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Encyclopedia > Italian Campaign (World War I)
Italian Front
Part of World War I

Italian troops entrenched along the Isonzo river.
Date 23 May 1915 – 3/4 November 1918
Location Eastern Alps
Result Collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Treaty of Trianon
Combatants
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of France France
 Austria-Hungary
Flag of German Empire German Empire
Commanders
Flag of Italy Armando Diaz
Flag of Italy Luigi Cadorna
Flag of the United Kingdom Lord Cavan
Conrad von Hötzendorf
Svetozar Boroević
Flag of German Empire Otto von Below

The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Italy, along with their allies, in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. Italy hoped that by joining the countries of the Triple Entente against the Central Powers she would gain the province of Trento (Trentino) and the port of Trieste, as well as the province of Bolzano-Bozen (Alto Adige/Südtirol), Istria and Dalmatia. Although Italy had hoped to begin the war with a surprise offensive intended to move quickly and capture several Austrian held cities, the war soon bogged down into trench warfare similar to the Western Front. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of the Splügen Pass in eastern Switzerland. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... General Armando Diaz Armando Diaz (December 5, 1861–February 29, 1928) was a Marshal of Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Frederick Lambart, 10th Earl of Cavan was brought back from retirement at 48 in 1914 and rose to become one of the British Armys more successful commanders during the First World War. ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, or Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf. ... Image File history File links Austria-Hungary_flag_1869-1918. ... Field Marshal Svetozar Boroević Svetozar Boroević (or Borojević) von Bojna (December 13, 1856 – May 23, 1920) was a successful defensive military leader in the Austro-Hungarian Army and the first non-German field marshal in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Otto von Below (1857-1944) was born at Danzig, Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Triple Entente, United States, Italy, Serbia, Romania, Greece The European Theater of World War I was the primary site of the fighting of this great war. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Central Caspian Dictatorship Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville Strength •3rd... Combatants United Kingdom British India  Ottoman Empire Commanders General Nixon, General Maude Khalil Pasha, General von der Goltz Strength 112,000 90,000 ? Casualties 92,000 100,000 ? The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of the Great War fought between Allied Powers represented by the... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... Persia was neutral in World War I, but was affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. ... Combatants United Kingdom ‎South Africa ‎ France ‎Belgium ‎Portugal German Empire The African Theater of World War I comprises geographically distinct campaigns around the German colonies scattered in Africa: the German colonies of Cameroon, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... This article describes the conquest and occupation of German held South-West Africa, now called Namibia, by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the start of World War I. The outbreak of hostilities in Europe in August 1914 had long... Combatants Great Britain, France, Belgium Germany The West Africa Campaign of World War I consisted of two small and fairly short military operations to capture the German colonies in West Africa: Togoland and Kamerun. ... Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany Commanders Jan Smuts Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Strength 40,000 15,500 // Introduction German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) was a large territory with complex geography (including the massive Rift Valley and Lake Victoria). ... Combatants Empire of Japan British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand German Empire The Asian and Pacific Theater of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Pacific Campaign of World War I saw limited action by the forces of Australia, New Zealand and Japan. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Combatants Allied Powers Cemtral Powers Some limited sea combat took place between the Central Powers navies of Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire and the Allied navies of France, Italy, Greece, Japan and the British Empire. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli Naval combat in World War I was mainly characterized by the efforts of the Allied Powers, with their larger fleets and surrounding position, to blockade the Central Powers by sea, and the efforts of the... Color Autochrome Lumière of a Nieuport Fighter in Aisne, France 1917 One of the many innovations of World War I, aircraft were first used for reconnaissance purposes and later as fighters and bombers. ... The First Battle of the Isonzo was fought from June 23 through July 7 of 1915 between Italy and Austria. ... Combatants Italy Austria-Hungary Commanders Luigi Cadorna Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Aosta Conrad von Hötzendorf Svetozar Boroević Strength 260 battalions 840 guns 105 battalions 420 guns (25 other battalions arrived later) Casualties 42,000 46,000 The Second Battle of the Isonzo was fought between Italians and Austro-Hungarians... The Third Battle of the Isonzo was fought from October 18 through November 3 of 1915 between Italy and Austria. ... Combatants Italy Austria-Hungary Commanders Luigi Cadorna, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Aosta Conrad von Hötzendorf, Svetozar Boroević Strength 370 battalions 1,374 guns 155 battalions 626 guns Casualties 49,500 dead or wounded 32,100 dead or wounded The Fourth Battle of the Isonzo was fought between Italians and... The Fifth Battle of the Isonzo was fought from March 9-17, 1916 between Italy and Austria-Hungary. ... Combatants Italy Austria-Hungary Commanders Luigi Cadorna Conrad von Hötzendorf Strength 172 battalions + 800 guns 300 battalions + 2,000 guns Casualties 150,000 (of whom 50,000 prisoners) 200,000 (estimates vary) The Battle of Asiago or Battle of the Plateaux (in Italian: Battaglia degli Altipiani), nicknamed Strafexpedition (Punitive... Combatants Italy Austria-Hungary Commanders Luigi Cadorna Svetozar Boroević Strength 22 divisions 9 divisions Casualties 51,000 40,000 The Sixth Battle of the Isonzo also known as the Battle of Gorizia was a decisive Italian victory along the Isonzo River during World War I. Franz Graf Conrad von H... The Seventh Battle of the Isonzo was fought from September 14-17, 1916 between Italy and Austria-Hungary. ... The Eighth Battle of the Isonzo was fought from October 10-12, 1916 between Italy and Austria-Hungary. ... The Ninth Battle of the Isonzo was fought from November 1-November 4, 1916 between Italy and Austria-Hungary. ... The Tenth Battle of the Isonzo was fought from May 12 - June 8, 1917 between Italy and Austria-Hungary. ... Combatants Italy Austria-Hungary Commanders Luigi Cadorna Arz von Straussenberg Strength 300,000 + 1,600 guns 100,000 + 500 guns Casualties 23,000 - 30,000 (estimates vary) 9,000 The Battle of Mount Ortigara was fought from June 10 to June 25, 1917 between the Italian and Austro-Hungarian armies... Combatants Italy Austria-Hungary Commanders Luigi Cadorna Luigi Capello Svetozar Boroević Strength 600 battalions + 5,200 guns 250 battalions + 2,200 guns Casualties 40,000 KIA, 108,000 WIA, 18,000 MIA 10,000 KIA, 45,000 WIA, 30,000 MIA, 20,000 POW, 28,000 sick The Eleventh Battle... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Italy France United Kingdom Austria-Hungary Commanders Armando Diaz Arthur Arz von Straussenburg Strength 58 Italian divisions, 6 French divisions, 5 British divisions 57 divisions Casualties 80,000 dead or wounded 60,000 dead, 90,000 wounded, 25,000 captured The Battle of the Piave River, known in Italy... Combatants Italy United Kingdom France United States Image:Flag of Austria-Hungary. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Trento (Italian: Provincia autonoma di Trento, German: Autonome Provinz Trient) is an autonomous province in the autonomous Trentino-South Tyrol region of Italy. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen[1][2] (Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: Provinzia autonòma de Balsan), also called Alto Adige (Italian: Alto Adige; German: Hochetsch or Oberetsch; Ladin: Adesc Aut[3] ) or South Tyrol (Italian: Sudtirolo; German: Südtirol; Ladin: Sudtirol), is an autonomous province of Italy. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800...

