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Encyclopedia > Istria
This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea. For information on the asteroid, see 183 Istria. For the commune in Romania, see Istria, Constanţa.

Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra, Italian: Istria, Greek: Istria, Ιστρια), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Bay of Kvarner. 183 Istria is a stony main belt asteroid. ... Istria is a village in eastern Romania. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Gulf of Trieste and the littoral The Gulf of Trieste (Italian: Golfo di Trieste, Slovene: TržaÅ¡ki zaliv, German: Golf von Triest ) is a shallow bay of the Adriatic Sea, in the extreme northern part of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Kvarner bay (Croatian kvarnerski zaljev, Italian Golfo del Quarnero/Quarnaro/Carnaro; sometimes also Kvarner gulf) is a bay in northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istria peninsula and the northern Croatian seacoast. ...


The geographical features of Istria include Učka mountain which is the highest point in the Ćićarija mountain range, the rivers Dragonja, Mirna, Pazinčica and Raša, and the Lim bay. Istria lies in three countries: Croatia, Slovenia and Italy. The largest portion, Croatian Istria (Hrvatska Istra), is further divided into two counties. The largest portion is Istria county in western Croatia. Important towns in Istria county include Pula, Poreč, Rovinj, Pazin, Labin, Umag, Motovun, Buzet and Buje, as well as smaller towns of Višnjan, Roč, and Hum. A small slice in the north, including the coastal towns of Izola, Piran, Portorož and Koper, lies in Slovenia and is commonly known as Slovenian Istria (Slovenska Istra), while a tiny region consisting of the comunes of Muggia and San Dorligo della Valle belongs to Italy. Učka (Italian: Monte Maggiore) is the tallest mountain on the Istrian peninsula in northwestern Croatia. ... In genetics, a miRNA (micro-RNA) is a form of single-stranded RNA which is typically 20-25 nucleotides long, and is thought to regulate the expression of other genes. ... RaÅ¡a is a town and municipality in the inner part of the RaÅ¡ka Cove in the south-eastern part of Istria, Croatia, 4. ... Lim canal The Lim bay and valley is a peculiar geographic feature found near Rovinj and Vrsar on the western coast of Istria, Croatia, south of Poreč. The name comes from the Latin limes for limit, referring to the landforms position at the border of two Roman provinces (Dalmatia... Istria county (Croatian: Istarska županija; Italian: Regione istriana) is the westernmost county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula (2820 out of 3160 km²). Area is called Istra in Croatian and Slovenian, and Istria in Italian. ... Pula (Italian Pola) is the largest city in Istria, Croatia, at the southern tip of that peninsula. ... Position of Poreč in Croatia. ... Rovinj, seen from Campanile of Sv. ... Pazin (Italian: Pisino, German: Mitterburg) is a city in Istria, Croatia, population 4,986 (2001), total municipality population 9,227 (2001). ... Labin (Italian: Albona) is a town in Istria, Croatia, population 7,904 (2001) with 12,426 in the municipality (which also includes small towns of Rabac and Vinež, as well as a number of smaller villages, such as Crni). ... Umag (Italian: Umago) is a coastal city in Istria, Croatia. ... Motovun (Croatia) City of Motovun Motovun from the South Motovun (Italian: Montona dIstria) is a town in central Istria, Croatia. ... Buzet (Italian: Pinguente) is a city in Istria, Croatia, population 6,059 (2001). ... Buje (Italian: Buie dIstria) is a city in Istria, Croatia, population 5,340 (2001). ... ViÅ¡njan (Croatia) ViÅ¡njan (Italian: Visignano) is a village and municipality in Istria, Croatia. ... Roč is a tiny town in Istria, north-west Croatia, with a population of only 180 people. ... Hums bell-tower Hum on the map of Croatia Hum (Italian: Colmo) is a tiny town in the central part of Istria, north-west Croatia, seven kilometers from Roč, 14 km southeast of Buzet on a hill above the Mirna valley. ... Area: 28. ... Area: 44,6 km² Population  - males  - females 16. ... Portorož (Portorose in Italian, literally Port of Roses) is a coastal town in Slovenia and one of the countrys largest tourist areas. ... Area: 311. ... Muggia (Slovenian: Milje) is a small Italian comune south of Trieste on lying on the border with Slovenia. ... Country Italy Region Friuli-Venezia Giulia Province Province of Trieste (TS) Mayor Elevation m Area 24. ...

