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Encyclopedia > Italian fascism
Part of the Politics series on
Fascism

Definition
Definitions of fascism Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... Image File history File links Fasces. ... What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious. ...


Varieties and derivatives of fascism
Italian fascism
Nazism
Neo-Fascism
Rexism
Falangism
Estado Novo
Ustaše
Clerical fascism
Austrofascism
Crypto-fascism
Japanese fascism
Greek fascism
Brazilian Integralism
Iron Guard National Socialism redirects here. ... This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For a discussion of groups and movements that also include as core tenets racial nationalism, antisemitism, and praise for Hitler, see Neo-Nazism. ... Léon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... There have been two regimes known as Estado Novo (meaning New State): Estado Novo (Brazil) Estado Novo (Portugal) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha) was a Croatian organization placed in control of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941, which pursued Nazi policies. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... Crypto-fascism is when a party or group secretly adheres to the doctrines of fascism while attempting to disguise it as another political movement. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Integralist banner The famous Integralist salute, Anauê!, which means you are my brother! (belived by some to have originated in a Tupi language expression) Brazilian Integralism was a fascist political movement created in April 1933. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Fascist political parties and movements
Fascism as an international phenomenon
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

List of fascist movements by country

Fascism in history
Fascio
March on Rome
Fascist Italy
Nazi Germany
Italian Social Republic
4th of August Regime
The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ...


Relevant lists
List of fascists


Related subjects
Adolf Hitler
Anti-fascism
Benito Mussolini
Black Brigades
Blackshirts
Class collaboration
Corporatism
Economics of fascism
Fascism and ideology
Fascist symbolism
Fascist unification rhetoric
Grand Council of Fascism
Roman salute
National Bolshevism
National syndicalism
Neo-Fascism
Neo-Nazism
Social fascism
Third Position
Hitler redirects here. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere or squadristi) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. The term was later applied to a similar group serving the British Union of Fascists before the War. ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... The Economics of fascism can be studied by examining the economic policies of various countries under fascist control during the period between World War One and the end of World War II. Some scholars and analysts argue that there is an identifiable political economy of fascism that is distinct from... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ... The Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... Flag of the National Bolsheviks. ... National Syndicalism is typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become the basis for Mussolini’s Fascist Party. ... This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For a discussion of groups and movements that also include as core tenets racial nationalism, antisemitism, and praise for Hitler, see Neo-Nazism. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ... International Third Position was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement. ...

Fascism Portal
Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. Similar political movements, including Nazism, spread across the rest of the world, particularly in Europe, Japan and Latin America, between World War I and World War II. Although Fascism, strictly speaking, refers only to Italian fascism, the word is often used to describe similar ideologies and movements. Italian Fascism is often considered to be a proper noun and thus denoted by a capital letter "F", whereas generic fascism is conventionally represented with the lower-case character "f". Italian Fascism is considered a model for other forms of fascism, yet there is disagreement over which aspects of structure, tactics, culture, and ideology represent a "fascist minimum" or core. The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ...

Contents

Doctrine

Further information: Fascism  and Fascism and ideology

Fascism combined elements of corporatism, nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism, anti-Communism, racism and anti-Semitism. After World War II, several authors forged the concept of totalitarianism to refers both to Fascism and Nazism and, in some cases, Stalinism (although the latter point, in particular, has been controversed). Another central theme of Italian fascism was the struggle against what it described as the corrupt "plutocracies" of the time, France and Britain in particular. Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Racial supremacy be merged into this article or section. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... A plutocracy is a form of government where the states power is centralized in an affluent social class. ...


Fascist philosopher Giovanni Gentile wrote in 1932, in the Enciclopedia Italiana, an article titled "The Doctrine of Fascism," which has been later attributed to Benito Mussolini.[citation needed] Gentile had previously coined the term "statolatry" to refers to his doctrine. In this 1932 article, written a year before Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Fascism is described as a system in which... Giovanni Gentile in his earlier years. ... The first volume of the Enciclopedia Italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti or Italian Encyclopaedia of Science, Letters, and Arts was published in 1925. ... The Doctrine of Fascism is a seminal essay signed by Mussolini and officially attributed to him, although it was most likely written by Giovanni Gentile. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Coined by Ludwig von Mises in his work Omnipotent Government, Statolatry is literally worship of the State analogous to idolatry as worship of idols. ... Hitler redirects here. ...

