugation forms Marriage, relationship between two individuals In mathematics: Complex conjugation, the operation which multiplies the imaginary part of a complex number by... For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ...


It is affectionately called il parlar gentile (the gentle language) by its speakers.

Contents

History

The history of the Italian language is long, but the modern standard of the language was largely shaped by relatively recent events. The earliest surviving texts which can definitely be called Italian (or more accurately, vernacular, as opposed to its predecessor Vulgar Latin) are legal formulae from the region of Benevento dating from 960-963.[6] What would come to be thought of as Italian was first formalized in the first years of the 14th century through the works of Dante Alighieri, who mixed southern Italian languages, especially Sicilian, with his native Tuscan in his epic poems known collectively as the Commedia, to which Giovanni Boccaccio later affixed the title Divina. Dante's much-loved works were read throughout Italy and his written dialect became the "canonical standard" that all educated Italians could understand. Dante is still credited with standardizing the Italian language and, thus, the dialect of Tuscany became the basis for what would become the official language of Italy. Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... Benevento (Italian: Provincia di Benevento) is a province in the Campania region of Italy. ... Dante redirects here. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ...


Italy has always had a distinctive dialect for each city since the cities were until recently thought of as city-states. The latter now has considerable variety, however. As Tuscan-derived Italian came to be used throughout the nation, features of local speech were naturally adopted, producing various versions of Regional Italian. The most characteristic differences, for instance, between Roman Italian and Milanese Italian are the gemination of initial consonants and the pronunciation of stressed "e", and of "s" in some cases (e.g. va bene "all right": is pronounced [va ˈbːɛne] by a Roman, [va ˈbene] by a Milanese; a casa "at home": Roman [a ˈkːasa], Milanese [a ˈkaza]). A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ... Romanesco is a group of Romance dialects spoken in Rome and most of the surrounding regions of Lazio, Umbria, central Marche and extreme southern Tuscany in central Italy. ... Milanese (milanes, milanées, meneghin, meneghìn) is a variety of Western Lombard spoken in the city of Milan and in its province. ... In phonetics, consonant length is when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. ...


In contrast to the dialects of northern Italy, southern Italian dialects were largely untouched by the Franco-Occitan influences introduced to Italy, mainly by bards from France, during the Middle Ages. Even in the case of Northern Italian dialects, however, scholars are careful not to overstate the effects of outsiders on the natural indigenous developments of the languages. (See La Spezia-Rimini Line.) This article is about the Northern Italian language occasionally called Cisalpine. ... ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... The Bard (ca. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... In the linguistics of the Romance languages, the La Spezia-Rimini Line is a line that refers to a number of important isoglosses that distinguish the eastern Romance languages from the western Romance languages. ...


The economic might and relative advanced development of Tuscany at the time (Late Middle Ages), gave its dialect weight, though Venetian remained widespread in medieval Italian commercial life. Also, the increasing cultural relevance of Florence during the periods of 'Umanesimo (Humanism)' and the Rinascimento (Renaissance) made its volgare (dialect), or rather a refined version of it, a standard in the arts. The re-discovery of Dante's De vulgari eloquentia and a renewed interest in linguistics in the 16th century sparked a debate which raged throughout Italy concerning which criteria should be chosen to establish a modern Italian standard to be used as much as a literary as a spoken language. Scholars were divided into three factions: the purists, headed by Pietro Bembo who in his Gli Asolani claimed that the language might only be based on the great literary classics (notably, Petrarch, and Boccaccio but not Dante as Bembo believed that the Divine Comedy was not dignified enough as it used elements from other dialects), Niccolò Machiavelli and other Florentines who preferred the version spoken by ordinary people in their own times, and the Courtesans like Baldassarre Castiglione and Gian Giorgio Trissino who insisted that each local vernacular must contribute to the new standard. Eventually Bembo's ideas prevailed, the result being the publication of the first Italian dictionary in 1612 and the foundation of the Accademia della Crusca in Florence (1582-3), the official legislative body of the Italian language. For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities — particularly rationality. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... De vulgari eloquentia (On Vernacular Speech) is the title of an important essay by Dante Alighieri, written in Latin and initially meant to consist in four books, but aborted after the second. ... Purism was a form of Cubism advocated by the French painter Amédée Ozenfant and the architect Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier). ... Pietro Bembo (May 20, 1470 - 18 January 1547), Italian cardinal and scholar. ... Gli Asolani are dialogues in 3 books written between 1497 and 1502 by Pietro Bembo and comprise his first important work. ... From the c. ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... A courtesan in mid-16th century usage was a high-class prostitute or mistress, especially one associated with rich, powerful, or upper-class men who provided luxuries and status in exchange for her services. ... Baldassare Castiglione, count of Novellata (December 6, 1478 - February 2, 1529), one of the most important renaissance authors and a diplomat. ... Gian Giorgio Trissino (Venezia, 1478 - Rome, 1550) was an Italian Renaissance humanist, poet, dramatist, diplomat and grammarian. ... The Accademia della Crusca is an Italian institution that brings together scholars and experts in Italian linguistics and philology. ...


Italian literature's first modern novel, I Promessi Sposi (The Betrothed), by Alessandro Manzoni further defined the standard by "rinsing" his Milanese 'in the waters of the Arno" (Florence's river), as he states in the Preface to his 1840 edition. I Promessi Sposi (in English, The Betrothed) is an Italian historical novel by Alessandro Manzoni. ... Alessandro Manzoni (Francesco Hayez, 1841, Brera Art Gallery). ... Arno River in Florence, Italy The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ...


After unification a huge number of civil servants and soldiers recruited from all over the country introduced many more words and idioms from their home dialects ("ciao" is Venetian, "panettone" is Milanese etc.). Look up ciao in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Panettone (this isnt the original shape). ... Milanese (milanes, milanées, meneghin, meneghìn) is a variety of Western Lombard spoken in the city of Milan and in its province. ...


