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Encyclopedia > Italian Social Republic

Coordinates: 45°35′54″N, 10°32′8″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Repubblica Sociale Italiana
Italian Social Republic
Puppet state of Nazi Germany

1943 – 1945
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of Arms
Anthem
"Giovinezza" ("The Youth")¹
From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line
Capital Salò
Language(s) Italian
Religion None defined.
Government Republic
Head of State Benito Mussolini
Historical era World War II
 - Established September 23, 1943
 - Disestablished April 25, 1945
¹ External link

The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the Nation" and "Minister of Foreign Affairs" Benito Mussolini. The RSI exercised official sovereignty in northern Italy but was largely dependent on the German Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) to maintain control. The state was informally known as the Salò Republic (Repubblica di Salò) because the RSI's Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Mussolini) was headquartered in Salò, a small town on Lake Garda. The Italian Social Republic was the second and last incarnation of a Fascist Italian state. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The flag of Italy (often referred to in Italian as Il Tricolore) is a tricolour featuring three equally sized vertical bands of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Republic. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Giovinezza was the fascist hymn of Benito Mussolinis Blackshirts, and was the unofficial anthem of Fascist Italy. ... The Winter Line was a series of German military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt. ... German defensive positions in Northern Italy 1944 370th Infantry Regiment walking toward the mountains at north of Prato - April 1945 The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings last major line of defence in the final stages of World War II along the summits... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Salo (Italian: Salò) is a small town in the Province of Brescia in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy on the banks of Lake Garda. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Northern Italy comprises of two areas belonging to NUTS level 1: North-West (Nord-Ovest): Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Lombardy, Liguria North-East (Nord-Est): Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Aosta Valley are regions with a... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Salo (Italian: Salò) is a small town in the Province of Brescia in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy on the banks of Lake Garda. ... Lake Garda (Italian Lago di Garda or Benaco) is the largest lake in Italy. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...

Contents

The context of RSI's creation

German poster saying: "Germany is truly your friend"
German poster saying: "Germany is truly your friend"

On July 24, 1943, after the Allied landings in Sicily, the Grand Fascist Council, on a motion by its chairman, Dino Grandi, voted a motion of no confidence in Mussolini. The next day, King Victor Emmanuel III dismissed Mussolini from office and ordered him arrested. By this time, both the monarchy, a number of Fascist government members and Italians in general had grown tired of Italy's futile war effort which had driven Italy into subordination and subjugation under Nazi Germany. The failed war effort left Mussolini humiliated at home and abroad as a "sawdust caesar" The new government, under Marshal Pietro Badoglio, began secret negotiations with the Allied powers and made preparation for the capitulation of Italy. These surrender talks implied a commitment from Badoglio not only to leave the Axis alliance but also to have Italy declare war on Germany. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Count Dino Grandi (1895-1988), born in Mordano (BO), Emilia. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Victor Emmanuel III Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III) (November 11, 1869 - December 28, 1947), nicknamed The Soldier, was the King of Italy (July 29, 1900 - May 9, 1946), and claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba (September 28, 1871 – November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ...


While the Germans formally recognised the new status quo in Italian politics, they quickly intervened by sending some of the best units of the Wehrmacht to Italy. This was done both to resist new Allied advances and to face the predictably imminent defection of Italy. While Badoglio still swore loyalty to Germany and the Axis, Italian government emissaries had already signed the armistice in Allied-occupied Sicily (in Cassibile) on 3 September. The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... The Armistice with Italy is an armistice that occurred on September 8, 1943, during World War II. It was signed by Italy and the Allied armed forces, who were occupying the southern half of the country at the time. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 8 September, the truth finally came out and Badoglio announced Italy's surrender. German Führer Adolf Hitler and his staff, long aware of the betrayal, acted immediately by ordering German troops to seize control of northern and central Italy. The Germans disarmed the stunned Italian troops and took over all of the Italian Army's materials and equipment. is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazi propaganda poster. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Just four days later, on 12 September, a daring German paratrooper action in the mountains of Abruzzo, led by Otto Skorzeny and called Unternehmen Eiche (or "Operation Oak"), succeeded in liberating Mussolini and forcing him back into power. While in captivity, the new Italian government had moved Mussolini from place to place in order to frustrate any would-be rescuers. Finally, the Germans determined that he was at the Campo Imperatore Hotel at Gran Sasso. After being liberated, Mussolini was safely flown to Bavaria. His liberation made it possible for a new, German-dependent Fascist Italian state to be created. is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Abruzzi” redirects here. ... Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 – July 6, 1975[1]) was a Standartenführer[2] in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he is known as the commando leader who rescued Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow. ... The daring rescue of Benito Mussolini by German special forces in World War II. ... Gran Sasso dItalia is a 30 kilometer massif located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy . ...