"The State not only is authority which governs and molds individual wills with laws and values of spiritual life, but it is also power which makes its will prevail abroad... For the Fascist, everything is within the State and... neither individuals nor groups are outside the State... For Fascism, the State is an absolute, before which individuals or groups are only relative... Liberalism denied the State in the name of the individual; Fascism reasserts the rights of the State as expressing the real essence of the individual."[1]

The article discussed other political and social doctrines of the time by describing fascism as: "the resolute negation of the doctrine underlying so-called scientific and Marxian socialism... and as rejecting (in democracy) "the absurd conventional lie of political equalitarianism, the habit of collective irresponsibility, the myth of felicity and indefinite progress".[1]


"Fascism is definitely and absolutely opposed to the doctrines of liberalism, both in the political and economic sphere. ... The Fascist State lays claim to rule in the economic field no less than in others; it makes its action felt throughout the length and breadth of the country by means of its corporate, social, and educational institutions, and all the political, economic, and spiritual forces of the nation, organised in their respective associations, circulate within the State."[2]


In the essay, French anarcho-syndicalists Georges Sorel and Hubert Lagardelle, and the writer Charles Peguy (close to the socialist movement before turning to mysticism) are invoked as the sources of fascism. Sorel's ideas concerning syndicalism and violence are much in evidence in this document. It also quotes from Ernest Renan who it says had "pre-fascist intuitions". Both Sorel and Peguy were influenced by the philosopher Henri Bergson. Bergson rejected the scientism, mechanical evolution and materialism of Marxist ideology. Also, Bergson promoted the élan vital energetic and vitalist concept as an evolutionary process. Such spiritualism ideas have had a role in the ideological formation of Fascism (see Zeev Sternhell). Mussolini stated that Fascism negated Marxism and its theory of historical materialism. Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ... Georges Eugène Sorel (2 November 1847-29 August 1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of revolutionary syndicalism. ... Hubert Lagardelle (1874-1958) was a French syndicalist thinker, influenced by Proudhon. ... Charles P guy (January 7, 1873-September 4, 1914) was a noted French poet and essayist. ... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements, and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ... Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ... Scientism is a term mainly used as a pejorative[1][2][3] to accuse someone of holding that science has primacy over all other interpretations of life such as religious, mythical, spiritual, or humanistic explanations. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... An idea created by French philosopher Henri Bergson in the late 19th century, élan vital is usually translated as vital force. It is a hypothetical aetiological force thought to cause the evolution and development of organisms. ... Vitalism is the doctrine that vital forces are active in living organisms, so that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. ... By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was the object of intense curiosity. ... Zeev Sternhell is the Léon Blum Professor of Political Science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term. ...


Ironically, some of the strongest anti-fascist movements were formed in the anarcho-syndicalist movement. In terms of ideology, Anarchism is generally regarded as the polar opposite of Fascism. Anti-Fascism is a belief and practice of opposing all forms of Fascism. ... It has been suggested that Origins of anarchism and History of anarchism be merged into this article or section. ...


Rerum Novarum, anti-communism

The fascist concept of corporatism and particularly its theories of class collaboration and economic and social relations have similarities to the model laid out by Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical Rerum Novarum[3]. This encyclical addressed politics as it had been transformed by the Industrial Revolution, and other changes in society that had occurred during the nineteenth century. The document criticized capitalism, complaining of the exploitation of the masses in industry. However, it also sharply criticized the Marxist concept of class struggle, and the proposed socialist solution to exploitation (the elimination, or at least the limitation, of private property). Rerum Novarum called for strong governments to undertake a mission to protect their people from exploitation, while continuing to uphold private property and reject socialism. It also asked Catholics to apply principles of social justice in their own lives. ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... A Watt steam engine. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ...


Seeking to find some principle to compete with and replace the Marxist doctrine of class struggle, Rerum Novarum urged social solidarity between the upper and lower classes. Its analogy of the state as being like a body working together as "one mind" had some cultural influence on the early Fascists of Catholic nations. It also indicated the state had a right to suppress "firebrands" and striking workers. Further Rerum Novarum proposed a kind of corporatism that resembled medieval guilds for an industrial age. This relates far more directly to Brazilian Integralism form of Fascism than anything in Italy. The encyclical intended to counteract the "subversive nature" of both Marxism and liberalism. Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... Classes can refer to: social class scientific classification class (object-oriented programming) a subject in school see also class. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Integralist banner The famous Integralist salute, Anauê!, which means you are my brother! (belived by some to have originated in a Tupi language expression) Brazilian Integralism was a fascist political movement created in April 1933. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


Themes and ideas developed in Rerum Novarum can also be found in the ideology of fascism as developed by Mussolini. Although it also contains ideas like "the members of the working classes are citizens by nature and by the same right as the rich" or "the State has for its office to protect natural rights, not to destroy them; and, if it forbid its citizens to form associations, it contradicts the very principle of its own existence," that never fit easily with Italian Fascism.


Syndicalism and the 'Third Way'

Fascism also borrowed from Gabriele D'Annunzio's Charter of Carnaro for his ephemeral Regency of Carnaro in the city of Fiume. Gabriele dAnnunzio (12 March 1863, Pescara – 1 March 1938, Gardone Riviera, province of Brescia) was an Italian poet, writer, novelist, dramatist and daredevil, who went on to have a controversial role in politics as a precursor of the fascist movement. ... The Charter of Carnaro (Carta del Carnaro in Italian) was the constitution of the Italian Regency of Carnaro, a short-lived government in Fiume (Rijeka), proclaimed by Gabriele DAnnunzio on September 8, 1920. ... DAnnunzio as the Duce of Fiume The Italian Regency of Carnaro (Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro in Italian) was proclaimed as a state by Gabriele DAnnunzio in Fiume, now the city of Rijeka in Croatia, on September 8, 1920. ... Rijeka (Fiume in Italian and Hungarian; Rijeka and Fiume both mean river) is the principal seaport of Croatia, located on the Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea. ...