Classification

Italian is most closely related to the other two Italo-Dalmatian languages, Sicilian and the extinct Dalmatian. The three are part of the Italo-Western grouping of the Romance languages, which are a subgroup of the Italic branch of Indo-European. Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and as far south as Kotor (Cattaro) in Montenegro. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ...


Geographic distribution

The geographic distribution of the Italian language in the World: in green are signed large Italian-speaking communities; in light blue are painted the former Italian colonies, where Italian was taught and spoken until their independence, and it is understood to some extent today.
The geographic distribution of the Italian language in the World: in green are signed large Italian-speaking communities; in light blue are painted the former Italian colonies, where Italian was taught and spoken until their independence, and it is understood to some extent today.

The total speakers of Italian as maternal language are between 60 and 70 million. The speakers who use Italian as second or cultural language are estimated around 110-120 million [7]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) Summary Summary Map made from Image:BlankMap-World. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 29 KB) Summary Summary Map made from Image:BlankMap-World. ...


Italian is the official language of Italy and San Marino, and one of the official languages of Switzerland, spoken mainly in Ticino and Grigioni cantons, a region referred to as Italian Switzerland. It is also the second official language in the Vatican City and in some areas of Istria in Slovenia and Croatia with an Italian minority. In Brazil, Italian is the second official language of Villa Velha and Santa Teresa, 2 towns in the Espirito Santo state. It is widely used and taught in Monaco and Malta.[8] It is also widely understood in Corsica and Nice (areas that historically spoke Italian dialects before annexation to France), and Albania. Ticino is the southernmost canton of Switzerland, and almost entirely German-speaking municipality of Italian enclave of Campione dItalia. ... Graubünden or Grisons (German:  ; Italian: Grigioni; Romansh: Grischun, French: Grisons) is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland. ... The official languages of Switzerland by area (2000) Italian Switzerland (Italian: , French: , German: ) is the Italian-speaking part of Switzerland, which includes the Canton of Ticino and the valleys of Mesolcina, Calanca, Bregaglia and Poschiavo in Graubünden. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Santa Teresa may refer to: Santa Teresa, ES, Brazil Santa Teresa, New Mexico Santa Teresa, neighborhood of San Jose, California This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other places that have this name, see Espírito Santo (disambiguation) Espírito Santo is one of the states of southeastern Brazil, often referred to by the abbreviation ES. Those who are born in the state are known as Capixabas. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Foncet Garden, Nice County of Nice flag County of Nice coat of arms The County of Nice or Niçard Country (Niçard Occitan: Comtat de Niça / País Niçard, French: Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, Italian: Contea di Nizza / Paese Nizzardo) is a historical region of... The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ...


From the Italian Foreign Office site [9] the countries with significant presence of Italian citizens abroad (in total more than 4 million, obviously the number does not indicate the real consistence of Italian speakers in every country):

  1. Brazil 1,292,519 (1.2%)
  2. Germany 708,019 (0.9% of population)
  3. Argentina 618,443 (1.5%)
  4. Switzerland 520,550 (6.7%)
  5. France 358,603 (0.6%)
  6. Belgium 281,674 (3%)
  7. United States 188,926
  8. United Kingdom 173,493
  9. Canada 140,812 (0.4 %)
  10. Australia 131,679 (0.9 %)
  11. New Zealand 129.959 (4.2%)
  12. Mexico 125,655
  13. Venezuela 121,655 (0.6%)
  14. Uruguay 74,163 (2.5%)
  15. Spain 61,383
  16. Chile 44,734
  17. Sweden 42,369
  18. South Africa 32,330
  19. Netherlands 30,529
  20. Peru 25,787
  21. Luxembourg 22,913 (5%)
  22. Austria 13,824
  23. Greece 10,654
  24. Colombia 10,474
  25. Israel 10,221
  26. Ecuador 10,105
  27. Monaco 6,631 (21%)

Italian is also spoken by some in former Italian colonies in Africa (Libya, Somalia and Eritrea). However, its use has sharply dropped off since the colonial period. In Eritrea Italian is widely understood [10]. In fact, for fifty years, during the colonial period, Italian was the language of instruction, but as of 1997, there is only one Italian language school remaining, with 470 pupils.[11] In Somalia Italian used to be a major language but due to the civil war and lack of education only the older generation still uses it. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[4] primarily in Italy. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Reef. ...


Italian and Italian dialects are widely used by Italian immigrants and their descendants (see Italians) living throughout Western Europe (especially France (1 million [12], Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Luxembourg), the United States, Canada, Australia, and Latin America (especially Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Venezuela). The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... British Italians or Italian Britons are British citizens whose ancestry originates in Italy. ... An Italian-American is an American of Italian descent. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Italo-Brazilian or Italian-Brazilian (Italian: italo-brasiliano, Portuguese: ítalo-brasileiro) is a Brazilian citizen of full or partial Italian ancestry. ...


In the United States, Italian speakers are most commonly found in four cities: Boston (7,000)[13], Chicago (12,000)[14], New York City (140,000)[15], and Philadelphia (15,000)[16]. In Canada there are large Italian-speaking communities in Montreal (120,000) and Toronto (195,000).[citation needed] Italian is the second most commonly-spoken language in Australia, where 353,605 Italian Australians, or 1.9% of the population, reported speaking Italian at home in the 2001 Census.[17] In 2001 there were 130,000 Italian speakers in Melbourne,[18] and 90,000 in Sydney.[19] Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Italian Australian is the third largest ethnic group in Australia, numbering 800,256 or 3. ... The Australian census is run by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


Italian language education

Italian is widely taught in many schools around the world, but rarely as the first non-native language of pupils; in fact, Italian generally is the fourth or fifth most taught second-language in the world.[20]


In anglophone parts of Canada, Italian is, after French, the third most taught language. In the United States and the United Kingdom, Italian ranks fourth (after Spanish-French-German and French-German-Spanish respectively). Throughout the world, Italian is the fifth most taught non-native language, after English, French, Spanish, and German.[21] Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In the European Union, Italian is spoken as a mother tongue by 13% of the population (64 million, mainly in Italy itself) and as a second language by 3% (14 million); among EU member states, it is most likely to be desired (and therefore learned) as a second language in Malta (61%), Croatia (14%), Slovenia (12%), Austria (11%), Romania (8%), France (6%), and Greece (6%).[22] It is also an important second language in Albania and Switzerland, which are not EU members or candidates.


