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Encyclopedia > Istanbul
İstanbul
Topkapı Palace - Hagia Sophia - Blue Mosque
Topkapı Palace - Hagia Sophia - Blue Mosque

Emblem of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality
İstanbul (Turkey )
İstanbul
Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey
Coordinates: 41°00′44″N 28°58′34″E / 41.01224, 28.976018
Country Flag of Turkey Turkey
Region Marmara
Province Istanbul
Founded 667 BC as Byzantium
Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantine's reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantine's death in 337)
Ottoman period 1453 as Konstantiniyye (in Ottoman Turkish), Constantinople (internationally) and various other names in local languages
Turkish Republic period 1923 as Istanbul (in Turkish) and Constantinople (internationally), renamed as Istanbul also in foreign languages following the Turkish Postal Service Law of March 28, 1930
Districts 27
Area
 - Total 1,830.92 km² (706.9 sq mi)
Elevation 100 m (328 ft)
Population (2007)[1]
 - Total 11,372,613 (3rd)
 - Density 6,211/km² (16,086.4/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 34010 to 34850 and
80000 to 81800
Area code(s) (+90) 212 (European side)
(+90) 216 (Asian side)
Licence plate 34
Website: Istanbul Portal
Historic Areas of Istanbul*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party Flag of Turkey Turkey
Type Cultural
Criteria I, II, III, IV
Reference 356
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1985  (9th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.

Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other names of Istanbul) is Europe's most populous city (the world's 3rd largest city proper and 20th largest urban area) and Turkey's cultural and financial center. The city covers 27 districts of the Istanbul province.[2] It is located on the Bosphorus Strait and encompasses the natural harbor known as the Golden Horn, in the northwest of the country. It extends both on the European (Thrace) and on the Asian (Anatolia) side of the Bosphorus, and is thereby the only metropolis in the world which is situated on two continents. In its long history, Istanbul served as the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), the East Roman (Byzantine) Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922). The city was chosen as joint European Capital of Culture for 2010. The historic areas of Istanbul were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985. Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 320 pixelsFull resolution (3323 × 1331 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/png) Карта Турции в нужной проекции для Шаблон:ПозКарта, обрезанная ровно по линиям градусов (25° - 45° в.д., 43° - 35° с.ш.). Map of Turkey, in the equirectangular projection (equidistant cylindrical projection, or plate carrée). ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Below each region you will find associated Cities with the region. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... New Rome has been used for: It was a common name applied to Constantinople, the city founded by emperor Constantine I the Great in 324 (known as Byzantium before that date; renamed Istanbul in modern times). ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The city of Istanbul has been known through the ages under a large number of different names. ... This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Postcodes are generally clearly visible outside Australia Post offices. ... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... Turkish car number plates are license plates found on Turkish vehicles. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The city of Istanbul has been known through the ages under a large number of different names. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ordered according to population (as of 2007). ... Istanbul Province is a province located in north-west Turkey. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation). ... Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...

Contents

Names

Further information: Names of Istanbul

The modern Turkish name İstanbul (IPA: [isˈtanbul] or colloquial [ɨsˈtanbul]) can be attested, in a range of different variants, from as far back as the 10th century; it has been the common name for the city in normal Turkish speech since before the conquest of 1453. Etymologically, it derives from the Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν" [istimˈbolin] or in the Aegean dialect "εἰς τὰν Πόλιν" [istamˈbolin] (modern Greek "στην Πόλι" [stimˈboli]), which means "in the city", "to the city" or "downtown".[3] The city of Istanbul has been known through the ages under a large number of different names. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ...


Byzantium is the first known name of the city. When Roman emperor Constantine I (Constantine the Great) made the city the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire on May 11, 330, he conferred on it the name Nova Roma ("New Rome"). Constantinople ("City of Constantine") was the name by which the city became instead more widely known. It is first attested in official use under emperor Theodosius II (408–450).[4] It remained the principal official name of the city throughout the Byzantine period, and the most common name used for it in the West until the early 20th century. Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ...


The city has also been nicknamed "The City on Seven Hills" because the historic peninsula, the oldest part of the city, was built on seven hills (just like Rome), each of which bears a historic mosque.[5] The hills are represented in the city's emblem with seven triangles, above which rise four minarets. Two of many other old nicknames of Istanbul are Vasilevousa Polis (the Queen of Cities), which rose from the city's importance and wealth throughout the Middle Ages; and Dersaadet, originally Der-i Saadet (the Door to Happiness) which was first used towards the end of 19th century and is still remembered today. List of cities claimed to be built on seven hills: Amman, Jordan Asunción, Paraguay Bath, England Edinburgh, Scotland Jerusalem, Israel [1] Kampala, Uganda Lisbon, Portugal Moscow, Russia Nevada City, United States Prague, Czech Republic, said to be built on seven or nine hills: Hradčany, Vítkov, (Opyš), V... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


With the Turkish Postal Service Law of March 28, 1930, the Turkish authorities officially requested foreigners to adopt Istanbul as the sole name also in their own languages.[6] is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


History

Main article: History of Istanbul
If the Earth were a single state, Istanbul would be its capital.

Napoleon Bonaparte[7] The History of Istanbul explains the historical development of the city Istanbul, which inhabitation of the region dates back to prehistorical times. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français...

The first human settlement in Istanbul, the Fikirtepe mound on the Anatolian side, is from the Copper Age period, with artifacts dating from 5500–3500 BC.[8] A port settlement dating back to the Phoenicians has been discovered in nearby Kadıköy (Chalcedon). Cape Moda in Chalcedon was the first location which the Greek settlers of Megara chose to colonize in 685 BC, prior to colonising Byzantion on the European side of the Bosphorus under the command of King Byzas in 667 BC. Byzantion was established on the site of an ancient port settlement named Lygos, founded by Thracian tribes between the 13th and 11th centuries BC, along with the neighbouring Semistra,[9] of which Plinius had mentioned in his historical accounts. Only a few walls and substructures belonging to Lygos have survived to date, near the Seraglio Point (Turkish: Sarayburnu), where the famous Topkapı Palace now stands. During the period of Byzantion, the Acropolis used to stand where the Topkapı Palace stands today. The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period or Copper Age period (also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic)), is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... Phoenicia (nonstandardly, Phenicia; pronounced [1], Greek: : PhoiníkÄ“, Latin: ) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. ... The historic Haldun Taner Theatre on the harbour of Kadıköy Kadıköy Municipality on the harbour Nostalgic tram running between Kadıköys centrum and the neighbourhood of Moda, with the Catholic Eglise de LAssomption seen in the background Historic buildings in YeldeÄŸirmeni Historic... Chalcedon (Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Ãœsküdar). ... Bold text For other uses, see Megara (disambiguation). ... Byzantium was the original name of the modern city of Istanbul. ... According to a Greek legend, Byzas was a Greek colonist (reported by some to be a leader or even a king) from the Doric colony of Megara in Ancient Greece, who consulted the oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Sarayburnu (Turkish:Sarayburnu, meaning Point of Seraglio) is a promontory separating the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ...


After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Roman emperor Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by the Romans and suffered extensive damage in 196 AD. Byzantium was rebuilt by Severus and quickly regained its previous prosperity, being temporarily renamed as Augusta Antonina by the emperor, in honor of his son.[10] Pescennius Niger as emperor. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (b. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ...

Panoramic view of the city in the 1870s as seen from the Galata Tower (full image)
Panoramic view of the city in the 1870s as seen from the Galata Tower ( full image)

The location of Byzantium attracted Constantine I in 324 after a prophetic dream was said to have identified the location of the city; but the true reason behind this prophecy was probably Constantine's final victory over Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) on the Bosphorus, on September 18, 324, which ended the civil war between the Roman Co-Emperors, and brought an end to the final vestiges of the Tetrarchy system, during which Nicomedia (present-day İzmit, 100 km (62 mi) east of Istanbul) was the most senior Roman capital city.[11] Byzantium (now renamed as Nova Roma which eventually became Constantinopolis, i.e. "The City of Constantine") was officially proclaimed the new capital of the Roman Empire six years later, in 330. Following the death of Theodosius I in 395 and the permanent partition of the Roman Empire between his two sons, Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. As well as being the centre of an imperial dynasty, the unique position of Constantinople at the centre of two continents made the city a magnet for international commerce, culture and diplomacy. The Byzantine Empire was distinctly Greek in culture and became the centre of Greek Orthodox Christianity, while its capital was adorned with many magnificent churches, including the Hagia Sophia, once the world's largest cathedral. The seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople, spiritual leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church, still remains in the Fener (Greek: Phanar) district of Istanbul.[12] Galata Tower, Istanbul View from Galata Tower The Galata Tower (Turkish: Galata Kulesi) is located in Istanbul in Turkey to the north of the Golden Horn, at , . One of the citys most striking landmarks, it is a huge, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline on the Galata side... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1991x336, 1334 KB)USA memory collection: Digital ID: pan 6a23331 Source: digital file from intermediary roll film copy Processed form of [1] (trimmed the horizont, as to be viewable for the Wide image template File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ... After the defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son, he withdrew to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the Battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon, resulted in his final submission. ... Ãœsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Ä°zmit (ancient Nicomedia) is a city in [[Turkey], administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality . ... New Rome has been used for: It was a common name applied to Constantinople, the city founded by emperor Constantine I the Great in 324 (known as Byzantium before that date; renamed Istanbul in modern times). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article is about negotiations. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Fanar (formerly Phanar, Fener in Turkish) is a neighborhood in Istanbul, Turkey (formerly Constantinople). ...


In 1204, the Fourth Crusade was launched to capture Jerusalem, but had instead turned on Constantinople, which was sacked and desecrated.[13] The city subsequently became the centre of the Catholic Latin Empire, created by the crusaders to replace the Orthodox Byzantine Empire, which was divided into a number of splinter states, of which the Empire of Nicaea was to recapture Constantinople in 1261 under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus. Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens Île-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII (1225 – December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ...