Contents

History

Early history

See also: March of Istria
Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000. The republic is in dark red, borders in light red.
Map of the Venetian Republic, circa 1000. The republic is in dark red, borders in light red.

The name is derived from the Illyrian tribe of the Histri, which Strabo refers to as living in the region. They Histri are classified in some sources as a "Venetic" Illyrian tribe, with certain linguistic differences from other Illyrians[1]. The Romans described the Histri as a fierce tribe of pirates, protected by the difficult navigation of their rocky coasts. It took two military campaigns for the Romans to finally subdue them in 177 BCE. The region was then called toegether with the Venetian part the X. Roman Region of "Venetia et Histria". Per ancient definition the north-eastern border of Italy. Dante Alighieri refers to it as well. The Istrian march in the time of the Emperor Otto I. It is in the lower right, hatched along with the other Bavarian marches. ... Image File history File links Republik_Venedig. ... Image File history File links Republik_Venedig. ... The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... This article is about the ancient region in the south of Europe. ... http://www. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... (Redirected from 177 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 182 BC 181 BC 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC - 177 BC - 176... Dante redirects here. ...


Some scholars speculate that the names Histri and Istria are related to the Latin name Hister, or Danube. Ancient folktales reported—inaccurately—that the Danube split in two or "bifurcated" and came to the sea near Trieste as well as at the Black Sea. The story of the "Bifurcation of the Danube" is part of the Argonaut legend. This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was pillaged by the Goths, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Lombards, annexed to the Frankish kingdom by Pippin III in 789, and then successively controlled by the dukes of Carinthia, Merano, Bavaria and by the patriarch of Aquileia, before it became the territory of the Republic of Venice in 1267. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... Uprising in Japan leads to a major defeat for Emperor Kammu, alongside a severe drought and famine Fes founded by Idris I Al-Khayzuran dies, leaving more of the effective power in the hands of Harun al-Rashid, the caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Carinthia, today state coat The Duchy of Carinthia (German language: Kärnten, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918. ... Merano (Italian, now most common in English; German: Meran, also used in English; Ladin: Meran; Archaic (857 AD): Mairania; Latin: Merona; many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Meran), is a town in the province of Bolzano-Bozen, Italy. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ...


Istria in the Republic of Venice and the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (Germany)

The coastal areas and cities of Istria came under Venetian Influence in the IX century, It became definitely the territory of the Republic of Venice in 1267. The Inner Istrian part around Mitterburg (Pisino-Pazin), was held for centuries by the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (Heiliges Römisches Reich). Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


Istria in the Austrian Empire (1797-1918)

Venetian rule left a strong mark on the region, one that can still be seen today. The Inner Istrian part around Mitterburg, known to its Germanic and Rumenic (Morlacs) occupants as Pisino-Pazin, was held for centuries by the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The venetian part of the peninsula passed to it in 1797 with the Treaty of Campo Formio. The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (First Reich) ended with the period of Napoleonic rule from 1805 to 1813 when Istria became part of the Italian Kingdom and of the Illyrian provinces of the Napoleonic Empire. After this short period the newly established Austrian Empire ruled Istria as the so called "Küstenland" which included the city of Trieste and Gorizia in Friuli until 1918. At that time the borders of Istria included a part of what is now Italian Venezia-Giulia and parts of modern-day Slovenia and Croatia, but not the city of Trieste. Today, Istria's borders are defined differently. The Holy Roman Empire should not be mistaken for the Roman Empire (31 B.C.–A.D. 476). ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on October 17, 1797 (26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Ludwig von Cobenzl as representatives of France and Austria. ... ... Thomas Jefferson. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German, Hungarian, Romanian, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Italian, Polish, Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded on a remnant of the Holy... Kuestenland (until 1918) Crownland of Kustenland in Pink The Karst Küstenland (Coast Land) was a Kronland (Crone Land) within the Austrian Empire (later Austria-Hungary from 1806 - 1921. ... Gorizia (Slovenian: Gorica, German: Görz, Friulian: Gurize) is a small town at the foot of the Alps, in northeastern Italy, on the border with Slovenia. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Interwar period and World War II: Istria in the Kingdom of Italy

Istria under Italian rule.
Istria under Italian rule.