Influence and derived languages

See also: Italians

From the late 19th to the mid 20th century, thousands of Italians settled in Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil, where they formed a very strong physical and cultural presence (see the Italian diaspora). The term Italian Diaspora refers to the large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy in the period roughly between the unification of Italy in 1861 and the beginning of World War I in 1914. ...


In some cases, colonies were established where variants of Italian dialects were used, and some continue to use a derived dialect. An example is Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where Talian is used and in the town of Chipilo near Puebla, Mexico each continuing to use a derived form of Venetian dating back to the 19th century. Another example is Cocoliche, an Italian-Spanish pidgin once spoken in Argentina and especially in Buenos Aires, and Lunfardo. The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ... Flag of Rio Grande do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Alegre Largest City Porto Alegre Area 282,062 km² Population   - Total   - Density 10. ... Talian (Brazils Italian/o italiano do Brasil) is a variety of Italian spoken mainly in the wine-producing area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. ... Chipilo is a small city in the state of Puebla, Mexico. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Cocoliche is an Italian pidgin spoken in Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... This article is about simplified languages. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Lunfardo was a colorful, slangy argot of the Spanish language which developed at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century in the lower classes in and around Buenos Aires. ...


Rioplatense Spanish, and particularly the speech of the city of Buenos Aires, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects,[23] due to the fact that Argentina had a constant, large influx of Italian settlers since the second half of the nineteenth century; initially primarily from Northern Italy then, since the beginning of the twentieth century, mostly from Southern Italy. Superscript text Main urban centers of Rioplatense Spanish. ...


Lingua Franca

See also: Mediterranean Lingua Franca

Starting in late medieval times, Italian language variants replaced Latin to become the primary commercial language for much of Europe and Mediterranean Sea (especially the Tuscan and Venetian variants). This became solidified during the Renaissance with the strength of Italian banking and the rise of humanism in the arts. The Lingua franca of the Mediterranean or Sabir (know) was a pidgin language used as a Lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ...


During the period of the Renaissance, Italy held artistic sway over the rest of Europe. All educated European gentlemen were expected to make the Grand Tour, visiting Italy to see its great historical monuments and works of art. It thus became expected that educated Europeans would learn at least some Italian; the English poet John Milton, for instance, wrote some of his early poetry in Italian. In England, Italian became the second most common modern language to be learned, after French (though the classical languages, Latin and Greek, came first). However, by the late eighteenth century, Italian tended to be replaced by German as the second modern language on the curriculum. Yet Italian loanwords continue to be used in most other European languages in matters of art and music. For other uses, see Grand Tour (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... European languages are the object of Eurolinguistics. ...


Today, the Italian language continues to be used as a lingua franca in some environments, for example within the Catholic ecclesiastic hierarchy, Italian is known by a large part of members and is used in substitution of Latin in some official documents as well (the presence of Italian as the second official language in the Vatican City indicates not only use in the seat in Rome, but also in the whole world where an episcopal seat is present). Other examples can be found in the sports (football, motor race) and arts (music, opera, visual arts, design, fashion industry). Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Such styles may change quickly, and fashion in the more colloquial sense refers to the latest version of these styles. ...


Dialects

Main article: Italian dialects

In Italy, all Romance languages spoken as the vernacular , other than standard Italian and other unrelated, non-Italian languages, are termed "Italian dialects". Many Italian dialects are, in fact, historical languages in their own right[24]. These include recognized language groups such as Friulian, Neapolitan, Sardinian, Sicilian, Venetian, and others, and regional variants of these languages such as Calabrian. Though the division between dialect and language has been used by scholars (such as by Francesco Bruni) to distinguish between the languages that made up the Italian koine, and those which had very little or no part in it, such as Albanian, Greek, German, Ladin, and Occitan, which are still spoken by minorities. The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: ) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); close dialects are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, parts of Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Calabrian language is the name given to a number of Dialects spoken in parts of the Calabria region in Italy. ... Francesco Bruni was an Italian engraver, born c. ... The literal meaning of the Greek word koine (κοινή) is common. It is used in several senses: Koiné Greek (Κοινή Ἑλληνική), a Greek dialect that developed from the Attic dialect (of Athens) and became the spoken language of Greece at the time of the Empire of Alexander the Great. ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ...


Dialects are generally not used for general mass communication and are usually limited to native speakers in informal contexts. In the past, speaking in dialect was often deprecated as a sign of poor education. Younger generations, especially those under 35 (though it may vary in different areas), speak almost exclusively standard Italian in all situations, usually with local accents and idioms. Regional differences can be recognized by various factors: the openness of vowels, the length of the consonants, and influence of the local dialect (for example, annà replaces andare in the area of Rome for the infinitive "to go").


Sounds

Main article: Italian phonology

Vowels

Italian has seven vowel phonemes: /a/, /e/, /ɛ/, /i/, /o/, /ɔ/, /u/. The pairs /e/-/ɛ/ and /o/-/ɔ/ are seldom distinguished in writing and often confused, even though most varieties of Italian employ both phonemes consistently. Compare, for example: "perché" [perˈkɛ] (why, because) and "senti" [ˈsenti] (you listen, you are listening, listen!), employed by some northern speakers, with [perˈke] and [ˈsɛnti], as pronounced by most central and southern speakers. As a result, the usage is strongly indicative of a person's origin. The standard (Tuscan) usage of these vowels is listed in vocabularies, and employed outside Tuscany mainly by specialists, especially actors and very few (television) journalists. These are truly different phonemes, however: compare /ˈpeska/ (fishing) and /ˈpɛska/ (peach), both spelled pesca (listen ). Similarly /ˈbotte/ ('barrel') and /ˈbɔtte/ ('beatings'), both spelled botte, discriminate /o/ and /ɔ/ (listen ). Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ... Image File history File links It-pesca. ... Image File history File links It-botte-mp. ...