Sergio Panunzio, a major theoretician of fascism in the 1920s, had a syndicalist background, but his influence waned as the movement shed all connection to the working-class autonomy of syndicalism. Sergio Panunzio (July 20, 1886-October 8, 1944) was an Italian theoretician of revolutionary syndicalism. ... Syndicalism is a political and economic ideology which advocates giving control of both industry and government to labor union federations. ...


Syndicalism had a strong influence on fascism as well, particularly as some syndicalists intersected with D'Annunzio's ideas. Before the First World War, syndicalism had stood for a militant doctrine of working-class revolution. It distinguished itself from Marxism because it insisted that the best route for the working class to liberate itself was the trade union rather than the party. Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements, and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ... A Trade Union (Labour union) ... is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ...


The Italian Socialist Party ejected the syndicalists in 1908. The syndicalist movement split between anarcho-syndicalists and a more moderate tendency. Some moderates began to advocate "mixed syndicates" of workers and employers. In this practice, they absorbed the teachings of Catholic theorists and expanded them to accommodate greater power of the state, and diverted them by the influence of D'Annunzio to nationalist ends. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ...


When Henri De Man's Italian translation of Au-dela du marxisme emerged, Mussolini was excited and wrote to the author that his criticism "destroyed any scientific element left in Marxism". Mussolini was appreciative of the idea that a corporative organization and a new relationship between labour and capital would eliminate "the clash of economic interests" and thereby neutralize "the germ of class warfare.'" Henri De Man (Flemish name Hendrik de Man) was a Belgian who was one of the leading socialist theoreticians of his period. ...


Thinkers such as Robert Michels, Sergio Panunzio, Ottavio Dinale, Agostino Lanzillo, Angelo Oliviero Olivetti, Michele Bianchi, and Edmondo Rossoni played a part in this attempt to find a third way that rejected both capitalism and Marxism. Robert Michels (9 January 1876, Cologne, Germany — 3 May 1936, Rome, Italy) was a German sociologist who wrote on the political behavior of intellectual elites. ... Agostino Lanzillo (1886-1952) was an anarcho-syndicalist leader who became a member of Benito Mussolinis Fascist movement. ... Michele Bianchi was an eminent revolutionary syndicalist leader. ... Edmondo Rossoni (1884-1965) He served as under secretary to the President of the Facist Grand Council between 1932 and 1935. ... Third way can refer to: The Third Way, an economic and political idea that positions itself between democratic socialism and laissez-faire capitalism, combining the ordoliberal social market with neo-liberalism. ...


History

Early history

Main article: Fascio

Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ...

Rise to power

Many historians claim that the March 23, 1919 meeting at the Piazza San Sepolcro was the historic “birthplace” of the fascist movement. However, this would imply that the Italian Fascists “came from nowhere” which could be considered false. Mussolini revived his former group, Fasci d'Azione rivoluzionaria, in order to take part in the 1919 elections in response to an increase in Communist activity occurring in Milan. The Fasci di Combattimento were the result of this continuation (not creation) of the Fascist party. The result of the meeting was that Fascism became an organized political movement. Among the founding members were the revolutionary syndicalist leaders Agostino Lanzillo and Michele Bianchi. March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ...


In 1919, the fascists developed a program that called for:

As the movement evolved, several of these initial ideas were abandoned and rejected. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... A progressive tax, or graduated tax, is a tax that is larger as a percentage of income for those with larger incomes. ...

Mussolini capitalized on fear of a Communist revolution[4], finding ways to unite Labor and Capital to prevent class war. In 1926 he created the National Council of Corporations, divided into guilds of employers and employees, tasked with managing 22 sectors of the economy. The guilds subsumed both labor unions and management, and were represented in a chamber of corporations through a triad comprised of a representative from management, from labour and from the Partito Nazionale Fascista. Together they would plan aspects of the economy for mutual advantage. The movement was supported by small capitalists, low-level bureaucrats, and the middle classes, who had all felt threatened by the rise in power of the Socialists. Fascism also met with great success in rural areas, especially among farmers, peasants, and in the city, the lumpenproletariat.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (269x740, 34 KB) Description: Benito Mussolini during an official visit to occupied Yugoslavia Source: USHMM Photograph #89908 Date: 1941 - 1943 Author: Muzej Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije Permission: USHMM, courtesy of Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije, Public Domain Other versions of this file: Image:Image... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (269x740, 34 KB) Description: Benito Mussolini during an official visit to occupied Yugoslavia Source: USHMM Photograph #89908 Date: 1941 - 1943 Author: Muzej Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije Permission: USHMM, courtesy of Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije, Public Domain Other versions of this file: Image:Image... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... This article is about the organisation and newspaper Class War. ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci). ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules are socially organized. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The lumpenproletariat (German Lumpenproletariat, rabble-proletariat; raggedy proletariat) is a term originally defined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The German Ideology (1845), their famous second joint work, and later expounded upon in future works by Marx. ...