Part of the Politics series on
Fascism

Fascism Portal
Politics Portal

 v  d  e  For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence and seek to achieve a millenarian national rebirth by placing the interests of the individual as subordinate to that of the nation or race and promoting... What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement) was a pro-German anti-Semitic national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi which ruled Hungary from October 15, 1944 to January 1945. ... Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... The famous Integralist salute, Anauê!, which means you are my brother! (believed by some to have originated in a Tupi language expression) Integralist banner Brazilian Integralism (Portuguese: Integralismo brasileiro) was a Brazilian political movement created in October 1932. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... -1... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Léon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... This article discusses regimes and movements that are alleged to have been either fascist or sympathetic to fascism. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup détat by which Mussolinis National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. ... Actual Idealism was a form of idealism developed by Giovanni Gentile that grew into a grounded idealism contrasting the Transcendental Idealism of Immanuel Kant and the Absolute idealism of Georg Hegel. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... For the 1970 film see Black Brigade (film) Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... The economics of fascism refers to the economic policies implemented by fascist governments. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Giovanni Gentile (IPA:) (May 30, 1875 - April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce. ... The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ... Adolf Hitler and others at a Nazi party rally in Nuremberg, Germany, performing the salute. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... National Syndicalism is typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become the basis for Mussolini’s Fascist Party. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Oath of the Horatii (1784), by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ... International Third Position was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement. ... Enrico Corradini (1865, near Montelupo Fiorentino—1931, Rome) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist, and nationalist political figure. ...

History of the RSI

War flag of the RSI. This flag was a prominent symbol of the RSI, even more displayed in propaganda than the official flag which was a plain Italian tricolour. The war flag of the RSI has remained a symbol of Italian Fascism since the war.
War flag of the RSI. This flag was a prominent symbol of the RSI, even more displayed in propaganda than the official flag which was a plain Italian tricolour. The war flag of the RSI has remained a symbol of Italian Fascism since the war.
RSI Propaganda poster
RSI Propaganda poster

Upon Mussolini being rescued from arrest in Italy, Adolf Hitler ordered Mussolini to form a new fascist state or Italy would be treated as an enemy. Mussolini obliged, and the Italian Social Republic was proclaimed on September 23.[1] Image File history File links Flag_of_RSI.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Axis powers of World War II Flag of Italy Italian Social Republic Il Cuore nel Pozzo Kingdom of Italy (Savoy) ... Image File history File links Flag_of_RSI.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Axis powers of World War II Flag of Italy Italian Social Republic Il Cuore nel Pozzo Kingdom of Italy (Savoy) ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... Hitler redirects here. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Immediately upon the state's creation, it became obvious that it was little more than a puppet state dependent entirely on Berlin. German distrust of the Fascists' ability to control their own territory as well as German territorial claims on Italy, which had been repressed from the 1930s for the sake of alliance with Italy came to the forefront. Germany forced Mussolini to cede Istria, Trieste, Tyrol, and even Venice to be annexed by Germany. Huge portions of Italian-populated territories which had been acquired through years of conflict, were suddenly forced to be abandoned.[2] Mussolini himself knew he was little more than the gauleiter of Lombardy, even though he stated in public that he was in full control. The finances of the state were completely dependent on German funding, the state had no constitution and no organized economy.[3] German forces themselves had little respect for Mussolini's failed fascist movement and saw the only use of the regime for maintaining order,[4] such as repressing the Italian partisans and for persecuting Jews. In addition, Hitler forced the new regime to take revenge against those who had voted against Mussolini on the Grand Council, as well as other suspected traitors. For example, on January 11, 1944, Mussolini had his own son-in-law Galeazzo Ciano executed. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gian Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944), was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Benito Mussolinis son-in-law. ...