Panoramic view of the Golden Horn in Istanbul, as seen from the Galata Tower. The Galata Bridge can be seen in the center of the picture. The Seraglio Point where the Topkapı Palace is located is seen at the left tip of the historic peninsula; followed by (left to right) the Hagia Sophia, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, the Yeni Mosque near the Galata Bridge, the Beyazıt Tower rising high in the background, and the Süleymaniye Mosque at far right, among others. The Sea of Marmara and the Princes' Islands are seen in the background, on the horizon. At the extreme left of the picture, the district of Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) on the Asian side of the city can be seen. Behind the Galata Bridge, towards the horizon, the Column of Constantine (which was surrounded by iron bars for restoration at the time of this photo) rises.
Panoramic view of the Golden Horn in Istanbul, as seen from the Galata Tower. The Galata Bridge can be seen in the center of the picture. The Seraglio Point where the Topkapı Palace is located is seen at the left tip of the historic peninsula; followed by (left to right) the Hagia Sophia, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, the Yeni Mosque near the Galata Bridge, the Beyazıt Tower rising high in the background, and the Süleymaniye Mosque at far right, among others. The Sea of Marmara and the Princes' Islands are seen in the background, on the horizon. At the extreme left of the picture, the district of Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) on the Asian side of the city can be seen. Behind the Galata Bridge, towards the horizon, the Column of Constantine (which was surrounded by iron bars for restoration at the time of this photo) rises.

In the last decades of the Byzantine Empire, the city had decayed as the Byzantine state became increasingly isolated and financially bankrupt, its population had dwindled to some thirty or forty thousand people whilst large sections remained uninhabited.[14] Due to the ever increasing inward turn the Byzantines took, many facets of their surrounding empire were now falling apart, leaving them vulnerable to attack. Ottoman Turks began a strategy by which they took selected towns and smaller cities over time, enveloping Bursa in 1326, Nicomedia in 1337, Gallipoli in 1354, and finally Adrianople in 1362. This essentially cut off Constantinople from its main supply routes, strangling it slowly.[15] Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden... Galata Tower, Istanbul View from Galata Tower The Galata Tower (Turkish: Galata Kulesi) is located in Istanbul in Turkey to the north of the Golden Horn, at , . One of the citys most striking landmarks, it is a huge, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline on the Galata side... Aerial view of the Galata Bridge looking from Eminönü to Karaköy. ... Sarayburnu (Turkish:Sarayburnu, meaning Point of Seraglio) is a promontory separating the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ... The New Mosque seen from Golden Horn The New Mosque (1597 - 1663) is located in Eminönü and together with the Galata Bridge the New Mosque is one of the best- known sights of Ä°stanbul. ... Beyazıt Tower Main entrance gate of Istanbul University on Beyazıt Square which was known as Forum Tauri in the Roman period. ... The Suleiman Mosque side view. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... The Princes Islands (today Adalar) are a chain of nine islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. ... The historic Haldun Taner Theatre on the harbour of Kadıköy Kadıköy Municipality on the harbour Nostalgic tram running between Kadıköys centrum and the neighbourhood of Moda, with the Catholic Eglise de LAssomption seen in the background Historic buildings in YeldeÄŸirmeni Historic... Chalcedon (Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Ãœsküdar). ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... For other uses, see Bursa (disambiguation). ... Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... For other uses, see Gallipoli (disambiguation). ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ...


On May 29, 1453, Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror" captured Constantinople after a 53-day siege and proclaimed that the city was now the new capital of his Ottoman Empire. Sultan Mehmed's first duty was to rejuvenate the city economically, creating the Grand Bazaar and inviting the fleeing Orthodox and Catholic inhabitants to return. Captured prisoners were freed to settle in the city whilst provincial governors in Rumelia and Anatolia were ordered to send four thousand families to settle in the city, whether Muslim, Christian or Jew, to form a unique cosmopolitan society.[14] The Sultan also endowed the city with various architectural monuments, including the Topkapı Palace and the Eyüp Sultan Mosque. Religious foundations were established to fund the construction of grand imperial mosques (such as the Fatih Mosque which was built on the spot where the Church of the Holy Apostles once stood), adjoined by their associated schools, hospitals and public baths. Suleiman the Magnificent's reign of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 was a period of great artistic and architectural achievements. The famous architect Sinan designed many mosques and other grand buildings in the city, while Ottoman arts of ceramics and calligraphy also flourished. is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... A view from the entrance The Grand Bazaar is a massive labyrinth of 4000 shops lining up the flanks of 58 covered streets The Grand Bazaar (or Covered Bazaar, Kapalıçarşı in Turkish) in Istanbul (at ) is one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58... Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Fatih Mosque Complex extends along the Golden Horn side of Fevzipasa Street in Fatih. ... The Church of the Holy Apostles (Greek: Aghioi Apostoloi), also known as the Imperial Polyandreion, was a Christian basilica built in Constantinople (then the capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 550 AD. It was second only to the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) among the great churches of... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... For other uses, see Sinan (disambiguation). ... Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ...

Panoramic view of the historic peninsula of Istanbul, looking westwards from the southern entrance of the Bosporus at the Sea of Marmara. From left to right, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, the Hagia Sophia and the Topkapı Palace are seen, along with the surviving sections of the Sea Walls of Constantinople. The Galata Tower is seen at the far right of the picture, across the Golden Horn. The arches and vaults of the Byzantine-era Mangana (Armoury) and the Hagios Georgios Monastery which was located inside it are seen between the Blue Mosque and the Hagia Sophia, near the shore. The dome of the Hagia Irene can be seen to the right of the Hagia Sophia.
Panoramic view of the historic peninsula of Istanbul, looking westwards from the southern entrance of the Bosporus at the Sea of Marmara. From left to right, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, the Hagia Sophia and the Topkapı Palace are seen, along with the surviving sections of the Sea Walls of Constantinople. The Galata Tower is seen at the far right of the picture, across the Golden Horn. The arches and vaults of the Byzantine-era Mangana (Armoury) and the Hagios Georgios Monastery which was located inside it are seen between the Blue Mosque and the Hagia Sophia, near the shore. The dome of the Hagia Irene can be seen to the right of the Hagia Sophia.

When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the capital was moved from Istanbul to Ankara. In the early years of the republic, Istanbul was overlooked in favour of the new capital Ankara. However, in the 1950s, Istanbul underwent great structural change, as new roads and factories were constructed throughout the city. Wide modern boulevards, avenues and public squares were built in Istanbul, sometimes at the expense of the demolition of many historical buildings. During the 1970s, the population of Istanbul began to rapidly increase as people from Anatolia migrated to the city in order to find employment in the many new factories that were constructed at the outskirts of the city. This sudden sharp increase in the population caused a rapid rise in housing development, and many previously outlying villages became engulfed into the greater metropolis of Istanbul. Illegal construction, combined with corner-cutting methods, have accounted for the reason why 65% of all of the buildings in Istanbul are not up to standard. The concerns have increased due to the serious nature of the Izmit earthquake of 1999.[16] I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ... Galata Tower, Istanbul View from Galata Tower The Galata Tower (Turkish: Galata Kulesi) is located in Istanbul in Turkey to the north of the Golden Horn, at , . One of the citys most striking landmarks, it is a huge, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline on the Galata side... Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden... The Church of St. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


Geography

Istanbul and the Bosporus
Istanbul and the Bosporus

Istanbul is located in the north-west Marmara Region of Turkey. It encloses the southern Bosphorus which places the city on two continents—the western portion of Istanbul is in Europe, while the eastern portion is in Asia. The city boundaries cover a surface area of 1,539 square kilometres (594 sq mi), while the metropolitan region, or the Province of Istanbul, covers 6,220 square kilometres (2,402 sq mi). ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1163, 1721 KB) Istanbul, Turkey: The Crossroads of Europe and Asia Astronaut photograph ISS008-E-21752 was taken April 16, 2004, with a Kodak DCS760 digital camera equipped with an 200-mm lens, and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1163, 1721 KB) Istanbul, Turkey: The Crossroads of Europe and Asia Astronaut photograph ISS008-E-21752 was taken April 16, 2004, with a Kodak DCS760 digital camera equipped with an 200-mm lens, and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... Marmara Region The Marmara Region (Turkish Marmara), with a surface area of 67. ... Istanbul Province is a province located in north-west Turkey. ...


Climate

The city has a Mediterranean climate with hot and humid summers; and cool, rainy and often snowy winters. Humidity is generally rather high which can make temperatures feel much warmer or colder than they actually are. Yearly precipitation for Istanbul averages 640 millimetres (25.2 in).[17] Snowfall is quite common, snowing for a week or two during the winter season, but it can be heavy once it snows. It is most likely to occur between the months of December and March. The summer months between June and September bring average daytime temperatures of 28 °C (82 °F). The warmest month is July with an average temperature of 23.3 °C (74 °F), the coldest is January with 5.6 °C (42 °F). The weather becomes slightly cooler as one moves toward eastern Istanbul. Summer is by far the driest season, although there is no real summer drought such as those occurring at Mediterranean climates or in the arid interior of Turkey. The city is quite windy, having an average wind speed of 17 km/h (11 mph).
 Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ...