Establishment of the Fascist state

Mussolini's fascist state was established nearly a decade before Hitler's rise to power (1922 and the March on Rome). Both a movement and a historical phenomenon, Italian Fascism was, in many respects, an adverse reaction to both the apparent failure of laissez-faire economics and fear of Communism. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Fascism was, to an extent, a product of a general feeling of anxiety and fear among the middle class of postwar Italy. This fear arose from a convergence of interrelated economic, political, and cultural pressures. Under the banner of this authoritarian and nationalistic ideology, Mussolini was able to exploit fears regarding the survival of capitalism in an era in which postwar depression, the rise of a more militant left, and a feeling of national shame and humiliation stemming from Italy's 'mutilated victory' at the hands of the World War I postwar peace treaties seemed to converge. Such unfulfilled nationalistic aspirations tainted the reputation of liberalism and constitutionalism among many sectors of the Italian population. In addition, such democratic institutions had never grown to become firmly rooted in the young nation-state. The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... A recession is traditionally defined in macroeconomics as a decline in a countrys real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for two or more successive quarters of a year (equivalently, two consecutive quarters of negative real economic growth). ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


This same postwar depression heightened the allure of Marxism among an urban proletariat who were even more disenfranchised than their continental counterparts. But fear of the growing strength of trade unionism, Communism, and socialism proliferated among the elite and the middle class. In a way, Benito Mussolini filled a political vacuum. Fascism emerged as a "third way" — as Italy's last hope to avoid imminent collapse of the 'weak' Italian liberalism, and Communist revolution. A Trade Union (Labour union) ... is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Look up elite, élite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A power vacuum is an expression for a political situation that can occur when a government has no identifiable central authority. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ...


In this fluid situation, Mussolini took advantage of the opportunity and, rapidly abandoning the early socialist and republican program, put himself at the service of the antisocialist cause. The fascist militias, supported by the wealthy classes and by a large part of the state apparatus which saw in him the restorer of order, launched a violent offensive against the syndicalists and all political parties of a socialist or Catholic inspiration, particularly in the north of Italy (Emiglia Romagna, Toscana, etc.), causing numerous victims though the substantial indifference of the forces of order. These acts of violence were, in large part, provoked by fascist squadristi who were increasingly and openly supported by Dino Grandi, the only real competitor to Mussolini for the leadership of the fascist party until the Congress of Rome in 1921. Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker Militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Inspired by Garibaldis Redshirts, the Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini due to his disgust with the corruption and apathy of the... Count Dino Grandi (1895-1988), born in Mordano (BO), Emilia. ...


The violence increased considerably during the period from 1920-1922 until the March on Rome. Confronted by these badly armed and badly organized fascist militias attacking the Capital, King Victor Emmanuel III, preferring to avoid any spilling of blood, decided to appoint Mussolini, who at that moment had the support of about 22 deputies in Parliament, President of the Council. Victor Emmanuel continued to maintain control of the armed forces: if he had wanted to, he would have had no difficulties in booting Mussolini and the completely inferior fascist forces out of Rome. Therefore, it is not appropriate to refer to Mussolini's rise as a "coup d'état" since he obtained his post legally with the blessing of the sovereign of the nation. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), as well as putative Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ...


Rule

As Prime Minister, the first years of Mussolini's reign were characterized by a coalition government composed of nationalists, liberals and populists and did not assume dictatorial connotations until the assassination of Matteotti. In domestic politics, Mussolini favoured the complete restoration of State authority, with the integration of the Fasci di Combattimento into the armed forces (the foundation in January 1923 of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale) and the progressive identification of the Party with the State. He supported the wealthy industrial and agrarian classes through the introduction of legislation that provided for privatization, the liberalization of rent laws, and the banning of unions. Giacomo Matteotti (22 May 1885, Fratta Polesine, Province of Rovigo—10 June 1924, near Rome) was an Italian socialist politician. ...


