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Encyclopedia > Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party
Partito Comunista Italiano
Former Italian National Party
Political ideology Communism, Socialism, Eurocommunism
Official Newspaper L'Unità
Website N/A
See also Politics of Italy

Political parties in Italy
Elections in Italy Symbol of the Italian Communist Party. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy. ... LUnità is an Italian newspaper, published by Democrats of the Left. ... Politics of Italy takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Italy is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Political parties in Italy are organized into two dominant political coalitions. ... Elections in Italy gives information on election and election results in Italy. ...

The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista d'Italia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that body's congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. Amedeo Bordiga and Antonio Gramsci led the split. In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Livorno, sometimes in English Leghorn, (population 170,000) is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. ... Amadeo Bordiga (1889 - 1970) was a prominent Italian socialist. ... Antonio Gramsci Antonio Gramsci (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician, leader and theorist of Socialism, Communism and Anti-Fascism. ...


In 1991, 14 monthes after the falling of the Berlin Wall the PCI disbanded to form the Partito Democratico della Sinistra (PDS), with membership in the Socialist International. The communist tendency, led by Armando Cossutta, left the party to form the Partito della Rifondazione Comunista (PRC) or Communist Refoundation Party. In 1998 the PDS, with several smaller parties, the Laburisti (liberal socialists), the Cristiano Sociali (christian socialists), the Comunisti Unitari (right-wing split of the PRC), the Sinistra Repubblicana (left republicans) and the Riformatori per l'Europa (social democratic trade unionists), co-founded the "Democratici di Sinistra" (DS) or Democrats of the Left party. Later in the same year the Armando Cossutta tendency left the PRC to form the Partito dei Comunisti Italiani (PdCI) or Party of Italian Communists. 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961. ... The official symbol of Socialist International The Socialist International (SI) is an international organisation for social democratic and democratic socialist parties. ... Armando Cossutta Armando Cossutta (Milan, 2 September 1926) is a Italian communist politician. ... The Communist Refoundation Party (Italian: Partito della Rifondazione Comunista) is an Italian reformed communist party. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Social Christians (Italian: Cristiano Sociali) is a social democratic party of the Christian Left founded in 1993. ... The Democrats of the Left (Italian: Democratici di Sinistra, often referred to as DS) is the main Italian left-wing political party, part of the Ulivo electoral coalition. ... Armando Cossutta Armando Cossutta (Milan, 2 September 1926) is a Italian communist politician. ... The Party of Italian Communists (Italian: Partito dei Comunisti Italiani, also translated into English as Italian Communists Party) is a political party in Italy. ...

Contents


History

In 1926 the PCI was outlawed by the Fascist government of Benito Mussolini. Although forced underground, the PCI continued in clandestinity and exile. In 1926 its left wing led by Bordiga was finally defeated and replaced by a new leadership around Gramsci at a conference in Lyon which issued a set of theses expressing the programmatic basis of the party at that point. However Gramsci soon found himself jailed by Mussolini's repression and the leadership passed to Palmiro Togliatti. Togliatti would lead the party until it emerged from illegality in 1944 and relaunched itself as the Italian Communist Party. 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... Palmiro Togliatti (March 26, 1893 - August 21, 1964) was an Italian communist leader. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...

Antonio Gramsci
Antonio Gramsci

The party took part in every government during the national liberation and constitutional period from June 1944 to May 1947. In the first general elections of 1948 it joined the PSI in the Democratic Popular Front but was defeated by the Christian Democracy party. The party gained considerable electoral success during the following years and occasionally supplied external support to center-left governments, never joining directly. One of its successes was the lobbying of Fiat to set up the AvtoVAZ (Lada) car factory in the Soviet Union. The party always had its stronghold in Central Italy, particularly in Tuscany, Emilia Romagna and Umbria, where it regularly won the local administrative elections, and in some of the industrialized cities of Northern Italy. Antonio Gramsci, founder of the Italian Communist Party and victim of Italian Fascism. ... Antonio Gramsci, founder of the Italian Communist Party and victim of Italian Fascism. ... Wars of national liberation were those conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in an attempt to remove that powers influence. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... FIAT Group, or Fiat S.p. ... VAZ-21122 VAZ-21093 VAZ-21073 VAZ-2103 AvtoVAZ (АВТОВАЗ) is a Russian automobile manufacturer, also known as VAZ, Volzhsky Automobilny Zavod (ВАЗ, Во́лжский автомоби́льный заво́д ), and better known to the world as Lada was set up in the late 1960s in collaboration with Fiat. ... Central Italy, encompasses six of the countrys 20 autonomous regions: Abruzzo Lazio Marche Molise Toscana Umbria Although the regions of Abruzzo and Molise are geographically located in Central Italy, the European office for statistics (Eurostat) lists these two regions within Southern Italy. ... Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria and Marche to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... Emilia Romagna, painting by Frans Koppelaar Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... Northern Italy encompasses nine of the countrys 20 autonomous regions: Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Liguria Lombardia Piemonte Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Valle dAosta Veneto Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige and Valle dAosta are regions with a special statute. ...


