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Encyclopedia > Italian Socialist Party
Italian Socialist Party
Partito Socialista Italiano
Former Italian National Party
Political ideology Socialism, Social Democracy
Official Newspaper Avanti!
Website N/A
See also Politics of Italy

Political parties in Italy
Elections in Italy To suggest a relevant news story for the main page, refer to the criteria then add your suggestion at the candidates page. ... Image File history File links Italian_Socialist_Party_logo_1993. ... Socialism is a political philosophy advocating an economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled collectively. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Avanti! (Forward!) was an Italian daily newspaper, the official voice of the Italian Socialist Party, published since December 25, 1896. ... Politics of Italy takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Italy is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Political parties in Italy are organized into two dominant political coalitions. ... Elections in Italy gives information on election and election results in Italy. ...

Bettino Craxi, longtime secretary of the party and for many a symbol of corruption. The carnation logo behind him was used since 1976.
Bettino Craxi, longtime secretary of the party and for many a symbol of corruption. The carnation logo behind him was used since 1976.

The Italian Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI) was a socialist and then social democratic political party founded in Genoa in 1892. For the majority of its existence, it was overshadowed by the larger left-wing party, the Italian Communist Party. The Italian Communist Party was founded by former Socialist Party members in 1921, just before the beginning of the fascist dictatorship in 1922. Bettino Craxi, symbol of the last years of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). ... Bettino Craxi Bettino Craxi (born Benedetto Craxi in Milan, Italy on February 24, 1934, died in Hammamet on January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician. ... Binomial name Dianthus caryophyllus L. The Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is a flowering plant native to the Near East and has been cultivated for the last 2,000 years. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Location within Italy Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese Zena, French Gênes, German Genua, Spanish Génova, Galician Xénova) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


During the fascist years, it was exiled; however, it never dispersed. After World War II, it came back to candidate itself into Italy's first Republican elections. During the '60s and '70s, its existence was undermined. The Italian Communist Party (PCI) had replaced the PSI as the strongest esponent of the left. At the elections of 1972, it received a mere 9%. In 1976, however, Bettino Craxi was elected as the new Secretary of the party. He initiated a plan of innovation and credibility. During 1976-1983, Bettino had tried to undermine the PCI (which was continuosly gaining more and more votes in elections) by creating the 'Pentapartito': an alliance of DC, PSI, PRI (Italian Republican Party), PSDI (Italian Democratic Socialist Party), PLI (Italian Liberal Party). To undermine the strong Christian Democracy (DC), he propsed an alternative to the out-dated governments of DC. His first plan, the Pentapartito, had much success, while his alternative remained unheard. At the elections of 1983, however, the Christian Democracy got a mere 32%, compared to the 38% gained in 1979, which the group needed help forming a majority in Parliament. The PSI, which had gained 11%, threatened to leave the Pentapartito unless Craxi became President of the Council (Prime Minister). The DC had to give in because it did not want fresh elections. Therefore, Bettino Craxi was the first Socialist to become President of the Council. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Bettino Craxi Bettino Craxi (born Benedetto Craxi in Milan, Italy on February 24, 1934, died in Hammamet on January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician. ... The Italian Republican Party (Partito Repubblicano Italiano) is an old left liberal party in Italy, with roots to Giuseppe Mazzini. ... The Italian Democratic Socialists (Italian: Socialisti Democratici Italiani), or SDI, is a small social democratic party of moderate-left policies, heir of the old Italian Socialist Party and led by Enrico Boselli. ... The Italian Liberal Party (Italian: Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI) was an Italian free market liberal party. ... Christian Democracy is a heterogeneous political ideology. ...

Contents


The Golden Years

Craxi's position was not to last only one year, as many Italian governments had done. Instead, it lasted three and a half years. His position was further helped by the President of the Republic Sandro Pertini, who was a member of the PSI. During Craxi's presidency, the PSI gained popularity. His successes in office, like the boost of the economy, brought the GNP to an high level. He also lowered the inflation. The undermining of the USA during the Sigonella Affair, showed Italy's independence and nationalism. All of these gains were attributed to the reforms which the PSI had long wanted to initiate. The PSI looked like the bulk of reforms within the old-dated DC-PRI-PLI-PSDI alliance. Craxi, however, lost his post in March, 1987 due to a conflict over the proposed budget for 1987 with the Pentapartito. Alessandro (Sandro) Pertini (September 25, 1896 - February 24, 1990) was an Italian politician and arguably the most popular President of Italy ever, along with Carlo Azeglio Ciampi. ... GVA redirects here; for other uses, see GVA (disambiguation). ...