In general, vowel combinations usually pronounce each vowel separately. Diphthongs exist (e.g. uo, iu, ie, ai), but are limited to an unstressed u or i before or after a stressed vowel. In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


The unstressed u in a diphthong approximates the English semivowel w, the unstressed i approximates the semivowel y. E.g.: buono [ˈbwɔno], ieri [ˈjɛri].


Triphthongs exist in Italian as well, like "continuiamo" ("we continue"). Three vowel combinations exist only in the form semiconsonant (/j/ or /w/), followed by a vowel, followed by a desinence vowel (usually /i/), as in miei, suoi, or two semiconsonants followed by a vowel, as the group -uia- exemplified above, or -iuo- in the word aiuola. [25] In phonetics, a triphthong (Greek τρίφθογγος, triphthongos, literally with three sounds, or with three tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another that passes over a third one. ...


Mobile diphthongs

Many Latin words with a short e or o have Italian counterparts with a mobile diphthong (ie and uo respectively). When the vowel sound is stressed, it is pronounced and written as a diphthong; when not stressed, it is pronounced and written as a single vowel.


So Latin focus gave rise to Italian fuoco (meaning both "fire" and "optical focus"): when unstressed, as in focale ("focal") the "o" remains alone. Latin pes (more precisely its accusative form pedem) is the source of Italian piede (foot): but unstressed "e" was left unchanged in pedone (pedestrian) and pedale (pedal). From Latin iocus comes Italian giuoco ("play", "game"), though in this case gioco is more common: giocare means "to play (a game)". From Latin homo comes Italian uomo (man), but also umano (human) and ominide (hominid). From Latin ovum comes Italian uovo (egg) and ovaie (ovaries). (The same phenomenon occurs in Spanish: juego (play, game) and jugar (to play), nieve (snow) and nevar (to snow)).


Consonants

Two symbols in a table cell denote the voiceless and voiced consonant, respectively.

Consonants of Italian[26]
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p, b , k, g
Affricate t̪s̪, d̪z̪ ,
Fricative f, v s, z ʃ
Trill r
Lateral l ʎ
Approximant j w

Nasals undergo assimilation when followed by a consonant, e.g., when preceding a velar (/k/ or /g/) only [ŋ] appears, etc. In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...


Italian has geminate, or double, consonants, which are distinguished by length. Length is distinctive for all consonants except for /ʃ/, /ʦ/, /ʣ/, /ʎ/ /ɲ/, which are always geminate, and /z/ which is always single. Geminate plosives and affricates are realised as lengthened closures. Geminate fricatives, nasals, and /l/ are realized as lengthened continuants. The flap consonant /ɾː/ is typically dialectal, and it is called erre moscia. The correct standard pronunciation is [r]. In phonetics, consonant length is when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. ... A continuant is a sound produced with an incomplete closure of the vocal tract. ...


Of special interest to the linguistic study of Italian is the Gorgia Toscana, or "Tuscan Throat", the weakening or lenition of certain intervocalic consonants in Tuscan dialects. See also Syntactic doubling. The Tuscan gorgia is a phonetic phenomenon which characterizes the Tuscan dialects, in Tuscany, Italy, most especially the central ones, with Florence traditionally viewed as the epicenter. ... Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ... The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ... Syntactic doubling is an external sandhi phenomenon in Italian and some other Italo-Western languages. ...


Assimilation

Italian has few diphthongs, so most unfamiliar diphthongs that are heard in foreign words (in particular, those beginning with vowel "a", "e", or "o") will be assimilated as the corresponding diaeresis (i.e., the vowel sounds will be pronounced separately). Italian phonotactics do not usually permit polysyllabic nouns and verbs to end with consonants, excepting poetry and song, so foreign words may receive extra terminal vowel sounds. In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Grammar

Main article: Italian grammar

Italian grammar is the study of grammar of the Italian language. ...

Writing system

Example of Italian
Main article: Italian alphabet

Italian is written using the Latin alphabet. The letters J, K, W, X and Y are not considered part of the standard Italian alphabet, but appear in loanwords (such as jeans, whisky, taxi). X has become a commonly used letter in genuine Italian words with the prefix extra-. J in Italian is an old-fashioned orthographic variant of I, appearing in the first name "Jacopo" as well as in some Italian place names, e.g., the towns of Bajardo, Bojano, Joppolo, Jesolo, Jesi, among numerous others, and in the alternate spelling Mar Jonio (also spelled Mar Ionio) for the Ionian Sea. J may also appear in many words from different dialects, but its use is discouraged in contemporary Italian, and it is not part of the standard 21-letter contemporary Italian alphabet. Each of these foreign letters had an Italian equivalent spelling: gi for j, c or ch for k, u or v for w (depending on what sound it makes), s, ss, or cs for x, and i for y. Image File history File links Screenshot File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Screenshot File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Italian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Italian language. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Italian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Italian language. ... Country Italy Region Liguria Province Province of Imperia (IM) Mayor Elevation m Area 24. ... Bojano or Boiano (pop. ... Country Italy Region Calabria Province Province of Vibo Valentia (VV) Mayor Elevation m Area 15. ... Jesolo is a city of 23. ... Country Italy Region Marche Province Ancona (AN) Mayor Fabiano Belcecchi (since May 28, 2002) Elevation 97 m Area 107 km² Population  - Total (as of March 31, 2006) 39,839  - Density 372/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Jesini Dialing code 0731 Postal code 60035 Frazioni Mazzangrugno, Castelrosino, Tabano... The Ionian Sea. ...