During the existence of the Italian Social Republic, Mussolini, whose government had banned trade unions and strikes, began to make increasingly populist appeals to the working class. He claimed to regret many of the decisions he made in supporting the interests of big business in the past. He promised a new beginning if the Italian people would be willing to grant him a second chance. Mussolini claimed that he had never totally abandoned his left-wing influences, he claimed that he had attempted to nationalize property in 1939-40 but he had to delay them for tactical reasons of the war.[5] but that with the removal of the monarchy he claimed that the full ideology of Fascism could be pursued and reversed over twenty years of Fascist support of private property and relative economic independence by ordering the nationalization of all companies with over 100 employees.[6] Mussolini even reached out to communist Nicola Bombacci, a former student of Vladimir Lenin to help him in spreading the image that Fascism was a progressive movement.[7] The economic policy of RSI was the "Socialization". The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lenin redirects here. ...


While the RSI remained largely a puppet state, Mussolini maintained personal close relations with Hitler which aided his state. In 1944, he urged Hitler to focus on destroying Britain, rather than the Soviet Union, as Mussolini claimed that it was Britain which turned the conflict into a world war and that the British Empire must be destroyed in order for peace to come in Europe.[8]


As the situation became desperate in late 1944, with Allied forces in control of most of Italy, Mussolini declared that "he would fight to the last Italian" and spoke of turning Milan into the "Stalingrad of Italy", where Fascism would make its last glorious fight.[9] Despite such strong rhetoric, Mussolini considered evacuating Fascists into Switzerland, but this was opposed by Germany, which instead proposed that Mussolini and key Fascist officials be taken into exile in Germany.[10] Further disintegration of support for his government occurred as fascist and German military officials secretly tried to negotiate a truce with Allied forces, without consulting either Mussolini or Hitler.[11] Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad (metro station...


Around 25 April 1945, Mussolini's republic came to an end. This day is known as Liberation Day. On this day a general partisan uprising and the (Western) Allied spring offensive managed largely to oust the Germans from Italy. The Italian Social Republic had existed for slightly more than one and a half years. is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ...


On 28 April, Mussolini, his mistress (Clara Petacci), several RSI ministers, and some other Fascists were caught attempting to flee. Most of the captives were shot at Dongo by Italian partisans. Fifteen of the bodies were taken to a square in the center of Milan and hanged unceremoniously up-side down in front of a gas station. is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clara Petacci (Claretta Petacci) (February 28, 1912 – April 28, 1945) was a young Roman girl from an upper-class family who became Benito Mussolinis mistress. ... Dongo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 70 km north of Milan and about 40 km northeast of Como. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Modern gas station A filling station, gas station or petrol station is a facility that sells fuel for road motor vehicles – usually petrol (US: gas/gasoline), diesel fuel and LPG. The term gas station is mostly particular to the United States of America and Canada, where petrol is known as...


RSI Military formations

Army

2 RSI Recruitment posters: 1 for the Italian SS Legion and the other for the X Flottiglia MAS
Rodolfo Graziani, a highly experienced military officer, was the commander of the armed forces of the RSI.
Rodolfo Graziani, a highly experienced military officer, was the commander of the armed forces of the RSI.
An anti-Fascist partisan hanged by the Xª MAS. The sign says: "He attempted to shoot the Decima"
An anti-Fascist partisan hanged by the Xª MAS. The sign says: "He attempted to shoot the Decima"

Smaller units like the Black Brigades and the Decima Flottiglia MAS fought for the RSI during its entire existence. The Germans were satisfied if these units were able to participate in anti-partisan activities. While varying in their effectiveness, some of these units surpassed expectations. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli (August 11, 1882—January 11, 1955), was an Italian military officer who led expeditions in Africa before and during World War II and a war criminal responsible for thousands of Libyan and Ethiopian civilian deaths. ... Italian partisan Ferruccio Nazionale, hanged by soldiers of Decima Flottiglia MAS. The sign says He attempted to shoot the Decima. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Italian partisan Ferruccio Nazionale, hanged by soldiers of Decima Flottiglia MAS. The sign says He attempted to shoot the Decima. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For the 1970 film see Black Brigade (film) Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... The Decima Flottiglia MAS (Decima Flottiglia Mezzi dAssalto, also known as La Decima or Xª MAS) (Italian for 10th Assault Vehicle Flotilla) was an Italian commando frogman unit created during the Fascist government. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ...