After the Athens Colonel Coup in April of 1967, Longo and other PCI leaders became alarmed at the possibility of a repeat in Italy (there were two attempted coups in Italy in 1964 and 1970 by neo-fascist and military groups). Giorgio Amendola formally requested Soviet assistance to prepare the party in case of such an event. The KGB drew up and implemented a plan to provide the PCI with its own intelligence and clandestine signal corps. From 1967 through 1973, PCI members were sent to East Germany and Moscow to receive training in clandestine warfare and information gathering techniques by both the Stasi and the KGB. Shortly before the May 1972 elections, Longo personally wrote to Leonid Brezhnev asking for, and receiving an additional $5.7 million in funding. This was on top of the 3.5 million that the PCI was given in 1971. The Soviets also provided additional funding through the use of front companies providing generous contracts to PCI members.[1] This article or section needs additional references or sources. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Giorgio Amendola (21 November 1907 - 5 June 1980) was an Italian writer and politician. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for State Security Committee, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... The Signal Corps is a military branch, usually subordinate to a countrys army. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... GDR redirects here. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: , Leonid Ilič Brežnev; December 19 [O.S. January 1 1907] 1906 – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ...


In 1969, Enrico Berlinguer, PCI deputy national secretary and later secretary general, took part in the international conference of the Communist parties in Moscow, where his delegation disagreed with the "official" political line, and refused to support the final report. Berlinguer's unexpected stance made waves: he gave the strongest speech by a major Communist leader ever heard in Moscow. He refused to "excommunicate" the Chinese communists, and directly told Leonid Brezhnev that the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact countries (which he termed the "tragedy in Prague") had made clear the considerable differences within the Communist movement on fundamental questions such as national sovereignty, socialist democracy, and the freedom of culture. At the time the PCI was the biggest Communist Party in a democratic state, obtaining a score of 34,4% in the 1976 general elections. 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Enrico Berlinguer. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...

Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo's The Fourth Estate (1902), a popular image amongst the worker's movement.
Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo's The Fourth Estate (1902), a popular image amongst the worker's movement.

Relationships between the PCI and the Soviet Union gradually fell apart as the party moved away from Soviet obedience and Marxist-Leninist orthodoxy in the 1970-80s, definitely embracing social-democracy (eurocommunism) and the Socialist International. The PCI sought a collaboration with Socialist and Christian Democracy parties (the historic compromise). Christian-democrat party leader Aldo Moro's kidnapping and murder, by the Red Brigades in May 1978, put an end to any hopes of such a compromise. The Fourth Estate, Il Quarto Stato by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo (detail) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Fourth Estate, Il Quarto Stato by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo (detail) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A reporter The term Fourth Estate refers to the press, both in its explicit capacity of advocacy and in its implicit ability to frame political issues. ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy. ... The official symbol of Socialist International The Socialist International (SI) is an international organisation for social democratic and democratic socialist parties. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... The term Historic Compromise (Italian:compromesso storico) most commonly refers to the accommodation between the Italian Christian Democrats (DC) and the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in the 1970s, after the latter embraced eurocommunism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse) are a militant leftist group located in Italy. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ...


During the "anni di piombo" the PCI opposed the terrorism and the Red Brigades even if the rest of the Italian Parliament always accused the PCI to be the nice side of terror. Journalists stating that the PCI were covering terrorists have been systematically murdered. According to Mitrokhin, the party asked the Soviets to pressure the Czechoslovakian State Security (StB) to withdraw their support to the group, which Moscow was unable or unwilling to do.[1] This as well as the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan led to a complete break with Moscow in 1979. In 1980, the PCI refused to participate in the international conference of Communist parties in Paris. After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolinis fascist regime, Italys history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats) party for forty years, while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI); this condition endured until the Tangentopoli scandal and operation Mani pulite... Vasili Nikitich Mitrokhin (March 3, 1922–January 23, 2004) was a Major and senior archivist for the Soviet Unions foreign intelligence service, the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, and co-author with Christopher Andrew of The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West, a massive account... In former Czechoslovakia, State Security (Czech: Státní bezpečnost, Slovak: Štátna bezpečnosť) or StB / ŠtB, was a plainclothes secret police force from 1945 to its dissolution in 1990. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ...


Mitrokhin reports financing of the Italian Communist Party from the Soviet-Union between 1971 and 1977 as follows: Vasili Nikitich Mitrokhin (March 3, 1922–January 23, 2004) was a Major and senior archivist for the Soviet Unions foreign intelligence service, the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, and co-author with Christopher Andrew of The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West, a massive account...

  • 1971: 1,600,000 USD
  • 1972: 5,200,000 USD
  • 1974: 10,500,000 USD
  • 1976: 6,500,000 USD
  • 1977: 1,000,000 USD

1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...

See also

List of Secretaries: Category: ...

References

  1. ^ a b Andrew, Christopher; Mitrokhin, Vasili. The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGBBasic Books (2001)

External links

  • Official DS web page
  • Official PRC web page
  • Official PdCI web page
  • Archive of PCI posters
  • Archive of PCI posters, part 2
  • Archive of PCI posters, part 3



  Results from FactBites:
 
Italian Communist Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1087 words)
The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista d'Italia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that body's congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno.
In 1926 the party was outlawed by the Fascist government of Benito Mussolini.
In 1998 the PDS, with several smaller parties, the Laburisti (liberal socialists), the Cristiano Sociali (christian socialists), the Comunisti Unitari (right-wing split of the PRC), the Sinistra Repubblicana (left republicans) and the Riformatori per l'Europa (social democratic trade unionists), co-founded the "Democratici di Sinistra" (DS) or Democrats of the Left party.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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