Weather averages for Istanbul
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C 8 8 11 16 21 26 28 28 24 19 14 10 18
Average low °C 3 3 4 8 12 17 19 19 16 13 8 6 11
Precipitation mm 94 71.1 58.4 43.2 30.5 22.9 17.8 15.2 27.9 53.3 88.9 101.6 640.1
Average high °F 46 47 51 60 69 78 82 82 76 67 57 50 64
Average low °F 37 37 40 47 54 62 66 67 61 55 47 42 51
Precipitation inches 3.7 2.8 2.3 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.6 1.1 2.1 3.5 4.0 25.2
Source: Weatherbase[17] 2008-01-04

Geology

Panoramic view of the Bosporus from the hills of the Ulus district
Panoramic view of the Bosporus from the hills of the Ulus district

Istanbul is situated near the North Anatolian fault line, which runs from northern Anatolia to the Marmara Sea. Two tectonic plates, the African and the Eurasian, push against each other here. This fault line has been responsible for several deadly earthquakes in the region throughout history. In 1509 a catastrophic earthquake caused a tsunami which broke over the sea-walls of the city, destroying over 100 mosques and killing 10,000 people. In 1766 the Eyüp Sultan Mosque was largely destroyed. The 1894 earthquake caused the collapse of many parts of the Grand Bazaar. A devastating earthquake in August 1999, with its epicenter in nearby Kocaeli, left 18,000 dead and many more homeless.[18] In all of these earthquakes, the devastating effects are a result of the close settlement and poor construction of buildings. Seismologists predict another earthquake, possibly measuring magnitude 7.0, occurring before 2025.[19] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 267 pixelsFull resolution (2420 × 808 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 267 pixelsFull resolution (2420 × 808 pixel, file size: 1. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... The North Anatolian Fault (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Fayı) is one of the most energetic earthquake zones in the world. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that separates the Black Sea from the Aegean Sea (thus the Asian part of Turkey from its European part) by Bosporus and... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... A view from the entrance The Grand Bazaar is a massive labyrinth of 4000 shops lining up the flanks of 58 covered streets The Grand Bazaar (or Covered Bazaar, Kapalıçarşı in Turkish) in Istanbul (at ) is one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58... Izmit (also known as Ismid and Kocaeli) is a city in the northwestern part of Anatolia, Turkey. ... The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Thomas C. Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ...


Architecture

Main article: Architecture of Istanbul

Throughout its long history, Istanbul has acquired a reputation for being a cultural and ethnic melting pot. As a result, there are many historical mosques, churches, synagogues, palaces, castles and towers to visit in the city. Some of these historical structures, which draw millions to the city every year, reflect the heart and soul of Istanbul.[20]

The famous Maiden's (Leander's) Tower, one of the symbols of Istanbul, was originally built by the ancient Athenian general Alcibiades in 408 BC to control the movements of the Persian ships in the Bosphorus strait.[21] Back then it was located between the cities of Byzantion and Chrysopolis. The tower was later enlarged and rebuilt as a fortress by the Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus in 1110, and was rebuilt and restored several times by the Ottoman Turks, most significantly in 1509 and 1763.[21] Maidens Tower Kız Kulesi The Maidens Tower (Turkish: Kız Kulesi) is a tower sitting on a small islet located in the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey, at . // Legend There are many legends about the construction of the tower and its location. ... Maidens Tower Kız Kulesi The Maidens Tower (Turkish: Kız Kulesi) is a tower sitting on a small islet located in the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey, at . // Legend There are many legends about the construction of the tower and its location. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Persia redirects here. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Byzantium was the original name of the modern city of Istanbul. ... Maidens Tower, off the coast of Ãœsküdar A large and densely populated suburb of Istanbul, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus right opposite the heart of the great city, next to Kadıköy. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ; 1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


The most important monuments of Roman architecture in the city include the Column of Constantine (Turkish: Çemberlitaş), which was erected in 330 by Constantine the Great for marking the declaration of the new capital city of the Roman Empire[22] and contained several fragments of the True Cross and other artifacts belonging to Jesus Christ and Virgin Mary, the Mazulkemer Aqueduct, the Valens Aqueduct, the Column of the Goths at the Seraglio Point, the Milion which served for calculating the distances between Constantinople and other cities of the Roman Empire, and the Hippodrome of Constantinople which was built following the model of the Circus Maximus in Rome. Construction of the Walls of Constantinople began under Constantine the Great,[23] who enlarged the previously existing walls of Byzantium in order to defend the new Roman capital city which quickly grew following its proclamation as Nova Roma. A new set of walls was built further west during the reign of Theodosius II, and rebuilt after an earthquake in 447 in their current shape. Constantine. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... Valens Aqueduct Valens Aqueduct The Valens Aqueduct (Turkish: BozdoÄŸan Kemeri) is an aqueduct in the European part of Istanbul, Turkey, constructed by the Romans during the 4th century. ... The Hippodrome today, with the Walled Obelisk in the foreground Obelisk of Thutmosis III The base of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III showing Theodosius the Great as he offers a laurel wreath to the victor from the Kathisma (emperors box) at the Hippodrome The Delphi Tripod known as the... , For other uses, see Circus Maximus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ...

The early Byzantine architecture followed the classical Roman model of domes and arches, but further improved these architectural concepts, as evidenced with the Hagia Sophia, which is the largest structure on Sultanahmet Square in the Eminönü district. The Hagia Sophia was designed by Isidorus and Anthemius as the third church to rise on this location, between 532 and 537, following the Nika riots (532) during which the second church was destroyed (the first church, known as the Megala Ekklessia ("Great Church") was inaugurated by Constantius II in 360; the second church was inaugurated by Theodosius II in 405, while the third and current one was inaugurated by Justinian in 537). The Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus (commonly known as the Little Hagia Sophia), which was the first church built by Justinian in Constantinople and edificed between 527 and 536, had earlier signaled such an improvement in the design of domed buildings, which require complex solutions for carrying the structure. The present-day Hagia Irene (which was originally built by Constantine in the 4th century, but was later enlarged by Justinian in the 6th century) and the Basilica Cistern are also from this period. For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... The New Mosque seen from Golden Horn Eminönü is a district of Istanbul in Turkey. ... Isidore of Miletus was the architect who together with Anthemius of Tralles designed Hagia Sophia in modern day Istanbul The Emperor Justinian I decided to rebuild the 4th century basilica in Constantinople which was destroyed during the Nika riots of 532. ... Anthemius of Tralles (c. ... The Nika riots (Greek: Στάση του Νίκα), or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in 532. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Justinian I, depicted on a contemporary coin Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus or Justinian I (May 11, 483–November 13/14, 565), was Eastern Roman Emperor from AD August 1, 527 until his death. ... The Apse of the former Church with the Mihrab. ... The Church of St. ... Basilica Cistern The second Medusa head pillar The Basilica Cistern, also called the Yerebatan Sarayı or Yerebatan Sarnıcı, is the largest of several hundred ancient cisterns that still lie beneath the city of Istanbul, former Constantinople, Turkey. ...

The most important churches which were built after the Byzantines recovered Constantinople from the Latin Crusaders in 1261 include the Pammakaristos Church and Chora Church. Also in this period, the Genoese Podestà of Galata, Montano de Marinis, built the Palazzo del Comune (1314), a copy of the San Giorgio Palace in Genoa, which still stands in ruins on the back streets of Bankalar Caddesi in Galata, together with its adjacent buildings and numerous Genoese houses from the early 1300s. The Genoese also built the Galata Tower, which they named as Christea Turris (Tower of Christ), at the highest point of the citadel of Galata, in 1348. Image File history File links Galata_tower_istanbul. ... Image File history File links Galata_tower_istanbul. ... Galata Tower, Istanbul View from Galata Tower The Galata Tower (Turkish: Galata Kulesi) is located in Istanbul in Turkey to the north of the Golden Horn, at , . One of the citys most striking landmarks, it is a huge, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline on the Galata side... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chora Church The Chora Church (Turkish Kariye Müzesi, Kariye Camii, or Kariye Kilisesi — the Chora Museum, Mosque or Church) is considered to be one of the most beautiful examples of a Byzantine church. ... Alternate uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... The Palace of the Podestà in Florence, known as the Palazzo Vecchio or the Palazzo della Signoria Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities, since the later middle ages, mainly as Chief magistrate of a city state (like otherwise styled counterparts in other cities... Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Galata Tower, Istanbul View from Galata Tower The Galata Tower (Turkish: Galata Kulesi) is located in Istanbul in Turkey to the north of the Golden Horn, at , . One of the citys most striking landmarks, it is a huge, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline on the Galata side...


The Ottoman Turks built the Anadoluhisarı on the Asian side of the Bosphorus in 1394, and the Rumelihisarı at the opposite (European) shore, in 1452, a year before the conquest of Constantinople. The main purpose of these castles, armed with the long range Balyemez (Faule Metze) cannons, was to block the sea traffic of the Bosphorus and prevent the support ships from the Genoese colonies on the Black Sea ports, such as Caffa, Sinop, and Amasra, from reaching Constantinople and helping the Byzantines during the Turkish siege of the city. Anadoluhisarı is a fortress located in Istanbul, Turkey on the Anatolian (Asian) side of the Bosporus giving the name of the quarter around it. ... Rumelihisarı, seen from the Bosporus. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Feodosiya (Russian: Феодосия; Ukrainian: Феодосія; Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Kefe) is a port and resort city in southern Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimea at coordinates 45. ... For other meanings of Sinop/Sinope, see Sinope Sinop (also Sinope) is a city with a population of 47,000 on the coast of the Black Sea, in the modern region of Galatia in modern-day northern Turkey, historically known as Sinope. ... Sunset in Amasra Amasra (pop. ...

Topkapı Palace

Following the Ottoman conquest of the city, Sultan Mehmed II initiated a wide scale reconstruction plan, which included the construction of grand buildings such as the Eyüp Sultan Mosque, Fatih Mosque, Topkapı Palace, the Grand Bazaar and the Yedikule (Seven Towers) Castle which guarded the main entrance gate of the city, the Porta Aurea (Golden Gate). In the centuries following Mehmed II, many new important buildings, such as the Süleymaniye Mosque, Sultanahmet Mosque, Yeni Mosque and numerous others were constructed. In the 18th and 19th centuries, traditional Ottoman architectural styles were gradually replaced by European styles, such as the Baroque style interiors of the Aynalıkavak Palace (1677–1679) and Nuruosmaniye Mosque (1748–1755, the first Baroque style mosque in the city, also famous for its Baroque fountain), and the 18th century Baroque additions to the Harem section of the Topkapı Palace. Following the Tanzimat reforms which effectively started Turkey's Europeanization process in 1839, new palaces and mosques were built in Neoclassical, Baroque and Rococo styles, or a mixture of all three, such as the Dolmabahçe Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace and Ortaköy (Mecidiye) Mosque. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Fatih Mosque Complex extends along the Golden Horn side of Fevzipasa Street in Fatih. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... A view from the entrance The Grand Bazaar is a massive labyrinth of 4000 shops lining up the flanks of 58 covered streets The Grand Bazaar (or Covered Bazaar, Kapalıçarşı in Turkish) in Istanbul (at ) is one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58... Map showing Constantinople and its walls The Walls of Constantinople surrounded the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey). ... The Suleiman Mosque side view. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (in Turkish Sultanahmet Camii, in English commonly called the Blue Mosque) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1453 to 1923. ... The New Mosque seen from Golden Horn The New Mosque (1597 - 1663) is located in Eminönü and together with the Galata Bridge the New Mosque is one of the best- known sights of Ä°stanbul. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... A view of the Dolmabahçe from the Bosphorus with modern Istanbul in the background The famous Crystal Staircase The main hall The Dolmabahçe Palace (Turkish: ) is a palace in Istanbul, located at the western, European, side of the Bosphorus. ... Beylerbeyi Palace by the Bosphorus Bridge The Beylerbeyi Palace (Turkish: ) is a palace located in Beylerbeyi neighbourhood of Istanbul, Turkey at the Asian side of the Bosphorus, situated just north of the Bosphorus Bridge today. ... Ortaköy Mosque and Bosphorus Bridge Ortaköy Mosque of Ä°stanbul is situated at waterside of the Ortaköy Pier square, one of the most beautiful locations on the Bosphorus. ...