On 16 October 1943, the Rastenburg Protocol was signed with Nazi Germany and the RSI was allowed to raise division-sized military formations. This protocol allowed Marshal Rodolfo Graziani to raise four RSI divisions totalling 52,000 men. In July 1944, the first of these divisions completed training and was sent to the front. is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli (August 11, 1882—January 11, 1955), was an Italian military officer who led expeditions in Africa before and during World War II and a war criminal responsible for thousands of Libyan and Ethiopian civilian deaths. ...


Recruiting military forces was difficult for the RSI, most of the Italian army had been interned by German forces in 1943, many Italians had been conscripted into forced labour in Germany and few wanted to participate in the war. The RSI became so desperate for soldiers that it granted convicts freedom if they would join the army and the sentence of death was imposed on anyone who opposed being conscripted. .[12] Autonomous military forces in the RSI also fought against the Allies including the notorious Decima Flottiglia MAS of Prince Junio Valerio Borghese. Borghese held no allegiance to Mussolini and even suggested that he would take him prisoner if he could.[13] The Decima Flottiglia MAS (Decima Flottiglia Mezzi dAssalto, also known as La Decima or Xª MAS) (Italian for 10th Assault Vehicle Flotilla) was an Italian commando frogman unit created during the Fascist government. ... Prince Junio Valerio Scipione Borghese (6 June 1906 - 26 August 1974) was an Italian naval commander and controversial political figure. ...


During the winter of 1944-1945, armed Italians were on both sides of the Gothic Line. On the Allied side were four Italian groups of volunteers from the old Italian army. These Italian volunteers were equipped and trained by the British. On the Axis side were four RSI divisions. Three of the RSI divisions, the 2nd Italian "Littorio" Infantry Division, the 3rd Italian "San Marco" Marine Division, and the 4th Italian "Monte Rosa" Alpine Division, were allocated to the LXXXXVII "Liguria" Army under Graziani and were placed to guard the western flank of the Gothic Line facing France. The fourth RSI division, the 1st Italian "Italia" Infantry Division, was attached to the German 14th Army in a sector of the Apennine Mountains thought least likely to be attacked.[14] German defensive positions in Northern Italy 1944 370th Infantry Regiment walking toward the mountains at north of Prato - April 1945 The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings last major line of defence in the final stages of World War II along the summits...


On 26 December 1944, several size-able RSI military units, including elements of the 4th Italian "Monte Rosa" Alpine Division and the 3rd Italian "San Marco" Marine Division, participated in Operation Winter Storm. This was a combined German and Italian offensive against the 92nd Infantry Division. The battle was fought in the Apennines. While limited in scale, this was a successful offensive and the RSI units did their part. is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Winter Storm (German Unternehmen Wintergewitter) was the German Fourth Panzer Armys attempt to relieve the German Sixth Army from encirclement during the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II. The operation commenced on 12 December 1942 and was able to advance just halfway to its objective before a... The 92nd Infantry Division (colored) was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. Nicknamed the Buffalo Soldiers Division, this segregated unit was the only African American infantry division to see combat in Europe during WWII, as part of the 5th Army. ...


In February 1945, the 92nd Infantry Division again came up against RSI units. This time it was Bersaglieri of the 1st Italian "Italia" Infantry Division. The Italians successfully halted the US division's advance. The 92nd Infantry Division (colored) was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. Nicknamed the Buffalo Soldiers Division, this segregated unit was the only African American infantry division to see combat in Europe during WWII, as part of the 5th Army. ... The Bersaglieri are a corps of the Italian army created by General Alessandro Lamarmora in 1836. ...