  • Italian uses the acute accent over the letter E (as in perché, why/because) to indicate a front mid-close vowel, and the grave accent (as in , tea) to indicate a front mid-open vowel. The grave accent is also used on letters A, I, O, and U to mark stress when it falls on the final vowel of a word (for instance gioventù, youth). Typically, the penultimate syllable is stressed. If syllables other than the last one are stressed, the accent is not mandatory, unlike in Spanish, and, in virtually all cases, it is omitted. In some cases, when the word is ambiguous (as principi), the accent mark is sometimes used in order to disambiguate its meaning (in this case, prìncipi, princes, or princìpi, principles). This is however not compulsory. Rare words with three or more syllables can confuse Italians themselves, and the pronunciation of Istanbul is a common example of a word in which placement of stress is not clearly established. Turkish, like French, tends to put the accent on ultimate syllable, but Italian doesn't. So we can hear "Istànbul" or "Ìstanbul". Another instance is the American State of Florida: the correct way to pronounce it in Italian is like in Spanish, "Florìda", but since there is an Italian word meaning the same ("flourishing"), "flòrida", and because of the influence of English, most Italians pronounce it that way.
  • The letter H at the beginning of a word is used to distinguish ho, hai, ha, hanno (present indicative of avere, 'to have') from o ('or'), ai ('to the'), a ('to'), anno ('year'). In the spoken language this letter is always silent for the cases given above. H is also used in combinations with other letters (see below), but no phoneme [h] exists in Italian. In foreign words entered in common use, like "hotel" or "hovercraft", the H is commonly silent, so they are pronounced as /oˈtɛl/ and /ˈɔverkraft/
  • The letter Z represents /ʣ/, for example: Zanzara /dzan'dzaɾa/ (mosquito), or /ʦ/, for example: Nazione /naˈttsjone/ (nation), depending on context, though there are few minimal pairs. The same goes for S, which can represent /s/ or /z/. However, these two phonemes are in complementary distribution everywhere except between two vowels in the same word, and even in such environment there are extremely few minimal pairs, so that this distinction is being lost in many varieties.
  • However, an H can be added between C or G and E or I to represent a plosive, and an I can be added between C or G and A, O or U to signal that the consonant is an affricate. For example:
Before back vowel (A, O, U) Before front vowel (I, E)
Plosive C caramella /kaɾaˈmɛlla/ CH china /ˈkina/
G gallo /ˈgallo/ GH ghiro /ˈgiro/
Affricate CI ciaramella /ʧaɾaˈmɛlla/ C Cina /ˈʧina/
GI giallo /ˈʤallo/ G giro /ˈʤiro/
Note that the H is silent in the digraphs CH and GH, as also the I in cia, cio, ciu and even cie is not pronounced as a separate vowel, unless it carries the primary stress. For example, it is silent in ciao /ˈʧa.o/ and cielo /ˈʧɛ.lo/, but it is pronounced in farmacia /ˌfaɾ.ma.ˈʧi.a/ and farmacie /ˌfaɾ.ma.ˈʧi.e/.
  • There are three other special digraphs in Italian: GN, GL and SC. GN represents /ɲ/. GL represents /ʎ/ only before i, and never at the beginning of a word, except in the personal pronoun and definite article gli. (Compare with Spanish ñ and ll, Portuguese nh and lh.) SC represents fricative /ʃ/ before i or e. Except in the speech of some Northern Italians, all of these are normally geminate between vowels.
  • In general, all letters or digraphs represent phonemes rather clearly, and in standard varieties of Italian, there is little allophonic variation. The most notable exceptions are assimilation of /n/ in point of articulation before consonants, assimilatory voicing of /s/ to following voiced consonants, and vowel length (vowels are long in stressed open syllables, and short elsewhere) — compare with the enormous number of allophones of the English phoneme /t/. Spelling is clearly phonemic and difficult to mistake given a clear pronunciation. Exceptions are generally only found in foreign borrowings. There are fewer cases of dyslexia than among speakers of languages such as English[citation needed], and the concept of a spelling bee is strange to Italians.

The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, which differ in only one phone, phoneme, toneme or chroneme and have a distinct meaning. ... Complementary distribution in linguistics is the relationship between two different elements, where one element is found in a particular environment and the other element is found in the opposite environment. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the words pronunciation. ... Ch is a digraph in the Roman alphabet. ... Gh is a digraph found in many languages. ... Look up ciao in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Gn is a digraph of the Latin Alphabet found in many languages. ... Personal pronouns are pronouns often used as substitutes for proper or common nouns. ... Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ... In phonetics, gemination is when a spoken consonant is doubled, so that it is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a single consonant. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ...

Common variations in the writing systems

Some variations in the usage of the writing system may be present in practical use. These are scorned by educated people, but they are so common in certain contexts that knowledge of them may be useful.

  • Usage of x instead of per: this is very common among teenagers and in SMS abbreviations. The multiplication operator is pronounced "per" in Italian, and so it is sometimes used to replace the word "per", which means "for"; thus, for example, "per te" ("for you") is shortened to "x te" (compare with English "4 U"). Words containing per can also have it replaced with x: for example, perché (both "why" and "because") is often shortened as xché or xké or x' (see below). This usage might be useful to jot down quick notes or to fit more text into the low character limit of an SMS, but it is considered unacceptable in formal writing.
  • Usage of foreign letters such as k, j and y, especially in nicknames and SMS language: ke instead of che, Giusy instead of Giuseppina (or sometimes Giuseppe). This is curiously mirrored in the usage of i in English names such as Staci instead of Stacey, or in the usage of c in Northern Europe (Jacob instead of Jakob). The use of "k" instead of "ch" or "c" to represent a plosive sound is documented in some historical texts from before the standardization of the Italian language; however, that usage is no longer standard in Italian. Possibly because it is associated with the German language, the letter "k" has sometimes also been used in satire to suggest that a political figure is an authoritarian or even a "pseudo-nazi": Francesco Cossiga was famously nicknamed Kossiga by rioting students during his tenure as minister of internal affairs. [Cf. the politicized spelling Amerika in the USA.]
  • Usage of the following abbreviations is limited to the electronic communications media and is deprecated in all other cases: nn instead of non (not), cmq instead of comunque (anyway, however), cm instead of come (how, like, as), d instead of di (of), (io/loro) sn instead of (io/loro) sono (I am/they are), (io) dv instead of (io) devo (I must/I have to) or instead of dove (where), (tu) 6 instead of (tu) sei (you are).
  • Inexperienced typists often replace accents with apostrophes, such as in perche' instead of perché. Uppercase È is particularly rare, as it is absent from the Italian keyboard layout, and is very often written as E' (even though there are several ways of producing the uppercase È on a computer). This never happens in books or other professionally typeset material.

Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of short (160 characters or fewer) text messages from mobile phones using the Short Message Service. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Francesco Cossiga (born July 26, 1928) is an Italian politician and former President of the Italian Republic. ... The orthodox spellings of common words are often altered to make a political point, particularly in informal writing on the Internet, but also in some serious political writing that opposes the status quo. ... È can be: The letter E with a Grave accent. ... A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and English (QWERTY) letters. ...

Samples

English Italian Audio
Italian italiano (listen)
English inglese (listen)
Yes (listen)
No No (listen)
Of course! Certo! / Certamente! / Naturalmente!
Hello! Ciao! (informal) / Salve! (general) (listen)
How are you? Come stai? (informal) / Come sta? (formal) / Come state? (plural) / Come va? (general)
Good morning! Buongiorno! (= Good day!)
Good afternoon! Buon pomeriggio! (unusual) / Buonasera! (more usual)
Good evening! Buonasera!
Good night! Buonanotte! (for a good night sleeping) / Buona serata! (for a good night awake)
I love you! Ti amo!
Have a good lunch/dinner! Le (plural, Vi) auguro un buon pranzo/una buona cena! (formal) / Buon appetito! (informal)
Welcome [to...] Benvenuto/-i (for male/males or mixed) / Benvenuta/-e (for female/females) [a / in...]
Goodbye! Arrivederci (formal) /Ciao! (informal) (listen)
Have a nice day! Buona giornata! (formal)
Good luck! Thank you! Buona fortuna! Grazie! (general) / In bocca al lupo! Crepi (il lupo)! (to wish s.o. to overcome a difficulty) (the call and response literally means: "Into the mouth of the wolf!" "May it die!"
Please Per piacere / Per favore / Per cortesia (listen)
Thank you! Grazie! (general) / Ti ringrazio! (informal) / La ringrazio! (formal) / Vi ringrazio! (plural) (listen)
You're welcome! Prego! /
I'm sorry Mi dispiace (general) / Scusa(mi) (informal) / Mi scusi (formal) / Scusatemi (plural) / Sono desolato (if male) / Sono desolata (if female) (listen)
Excuse me Scusa(mi) (informal) / (Mi) scusi (formal) / Scusate(mi) (plural) / (Con) permesso! (in order to pass on, to advance)
Who? Chi?
What? Che cosa? / Cosa? / Che?
When? Quando?
Where? Dove?
Why? Perché?
What's your name? Come ti chiami? (informal)
Because Perché
How? Come?
How much? / How many? Quanto? / Quanti? / Quante?
I do not understand. Non capisco. / Non ho capito. (listen)
Yes, I understand. Sì, capisco. / Ho capito.
Help me! Aiutami! (informal) / Mi aiuti! (formal) / Aiutatemi! (plural) / Aiuto! (general)
You're right/wrong! (Tu) hai ragione/torto! (informal) / (Lei) ha ragione/torto! (formal) / (Voi) avete ragione/torto! (plural)
What time is it? Che ora è? / Che ore sono?
Where is the bathroom? Dov'è il bagno? (listen)
Do you speak English? Parli inglese? (informal) / Parla inglese? (formal) / Parlate inglese? (plural) (listen)
I don't understand Italian. Non capisco l'italiano. / Non comprendo l'italiano.
The check, please. (In restaurant) Il conto, per favore.
The study of Italian sharpens the mind. Lo studio dell'italiano aguzza la mente.

Look up ciao in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Salve is a Roman greeting. ...

Examples

  • Cheers: "Salute!"
  • English: inglese /iŋˈglese/
  • Good-bye: arrivederci /arriveˈdertʃi/
  • Hello: ciao /ˈtʃao/
  • Good day: buon giorno /bwɔnˈdʒorno/
  • Good evening: buona sera /bwɔnaˈsera/
  • Yes: /si/
  • No: no /nɔ/
  • How are you? : Come stai /ˈkome ˈstai/ (informal); Come sta /ˈkome 'sta/ (formal)
  • Sorry: mi dispiace /mi disˈpjatʃe/
  • Excuse me: scusa /ˈskuza/ (informal); scusi /ˈskuzi/ (formal)
  • Again: di nuovo, /di ˈnwɔvo/; ancora /aŋˈkora/
  • Always: sempre /ˈsɛmpre/
  • When: quando /ˈkwando/
  • Where: dove /'dove/
  • Why/Because: perché /perˈke/
  • How: come /'kome/
  • How much is it?: quanto costa? /ˈkwanto/
  • Thank you!: grazie! /ˈgrattsie/
  • Bon appetit: buon appetito /ˌbwɔn appeˈtito/
  • You're welcome!: prego! /ˈprɛgo/
  • I love you: Ti amo /ti ˈamo/, Ti voglio bene /ti ˈvɔʎʎo ˈbɛne/. The difference is that you use "Ti amo" when you are in a romantic relationship, "Ti voglio bene" in any other occasion (to parents, to relatives, to friends...)