In June of 1923, a new majoritarian electoral law was approved which assigned two thirds of the seats in Parliament to the coalition which had obtained at least 25% of the votes. This law was punctually applied in the elections of 6 April 1924, in which the fascist "listone" obtained an extraordinary success, aided by the use of shenanigans, violence and intimidatory tactics against opponents. April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The assassination of the socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti, who had requested the annulment of the elections because of the irregularities committed, provoked a momentary crisis of the Mussolini government. The weak response of the opposition (the Aventine secession), incapable of transforming their posturing into a mass antifascist action, was not sufficient to distance the ruling classes and the Monarchy from Mussolini who, on 3 January 1925, broke open the floodgates and, in a famous discourse in which he took upon himself all of the responsibility for the assassination of Matteotti and the other squadrist violence, proclaimed a de facto dictatorship, suppressing every residual liberty and completing the identification of the Fascist Party with the State. Giacomo Matteotti (22 May 1885, Fratta Polesine, Province of Rovigo—10 June 1924, near Rome) was an Italian socialist politician. ... The Aventine Secession is the common reference to an Italian movement reuniting parties in opposition to Fascism and Benito Mussolinis regime. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ...


From 1925 until the middle of the 1930s, fascism experienced little and isolated opposition, although that which it experienced was memorable, consisting in large part of communists such as Antonio Gramsci, socialists such as Pietro Nenni and liberals such as Piero Gobetti and Giovanni Amendola. Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... Pietro Sandro Nenni (February 9, 1891—Rome, January 1, 1980) was an Italian socialist politician, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and lifetime Senator since 1970. ... Piero Gobetti (1901-1926) was a young journalist, intellectual and radical liberal. ... Giovanni Amendola (Salerno 15 April 1882 - Cannes 1 April 1926) was an Italian journalist and politician. ...


While failing to outline a coherent program, fascism evolved into a new political and economic system that combined corporatism, totalitarianism, nationalism, and anti-Communism in a state designed to bind all classes together under a capitalist system. This was a new capitalist system, however, one in which the state seized control of the organization of vital industries. Under the banners of nationalism and state power, Fascism seemed to synthesize the glorious Roman past with a futuristic utopia.


Despite the themes of social and economic reform in the initial Fascist manifesto of June 1919, the movement came to be supported by sections of the middle class fearful of socialism and communism. Industrialists and landowners supported the movement as a defense against labour militancy. Under threat of a fascist March on Rome, in October 1922, Mussolini assumed the premiership of a right-wing coalition Cabinet initially including members of the pro-church Partito Popolare (People's Party). The Fascist manifesto was the initial declaration of the political stance of the founders of Fascism in Italy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ...


The regime's most lasting political achievement was perhaps the Lateran Treaty of February 1929 between the Italian state and the Holy See. Under this treaty, the Papacy was granted temporal sovereignty over the Vatican City and guaranteed the free exercise of Roman Catholicism as the sole state religion throughout Italy in return for its acceptance of Italian sovereignty over the Pope's former dominions. The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ...


In the 1930s, Italy recovered from the Great Depression, and achieved economic growth in part by developing domestic substitutes for imports (Autarchia). The draining of the malaria-infested Pontine Marshes south of Rome was one of the regime's proudest boasts. But growth was undermined by international sanctions following Italy's October 1935 invasion of Ethiopia (the Abyssinia crisis), and by the government's costly military support for Franco's Nationalists in Spain. The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn which started in October of 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... The Abyssinia Crisis was a pre-WW2 diplomatic crisis originating in the conflict between Italy and Ethiopia (then called Abyssinia by the British). ...


Invasion of Ethiopia

Main article: Second Italo-Abyssinian War
La Difesa della razza ("The Defence of the Race"), cover of the eponym magazine, September 1938. The anti-Semitic aspects of Fascism were frequently seen in the media.
La Difesa della razza ("The Defence of the Race"), cover of the eponym magazine, September 1938. The anti-Semitic aspects of Fascism were frequently seen in the media.

The invasion of Ethiopia (formerly Abyssinia) was accomplished rapidly (the proclamation of Empire took place in May of 1936) and involved several atrocities such as the use of chemical weapons (mustard gas and phosgene) and the indiscriminate slaughter of much of the local population to prevent opposition. Combatants Italy Abyssinia Commanders Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Strength 130,000 Italian and Eritrean soldiers 350,000 (some ill-equipped) Casualties 8,000 250,000 (mostly civilians) The Second Italo–Abyssinian War lasted five years from 1935-1941. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1071x1526, 797 KB) Summary La Difesa della razza (The Defence of the Race), cover of the propaganda magazine La Difesa della raza, September 1938. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1071x1526, 797 KB) Summary La Difesa della razza (The Defence of the Race), cover of the propaganda magazine La Difesa della raza, September 1938. ... It has been suggested that Antisemite (epithet) be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Italy Abyssinia Commanders Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Strength 130,000 Italian and Eritrean soldiers 350,000 (some ill-equipped) Casualties 8,000 250,000 (mostly civilians) The Second Italo–Abyssinian War lasted seven months in 1935–1936. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ...