The RSI Minister of Defense, Rodolfo Graziani, was even able to say that he commanded an entire Army. This was the Italo-German Army Group Liguria. Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli (August 11, 1882—January 11, 1955), was an Italian military officer who led expeditions in Africa before and during World War II and a war criminal responsible for thousands of Libyan and Ethiopian civilian deaths. ...


On 29 April, Graziani surrendered and was present at Caserta when a representative of German General Heinrich von Vietinghoff-Steel signed the unconditional instrument of surrender for all Axis forces in Italy. But, possibly as a sign of the low esteem in which the Allies held the RSI, Graziani's signature was not required at Caserta. [15] The surrender was to take effect on 2 May. Graziani ordered the RSI forces under his command to lay down their arms on 1 May. is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Heinrich von Vietinghoff, during World War II, was a General of the German Wehrmacht who commanded the German 10th Army in Italy. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Air Force

The National Republican Air Force (Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana or ANR) was the air force of Italian Social Republic and also the air unit of National Republican Army in World War II. Its tactical organization was: 3 Fighter Groups, 1 Air Torpedo Bomber Group, 1 Bomber Group and other Transport and minor units. The ANR worked closely with German Luftwaffe in Northern Italy even if the Germans tried, unsuccessfully, to disband the ANR forcing its pilots to enlist in the Luftwaffe. In 1944, after the withdrawal of all German fighter units in the attempt to stop the increased Allied offensive on the German mainland, ANR fighter groups were left alone and heavily outnumbered, to face the massive Allied air offensive over Northern Italy. In the operation time of 1944 and 1945 the ANR managed to shoot down 262 Allied aircraft with the loss of 158 in action.[16] [17] [18] The Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana (A.N.R) (National Republican Air Force) was the air force of Italian Social Republic during World War II, closely linked with the German Luftwaffe in Northern Italy. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...

Italian Soldier of the MNR
Italian Soldier of the MNR

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Navy

Very little of the Regia Marina chose to side with the RSI. The RSI's Navy (Marina Nazionale Repubblicana) only reached a twentieth the size of the co-belligerent Italian fleet.[19] The RSI Navy included the following craft: Four Motor Torpedo Boats (also known as Torpedo Armed Motorboats or Motoscafo Armato Silurante or MAS), two anti-submarine vessels, and various other light vessels. There were also five midget submarines stationed in northern Italy and five midget submarines stationed in Romania on the Black Sea. The five submarines stationed in northern Italy all chose to join the RSI Navy. Because of maintenance payment issues, only four of the submarines in Romania were returned to the RSI. Troops of the Decima Flottiglia MAS fought primarily as an army unit of the RSI. The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ... A MAS-15 of World War I. Motoscafo Armato Silurante (Italian: Torpedo Armed Motorboat, commonly abbreviated as MAS) was a class of fast armed vessel used by the Regia Marina during World War I and World War II. Originally, the acronym MAS referred to Motorbarca Armata SVAN (Armed Motorboat SVAN... The Decima Flottiglia MAS (Decima Flottiglia Mezzi dAssalto, also known as La Decima or Xª MAS) (Italian for 10th Assault Vehicle Flotilla) was an Italian commando frogman unit created during the Fascist government. ...


Paramilitaries

The fall of the fascist regime in Italy and the disbandment of the MVSN saw the establishment of the Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana (GNR), and the emergence of the brigate nere or Black Brigades. The 40 Black Brigades consisted of former MVSN, former Carabinieri, former soldiers, and others still loyal to the fascist cause. Alongside with their Nazi and Schutzstaffel (SS) counterparts, the Black Brigades committed many atrocities in their fight against the Italian resistance movement and political enemies. For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... Republican National Guard (GNR) it was constituted by the decree of 8 December 1943, appointing Renato Ricci as commander. ... For the 1970 film see Black Brigade (film) Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... The Carabinieri are the military police of Italy. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ...