Counting to twenty: Look up ciao in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • One: uno /ˈuno/
  • Two: due /ˈdue/
  • Three: tre /tre/
  • Four: quattro /ˈkwattro/
  • Five: cinque /ˈʧiŋkwe/
  • Six: sei /ˈsɛi/
  • Seven: sette /ˈsɛtte/
  • Eight: otto /ˈɔtto/
  • Nine: nove /ˈnɔve/
  • Ten: dieci /ˈdjɛʧi/
  • Eleven: undici /ˈundiʧi/
  • Twelve: dodici /ˈdodiʧi/
  • Thirteen: tredici /ˈtrediʧi/
  • Fourteen: quattordici /kwat'tordiʧi/
  • Fifteen: quindici /ˈkwindiʧi/
  • Sixteen: sedici /ˈsediʧi/
  • Seventeen: diciassette /diʧas'sɛtte/
  • Eighteen: diciotto /di'ʧɔtto/
  • Nineteen: diciannove /diʧan'nɔve/
  • Twenty: venti /'venti/

The days of the week:

  • Monday: lunedì /lune'di/
  • Tuesday: martedì /marte'di/
  • Wednesday: mercoledì /merkole'di/
  • Thursday: giovedì /dʒove'di/
  • Friday: venerdì /vener'di/
  • Saturday: sabato /ˈsabato/
  • Sunday: domenica /do'menika/

Sample texts

You can hear a recording of Dante's Divine Comedy read by Lino Pertile at http://etcweb.princeton.edu/dante/pdp/ DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... Literary scholar. ...


References and notes

  1. ^ Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2006. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  2. ^ Microsoft Word - Frontespizio.doc
  3. ^ Microsoft Word - Frontespizio.doc
  4. ^ Ethnologue. SIL International. Tue 21 Oct 1997. As collected at: http://www.nicemice.net/amc/tmp/lang-pop.var
  5. ^ Grimes, Barbara F. (October 1996). in Barbara F. Grimes: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Consulting Editors: Richard S. Pittman & Joseph E. Grimes, thirteenth edition, Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics, Academic Pub. ISBN 1-55671-026-7. 
  6. ^ History of the Italian language.. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  7. ^ Microsoft Word - Frontespizio.doc
  8. ^ It served as Malta's official language until Maltese language was enshrined in the 1934 Constitution.
  9. ^ Ministero degli Affari Esteri da db
  10. ^ Languages of Eritrea - Tigrinya
  11. ^ Tekle M. Woldemikael, "Language, Education, and Public Policy in Eritrea," in African Studies Review, Vol. 46, No. 1. (Apr., 2003), pp. 117–136.
  12. ^ Ethnologue report for France
  13. ^ Boston, Massachusetts, MLA Data Center
  14. ^ Chicago, Illinois, MLA Data Center
  15. ^ New York, New York, MLA Data Center
  16. ^ Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, MLA Data Center
  17. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2005, "Language other than English" (spreadsheet of figures from 2001 Census)
  18. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002, "A Snapshot of Melbourne"
  19. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002, "A Snapshot of Sydney"
  20. ^ 9
  21. ^ www.iic-colonia.de
  22. ^ Eurobarometer – Europeans and their languagesPDF (485 KiB), February 2006
  23. ^ Unidad en la diversidad – Portal informativo sobre la lengua castellana
  24. ^ Ethnologue web reference for Italian
  25. ^ Serianni, Luca; Castelvecchi, Alberto (1997). Italiano. Garzanti, 15. 
  26. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Maltese is the national language of Malta[1], and an official language of the European Union. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[4] primarily in Italy. ...

Bibliography

  • Rogers, Derek & Luciana d'Arcangeli (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117-121

See also

Look up Italian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary
Italian language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
Wikipedia
Italian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Wikisource
Italian Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Italian grammar is the study of grammar of the Italian language. ... Italian literature is literature written in the Italian language, particularly by citizens of Italy. ... The Italian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Italian language. ... // Phonology Vowels Notes: In Italian there is no phonemic distinction between long and short vowels. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the Italian language. ... Below is list of Italian language exonyms for places in non-Italian-speaking areas of Europe : // This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... These are some of the honorifics used in Italy. ... Italian profanity (parolacce) is a set of words considered blasphemous or inflammatory in the Italian language. ... For a general, non-language specific list of terms, see Musical terminology A great many musical terms are in Italian. ... Italian Wikipedia is the Italian-language edition of Wikipedia. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ... Map of languages and dialects of Italy Italy currently has one national language: Standard Italian. ... Many words of Italian origin have entered other languages. ... In a literary context, the term Sicilian School identifies a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia. ... It was probably in the early 9th century that one day a Catholic monk from Verona, in North Italy (Veneto), probably exhausted after a day spent copying Latin manuscripts, wrote a riddle, apparently half-Italian, half-Latin on the margin of a parchment. ... The first volume of the Enciclopedia Italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti or Italian Encyclopaedia of Science, Letters, and Arts was published in 1925. ... Categories: | ... The Certificato di Conoscenza della Lingua Italiana, (Certificate of Knowledge of Italian Language) or CELI is an internationally recognized qualification of the Italian language destined for foreigners wanting to validate their relative Italian fluency, offered by the Università per Stranieri di Perugia. ... The Certificazione di Italiano como lingua straniera, (Certificate of Italian as a Foreign Language) or CILS is a qualification offered by the Foreigners University of Siena for foreign speakers of the Italian language, recognizing various levels of language proficiency. ...