Starting from the early 19th century, the areas around İstiklal Avenue were filled with grandiose embassy buildings belonging to prominent European states, and rows of European (mostly Neoclassical and later Art Nouveau) style buildings started to appear on both flanks of the avenue. Istanbul especially became a major center of the Art Nouveau movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with famous architects of this style like Raimondo D'Aronco building many palaces and mansions in the city proper and on the Princes' Islands. His most important works in the city include several buildings of the Yıldız Palace complex, and the Botter House on İstiklal Avenue. The famous Camondo Stairs on Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Karaköy (Galata) is also a beautiful example of Art Nouveau architecture. Other important examples are the Hıdiv Kasrı (Khedive Palace) on the Asian side of the Bosphorus, Flora Han in Sirkeci, and Frej Apartmanı in the Şişhane quarter of Beyoğlu. Ä°stiklal Avenue Ä°stiklal Avenue (Ä°stiklal Caddesi in Turkish), is one of the most famous avenues in Istanbul, Turkey, approximately visited by 3 million people in one day over the course of weekends. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Raimondo Tommaso D’Aronco (1857-1932) was an Italian architect renowned for his building designs in the style of Art Nouveau. ... The Princes Islands (today Adalar) are a chain of nine islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. ... The State Apartments in Yıldız Palace Yıldız Palace is a collection of pavilions and villas in Istanbul, Turkey built in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... The Camondo family was a well-known family of Jewish financiers and philanthropists of Spanish-Portuguese origin. ... Karaköy, the modern name for the ancient Galata, is a commercial neighborhood in the BeyoÄŸlu district of Istanbul, Turkey, located at the northern part of the Golden Horn mouth on the European side of Bosphorus. ... Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. ... [edit] The neighborhood Sirkeci (pronounced Sir-ke-ji) is an area in the Eminönü belediye (neighborhood) in the city of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Ä°stiklâl Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim Square and Tünel BeyoÄŸlu is a district located on the European side of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. ...


Urbanism

See also: Urban centers
Akmerkez in Etiler is the only shopping mall in the world which won both "Europe's Best" and "World's Best" awards by ICSC
Akmerkez in Etiler is the only shopping mall in the world which won both "Europe's Best" and "World's Best" awards by ICSC
The 6 km (4 mi) long Bağdat Avenue on the Anatolian side has rows of shops, cafés, pubs and restaurants lining up its wide granite pavements on both flanks
The 6 km (4 mi) long Bağdat Avenue on the Anatolian side has rows of shops, cafés, pubs and restaurants lining up its wide granite pavements on both flanks

The urban landscape is constantly changing. In the Greek, Roman and Byzantine periods, the city was largely made up of the historic peninsula of Constantinople, with the citadel of Galata (also called Sykae or Pera) at north, and Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) and Chalcedon (Kadıköy) at east, across the Bosphorus. These were all independent cities back then. The present City of Istanbul can be considered the metropolitan area of old Constantinople, encompassing every single settlement around the original city, and expanding even further with the establishment of new neighbourhoods and districts since the 19th century. The list of urban centers in Istanbul lists the relevant civic centers (Markets, neighborhoods and places) within the city limits of Istanbul. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... View of the dome Akmerkez is an elegant shopping mall located in the Etiler quarter of Istanbul, Turkey. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... ICSC can refer to: In Chemistry, the International Chemical Safety Card In retail, the International Council of Shopping Centers In Indian education, the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education Category: ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. ... Pera was a suburb of Constantinople, located north of the Golden Horn, and is now part of the Istanbul district of Galata. ... Maidens Tower, off the coast of Ãœsküdar A large and densely populated suburb of Istanbul, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus right opposite the heart of the great city, next to Kadıköy. ... Ãœsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ... Chalcedon (Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Ãœsküdar). ... The historic Haldun Taner Theatre on the harbour of Kadıköy Kadıköy Municipality on the harbour Nostalgic tram running between Kadıköys centrum and the neighbourhood of Moda, with the Catholic Eglise de LAssomption seen in the background Historic buildings in YeldeÄŸirmeni Historic... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ...


Until the early 19th century, the city walls of Galata, the medieval Genoese citadel, used to stand. These Genoese fortifications, of which only the Galata Tower stands today, were demolished in the early 1800s to give way for a northwards expansion of the city, towards the neighbourhoods of Beşiktaş, Şişli, Nişantaşı, and beyond. Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. ... Alternate uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Galata Tower, Istanbul View from Galata Tower The Galata Tower (Turkish: Galata Kulesi) is located in Istanbul in Turkey to the north of the Golden Horn, at , . One of the citys most striking landmarks, it is a huge, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline on the Galata side... This article is about a district in Ä°stanbul. ... ÅžiÅŸli is a cosmopolitan district of Ä°stanbul, Turkey where many of Istanbuls Armenians live (In the Kurtulus area). ... NiÅŸantaşı is a quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, comprising neighbourhoods like TeÅŸvikiye, Osmanbey, Maçka and Pangaltı. It includes stores of world famous brands and has many popular cafés, pubs, restaurants and night clubs. ...

İstiklal Avenue in Beyoğlu
İstiklal Avenue in Beyoğlu

In the last decades, numerous tall structures were built around the city to accommodate a rapid growth in population. Surrounding towns were absorbed into Istanbul as the city rapidly expanded outwards. The tallest highrise office and residential buildings are mostly located in the northern areas of the European side, and especially in the business and shopping districts of Levent, Maslak, and Etiler which are situated between the Bosphorus Bridge and Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge. Levent and Etiler also have numerous upmarket shopping malls, like Kanyon, Metrocity, Akmerkez, Mayadrom and Mayadrom Uptown. The headquarters of Turkey's largest companies and banks are also located in this area. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 692 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The pedestrian İstiklal Avenue in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul 3 June 2007 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 692 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The pedestrian İstiklal Avenue in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul 3 June 2007 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as... İstiklal Avenue İstiklal Avenue (İstiklal Caddesi in Turkish), is one of the most famous avenues in Istanbul, Turkey, approximately visited by 3 million people in one day over the course of weekends. ... İstiklâl Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim Square and Tünel Beyoğlu is a district located on the European side of İstanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. ... Levent financial district View from Sporcular Park A double decker commuter bus on Taksim Square, running between the European and Asian districts of Istanbul, with a Turkcell advertisement showing Levent financial district and the Bosphorus Bridge, as seen from Nakkaştepe Hill on the Asian side of the Bosphorus Levent... Skyline of Maslak business district at sunset Maslak is one of the main business districts of Istanbul, Turkey, located in the northern European part of the city. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... View of the Asian side The Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge (Turkish: Boğaziçi Köprüsü or ) is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi). ... The Asiatic side of the bridge. ... Kanyon’s four winding retail levels offer unique views of a shifting landscape as well as a passageway to some of the world’s best brands A view from the mall Image:Kanyon Shopping Mall in Levent. ... Metrocity, opened in May 2003, is a modern shopping mall in the finance and business quarter of 1. ... View of the dome Akmerkez is an elegant shopping mall located in the Etiler quarter of Istanbul, Turkey. ...


Starting from the second half of the 20th century, the Asian side of Istanbul, which was originally a tranquil place full of seaside summer residences and elegant chalet mansions surrounded by lush and vast umbrella pine gardens, experienced a massive urban growth. The construction of the long, wide and elegant Bağdat Avenue, with its rows of upscale shops and restaurants, contributed much to the initial expansion in the area. The fact that these areas were largely empty until the 1960s also provided the chance for developing better infrastructure and a tidier urban planning when compared with most other residential areas in the city. But the real expansion of the Asian side came with the opening of Ankara Asfaltı, the Asian extension of the E5 highway, which is located to the north of Bağdat Avenue, parallel to the railway line. Another important factor in the recent growth of the Asian side of the city was migration from Anatolia. Today, more than 1/3 of the city's population live in the Asian side of Istanbul. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


As a result of Istanbul's exponential growth during the second half of the 20th century, a significant portion of the city's outskirts consists of gecekondus, a Turkish word created in the 1940s meaning ‘built overnight’ and referring to the illegally constructed squatter buildings that comprise entire neighbourhoods and run rampant outside the historic centers of Turkey's largest cities, especially Istanbul, Ankara, İzmir, and Bursa. At present, some gecekondu areas are being gradually demolished and replaced by modern mass-housing compounds. A gecekondu neighbourhood in Ankara Gecekondu is defined by The New Redhouse Portable English-Turkish Turkish-English Dictionary as a house put up quickly without proper permissions; squatters house; a shack of a house, shanty, shack. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa or Prusa) is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ...