List of RSI Ministers

The following is a list of RSI ministers. For a variety of reasons many ministers did not live past the end of World War II. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

  • Head of State and Minister of Foreign Affairs - Benito Mussolini (shot by partisans on 28 April 1945) from 1943 to 1945
  • Minister of Defence - Rodolfo Graziani from 1943 to 1945
  • Ministers of the Interior - Guido Buffarini Guidi (shot by partisans on 10 July 1945) from 1943 to 1945, Paolo Zerbino (shot by partisans on 28 April 1945) for 1945
  • Ministers of Justice - Antonino Tringali-Casanova (died of natural causes on 30 October, 1943) for 1943, Pietro Pisenti from 1943 to 1945
  • Minister of Finance - Domenico Pellegrini Giampietro from 1943-1945
  • Ministers of Industrial Production - Silvio Gai for 1943, Angelo Tarchi from 1943-1945
  • Minister of Public Works - Ruggero Romano (shot by partisans on 28 April 1945) from 1943 to 1945
  • Minister of Communications - Augusto Liverani (shot by partisans on 28 April 1945) from 1943 to 1945
  • Minister of Labour - Giuseppe Spinelli for 1945
  • Minister of National Education - Carlo Alberto Biggini (died of natural causes on 19 November 1945) from 1943 to 1945
  • Minister of Popular Culture - Fernando Mezzasoma (shot by partisans on 28 April 1945) from 1943 to 1945
  • Minister of Agriculture - Edoardo Moroni from 1943 to 1945
  • Leader of the Republican Fascist Party - Alessandro Pavolini (shot by partisans on 28 April 1945) from 1943 to 1945

Mussolini redirects here. ... Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli (August 11, 1882—January 11, 1955), was an Italian military officer who led expeditions in Africa before and during World War II and a war criminal responsible for thousands of Libyan and Ethiopian civilian deaths. ... Guido Buffarini Guidi (August 17, 1895 - July 10, 1945) was an Italian politician notable for his involvement in the fascist regime during the Second World War. ... Antonino Tringali-Casanova (April 11, 1888_October 30, 1943) was born on April 11, 1888 in Cecina (near Livorno), Italy, he served under Mussolini as the Italian Social Republics first Minister of Justice. ... Domenico Pellegrini Giampietro (August 30, 1899, Brienza, in Basilicata—June 18, 1970, Montevideo) was an Italian academic, economist, lawyer, politician, and (in his final years) journalist. ... Carlo Alberto Biggini (December 9, 1902 _ 1945) served as Minister of Education before and after proclamation of the Italian Social Republic under Benito Mussolini. ... Fernando Mazzasoma (August 3, 1907-April 28, 1945), born in Rome, Italy, was a political figure during the fascist regime. ... Alessandro Pavolini (September 27, 1903—April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and essayist, notable for his involvement in the Fascist government in during World War II. A native of Florence, Pavolini was the son of Paolo Emilio Pavolini, a major scholar of Sanskrit and other Indo-European languages. ...

Legacy in post-war Italian politics

While the RSI was a puppet state of Nazi Germany, its legacy was that after twenty years of Fascist association with the Savoy monarchy of the Kingdom of Italy which at times had serious strain, the RSI allowed the Italian Fascist movement to be able to build a completely totalitarian state which had been held back by the monarchy, it allowed Mussolini to at last be the official head of an Italian state, and it allowed the Fascists to return to their earlier republican stances. There have been several entities known as the Kingdom of Italy. ...


Most prominent figures of post-war Italian far right politics (parliamentary or extraparliamentary) were in some way associated with the experience of the RSI. Among them were Pino Romualdi, Rodolfo Graziani, Junio Valerio Borghese and Giorgio Almirante. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli (August 11, 1882—January 11, 1955), was an Italian military officer who led expeditions in Africa before and during World War II and a war criminal responsible for thousands of Libyan and Ethiopian civilian deaths. ... Prince Junio Valerio Scipione Borghese (6 June 1906 - 26 August 1974) was an Italian naval commander and controversial political figure. ... Giorgio Almirante. ...