External links

The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language - more specifically, an Eastern Romannce language - that is today still spoken in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in what is now Croatia, but which was spoken in a substantially broader part of the... Southern Romance languages are parte of Romance languages that includes the Sardinian language and Sicilian language. ... Sassarese is a diasystem of the Sardinian and Corsican languages, spoken in some areas of the north-western part of Sardinia, in Italy, such as Sassari and a few other places, such as Porto Torres and Sorso. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sardo Campidanese is a diasystem of the Sardinian language primarily spoken in the Province of Cagliari. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... Italiano centrale is a group of dialects of Italian spoken in Lazio and areas East of Lazio in Italy. ... The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ... Romanesco is a group of Romance dialects spoken in Rome and most of the surrounding regions of Lazio, Umbria, central Marche and extreme southern Tuscany in central Italy. ... Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and as far south as Kotor (Cattaro) in Montenegro. ... Istriot is a Romance language spoken in the Western Region on the coast of the Istrian Peninsula, especially in the towns of Rovinj (Rovigno) and Vodnjan (Dignano), on the upper northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Judeo-Italian is a term referring to Italo-Romance linguistic varieties used between the 10th and the 20th centuries in Rome and in central and northern Italy. ... Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: ) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); close dialects are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, parts of Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Gallo-Romance languages Gallo-Italian languages Lombard Piedmontese Emilian-Romagnol Venetian Ligurian Gallo-Rhaetian languages Oïl languages(including French) Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French Gallo Lorrain Norman Anglo-Norman Channel Island Norman Auregnais Dgèrnésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Picard Poitevin-Saintongeais Walloon Rhaetian languages Friulian Ladin Romansh *Franco... This article is about the Northern Italian language occasionally called Cisalpine. ... Areas where Emiliano-Romagnolo is spoken Emiliano-Romagnolo (also known as Emilian-Romagnolo) is a Romance language mostly spoken in Emilia-Romagna. ... Ligurian is a Romance language, consisting of a group of Gallo-Italic dialects currently spoken in Liguria, northern Italy, and parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, and Monaco. ... Genoese (Zeneize) is the variety of the ligurian language spoken in Genoa, the capital city of Liguria (Italy) . The Ligurian is listed by Ethnologue as a language in its own right (not to be confused with the ancient Ligurian language). ... Street sign in French and Monégasc in Monaco-Ville Monégasque (natively Munegascu) is a Romance language and a dialect of the modern Ligurian language. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related varieties spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions) and Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Western Lombard is a Romance language spoken in Italy, in the Lombard provinces of Milan, Monza, Varese, Como, Lecco, Sondrio, a little part of Cremona (except Crema and its neighbours), Lodi and Pavia, and the Piedmont provinces of Novara, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola and a small part of Vercelli (Valsesia), and... The gallo-siculo dialects represent a group of dialects found in central-eastern Sicily that date back to migrations from Northern Italy during the time of Roger I of Sicily and which continued after his death under his successor Roger II (from around 1080 to 1120). ... Piedmontese (also known as Piemontèis, and Piemontese in Italian) is a language spoken by over 2 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... The geographical spread of the Oïl languages (except French) can be seen in shades of green and yellow in this map Langues doïl is the linguistic and historical designation of the Gallo-Romance languages which originated in the northern territories of Roman Gaul now occupied by northern... Champenois is a language spoken by a minority of people in France and in Belgium. ... Franc-Comtois is a language spoken by a minority of people in Franche-Comté. It is one of the langues doïl and is a regional language of France. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... Lorrain is a language spoken by a minority of people in Lorraine in France and in Gaume in Belgium. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is any of the various Rhaetian languages spoken in Switzerland. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-South Tyrol and Veneto. ... Not to be confused with Romand which is one of the names for the Franco-Provençal language. ... The Occitano-Romance branch of Romance languages encompasses the dialects pertaining to the Occitan and the Catalan languages situated in Southern France, Andorra and Eastern Spain. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Balearic is the Catalan variant spoken in the Balearic Islands (Spanish las Islas Baleares), Spain. ... Catalan dialectal map Central Catalan is the Eastern Catalan dialect with the highest demographic weight, since it is commonly spoken in densely populated areas such as the whole Barcelona province, the eastern half of Tarragona province and most part of Girona province; except for it is northern part, where there... Valencian (valencià) is the historical, traditional, and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain) to refer to the language spoken therein, also known as Catalan (català) in the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and the Balearic Islands; in the country of Andorra; in the southern French region of... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Auvergnat (French name) or Auvernhat (native name) is one of several dialects of the Occitan language spoken in Auvergne, which is a historical province in the northern part of Occitania. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... Languedocien is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc. ... The Limousin dialect is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken or understood by about 400 000 people in the part of southern France known as Limousin. ... Vivaro-Alpine (English name) or Vivaroalpenc, Vivaroaupenc (native name) is the northeastern dialect of the Occitan language. ... Provençal (Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Shuadit, also spelled Chouhadite, Chouhadit, Chouadite, Chouadit, and Shuhadit is the extinct Jewish language of southern France, also known as Judæo-Provençal, Judéo-Comtadin, Hébraïco-Comtadin. ... This article is about a subdivision of the Romance language family. ... Astur-Leonese is a Romance language group of the West Iberian group, spoken in the Spanish provinces of Asturias (Asturian Language, asturianu, or Bable), León, Zamora and Salamanca (Leonese language, Llïonés). ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... Cantabrian language or Mountain language is the name received the language used in the West of Cantabria and some zones of the Valley of Pas and the Valley of Soba, in its Eastern zone. ... Extremaduran is a Romance language spoken by some thousands in Spain, most of them in the autonomous community of Extremadura and the province of Salamanca. ... The Leonese language (Llïonés in Leonese) was developed from Vulgar Latin with contributions from the pre-Roman languages which were spoken in the territory of the Spanish provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca and in some villages in the District of Bragança, Portugal. ... The Mirandese language (Lhéngua Mirandesa in Mirandese; Língua Mirandesa or Mirandês in Portuguese) is spoken in northeastern Portugal. ... Barranquenho (Barranquenhu; English: Barrancainian) is a dialect of Portuguese heavily influenced by Extremaduran spoken in the Portuguese town of Barrancos (in the border between Extremadura and Andalusia, in Spain, and Portugal). ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Fala language (SIL Code: FAX; ISO 639-2 code: roa) is a Romance language from the Portuguese-Galician subgroup spoken in Spain by about 10,500 people, of which 5,500 live in a valley of the northwestern part of Extremadura near the border with Portugal. ... Eonavian or Eonaviego is a term used to refer a set of dialects or falas whose linguistic dominion extends in the zone of Asturias between the Eo and Navia rivers (or more exactly Eo and Barayo rivers). ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Caló (originally Zincaló) or Spanish Romani is a jargon spoken by the Gitanos or Zincarli originating from Spain: Caló blends native Romani vocabulary with Spanish grammar,[1] as Spanish Gypsies lost the full use of their ancestral language. ... Aragonese redirects here. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of the Romance languages development in Iberia. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ...

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