Administration

Organization

See also: List of mayors of Istanbul

The mayor of Istanbul, currently Kadir Topbaş, serves as the prefect of the city, as well as governor of the province.[24] Istanbul is a home rule city and municipal elections are mainly partisan. The metropolitan model of governance has been used with the establishment of metropolitan administration in 1930. The metropolitan council is responsible for all authority when it comes to making city decisions.[25] The metropolitan government structure consists of three main organs: (1) The Metropolitan Mayor (elected every five years), (2) The Metropolitan Council (decision making body with the mayor, district Mayors, and one fifth of the district municipal councilors), (3) The metropolitan executive committee. There are three types of local authorities: (1) municipalities, (2) special provincial administrations, (3) village administrations. Among the local authorities, municipalities are gaining greater importance with the rise in urbanization. This is a list of Mayors of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Kadir TopbaÅŸ (born 1945 in Artvin) is the current Mayor of Istanbul. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Partisan (political) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In politics, a partisan is a person who supports a cause, party, or goal fervently, usually to the exclusion of all others. ...


Districts

Image File history File links Istanbul-wiki. ...

Avcılar
Bağcılar
Bakırköy
Beşiktaş
Beyoğlu
Çatalca
Gaziosmanpaşa
Güngören
Kadıköy
Kağıthane
Sarıyer
Şile
Şişli

Istanbul Province has 32 districts, of which 27 form the city proper of Istanbul, also called Greater Istanbul, administered by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (or Municipality of Metropolitan Istanbul) (Turkish: İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi. These city districts, each of which forms a municipality with an elected mayor and council,[26] can be grouped into three main areas: (1) the historic peninsula, (2) the areas north of the Golden Horn, and (3) the Asian side. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that separates the Black Sea from the Aegean Sea (thus the Asian part of Turkey from its European part) by Bosporus and... Adalar is a collection of islands just off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Avcılar is a suburb of Ä°stanbul, Turkey on the European side of the city. ... BaÄŸcılar is a working class suburb of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, located on the European side of the city. ... Bahçelievler, Istanbul Bahçelievler is one of the middle class suburbs of Istanbul, Turkey on the European side of the city. ... Bakırköy is a middle class suburb of Ä°stanbul, Turkey on its European side. ... Bayrampasa - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... This article is about a district in Ä°stanbul. ... Ä°stiklâl Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim Square and Tünel BeyoÄŸlu is a district located on the European side of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. ... Büyükçekmece is a suburb of Istanbul, Turkey on its European side. ... Beykoz is a suburb of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Çatalca (Greek: , Bulgarian: ) is a district of Istanbul Province. ... The New Mosque seen from Golden Horn Eminönü is a district of Istanbul in Turkey. ... Eyüp is a district of the city of Ä°stanbul and sub-province of Ä°stanbul Province Originally this area was a village beyond the walls of the city of Istanbul but as the city grew it became incorporated into the city. ... Esenler is a suburb of Istanbul, Turkey on its European side. ... Fatih is one of the largest and central districts of Istanbul, Turkey, in the heart of the city. ... GaziosmanpaÅŸa is a working class suburb of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, on its European side. ... Güngören is a working class suburb of Istanbul. ... The historic Haldun Taner Theatre on the harbour of Kadıköy Kadıköy Municipality on the harbour Nostalgic tram running between Kadıköys centrum and the neighbourhood of Moda, with the Catholic Eglise de LAssomption seen in the background Historic buildings in YeldeÄŸirmeni Historic... Kağıthane is a working class district of the city of Ä°stanbul, Turkey in a valley inland from the upmarket Etiler. ... Kartal is a district of Istanbul, Turkey located on the Asian side of the city, on the coast of the Marmara Sea between Maltepe and Pendik. ... Küçükçekmece is a large, crowded suburb on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey 23 km out of the city, beyond Atatürk Airport. ... Maltepe is a suburb of Istanbul, Turkey between Kadikoy and Kartal. ... Pendik is a suburb of Istanbul, Turkey on the Asian side between Kartal and Tuzla. ... Sarıyer is a sleepy suburb on the outskirts of European Ä°stanbul proper. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Silivri. ... Sultanbeyli is a working class suburb of Istanbul, Turkey on the Asian side of the city. ... Åžile bay Åžile is a small town just outside the city of Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ... ÅžiÅŸli is a cosmopolitan district of Ä°stanbul, Turkey where many of Istanbuls Armenians live (In the Kurtulus area). ... Tuzla is a suburb of Istanbul, Turkey on the Asian side of the city beyond both Kartal and Pendik. ... Ãœmraniye is a working class suburb of Istanbul, Turkey with a population of over 250,000, mostly Kurdish. ... Ãœsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ... Zeytinburnu (literally, Olive Point) is a working class suburb of Istanbul, Turkey on its European side, on the shore of the Marmara Sea just outside the walls of the ancient city, beyond the fortress of Yedikule. ... Istanbul Province is a province located in north-west Turkey. ... Greater Istanbul refers to the immediate city and centre of the Istanbul, Turkey and hence operates as a municipality and administrative area. ... Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden...


The historic peninsula of old Istanbul corresponds approximately to the extent of Constantinople in the 15th century; it comprises the districts of Eminönü and Fatih. This area lies on the southern shores of the Golden Horn, which separates the old city center from the northern and younger parts of the European side. The historic peninsula ends with the Theodosian Land Walls in the west. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Marmara on the south and the entrance of the Bosphorus on the east. The New Mosque seen from Golden Horn Eminönü is a district of Istanbul in Turkey. ... Fatih is one of the largest and central districts of Istanbul, Turkey, in the heart of the city. ... Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden... Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ...


North of the Golden Horn are the historical Beyoğlu and Beşiktaş districts, where the last Sultan's palace is located, followed by a chain of former villages such as Ortaköy and Bebek along the shores of the Bosphorus. On both the European and Asian sides of the Bosphorus, wealthy Istanbulites built luxurious chalet mansions, called yalı, which were used as summer residences. Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden... Ä°stiklâl Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim Square and Tünel BeyoÄŸlu is a district located on the European side of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. ... This article is about a district in Ä°stanbul. ... A view of the Dolmabahçe from the Bosphorus with modern Istanbul in the background The famous Crystal Staircase The main hall The Dolmabahçe Palace (Turkish: ) is a palace in Istanbul, located at the western, European, side of the Bosphorus. ... Ortaköy is a small town located in the middle of the Bosphorus, Istanbul. ... Bebek is a district of the city of Istanbul. ... A Yalı is a waterfront summer mansion and residence, which were established in timber construction method particularly on the bank of the Bosphorus in Istanbul. ...


The quarters of Üsküdar (Chrysopolis) and Kadıköy (Chalcedon) which are located on the Asian side were originally independent cities, like Beyoğlu (Pera) also used to be. Today they are full of modern residential areas and business districts, and are home to around one-third of Istanbul's population. Ãœsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ... Maidens Tower, off the coast of Ãœsküdar A large and densely populated suburb of Istanbul, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus right opposite the heart of the great city, next to Kadıköy. ... The historic Haldun Taner Theatre on the harbour of Kadıköy Kadıköy Municipality on the harbour Nostalgic tram running between Kadıköys centrum and the neighbourhood of Moda, with the Catholic Eglise de LAssomption seen in the background Historic buildings in YeldeÄŸirmeni Historic... Chalcedon (Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Ãœsküdar). ... Ä°stiklâl Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim Square and Tünel BeyoÄŸlu is a district located on the European side of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. ... Pera was a suburb of Constantinople, located north of the Golden Horn, and is now part of the Istanbul district of Galata. ...


Demographics

Further information: Historical population values and Demographics of Turkey
Check the image detail for the data (there is a table that generated this info)
Check the image detail for the data (there is a table that generated this info)

The city of Istanbul has a population of 11,372,613 residents according to the latest count as of 2007,[1] and is one of the largest cities in Europe today.[27] Currently Istanbul has 54 municipalities, and stretches over an area of about 65 miles (approximately 100 km). The rate of population growth in the city is currently at 3.45% a year on average, mainly due to the influx of people from the surrounding rural areas. Istanbul's population density of 2,742 people per square mile (1,700 per square km) far exceeds Turkey's 130 people per square mile (81 people per square km).[28] Image File history File links Istanbul_population_in_Logs. ... As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72. ... Image File history File links Istanbul_population_in_Logs. ... Image File history File links Istanbul_population_in_Logs. ... Image File history File links Istanbul_population_in_Logs. ...

Year Population
330 40,000
400 400,000
530 550,000
545 350,000
715 300,000
950 400,000
1200 150,000
1453 36,000
Year Population
1477 14.803[29]
1566 600,000
1817 500,000
1860 715,000
1885 873,570
1890 874,000
1897 1,059,000
1901 942,900
Year Population
1914 909,978
1927 680,857
1935 741,148
1940 793,949
1945 860,558
1950 983,041
1955 1,268,771
1960 1,466,535
Year Population
1965 1,742,978
1970 2,132,407
1975 2,547,364
1980 2,772,708
1985 5,475,982
1990 6,629,431
2000 8,803,468
2007 11,372,613

Religion

Main article: Religion in Istanbul
Further information: Mosques, Churches, Synagogues
Selimiye Mosque dome.
Selimiye Mosque dome.
Hagia Sophia, former church then mosque, now a museum.
Hagia Sophia, former church then mosque, now a museum.