After World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, Istria returned to Italy. After the advent of Fascism, the indigenous Croatian and Slovene population were exposed to a policy of forced italianization and cultural suppression. They lost their right to education and religious practice in their maternal language. The organization TIGR, regarded as the first armed antifascist resistance group in Europe, was founded in 1927 in the Slovene Littoral and soon penetrated into Slovene and Croatian-speaking parts of Istria. In 1943 the jugoslave partizans invaded Istria and started to terrorize the istrian population (infoibamenti). The german occupation of Italy then stopped the partizan violents. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1043 pixel, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Istria italiana (1918 - 1947). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1043 pixel, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Istria italiana (1918 - 1947). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... TIGR, abbreviation for Trst (Trieste), Istra (Istria), Gorica (Gorizia) and Reka (Rijeka (Fiume)), was the first antifascist national-defensive organization in Europe, consisting of Slovenians in Slovenian region of Primorje (Primorski Slovenci). ... Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideology, organization, or government, on all levels. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Istria in the SFR Yugoslavia

See also: Istrian exodus

After the end of World War II, Istria was included into the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, except for a small part in the northwest corner that formed Zone B of the provisionally independent Free Territory of Trieste (Trst); Zone B was under Yugoslav administration and after the de facto dissolution of the Free Territory in 1954 it was also incorporated into Yugoslavia. Only the small town of Muggia (Milje), near Trieste, being part of Zone A remained with Italy. During and shortly after World War II, large numbers of civilians were killed in the so-called foibe massacres, both in Istria and in the Kras area surrounding Trieste. In the postwar years fear of communism and strong post-war ethnic tension resulted in almost all Italians leaving Istria. By 1956 the last migrations were coming to an end, Istria had lost a significant segment of its population (80%)and part of its social and cultural identity.
The events of that period are most visible in Pula, a city located on the southernmost tip of the Istrian peninsula. Between December 1946 and September 1947, the city was abandoned by nearly all its Italian inhabitants. Most of them left in the immediate aftermath of the signing of the Paris Peace Treaty on February 10, 1947, which ceded Pula to Yugoslavia. Some emigrants took with them not only their belongings but also their deceased. Italians in Istria in 1910. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste Capital Trieste Language(s) Italian, Slovenian, Croatian Government Republic Historical era Cold War  - Established September 15, 1947  - Partition October 26, 1954  - Treaty of Osimo October 11, 1977 Area  - 1947 738 km2 285 sq mi Population  - 1947 est. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Muggia (Slovenian: Milje) is a small Italian comune south of Trieste on lying on the border with Slovenia. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Location of some of the foibe where killings took place Foibe massacres were mass killings attributed to Yugoslav Partisans during and shortly after World War II against Italians. ... An image of Italian Karst (Monfalcone). ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Pula (disambiguation). ... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Istria after the breakup of Yugoslavia

Istria county in Croatia

In the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Istria was divided between the republics of Croatia and Slovenia, following ethnic division lines. After the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991 this administrative subdivision became a border between independent states. Since Croatia's first multi-party elections in 1990, the regional party Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS-DDI, Istarski demokratski sabor or Dieta democratica istriana) has consistently received a majority of the vote and maintained through 1990s a position often contrary to the government in Zagreb, led by then nationalistic party Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ, Hrvatska demokratska zajednica) with regards to decentralization in Croatia and certain regional autonomy. However, that changed in 2000, when IDS formed with five other parties left-centre coalition government, led by Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP, Socijaldemokratska Partija Hrvatske). After reformed HDZ won Croatian parliamentary elections in late 2003 and formed minority government, IDS has been cooperating with state government on many projects, both local (in Istria County) and national. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 613 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2201 × 2151 pixel, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 613 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2201 × 2151 pixel, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Istrian Democratic Assembly (Croatian: Istarski Demokratski Sabor, Italian: Dieta Democratica Istriana) is a Croatian regional political party in Istria. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... The Croatian Democratic Union (Croatian: Hrvatska demokratska zajednica, HDZ), is a major Croatian political party. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... The Social Democratic Party of Croatia (Croatian: Socijaldemokratska Partija Hrvatske) is the main social democratic political party in Croatia. ... Istria county (Croatian: Istarska županija; Italian: Regione istriana) is the westernmost county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula (2820 out of 3160 km²). Area is called Istra in Croatian and Slovenian, and Istria in Italian. ...