The end of the legislature, however, was 1988, and Craxi allowed a DC esponent to get the reins of the government. Amintore Fanfani (president for 11 days) was left alone after the PSI went out of the Pentapartito. In the years 1987-1992, the PSI was to throw three governments, allowing Andreotti in 1989 to govern until 1992. It held a strong balance of power, which made it de facto, more powerful than the DC. The DC had to depend on it to form a majority in Parliament, and the PSI kept this privilege tight. At the elections of 1987, the PSI got 14.5%, but this time it was the Christian Democrats turn to govern the country (obviously with the needed support of PSI). However, PSI created such insitutional confusion by not allowing governments to govern for more then 11 months, which eventually created an economic crisis. During the regional elections of 1989, the PSI gained 18% in most regions. The Social Unity advertised by Craxi in 1989 was bringing fruits, the alternative which Craxi had wanted so much. It was inevitably going to come after the end of communism, which underminded the Italian Comunist Party. By 1985, Craxi had taken the symbol of communism off the PSI logo, and replaced it with a rose. If Bribeville hadn't taken place, the PSI was going to become the second party of Italy. The advantage of Socialists in taking public money and bribes during the 80s was finally going to end, and with it the PSI. Amintore Fanfani (6 February 1908 - 20 November 1999) was an Italian politician and Prime Minister. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Decline

In February 1992, socialist Mario Chiesa was caught taking a 7 million lira bribe, which was only 7% of the total bribe. The PSI, or more likely Bettino Craxi, did not see this as dangerous and renounced Chiesa by calling him an isolated thief, who had nothing to do with the party as a whole. Later on, the personal photographer of Bettino Craxi blamed Craxi for not making Chiesa a deputy in Parliament (since he would have then possessed Parliamentary immunity) and the 'Bribeville' (tangentopoli) affair would have been avoided. Feeling left out and isolated, Chiesa gave names of high industrials and important local politicians. The magistrates in the Palace of Justice in Milan worked day and night, in the case which is known as Mani pulite (Clean Hands). Mani pulite (Italian for clean hands) was a nationwide Italian police investigation into political corruption held in the 1990s, following the scandal of Banco Ambrosiano in 1982, which implicated mafia, Vatican Bank and P2. ...


Things quickly ran out of hands. In May, 1992 the socialist deputy Paolo Pilliterri (brother-in-law of Craxi), received 'Avviso di Garanzia', a letter informing him he was under investigations. Public opinion started a fierce campaign against corruption and gave the magistrates unconditional support. Craxi himself was to receive one of those letters in December, 1992. Parliament, however, had to give authorization to the magistrates to continue the investigation, although in April 1993, Parliament denied for the 4th time such authorization. Italian newspapers shouted 'scandal', and Craxi was besieged at his Roman residence by a crowd of young fascists, who threw coins at him and shouted 'Bettino do you want these as well'. This scene was to become one of the many symbols of corruption within the Italian political scene. 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Craxi resigned as Party Secretary in Febraury 1993. Many other important leaders left the party, such as Claudio Martelli, Gianni De Michelis and Paolo Pillitteri. During 1992-1993, 3 Socialist deputies committed suicide and stated before dying 'the veil of hypocrisy which had covered the wrongdoings concerning financing their party' Gianni De Michelis Gianni De Michelis (born on 26 November 1940 in Venezia) is an Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for Southern with the NPSI, and is therefore a Non-Inscrit in the European Parliament waiting for the acceptance of his partys request of membership in...


At the administrative and communal elections, the PSI was virtually wiped out, gaining around 3%. That was just the start. The last secretary of the PSI Ottaviano Del Turco tried, in vain, to gain credibility to a party whose members were called 'thieves' in Parliament and in the media. Giuliano Amato, a socialist and a close friend of Bettino Craxi, resigned as Prime Minister in 1993. After his government, there was a technocratic government, which lasted until 1994. In the general elections of 1994, the PSI allied itself with the ex-communists (since the new electoral system made a two-bloc system flourish). Its result were bad, but not surprising. In 1992, the PSI had 92 deputies in Parliament; the number of deputies it had following the 1994 elections were only 14 (partly thanks to the new electoral system). The 13.5% of the popular vote they had obtained in 1992 went down to 2.5% in 1994. Ottaviano Del Turco (born November 7, 1944 in Collelongo) was an Italian Member of the European Parliament. ... Giuliano Amato (born May 13, 1938) is an Italian politician. ... Bettino Craxi Bettino Craxi (born Benedetto Craxi in Milan, Italy on February 24, 1934, died in Hammamet on January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician. ...