The urban landscape of Istanbul is shaped by many communities. The most important and most populous major religion is Islam. The first mosque in Istanbul was built in Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) on the Asian side of the city, which was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1353, a full century before the conquest of Constantinople across the Bosphorus, on the European side. The first mosque on the European side of Istanbul was built inside the Rumeli Castle in 1452. The first grand mosque which was built in the city proper was the Eyüp Sultan Mosque in around 1459. The mosque was built on the site of the grave of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad who had died fighting in the Arab army in a siege to take the city in 669,[30] making Istanbul one of the holy cities of Islam. The first imperial mosque inside the city walls was the Fatih Mosque (1470) which was built on the site of the Church of the Holy Apostles, an important Byzantine church which was originally edificed in the time of Constantine the Great. Many other imperial mosques were built in the following centuries, such as the famous Süleymaniye Mosque (1557) which was ordered by Suleiman the Magnificent and designed by the great Ottoman architect Sinan, and the famous Sultan Ahmet Mosque (1616) which is also known as the Blue Mosque for the blue tiles which adorn its interior. This is an incomplete list of synagogues in Turkey. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 1412 KB) Selimiye Mosque, Dome File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Islamic architecture Turkey Selimiye Mosque Ottoman architecture Portal:Turkey/Photo archive Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 1412 KB) Selimiye Mosque, Dome File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Islamic architecture Turkey Selimiye Mosque Ottoman architecture Portal:Turkey/Photo archive Metadata This file contains... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... The Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Suleiman Mosque side view. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The historic Haldun Taner Theatre on the harbour of Kadıköy Kadıköy Municipality on the harbour Nostalgic tram running between Kadıköys centrum and the neighbourhood of Moda, with the Catholic Eglise de LAssomption seen in the background Historic buildings in YeldeÄŸirmeni Historic... Chalcedon (Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Ãœsküdar). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Rumelihisarı, seen from the Bosporus. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (587 - 668) - born Khalid ibn Zayd ibn Kulayb in Yathrib - hailed from the tribe of Banu Najjar and was a close companion (Arabic: الصحابه, sahaba) of the Prophet Muhammed. ... Muhammad (Arabic محمد, also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, and formerly Mahomet, following the Latin) is revered by Muslims as the final prophet of God. ... Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ... The Fatih Mosque Complex extends along the Golden Horn side of Fevzipasa Street in Fatih. ... The Church of the Holy Apostles (Greek: Aghioi Apostoloi), also known as the Imperial Polyandreion, was a Christian basilica built in Constantinople (then the capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 550 AD. It was second only to the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) among the great churches of... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Constantine. ... The Suleiman Mosque side view. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. ... For other uses, see Sinan (disambiguation). ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul The mosque at night, well lit by floodlights The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (in Turkish Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1453 to 1923. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ...


Istanbul was the final seat of the Islamic Caliphate, between 1517 and 1924. The personal belongings of Mohammed and the earliest Caliphs who followed him are today preserved in the Topkapı Palace, the Eyüp Sultan Mosque and in several other prominent mosques of Istanbul. The seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople, spiritual leader of the Greek Orthodox Church is located in the Fener (Greek: Φανάρι) district. Also based in Istanbul are the archbishop of the Turkish-Orthodox community, an Armenian archbishop, and the Turkish Grand-Rabbi. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The exterior of the Church of St George. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Orthodox Church of Constantinople is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Fanar (formerly Phanar, Fener in Turkish) is a neighborhood in Istanbul, Turkey (formerly Constantinople). ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ...


According to the 2000 census, there were 2691 active mosques, 123 active churches and 26 active synagogues in Istanbul; as well as 109 Muslim cemeteries and 57 non-Muslim cemeteries. Religious minorities include Greek Orthodox Christians, Armenian Christians, Catholic Levantines and Sephardic Jews. Some neighbourhoods have sizeable populations of these ethnic groups, such as the Kumkapı neighbourhood, which has a sizeable Armenian population, the Balat neighbourhood, which has a sizeable Jewish population, the Fener neighbourhood which has a sizeable Greek population, and some neighbourhoods in Nişantaşı and Beyoğlu, which have sizeable Levantine populations. In some quarters, such as Kuzguncuk, an Armenian church sits next to a synagogue, and on the other side of the road a Greek Orthodox church is found beside a mosque. The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in Southwest Asia south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and in the east, the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Kumkapı (meaing sand gate in Turkish) is part of the Eminönü district of Istanbul. ... Balat is the traditional Jewish quarter in Ä°stanbuls European part and is situated south of the Golden Horn (the other Ä°stanbul quarter deeply associated with Jewish settlement being Kuzguncuk on the Asian shore). ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Fanar (formerly Phanar, Fener in Turkish) is a neighborhood in Istanbul, Turkey (formerly Constantinople). ... NiÅŸantaşı is a quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, comprising neighbourhoods like TeÅŸvikiye, Osmanbey, Maçka and Pangaltı. It includes stores of world famous brands and has many popular cafés, pubs, restaurants and night clubs. ... Ä°stiklâl Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim Square and Tünel BeyoÄŸlu is a district located on the European side of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. ... The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in Southwest Asia south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and in the east, the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia. ... Kuzguncuk is a district of Ãœsküdar, Istanbul, Turkey. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Istanbul
View of the city from Gülhane Park near Topkapı Palace
View of the city from Gülhane Park near Topkapı Palace
Levent financial district
Levent financial district
Maslak financial district
Maslak financial district
Nişantaşı, the fashion district
Nişantaşı, the fashion district
Street level view of Levent as seen from the entrance of Metrocity
Street level view of Levent as seen from the entrance of Metrocity

Historically, Istanbul has been the center of the country's economic life because of its location as an international junction of land and sea trade routes. In 2005 the City of Istanbul had a GDP of $133 billion.[31] In 2005 companies based in Istanbul made exports worth $41,397,000,000 and imports worth $69,883,000,000; which corresponded to 56.6% and 60.2% of Turkey's exports and imports, respectively, in that year.[32] According to Forbes magazine, Istanbul had a total of 35 billionaires as of March 2008 (up from 25 in 2007), ranking 4th in the world behind Moscow (74 billionaires), New York City (71 billionaires) and London (36 billionaires), while ranking above Hong Kong (30 billionaires), Los Angeles (24 billionaires), Mumbai (20 billionaires), San Francisco (19 billionaires), Dallas (15 billionaires) and Tokyo (15 billionaires).[33] View of the Asian side The Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge (Turkish: BoÄŸaziçi Köprüsü or ) is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: BoÄŸaziçi). ... Gülhane Park (Turkish: Gülhane Parkı or Sarayburnu Parkı) is a historical, urban park in Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... Levent financial district View from Sporcular Park A double decker commuter bus on Taksim Square, running between the European and Asian districts of Istanbul, with a Turkcell advertisement showing Levent financial district and the Bosphorus Bridge, as seen from NakkaÅŸtepe Hill on the Asian side of the Bosphorus Levent... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 286 pixelsFull resolution (897 × 321 pixel, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Skyline of Maslak financial district in Istanbul on June 23, 2005 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 286 pixelsFull resolution (897 × 321 pixel, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Skyline of Maslak financial district in Istanbul on June 23, 2005 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at... Skyline of Maslak business district at sunset Maslak is one of the main business districts of Istanbul, Turkey, located in the northern European part of the city. ... NiÅŸantaşı is a quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, comprising neighbourhoods like TeÅŸvikiye, Osmanbey, Maçka and Pangaltı. It includes stores of world famous brands and has many popular cafés, pubs, restaurants and night clubs. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 682 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (873 × 768 pixel, file size: 389 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Street level view of Levent financial district in Istanbul, as seen from the entrance of Metrocity Shopping Mall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 682 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (873 × 768 pixel, file size: 389 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Street level view of Levent financial district in Istanbul, as seen from the entrance of Metrocity Shopping Mall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Levent financial district View from Sporcular Park A double decker commuter bus on Taksim Square, running between the European and Asian districts of Istanbul, with a Turkcell advertisement showing Levent financial district and the Bosphorus Bridge, as seen from NakkaÅŸtepe Hill on the Asian side of the Bosphorus Levent... Metrocity, opened in May 2003, is a modern shopping mall in the finance and business quarter of 1. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... For other uses, see Forbes (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Dallas redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


Istanbul has always been the financial capital of Turkey and the opening of specific markets in the city during the 1980s further strengthened this status. Inaugurated at the beginning of 1986, the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) is the sole securities market of Turkey, established to provide trading in equities, right coupons, Government bonds, Treasury bills, revenue sharing certificates, bonds issued by the Privatization Administration and corporate bonds, and to carry out overnight transactions.[34] In 1993 the ISE decided on gold market liberalization, and in 1995 the Istanbul Gold Exchange was established, which ended the gold bullion imports monopoly of the Turkish Central Bank and transferred it to the private sector members of the gold exchange.[35] The Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE)[1] ( Turkish: İstanbul Menkul Kıymetler Borsası, İMKB) is the only corporation in Turkey for securities exchange established to provide trading in equities, bonds and bills, revenue-sharing certificates, private sector bonds, foreign securities and real estate certificates as well as international securities. ... The Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE)[1] ( Turkish: İstanbul Menkul Kıymetler Borsası, İMKB) is the only corporation in Turkey for securities exchange established to provide trading in equities, bonds and bills, revenue-sharing certificates, private sector bonds, foreign securities and real estate certificates as well as international securities. ...


Istanbul is also Turkey's largest industrial center. It employs approximately 20% of Turkey's industrial labor and contributes 38% of Turkey's industrial workspace. In addition, the city generates 55% of Turkey's trade and 45% of the country's wholesale trade, and generates 21.2% of Turkey's gross national product. Istanbul contributes 40% of all taxes collected in Turkey and produces 27.5% of Turkey's national product. Istanbul and its surrounding province produce cotton, fruit, olive oil, silk, and tobacco. Food processing, textile production, oil products, rubber, metal ware, leather, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics, glass, machinery, automotive, transport vehicles, paper and paper products, and alcoholic drinks are among the city's major industrial products. Wholesaling consists of the sale of goods/merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Istanbul is one of the most important tourism spots of Turkey. There are thousands of hotels and other tourist oriented industries in the city, catering to both vacationers and visiting professionals. In 2006 a total of 23,148,669 tourists visited Turkey, most of whom entered the country through the airports and seaports of Istanbul and Antalya.[36] The total number of tourists who entered Turkey through Atatürk International Airport and Sabiha Gökçen International Airport in Istanbul reached 5,346,658, rising from 4,849,353 in 2005.[37] Istanbul is also one of the world's major conference destinations and is an increasingly popular choice for the world's leading international associations.[38] This article is about lodging. ... For other uses, see Vacation (disambiguation). ... This article is mostly about the Antalya City; for the province, see Antalya Province. ... Atatürk International Airport (IATA: IST, ICAO: LTBA) (Turkish: Atatürk Uluslararası Havalimanı) is the major international airport in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Sabiha Gökçen International Airport (IATA: SAW, ICAO: LTFJ) is one of the airports serving Istanbul, Turkey. ...

Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and the skyline of Levent financial district at night

The Asiatic side of the bridge. ... Levent financial district View from Sporcular Park A double decker commuter bus on Taksim Square, running between the European and Asian districts of Istanbul, with a Turkcell advertisement showing Levent financial district and the Bosphorus Bridge, as seen from NakkaÅŸtepe Hill on the Asian side of the Bosphorus Levent...

Infrastructure

Health and medicine

See also: List of hospitals in Istanbul

The city has many public and private hospitals, clinics and laboratories within its bounds and numerous medical research centers. Many of these facilities have high technology equipment, which has contributed to the recent upsurge in "medical tourism" to Istanbul,[39] particularly from West European countries like the United Kingdom and Germany where governments send patients with lower income to the city for the relatively inexpensive service of high-tech medical treatment and operations.[40] Istanbul has particularly become a global destination for laser eye surgery and plastic surgery.[41][42] The city also has an Army Veterans Hospital in the military medical center. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Pollution-related health problems increase especially in the winter, when the combustion of heating fuels increase. The rising number of new cars in the city and the slow development of public transportation often cause urban smog conditions. Mandatory use of unleaded gas was scheduled to begin only in January 2006.[43]


Utilities

Main article: Utilities in Istanbul

The first water supply systems which were built in Istanbul date back to the foundation of the city. Two of the greatest aqueducts built in the Roman period are the Mazulkemer Aqueduct and the Valens Aqueduct. These aqueducts were built in order to channel water from the Halkalı area in the western edge of the city to the Beyazıt district in the city center, which was known as the Forum Tauri in the Roman period.[44] After reaching the city center, the water was later collected in the city's numerous cisterns, such as the famous Philoxenos (Binbirdirek) Cistern and the Basilica (Yerebatan) Cistern. Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent commissioned Sinan, his engineer and architect-in-chief, to improve the water needs of the city. Sinan constructed the Kırkçeşme Water Supply System in 1555.[44] In later years, with the aim of responding to the ever-increasing public demand, water from various springs was channeled to the public fountains by means of small supply lines; see German Fountain. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 490 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 627 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Valens Aqueduct in Istanbul I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 490 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 627 pixel, file size: 157 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Valens Aqueduct in Istanbul I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Valens Aqueduct Valens Aqueduct The Valens Aqueduct (Turkish: BozdoÄŸan Kemeri) is an aqueduct in the European part of Istanbul, Turkey, constructed by the Romans during the 4th century. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 784 KB) The Basilica Cistern in Istanbul is one of the most incredible places of this city. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 784 KB) The Basilica Cistern in Istanbul is one of the most incredible places of this city. ... Basilica Cistern The second Medusa head pillar The Basilica Cistern, also called the Yerebatan Sarayı or Yerebatan Sarnıcı, is the largest of several hundred ancient cisterns that still lie beneath the city of Istanbul, former Constantinople, Turkey. ... For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ... Valens Aqueduct Valens Aqueduct The Valens Aqueduct (Turkish: BozdoÄŸan Kemeri) is an aqueduct in the European part of Istanbul, Turkey, constructed by the Romans during the 4th century. ... // Getting water out of a cistern A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, box, from Greek kistê, basket) is a receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. ... Basilica Cistern The second Medusa head pillar The Basilica Cistern, also called the Yerebatan Sarayı or Yerebatan Sarnıcı, is the largest of several hundred ancient cisterns that still lie beneath the city of Istanbul, former Constantinople, Turkey. ... For other uses, see Sinan (disambiguation). ... German Fountains front side The German Fountain (in Turkish Alman ÇeÅŸmesi) is a gazebo styled fountain in the northern end of old hippodrome (Sultanahmet Square), Istanbul, Turkey and across from the Mausoleum of Sultan Ahmed I. It was constructed to commemorate the second anniversary of German Emperor Wilhelm...


Today, Istanbul has a chlorinated and filtered water supply and a sewage disposal system managed by the government agency İSKİ.[45] There are also several private sector organizations distributing clean water. Electricity distribution services are covered by the state-owned TEK. The first electricity production plant in the city, Silahtarağa Termik Santrali, was established in 1914 and continued to supply electricity until 1983.[46]


The Ottoman Ministry of Post and Telegraph was established in the city on October 23, 1840.[47] The first post office was the Postahane-i Amire near the courtyard of Yeni Mosque.[47] In 1876 the first international mailing network between Istanbul and the lands beyond the vast Ottoman Empire was established.[47] In 1901 the first money transfers were made through the post offices and the first cargo services became operational.[47] Samuel Morse received his first ever patent for the telegraph in 1847, at the old Beylerbeyi Palace (the present Beylerbeyi Palace was built in 1861-1865 on the same location) in Istanbul, which was issued by Sultan Abdülmecid who personally tested the new invention.[48] Following this successful test, installation works of the first telegraph line between Istanbul and Edirne began on August 9, 1847.[49] In 1855 the Telegraph Administration was established.[47] In July 1881 the first telephone circuit in Istanbul was established between the Ministry of Post and Telegraph in Soğukçeşme and the Postahane-i Amire in Yenicami.[49] On May 23, 1909, the first manual telephone exchange with a 50 line capacity was established in the Büyük Postane (Grand Post Office) of Sirkeci.[49] is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The New Mosque seen from Golden Horn The New Mosque (1597 - 1663) is located in Eminönü and together with the Galata Bridge the New Mosque is one of the best- known sights of Ä°stanbul. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Portrait of Samuel F. B. Morse by Mathew Brady, between 1855 and 1865 Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor, and painter of portraits and historic scenes; he is most famous for inventing the electric telegraph and Morse code. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Beylerbeyi Palace by the Bosphorus Bridge The Beylerbeyi Palace (Turkish: ) is a palace located in Beylerbeyi neighbourhood of Istanbul, Turkey at the Asian side of the Bosphorus, situated just north of the Bosphorus Bridge today. ... Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-MecÄ«d-i evvel) (April 23, 1823 – June 25, 1861) was the 31st sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. ... Adrianople redirects here. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Transportation

İstanbul rail transit map
İstanbul rail transit map

Public transport in Istanbul comprises of an extensive bus network, various rail systems, funiculars and maritime services for the more than 10 million inhabitants of the city with an area of 5712 km². // Public road transport in Istanbul dates back to August 30, 1869, when a contract to build a...

Air

Istanbul has two international airports: The larger one is the Atatürk International Airport located in the Yeşilköy district on the European side, about 24 kilometres (15 mi) west from the city center. When it was first built, the airport used to be at the western edge of the metropolitan area but now lies within the city bounds. Atatürk International Airport (IATA: IST, ICAO: LTBA) (Turkish: Atatürk Uluslararası Havalimanı) is the major international airport in Istanbul, Turkey. ... The Marina of YeÅŸilköy. ...


The smaller one is the Sabiha Gökçen International Airport located in the Kurtköy district on the Asian side, close to the Istanbul Park GP Racing Circuit. It is situated approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) east of the Asian side and 45 kilometres (28 mi) east of the European city center. Sabiha Gokcen International Airport (IATA: SAW, ICAO: LTFJ) is one of the airports serving Istanbul, Turkey. ... Official logo of Istanbul Park Istanbul Park (Turkish: Ä°stanbul Park), also known as the Istanbul Racing Circuit or initially Istanbul Otodrom, is a motor sports race track near Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ...


Rail

Historic tram on İstiklal Avenue
Historic tram on İstiklal Avenue

In 1883, a Belgian entrepreneur, Georges Nagelmackers, began rail service between Paris and Constantinople, using a steamship to ferry passengers from Varna to Constantinople. In 1889, a rail line was completed going through Bucharest to Constantinople, making the whole journey via land possible. His company, La Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits et des Grands Express Européens, provided the trains, which were renowned for their luxury and their beautiful Oriental style. The route was known as the Orient Express, made even more famous by the works of Agatha Christie and Graham Greene.[50] Ä°stiklal Avenue Ä°stiklal Avenue (Ä°stiklal Caddesi in Turkish), is one of the most famous avenues in Istanbul, Turkey, approximately visited by 3 million people in one day over the course of weekends. ... Georges Nagelmackers (born 1845 in Liège, Belgium, and died 1905) was the founder of the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits, the company known for the Orient Express trains. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... For other uses, see Orient Express (disambiguation). ... Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan, DBE (15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), commonly known as Agatha Christie, was an English crime writer of novels, short stories and plays. ... This article is about the writer. ...


Today, the Sirkeci Terminal of the Turkish State Railways (TCDD) is the terminus of all the lines on the European side and the main connection node of the Turkish railway network with the rest of Europe. Currently, international connections are provided by the line running between Istanbul and Thessaloniki, Greece, and the Bosphorus Express serving daily between Sirkeci and Gara de Nord in Bucharest, Romania. Lines to Sofia, Belgrade, Budapest, and Chişinău are established over the Bosphorus Express connection to Bucharest. Sirkeci Terminal was originally opened as the terminus of the Orient Express. Sirkeci Train Station Sirkeci Terminal is a terminus main station of the Turkish State Railways (TCDD) in Sirkeci, on the European part of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Logo of the Turkish State Railways, TCDD Turkish Republic State Railways (TCDD, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları) is the state corporation that operates the public railway system in Turkey. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... View of tracks entering Bucharests Gara de Nord from the pedestrian bridge, October 2006 Gara de Nord Gara de Nord (North Station in English) is the main railway station in Bucharest and the largest railway station in Romania. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Location of ChiÅŸinău in Moldova Coordinates: , Country Founded 1436 Government  - Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Area  - City 120 km² (46. ... For other uses, see Orient Express (disambiguation). ...