Today, a significant number of far right organizations in Italy, notably the Fiamma Tricolore party, still explicitly take inspiration for their social and political platform from the RSI experience. The RSI is usually seen as the example of what Fascism should have been.[citation needed] As a sign of this legacy, Fiamma Tricolore, for example, guarantees free membership for ex-RSI military.[20] A communique from the Rome section of the Fiamma said: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... The Movimento Sociale Fiamma Tricolore is a hardline Italian right-wing party. ... The Movimento Sociale Fiamma Tricolore is a hardline Italian right-wing party. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

[Fiamma Tricolore] is a movement born to closely approximate the ideals of the Social Republic and its fighters. We would surely have fought on the side of this Republic, if only fate had allowed us to have been born during those years. And we would have surely fought to win, because for us the political synthesis originating from the thought of Benito Mussolini is for us the only political, economic, and spiritual system able to bring about the freedom and social justice that are today denied to Italians and all other world populations. [...][We] relaunch our battle for a better tomorrow, embodying the ideals of the Black Shirts of Alessandro Pavolini. Alessandro Pavolini (September 27, 1903—April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and essayist, notable for his involvement in the Fascist government in during World War II. A native of Florence, Pavolini was the son of Paolo Emilio Pavolini, a major scholar of Sanskrit and other Indo-European languages. ...

(Maurizio Boccacci[21])

See also

This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ... During the era of World War II (1939 - 1945), Italy had a very varied and tumultuous military history. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Combatants  United Kingdom Indian Empire  United States Poland  Brazil  New Zealand  Canada  Free French  South Africa Italy  (after September 8th) Italian Resistance  Germany Italy  (until 8 September 1943) RSI  (until 25 April 1945) Commanders C-in-C AFHQ: Dwight D. Eisenhower (until January 1944) Henry Maitland Wilson (Jan to Dec... German defensive positions in Northern Italy 1944 370th Infantry Regiment walking toward the mountains at north of Prato - April 1945 The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings last major line of defence in the final stages of World War II along the summits... For the University of Nebraska–Lincoln football teams defense, see Blackshirts (football). ... For the 1970 film see Black Brigade (film) Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... The Decima Flottiglia MAS (Decima Flottiglia Mezzi dAssalto, also known as La Decima or Xª MAS) (Italian for 10th Assault Vehicle Flotilla) was an Italian commando frogman unit created during the Fascist government. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne Division in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ... The birth of the Italian Republic (officially on June 2, 1946) is a key event of Italian contemporary history. ... Insignia applied with a decal on the tail of the Règia Aeronautica aircraft (reconstruction). ... The Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana (A.N.R) (National Republican Air Force) was the air force of Italian Social Republic during World War II, closely linked with the German Luftwaffe in Northern Italy. ... Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in early-to-mid 20th century poetry. ...

Miscellaneous

Pier Paolo Pasolini (March 5, 1922 – November 2, 1975) was an Italian poet, intellectual, film director, and writer. ... The year 1976 in film involved some significant events. ... Salò o le 120 giornate di Sodoma (Salò or the 120 Days of Sodom) is a 1975 film by Italian director Pier Paolo Pasolini, based on the book The 120 Days of Sodom by the Marquis de Sade. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Pauley, Bruce F (2003) Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century Italy, Wheeling: Harlan Davidson, Inc., p228
  2. ^ Smith, p307
  3. ^ Pauley, p228.
  4. ^ Smith, p307
  5. ^ Smith, Denis Mack. Mussolini; A Biography. New York: Vintage Books, 1983. p311
  6. ^ Smith, p312
  7. ^ Smith, p312
  8. ^ Smith, p316
  9. ^ Smith, p317
  10. ^ Smith, p317
  11. ^ Smith, p317-318
  12. ^ Smith, Denis Mack. Mussolini; A Biography. New York: Vintage Books, 1983. p308
  13. ^ Smith, p308
  14. ^ Blaxland, p243
  15. ^ The Decline an Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, Hans Dollinger, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 67-27047
  16. ^ Italian Air Forces 1943-1945 - The Aviazone Nazionale Repubblicana by Richard J. Caruana, 1989 Modelaid International Publication
  17. ^ Aircraft of the Aces 34 Apostolo: Italian Aces of World War 2
  18. ^ Italian biplane fighter aces - Ugo Drago
  19. ^ Page 100, "The Armed Forces of World War II", Andrew Mollo, ISBN 0-517-54478-4
  20. ^ :: Fiamma Tricolore :: Sito ufficiale :: Appuntamenti
  21. ^ Fiamma Tricolore Roma
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...

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