Contents

Causes for the campaign

Although a member of the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany, Italy did not declare war in August 1914, arguing that the Alliance was defensive in nature and Austria-Hungary's aggression did not obligate Italy to take part. Italy had a long standing rivalry with Austria-Hungary, dating back to the Congress of Vienna in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars, which ceded several important Italian regions to Austria. In the early stages of the war, Allied diplomats courted Italy, attempting to secure Italian participation on the Allied side, culminating in the Treaty of London of April 26, 1915 in which Italy renounced her obligations to the Triple Alliance. On May 23, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary. For other uses, see Triple Alliance. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors, from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from November 1, 1814, to June 8, 1815. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra) was a secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in London on April 26, 1915 by Italy, Great Britain, France and Russia. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Campaigns of 1915-1916

Italian Front in 1915-1917: eleven Battles of Isonzo and Asiago offensive. In blue, initial Italian conquests.
Italian Front in 1915-1917: eleven Battles of Isonzo and Asiago offensive. In blue, initial Italian conquests.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1242x961, 211 KB) Map of the Italian Front, 1915-1917. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1242x961, 211 KB) Map of the Italian Front, 1915-1917. ...

First battles of Isonzo

Italy opened the war with an offensive aimed at capturing the town of Gorizia on the Isonzo river. However, the Italian Army was poorly equipped in artillery, vehicles, and ammunition. At the beginning of the war, Italy had just 600 vehicles to move troops. As with most contemporary militaries, the Italian army primarily used horses for transport, and these failed to move supplies fast enough in the tough terrain of the Alps. Also, the newly appointed Italian commander, Luigi Cadorna, had no combat experience and was highly unpopular amongst his men. Gorizia (Slovenian: Gorica, German: Görz, Friulian: Gurize) is a small town at the foot of the Alps, in northeastern Italy, on the border with Slovenia. ... The river Soča (Italian Isonzo) is a river in West Slovenia and North Italy. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Capo Teulada Soldiers of the 33rd Field Artillery Regiment Acqui on parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


At the beginning of the offensive, Italian forces outnumbered the Austrians 2 to 1, but failed to penetrate their strong defensive lines along the Alps. This was mostly due to the Austrian forces being based on higher ground, and so Italian offensives had to be conducted climbing. Two weeks later, the Italians attempted another frontal assault with more artillery but were beaten back again. Another attack was mounted from October 18 to November 4 with 1,200 heavy guns, which again resulted in no gain. is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Asiago offensive

Following Italy's disastrous offensives, the Austrians began planning a counteroffensive (Strafexpedition) based in Trentino and directed towards the plain across the Altopiano di Asiago. The offensive began on March 11, 1916 with 15 divisions breaking the Italian lines. Though warned of an impending offensive, the local Italian commander had chosen to conduct local offensives instead of preparing a defense. The unprepared Italian positions collapsed and Italy only staved off defeat by quickly transferring reinforcements from other fronts. Combatants Italy Austria-Hungary Commanders Luigi Cadorna Conrad von Hötzendorf Strength 172 battalions + 800 guns 300 battalions + 2,000 guns Casualties 150,000 (of whom 50,000 prisoners) 200,000 (estimates vary) The Battle of Asiago or Battle of the Plateaux (in Italian: Battaglia degli Altipiani), nicknamed Strafexpedition (Punitive... Asiago (Cimbrian: Schleghe, German: Schlägen) is the name of both a minor township (population roughly 6,500, ) and the surrounding plateau region (the Altopiano di Asiago) in the Province of Vicenza in the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Later battles for the Isonzo

Later in 1916, four more battles along the Isonzo river erupted. The Sixth Battle of the Isonzo, launched by the Italians in August, resulted in a success greater than the previous attacks largely because the Austrians had depleted their lines for the Brusilov Offensive. The offensive gained nothing of strategic value but did take Gorizia, which boosted Italian spirits. The Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth battles of the Isonzo (September 14-November 4) managed to accomplish little except to wear down the already exhausted armies of both nations. Combatants Italy Austria-Hungary Commanders Luigi Cadorna Svetozar Boroević Strength 22 divisions 9 divisions Casualties 51,000 40,000 The Sixth Battle of the Isonzo also known as the Battle of Gorizia was a decisive Italian victory along the Isonzo River during World War I. Franz Graf Conrad von H... Combatants Russian Empire Austria-Hungary German Empire Commanders Aleksei Brusilov Conrad von Hötzendorf Alexander von Linsingen Strength 40+ infantry divisions (573,000 men) 15 cavalry divisions (60,000 men) 39 infantry divisions (437,000 men) 10 Cavalry divisions (30,000 men) Casualties 500,000+ men killed or wounded 975... Gorizia (Slovenian: Gorica, German: Görz, Friulian: Gurize) is a small town at the foot of the Alps, in northeastern Italy, on the border with Slovenia. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


1917: Germany arrives

Battle of Caporetto and Italian retreat to the Piave river.
Battle of Caporetto and Italian retreat to the Piave river.