The party disbanded in 1994 after two years of agony, in which almost all of its longtime leaders, especially Bettino Craxi, were involved in Tangentopoli. So ended the party, partly thanks to its leaders, which had 100 years of history. As one former socialist Rino Formica stated, 'the convent is poor but the friars are rich,' metaphorically symbolizing the richness of the leaders of a party which complained of its enormous debt. Bettino Craxi, viewed by many as the symbol of Tangentopoli, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, is greeted by a salvo of coins as a sign of loathing by protesters contesting him. ...


Its Successors

Since then, many minor formations claimed to be the party's successor. Among them were the Italian Democratic Socialists, which was founded by a former 'honest' socialist Enrico Boselli. The Italian Democratic Socialists, however, gained only around 1% at General Elections. Its more direct successor is the Socialist Party New PSI, founded by Gianni De Michelis (former socialist and currupt figure in Tangentopoli), Claudio Martelli (the dauphin of Bettino Craxi, and former currupt figure in Tangentopoli), and by the son of Bettino Craxi, Vittorio Craxi. The Socialist Party New PSI is more idealogical attached to the former Bettino Craxi and is allied in the centre-right coalition headed by the former friend of Bettino Craxi, Silvio Berlusconi. None of them, however, have yet arrived to the same point that PSI did at the height of its power. The Italian Democratic Socialists (Italian: Socialisti Democratici Italiani), or SDI, is a small social democratic party of moderate-left policies, heir of the old Italian Socialist Party and led by Enrico Boselli. ... Enrico Boselli Enrico Boselli (born 7 January 1957 in Bologna) is an Italian politician, and leader of the Italian Democratic Socialists party. ... The Italian Democratic Socialists (Italian: Socialisti Democratici Italiani), or SDI, is a small social democratic party of moderate-left policies, heir of the old Italian Socialist Party and led by Enrico Boselli. ... A general election is an election in which all members of a given political body are up for election. ... The Partito Socialista – Nuovo PSI (NPSI) is a small Italian party which professes a social-democratic ideology and claims to be the successor to the old Italian Socialist Party, which was disbanded after the judiciary tempest of the early 1990s (see Mani Pulite). ... Gianni De Michelis Gianni De Michelis (born on 26 November 1940 in Venezia) is an Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for Southern with the NPSI, and is therefore a Non-Inscrit in the European Parliament waiting for the acceptance of his partys request of membership in... Bettino Craxi, viewed by many as the symbol of Tangentopoli, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, is greeted by a salvo of coins as a sign of loathing by protesters contesting him. ... Bettino Craxi, viewed by many as the symbol of Tangentopoli, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, is greeted by a salvo of coins as a sign of loathing by protesters contesting him. ... Bettino Craxi Bettino Craxi (born Benedetto Craxi in Milan, Italy on February 24, 1934, died in Hammamet on January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician. ... Vittorio Craxi, commonly known as Bobo Craxi, (born in Milan on 6 June 1964) is an Italian politician, son of Bettino Craxi, He is the new leader of Nuovo PSI since the Vth Congress, confirmed by a judicial decision of December 31, 2005. ... The Partito Socialista – Nuovo PSI (NPSI) is a small Italian party which professes a social-democratic ideology and claims to be the successor to the old Italian Socialist Party, which was disbanded after the judiciary tempest of the early 1990s (see Mani Pulite). ... Bettino Craxi Bettino Craxi (born Benedetto Craxi in Milan, Italy on February 24, 1934, died in Hammamet on January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician. ... Bettino Craxi Bettino Craxi (born Benedetto Craxi in Milan, Italy on February 24, 1934, died in Hammamet on January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician. ... (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ...


External link

  • Archive of PSI posters
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Italian Democratic Socialist Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (228 words)
The Italian Democratic Socialist Party was founded in 1952 by the union of two parties: the United Socialist Party and the Workers' Socialist Party.
Both of them broke away from the Italian Socialist Party in 1947 and 1949, due to the communist tendencies of the latter.
The party was involved in the corruption scandals known collectively as Tangentopoli, and finally disbanded in 1998.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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