Demographic history

Ethnic map of Croatia's Istria County in 2001
Ethnic map of Croatia's Istria County in 2001
Ethnic distribution in Istria in 1910:      Italians      Croats      Slovenes      Istro-Romanians
Ethnic distribution in Istria in 1910:      Italians      Croats      Slovenes      Istro-Romanians
Italians in Istria in 1910.
Italians in Istria in 1910.

The region has traditionally been ethnically mixed. Under Austrian rule in the 19th century, it included a large population of Italians, Croats, Slovenes and some Vlachs/Istro-Romanians and Montenegrins. In 1910, the ethnic and linguistic composition was completely mixed. According to the Austrian census results, out of 404,309 inhabitants in Istria, 168,116 (41.6%) spoke Croatian, 147,416 (36.5%) spoke Italian, 55,365 (13.7%) spoke Slovene, 13,279 (3.3%) spoke German, 882 (0.2%) spoke Romanian, 2,116 (0.5%) spoke other languages and 17,135 (4.2%) were non-citizens, which had not been asked for their language of communication. During the last decades of Habsburg dynasty the coast of Istria profited from the tourism within the Empire. Generally speaking, Italians lived on coast, while Croats and Slovenes lived inland. Istria county (Croatian: Istarska županija; Italian: Regione istriana) is the westernmost county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula (2820 out of 3160 km²). Area is called Istra in Croatian and Slovenian, and Istria in Italian. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Map of Istro-Romanian-speaking villages, made by PuÅŸcariu in 1926. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (780 × 961 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (780 × 961 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Vlachs is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... Map of Istro-Romanian-speaking villages, made by PuÅŸcariu in 1926. ... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


In the second half of the 19th century a clash of new ideological movements, Italian irredentism (which claimed Trieste and Istria) and Slovene and Croatian nationalism (developing individual identities in some quarters whilst seeking to unite in a South Slav bid in others), resulted in growing ethnic conflict between Italians one side and Slovenes and Croats in opposition. This was intertwined with the class conflict, as inhabitants of Istrian towns were mostly Italian, whilst Croats or Slovenes largely lived out in the countryside. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ...


There is a long tradition of tolerance between the people who live there, regardless of their nationality, and although many Istrians today are ethnic Croats, a strong regional identity has existed over the years. The Croatian word for the Istrians is Istrani, or Istrijani, the latter being in the local Chakavian dialect. The term Istrani is also used in Slovenia. Today the Italian minority is organized in many twons (see www.unione-italiana.hr), it consists officially around 45.000 inhabitants, the Istrian county in Croatia is bilingual, as are large parts of Slovenian Istria. Every citizen has the right to speak either Italian or Croatian (Slovene in Slovenian Istria) in public administration or in court. Furthemore, Istria is a supranational European Region that includes Italian, Slovenian and Croatian Istria. Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is a dialect of the Croatian language. ...


Ethnicity

As with many other regions in the former Yugoslavia, common concepts about ethnicity and nationality fail when applied to Istria. Discussions about Istrian ethnicity often use the words "Italian," "Croatian" and "Slovene" to describe the character of Istrian people. However, these terms are best understood as "national affiliations" that may exist in combination with or independently of linguistic, cultural and historical attributes.