Fascism and anti-Semitism

The Fascist regime passed in autumn 1938 anti-Semitic laws, which excluded foreign Jews, prohibited all Jews from teaching and excluded them from the Fascist Party. Legislation enacting racial discrimination were progressively put in place, in accordance to the "scientific racism" theories upheld in Fascist political reviews, such as La Difesa della Razza. Jews were excluded from the military and from the administration, while an "aryanisation" of Jewish goods was put in place — actually, an expropriation of their goods. An anti-Semitic hate campaign was put in place, while the legislation was strictly applied. Neither the monarchy nor the Church protested against the latter. An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... Scientific racism is racist propaganda disguised as science. ... This article is about the racial theory. ... Expropriation is the act of removing from control the owner of an item of property. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation and...


Many authors have interpreted these anti-Semitic laws as an imitation by Mussolini of Nazi racist legislation. However, historian Marie-Anne Matard-Bonucci (2007) has upheld, to the contrary, the idea that anti-Semitism founded its roots in the Fascist movement itself: with the establishment of the Fascist state and Mussolini's anthropological project of creating a "new (Italian) man," the needs arose of creating the figure of the "anti-Italian," symbolized by the Jewish people. "The persecution of the Italian Jews was one of the inner components of the totalitarian logic," thus wrote Matard-Bonucci [5]. The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, and including measures aimed primarily against Jews by an ideological theory based on historical, but renewed antisemitism in 1920s and 1930s Europe. ...


50,000 Jews then lived in Italy. Despite this anti-Semitic policy, Mussolini did not implement an extermination program similar to Hitler's decision, the so-called "Final Solution to the Jewish Problem." Thus, 3/4 of the Italian Jews survived World War II. 8,000 Jews died in extermination camps, deported by Nazis and Fascists, but after Italy's reddition to the Allies and during the Salo Republic starting in December 1943 [5]. In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... Extermination camps were the facilities constructed by Nazi Germany in World War II where the Nazis systematically killed millions of people as part of what was later deemed The Holocaust. ... The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana in Italian), also known as the Republic of Salò, was a fascist puppet state in German-occupied northern Italy. ...


World War II

International isolation and their common involvement in Spain brought about increasing diplomatic collaboration between Italy and Nazi Germany. This was reflected also in the Fascist regime's domestic policies as the first anti-semitic laws were passed in 1938. From that year on, with the publication of the Manifesto degli scienziati razzisti (Manifesto of the Racist Scientists) (in reality about 90% written by Mussolini himself), fascism declared itself explicitly anti-Semite. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Manifesto of Fascist Racism was a set of laws enacted in Italy during the facist regime of Benito Mussolini. ...


Italy's intervention (June 10, 1940) as Germany's ally in World War II brought military disaster, and resulted in the loss of her north and east African colonies and the American-British-Canadian invasion of Sicily in July 1943 and southern Italy in September 1943. June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


After a fateful gathering of the Gran Consiglio del Fascismo (Italy's wartime Cabinet) Mussolini was forced to submit his resignation as prime minister in the hands of King Victor Emmanuel III on July 25th 1943. He hoped that the King would reappoint him and allow him to reshuffle the Cabinet, but he was instead arrested on the King's orders as he was leaving the Quirinale palace. He was freed in September by German paratroopers under command of Otto Skorzeny and installed as head of a puppet "Italian Social Republic" at Salo in German-occupied northern Italy. His association with the German occupation regime eroded much of what little support remained to him. His summary execution on April 28th 1945 during the war's violent closing stages by the northern partisans was widely seen as a fitting end to his regime. July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... An etching of the Hill, crowned by the mass of the Palazzo del Quirinale, from a series I Sette Colli di Roma antica e moderna published in 1827 by Luigi Rossini (1790 - 1857): his view, from the roof of the palazzo near the Trevi Fountain that now houes the Accademia... After Operation Greif, Otto Skorzeny was labelled the most dangerous man in Europe Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 - July 6[1] 1975) was an Obersturmbannführer in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he is known as the commando leader who rescued... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... Salo may refer to: Salò (Salo), a town in Lombardy, Italy Salò Republic (Italian Social Republic, or Repubblica di Salò) Salo, Finland, a town in the province of Western Finland Salo, Gabon, a town in Ogooué-Ivindo, Gabon Salo (food) - Salted unrendered pork fat Salò o le 120 giornate di... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. It became massive after the capitulation of the Italian Royal Army on September 8, 1943. ...


After the war, the remnants of Italian fascism largely regrouped under the banner of the neo-Fascist "Italian Social Movement" (MSI). The MSI merged in 1994 with conservative former Christian Democrats to form the "National Alliance" (AN), which proclaims its commitment to constitutionalism, parliamentary government and political pluralism. The Italian Social Movement (Movimento sociale italiano ) (MSI) was a neo-Fascist party formed 1946 in the post-World War II period by supporters of the executed dictator Benito Mussolini under the lead of Giorgio Almirante. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... The National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale) is a right-wing Italian party, formed from most of the former Italian Social Movement (Movimento Sociale Italiano, MSI) and conservative elements of the former Christian Democrats, the National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale, AN) was created in 1994. ... Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ...