Following the minuscule gains of the Tenth Battle of the Isonzo, the Italians directed a two-pronged attack against the Austrian lines north and east of Gorizia. The Austrians easily checked the advance east, but Italian forces under Luigi Capello managed to break the Austrian lines and capture the Bainsizza Plateau. Characteristic of nearly every other theater of the war, the Italians found themselves on the verge of victory but could not secure it because their supply lines could not keep up with the front-line troops and they were forced to withdraw. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1242x961, 220 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battle of Caporetto Italian Campaign (World War I) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1242x961, 220 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battle of Caporetto Italian Campaign (World War I) ... Luigi Capello (1859–1941) was an Italian army officer. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Austrians received desperately needed reinforcements after the Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo from German Army soldiers rushed in after the Russian offensive ordered by Kerensky (Kerensky Offensive) of July 1917 failed. The Germans introduced infiltration tactics (Hutier tactics) to the Austrian front and helped work on a new offensive. Meanwhile, mutinies and plummeting morale crippled the Italian Army from within. The soldiers lived in poor conditions and engaged in attack after attack that often yielded minimal or no military gain. On October 24, 1917 the Austrians and Germans launched the Battle of Caporetto (Italian name for Kobarid) with a huge artillery barrage followed by infantry using Hutier tactics, bypassing enemy strong points and attacking on the Italian rear. At the end of the first day, the Italians had retreated 12 miles to the Tagliamento River. Combatants Italy Austria-Hungary Commanders Luigi Cadorna Luigi Capello Svetozar Boroević Strength 600 battalions + 5,200 guns 250 battalions + 2,200 guns Casualties 40,000 KIA, 108,000 WIA, 18,000 MIA 10,000 KIA, 45,000 WIA, 30,000 MIA, 20,000 POW, 28,000 sick The Eleventh Battle... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Alexander Kerensky This article is about the Russian politician. ... Combatants Russia Germany, Austria-Hungary Commanders Aleksei Brusilov von Bothmer Strength XI, VII, VIII Armies South Army (A.H.-Germany) VII and III Army (Austria-Hungary) Casualties 400,000 ? The Kerensky Offensive (aka July Offensive or Galician Offensive) was the last Russian offensive in World War One. ... In warfare, infiltration tactics involves small forces bypassing enemy strongpoints, instead isolating these strongpoints for later forces and disrupting rear areas. ... In warfare, infiltration tactics involves small forces bypassing enemy strongpoints, instead isolating these strongpoints for later forces and disrupting rear areas. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Area: 192. ... Oskar von Hutier (August 27, 1857-December 5, 1934) was one of Germanys most successful and innovative generals of World War I. Hutier spent the first year of the war as a divisional commander in France, performing well but not distinguishing himself until the spring of 1915, when he... The Tagliamento River is a braided river in north-east Italy, flowing from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea at a point between Trieste and Venice. ...


1918: The war ends

Battle of the Piave

Advancing deep and fast, the Austrians overran their supply lines, which forced them to stop and regroup. The Italians, pushed back to defensive lines near Venice on the Piave River, had suffered 600,000 casualties to this point in the war. In November 1917, British, French and US forces[citation needed] started to bolster the front line, though not in decisive numbers; the Italians were able to contain the Austrian offensive largely by themeselves. Far more decisive than Allied help in troops, indeed, was Franco-British (and US) help provided in those strategic materials (coal, steel, etc.) Italy always lacked sorely. In the spring of 1918, Germany pulled out its troops for use in its upcoming Spring Offensive. The Austrians now began debating how to finish the war in Italy. The Austro-Hungarian generals disagreed on how to administer the final offensive. Archduke Joseph August of Austria decided for a two-pronged offensive, where it would prove impossible for the two forces to communicate in the mountains. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Piave (from Latin Plavis ) is a river in north Italy. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... This article is about the First World War. ... Joseph August, Archduke of Austria HI & RH Joseph August Viktor Klemens Maria, Archduke of Austria, Prince of Hungary and Bohemia (9 August 1872-6 July 1962), son of Joseph of Austria (1833-1905) and his wife Clotilde of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1846-1927). ...