In Istrian contexts, for example, the word "Italian" can just as easily refer to autochthonous speakers of the Venetian language whose antecedents in the region extend before the inception of the Venetian Republic or Istriot language the oldest spoken language in Istria, dated back to the Romans, today spoken in the south west of Istria, but also to a descendant of immigrated during the Mussolini period.[citations needed] It can also refer to Istrian Slavs who adopted the veneer of Italian culture as they moved from rural to urban areas, or from the farms into the bourgeoisie. In fact most of the families in Inner Istria are mixed descendants. Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ... Istriot is a Romance language spoken in the Western Region on the coast of the Istrian Peninsula, especially in the towns of Rovinj (Rovigno) and Vodnjan (Dignano), on the upper northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Similarly, national powers claim Istrian Slavs according to local language, so that speakers of Čakavian and Štokavian dialects of the Croatian language are considered to be Croatians, while speakers of other dialects may be considered to be Slovene. Those Croatian dialect speakers are descendants of the first Slavic immigrants which settled in the region in the 7th and the 8th centuries as well as the refugees of the Turkish invasion and the Ottoman Empire from Bosnia and Dalmatia from the 16 century. Often they were slavizised Vlachs, the so called Morlachs. The Venetian Republic settled them down in Inner Istria, devastated by wars and plague. Many villages have the Morlachian name like Katun. Like with all other regions, the local dialects of the Slavic communities are very slightly varied across close distances. The Istrian Slavic and Italian vernaculars had both developed for many generations before being divided as they are today. This meant that Croats/Slovenes on one side and Venetians/other Italians on the other will have yielded towards each other culturally whilst distancing themselves from members of their ethnic groups living farther away. There is still the Romanian community to mention, the Istro-Romanians in the east and north of Istria (Ćićarija) and parts of neighbouring Liburnia (the east coast of the peninsula which is not part of Istria). Chakavian (ÄŒakavian, čakavski) dialect is a dialect of the Croatian language. ... Shtokavian or Å tokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ... Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Province of Bosnia was a key Ottoman province, the westernmost one, based on the territory of the present day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Vlachs is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... Morlachs (in Greek: Mavrovlachi or Mauro-Vlachs, meaning Black Vlachs; in Latin sources: Nigri Latini) were a population of Vlach shepherds that lived in the Dinaric Alps (western Balkans in modern use), constantly migrating in search for better pastures for their sheep flocks. ... The Katun River (Катунь in Russian) is a river in the Altai Republic and the Altai Krai of Russia. ... Map of Istro-Romanian-speaking villages, made by PuÅŸcariu in 1926. ... Liburnia (recent Croatian Kvarner, Italian Quarnero) in ancient geography was the land of the Liburnians, a region along the northeastern Adriatic coast in Europe, actual Croatia, whose borders shifted according to the extent of Liburnian dominance at a given time between 11th and 1st century BC. // Liburnia was south of...


Some Istrians consider themselves simply to be Istrians, with no additional national affiliation (in the 2001 Croatian census 8,865 (4.3%) people in Istria county declared themselves "Istrian"[2]). Nevertheless, most residents of Croatian Istria declare themselves as Croatian, while most residents of Slovenian Istria declare themselves as Slovene. Istria county (Croatian: Istarska županija; Italian: Regione istriana) is the westernmost county of Croatia which includes the biggest part of the Istrian peninsula (2820 out of 3160 km²). Area is called Istra in Croatian and Slovenian, and Istria in Italian. ...


The small town of Peroj has had a unique history which exemplifies the multi-ethnic complexity of the history of the region, as do some towns on both sides of the Cicerija mountains that are still identified with the Istro-Romanian people which the UNESCO Redbook of Endangered Languages calls "the smallest ethnic group in Europe". Peroj is a small town on the south-western coast of Istria, currently inhabited by ~400 inhabitants, dating back to the Copper age of prehistory, as testified by a necropolis within the old walls of the town. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ...


Gallery

See also

Sea border between Slovenia and Croatia according to the Drnovšek-Račan Agreement (never ratified by Croatia, only by Slovenia). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 183,"... We may begin with the Venetic peoples, Veneti, Carni, Histri and Liburni, whose language set them apart from the rest of the Illyrians. ..."
  2. ^ Population according to ethnicity by towns/municipalities

Further reading

  • Ashbrook, John (December 2005). "Self-perceptions, denials, and expressions: Istrianity in a nationalizing Croatia, 1990-1997". Nationalities Papers 33 (4): 459–487. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Istria
  • Croatian Istria's official tourist website
  • Old postcards of Istria

Coordinates: 45°15′40″N, 13°54′16″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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