Mussolini's influences

Mussolini and Hitler

Fascism did not spring forth full-grown, and the writings of Fascist theoreticians cannot be taken as a full description of Mussolini's ideology, let alone how specific situations inevitably resulted in deviations from ideology. Mussolini's policies drew on both the history of the Italian nation and the philosophical ideas of the 19th century. What resulted was neither logical nor well defined, to the extent that Mussolini defined it as "action and mood, not doctrine".[citation needed] Nonetheless, certain ideas are clearly visible. The most obvious is nationalism. The last time Italy had been a great nation was under the banner of the Roman Empire and Italian nationalists always saw this as a period of glory. Given that even other European nations with imperial ambitions had often invoked ancient Rome in their foreign policy, architecture and vocabulary, it was perhaps inevitable that Mussolini would do the same. This included creating a new Roman empire, demolishing medieval Rome to create grand vistas of ancient monuments (eg connecting Piazza Venezia and the Colosseum with the Via dei Fori Imperiali), co-opting original sites (for example, the Ara Pacis) and using ancient Roman architectural styles, with or without a modern twist (for example, the Museum of Roman Civilization at the EUR). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Piazza Venezia, looking towards the Palazzo di Venezia The Piazza Venezia is a piazza in central Rome. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... The Via dei Fori Imperiale is a road in the centre of the city of Rome that runs in a straight line from the Piazza Venezia to the Colosseum, which is itself situated in the Piazza Colosseo. ... The Ara Pacis Augustae The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin for Altar of Augustan Peace, and commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar to Peace, envisioned as a Roman goddess. ... Museum of Roman Civilization The Museum of the Roman Civilization (Italian Museo della Civiltà Romana) is a museum in Rome (EUR district), devoted to the aspects of the Ancient Roman civilization. ... Palazzo dei Congressi The Esposizione Universale Roma (E.U.R.) is a large complex, built in 1935 by Benito Mussolini as symbol of fascism for the world; he wanted to expand the new Rome in the west, to connect it to the sea. ...


Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy had not again been united until its final unification in 1870. Mussolini desired to affirm an Italian national identity and therefore saw the unification as the first step towards returning Italy to greatness and often exploited the unification and the achievements of leading figures such as Garibaldi to induce a sense of Italian national pride. The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... Italian unification process. ... Garibaldi may refer to: People Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian and French revolutionary, and Anita Garibaldi, his wife; Michael Garibaldi, a fictional character in the television series Babylon 5; Garibaldi, a pop music group; Places Garibaldi, Oregon; Garibaldi, British Columbia; Mount Garibaldi; Garibaldi (city), Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil; Garbaldis...


The Fascist cult of national rebirth through a strong leader has roots in the romantic movement of the 19th century, as does the glorification of war. For example, the loss of the war with Abyssinia had been a great humiliation to Italians and consequently it was the first place targeted for Italian expansion under Mussolini. Romanticism is an artistic, romantic and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Not all ideas of fascism originated from the 19th century. For example, the use of systematic propaganda to pass on simple slogans such as "believe, obey, fight" and Mussolini's use of the radio both were techniques developed in the 20th century under the influence of the artistic and literary movement called futurism. Futurism was an early twentieth century intellectual movement in Italy which forcefully emphasized three main ideas: technology, speed, and violence. Similarly, Mussolini's corporate state was a distinctly 20th-century creation. An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Swedish Anti-Euro propaganda for the referendum of 2003. ... Futurism was a 20th century art movement. ...


Fascist mottos and sayings

  • Me ne frego, literally "I frig myself about it," closer, in meaning, to "I don't give a damn": the Italian Fascist motto. Best rendered, "I couldn't give a fuck."
  • Libro e moschetto - fascista perfetto, "The book and the musket - make the perfect Fascist."
  • Viva la Morte, "Long live death (sacrifice)."
  • The above mentioned Tutto nello Stato, niente al di fuori dello Stato, nulla contro lo Stato, "Everything in the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State."
  • Credere, Obbedire, Combattere ("Believe, Obey, Fight")
  • Se avanzo, seguitemi. Se indietreggio, uccidetemi. Se muoio, vendicatemi, ("If I advance, follow me. If I retreat, kill me. If I die, avenge me")

A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b 1932 Enciclopedia Italiana
  2. ^ "The Doctrine of Fascism", from Fascism Doctrine and Institutions, by Benito Mussolini
  3. ^ Rerum Novarum. papalencyclicals.net. Retrieved on November 17, 2005.
  4. ^ Fascist Italy. The Corner. Retrieved on November 17, 2005.
  5. ^ a b Marie-Anne Matard-Bonucci, L'Italie fasciste et la persécution des Juifs (Fascist Italy and the Persecution of Jews), Perrin, 2007 (French)

Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carlo Perrin (1946-) Italian politician. ...

Further reading

References

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... The Doctrine of Fascism is a seminal essay signed by Mussolini and officially attributed to him, although it was most likely written by Giovanni Gentile. ... Georges Eugène Sorel (2 November 1847-29 August 1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of revolutionary syndicalism. ...