The Battle of the Piave River began with a diversionary attack near the Tonale Pass, which the Allies easily repulsed. Austrian deserters betrayed the objectives of the upcoming offensive, which allowed the Italians to move two armies directly in the path of the Austrian prongs. The other prong, led by general Svetozar Boroević von Bojna initially experienced success until aircraft bombed their supply lines and Italian reinforcements arrived. Combatants Italy France United Kingdom Austria-Hungary Commanders Armando Diaz Arthur Arz von Straussenburg Strength 58 Italian divisions, 6 French divisions, 5 British divisions 57 divisions Casualties 80,000 dead or wounded 60,000 dead, 90,000 wounded, 25,000 captured The Battle of the Piave River, known in Italy... The Tonale Pass (Italian: Passo del Tonale) is a mountain pass in northern Italy (1,883 m or 6,178 ft), across the Rhetian Alps, between Lombardy and Trentino, which connects Valcamonica with Val di Sole. ... Field Marshal Svetozar Boroević Svetozar Boroević (or Borojević) von Bojna (December 13, 1856 – May 23, 1920) was a successful defensive military leader in the Austro-Hungarian Army and the first non-German field marshal in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ...

Italian front in 1918 and battle of Vittorio Veneto.
Italian front in 1918 and battle of Vittorio Veneto.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x961, 221 KB) Summary Map of the Italian Front, Battle of Vittorio Veneto. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x961, 221 KB) Summary Map of the Italian Front, Battle of Vittorio Veneto. ...

The decisive Battle of Vittorio Veneto

To the disappointment of Italy's allies, no counter-offensive followed the Battle of Piave. The Italian Army had suffered huge losses in the battle, and considered an offensive dangerous. General Armando Diaz waited for more reinforcements to arrive from the Western Front. By October 1918, Italy finally had enough soldiers to mount an offensive. The attack targeted Vittorio Veneto, across the Piave. Though Austrian soldiers fought viciously, the superior numbers of the Allies overwhelmed them. The Italians broke through a gap near Sacile and poured in reinforcements that crushed the Austrian defensive line. On November 3, 300,000 Austrian soldiers surrendered. The Battle of Vittorio Veneto heralded the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force, and also triggered the disintegration of Austria-Hungary. During the last week of October, declarations made in Budapest, Prague, and Zagreb proclaimed the independence of their respective parts of the old empire. On October 29 the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice, but the Italians continued to advance, reaching Trento, Udine, and Trieste. On November 3, Austria-Hungary sent a flag of truce to the Italian Commander to ask again for an Armistice and terms of peace. The terms were arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, communicated to the Austrian Commander, and were accepted. The Armistice with Austria was signed in the Villa Giusti, near Padua, on November 3, and took effect on November 4, at three o’clock in the afternoon. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg Monarchy and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. General Armando Diaz Armando Diaz (December 5, 1861–February 29, 1928) was a Marshal of Italy. ... Vittorio Veneto is a city situated in the Province of Treviso, in the region of Veneto, Italy, in the northeast of the Italian peninsula, between the Piave and the Livenza rivers. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Sacile is a town of 19,379 inhabitants in the province of Pordenone, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of north-east Italy. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Italy United Kingdom France United States Image:Flag of Austria-Hungary. ... The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Armistice of Villa Giusti 1918 The following text is reproduced from the English translation of the noted Austrian historian Edmund von Glaise-Horstenaus “The Collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire” published in 1930. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ...


See also

“The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Other articles

  • History of Austria
  • Italy in World War I
  • Bollettino della Vittoria

This is the history of Austria. ... Monument to the Italian casualties of World War I in Pettinengo, province of Biella. ... The Bollettino della Vittoria is the address to the army and to the whole Italy issued by Armando Diaz after the victory at the end of World War I in Italy. ...


External links

World War I Portal
  • The Walks of Peace in the Soča Region Foundation. The Foundation preserves, restores and presents the historical and cultural heritage of the First World War in the area of the Isonzo Front for the study, tourist and educational purposes.

 
 

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