General

  • De Felice, Renzo Interpretations of Fascism, translated by Brenda Huff Everett, Cambridge ; London : Harvard University Press, 1977 ISBN 0-674-45962-8.
  • Eatwell, Roger. 1996. Fascism: A History. New York: Allen Lane.
  • Hughes, H. Stuart. 1953. The United States and Italy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Mises, Ludwig von. 1944. Omnipotent Government: The Rise of the Total State and Total War. Grove City: Libertarian Press.
  • Paxton, Robert O. 2004. The Anatomy of Fascism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ISBN 1-4000-4094-9
  • Payne, Stanley G. 1995. A History of Fascism, 1914-45. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press ISBN 0-299-14874-2
  • Reich, Wilhelm. 1970. The Mass Psychology of Fascism. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
  • Seldes, George. 1935. Sawdust Caesar: The Untold History of Mussolini and Fascism. New York and London: Harper and Brothers.
  • Alfred Sohn-Rethel Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism,London, CSE Bks, 1978 ISBN 0-906336-00-7

Renzo De Felice (1929-May 1996) was a Italian historian of Fascism. ... George Seldes (November 16, 1890 – July 2, 1995) was an influential American investigative journalist and media critic. ... Alfred Sohn-Rethel (born January 4, 1899 in Neuilly-sur-Seine near, today in Paris; died April 6, 1990 in Bremen, Germany) was an economist, a philosopher especially interested in epistemology. ...

Fascist ideology

  • De Felice, Renzo Fascism : an informal introduction to its theory and practice, an interview with Michael Ledeen, New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Books, 1976 ISBN 0-87855-190-5.
  • Fritzsche, Peter. 1990. Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505780-5
  • Griffin, Roger. 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560-1991, Routledge, London.
  • Laqueur, Walter. 1966. Fascism: Past, Present, Future, New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Schapiro, J. Salwyn. 1949. Liberalism and The Challenge of Fascism, Social Forces in England and France (1815-1870). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Laclau, Ernesto. 1977. Politics and Ideology in Marxist Theory: Capitalism, Fascism, Populism. London: NLB/Atlantic Highlands Humanities Press.
  • Sternhell, Zeev with Mario Sznajder and Maia Asheri. [1989] 1994. The Birth of Fascist Ideology, From Cultural Rebellion to Political Revolution., Trans. David Maisei. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Renzo De Felice (1929-May 1996) was a Italian historian of Fascism. ... Michael Ledeen (born August 1, 1941) is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. ... Roger Griffin is a British academic at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England whose theory on fascism determines that it is palingenetic ultra-nationalism with concepts and acts of national rebirth being the its defining feature. ... Walter Laqueur (born 1921) is an American historian and political commentator. ... Jacob Salwyn Schapiro (December 19, 1879 - December 30, 1973) was a Professor Emeritus of History at the City College of New York. ... Zeev Sternhell is the Léon Blum Professor of Political Science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. ...

International fascism

  • Coogan, Kevin. 1999. Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist International. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Autonomedia.
  • Griffin, Roger. 1991. The Nature of Fascism. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Paxton, Robert O. 2004. The Anatomy of Fascism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Weber, Eugen. [1964] 1985. Varieties of Fascism: Doctrines of Revolution in the Twentieth Century, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, (Contains chapters on fascist movements in different countries.)
  • Wallace, Henry. "The Dangers of American Fascism". The New York Times, Sunday, 9 April 1944.

Kevin Coogan is an American investigative journalist. ... Eugen Weber (April 24, 1925 – ) is the coolest guy on earth and a prominent historian on the side. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

External links

Michael Parenti (born 1933) is an American political scientist, historian, and media critic. ...

Anti-fascist websites

Libertarian and Paleoconservative websites

October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (282nd in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Proponents


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fascism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5150 words)
Fascism is associated by many scholars with one or more of the following characteristics: a very high degree of nationalism, economic corporatism, a powerful, dictatorial leader who portrays the nation, state or collective as superior to the individuals or groups composing it.
Fascism is also typified by totalitarian attempts to impose state control over all aspects of life: political, social, cultural, and economic; in the examples given, by way of a strong, single-party government for enacting laws and a strong, sometimes brutal militia or police force for enforcing them.
Italian Fascism took power with the blessing of Italy's king after years of leftist-led unrest led many conservatives to fear that a communist revolution was inevitable (Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci popularized the conception that fascism was the Capital's response to the organized workers' movement).
Italian fascism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3272 words)
Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini.
Italian Fascism is often considered to be a proper noun and thus denoted by a capital letter "F", whereas generic fascism is conventionally represented with the lower-case character "f".
Italian Fascism is considered a model for other forms of fascism, yet there is disagreement over which aspects of structure, tactics, culture, and ideology represent a "fascist minimum" or core.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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