Beyond the Bosphorus, the Haydarpaşa Terminal on the Asian side serves lines running several times daily to Ankara, and less frequently to other destinations in Anatolia. The railway networks on the European and Asian sides are currently connected by the train ferry across the Bosphorus, which will be replaced by an underwater tunnel connection with the completion of the Marmaray project, scheduled for 2009. Marmaray (Bosphorus Rail Tunnel) will also connect the metro lines on the European and Asian parts of the city. Haydarpaşa Terminal was originally opened as the terminus of the Istanbul-Baghdad and Istanbul-Damascus-Medina railways. HaydarpaÅŸa train station HaydarpaÅŸa train station HaydarpaÅŸa Terminal is a terminus main station of the Turkish State Railways (TCDD) in HaydarpaÅŸa close to Kadiköy at the Anatolian part of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... A loaded train ferry approaching the dock in Detroit, Michigan, April 1943. ... Marmaray is the name for a project to link the European and Anatolian halves of Istanbul by an undersea rail tunnel across the Bosphorus strait. ... The subway system in Istanbul was initiated in 1992 and was completed in 2000. ... In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire planned to construct a Baghdad Railway under German control. ... al Hejaz Station in Damascus, starting point of the railroad The 1050mm gauge Hejaz Railway (also Hedjaz, etc. ...


Road

Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, connecting Europe (left) and Asia (right)
Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul, connecting Europe (left) and Asia (right)

The E5, E90 and Trans European Motorway (TEM) are the three main motorway connections between Europe and Turkey. The motorway network around Istanbul is well developed and is constantly being extended. Motorways lead east to Ankara and west to Edirne. There are also 2 express highways circling the city. The older one, the E5, is mostly used for inner city traffic while the more recent one, the TEM highway, is mostly used by intercity or intercontinental traffic. The Bosphorus Bridge on E5 and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge on TEM establish the motorway connection between the European and the Asian sides of the Bosphorus. View of the Asian side The Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge (Turkish: Boğaziçi Köprüsü or ) is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi). ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after İstanbul. ... Adrianople redirects here. ... View of the Asian side The Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge (Turkish: Boğaziçi Köprüsü or ) is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi). ... The Asiatic side of the bridge. ...


Sea

Sea transport is vital for Istanbul, as the city is practically surrounded by sea on all sides: the Sea of Marmara, the Golden Horn, the Bosphorus and the Black Sea. Many Istanbulites live on the Asian side of the city but work on the European side (or vice-versa) and the city's famous commuter ferries form the backbone of the daily transition between the two parts of the city - even more so than the two suspension bridges which span the Bosphorus. The commuter ferries, along with the high speed catamaran Seabus (Deniz Otobüsü), also form the main connection between the city and the Princes' Islands. Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Princes Islands (today Adalar) are a chain of nine islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. ...

A cruise ship (left) and Seabus (right)

İDO (İstanbul Deniz Otobüsleri - Istanbul Sea Buses) was established in 1987 and operates the high speed catamaran Seabus which run between the European and Asian parts of Istanbul, also connecting the city with the Princes' Islands and other destinations in the Sea of Marmara. The Seabus are built by Kvaerner Fjellstrand of Norway and Austal Ships Pty. of Australia. The Yenikapı High Speed Car Ferry Port on the European side, and the Pendik High Speed Car Ferry Port on the Asian side, are where the high speed catamaran "car ferries" are based. These are larger than the other Seabus, and were likewise built or designed in Australia and Norway. The car ferries which operate between Yenikapı (on the European side of Istanbul) and Bandırma reduce the driving time between Istanbul and İzmir and other major destinations on Turkey's Aegean coast by several hours; while those which operate between Yenikapı or Pendik (on the Asian side of Istanbul) and Yalova significantly reduce the driving time between Istanbul and Bursa or Antalya. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 422 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 540 pixel, file size: 468 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A cruise ship (left) and Seabus (right) on the Bosphorus in Istanbul, as seen from Gülhane Park on the Seraglio Point, near Topkapı Palace. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 422 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 540 pixel, file size: 468 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A cruise ship (left) and Seabus (right) on the Bosphorus in Istanbul, as seen from Gülhane Park on the Seraglio Point, near Topkapı Palace. ... A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Princes Islands (today Adalar) are a chain of nine islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Bandırma is a district of Balıkesir Province of Turkey. ... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pendik is a suburb of Istanbul, Turkey on the Asian side between Kartal and Tuzla. ... Yalova (Population: 70,118) is a city located in northwest Turkey and the capital of Yalova Province. ... For other uses, see Bursa (disambiguation). ... This article is mostly about the Antalya City; for the province, see Antalya Province. ...


The port of Istanbul is the most important one in the country. The old port on the Golden Horn serves primarily for personal navigation, while Karaköy port in Galata is used by the large cruise liners. Regular services as well as cruises from both Karaköy and Eminönü exist to several port cities in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Istanbul's main cargo port, on the other hand, is located in the Harem district, within the borough of Üsküdar, on the Asian side of the city. Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden... Karaköy, the modern name for the ancient Galata, is a commercial neighborhood in the BeyoÄŸlu district of Istanbul, Turkey, located at the northern part of the Golden Horn mouth on the European side of Bosphorus. ... Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. ... A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... The New Mosque seen from Golden Horn Eminönü is a district of Istanbul in Turkey. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Ãœsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ...


Istanbul also has several marinas of varying size for harboring private yachts, the largest of which are the Ataköy Marina on the European side and Kalamış Marina on the Asian side.

Life in the city

Image File history File linksMetadata Grand_bazaar_interior. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Grand_bazaar_interior. ... A view from the entrance The Grand Bazaar is a massive labyrinth of 4000 shops lining up the flanks of 58 covered streets The Grand Bazaar (or Covered Bazaar, Kapalıçarşı in Turkish) in Istanbul (at ) is one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58... Istanbul Archaeology Museum (Turkish: İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzesi) is an archeological museum, located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace. ...

Art & culture

See also: List of museums and monuments in Istanbul

Istanbul is becoming increasingly colorful in terms of its rich social, cultural, and commercial activities. While world famous pop stars fill stadiums, activities like opera, ballet and theater continue throughout the year. During seasonal festivals, world famous orchestras, chorale ensembles, concerts and jazz legends can be found often playing to a full house. The Istanbul International Film Festival is one of the most important film festivals in Europe, while the Istanbul Biennial is another major event of fine arts. The list of museums and monuments in Istanbul lists the relevant architectural entities within the city limits of Istanbul. ... Istanbul International Film Festival is the first and oldest international film festival in Turkey. ... Installation from Istanbul 2005 Biennale Istanbul Biennale, a contemporary art festival, held every two years in Istanbul, Turkey since 1987. ...

Pera Museum during the Rembrandt exhibition in 2006
Pera Museum during the Rembrandt exhibition in 2006

Istanbul Modern, located on the Bosphorus with a magnificent view of the Seraglio Point, resembles Tate Modern in many ways and frequently hosts the exhibitions of renowned Turkish and foreign artists. Pera Museum and Sakıp Sabancı Museum have hosted the exhibitions of world famous artists like Picasso, Rodin, Rembrandt and many others, and are among the most important private museums in the city. The Rahmi M. Koç Museum on the Golden Horn is an industrial museum, largely inspired by the Henry Ford Museum in the United States. It exhibits historic industrial equipment such as cars and locomotives from the 1800s and early 1900s, as well as boats, submarines, aircraft, and other similar vintage machines from past epochs. The Tortoise Trainer by Osman Hamdi Bey (Source&permission: Pera Museum, Ä°stanbul) Pera Museum (Turkish: Pera Müzesi) is a museum in Istanbul, Turkey, founded in 2005 by the Suna and Ä°nan Kıraç Foundation. ... This article is about the Dutch artist. ... Istanbul Modern Art Museum (Turkish: Ä°stanbul Modern Sanat Müzesi), usually just called Ä°stanbul Modern, is a museum for contemporary art in Istanbul, Turkey, inaugurated in 2004. ... Tate Modern from the Millennium Bridge Tate Modern from St Pauls Cathedral. ... The Tortoise Trainer by Osman Hamdi Bey (Source&permission: Pera Museum, Ä°stanbul) Pera Museum (Turkish: Pera Müzesi) is a museum in Istanbul, Turkey, founded in 2005 by the Suna and Ä°nan Kıraç Foundation. ... The Sabancı University Sakıp Sabancı Museum is a private fine arts museum in Istanbul, Turkey, dedicated to calligraphic art, religious and state documents, as well as paintings of the Ottoman era. ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... Rodins The Burghers of Calais in Calais, France. ... This article is about the Dutch artist. ... The Rahmi M. Koç Museum is a private industrial museum in Istanbul, Turkey dedicated to history of transport, industry and communications. ... A Ford Model T, used for giving tourist rides, is shown above at Greenfield Village. ...


Istanbul Archaeology Museum, established in 1881, is one of the largest and most famous museums of its kind in the world. The museum contains more than 1,000,000 archaeological pieces from the Mediterranean basin, the Balkans, the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia. Istanbul Mosaic Museum contains the late Roman and early Byzantine floor mosaics and wall ornaments of the Great Palace of Constantinople. The nearby Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum, originally the Ibrahim Pasha Palace (1524) on Sultanahmet Square, displays a vast collection of items from various Islamic civilizations. Sadberk Hanım Museum on the Bosphorus contains a wide variety of artifacts, dating from the earliest Anatolian civilizations to the Ottomans. Istanbul Archaeology Museum (Turkish: Ä°stanbul Arkeoloji Müzesi) is an archeological museum, located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace. ... Floor mosaic of a woman carrying a pot (c. ... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ... Museum building, formerly Ä°brahim Pasha palace. ... The Sadberk Hanım Museum is a private museum located at the Bosporus in Büyükdere, Istanbul, Turkey, which was established by the Vehbi Koç Foundation in memory of Vehbi Koç’s deceased wife Sadberk. ...


Occasionally, in November, the Silahhane (Armory Hall) of Yıldız Palace hosts the Istanbul Antiques Fair, which brings together rare pieces of antiques from the Orient and Occident. The items are sold either directly, or through auction. The multi-storey Mecidiyeköy Antikacılar Çarşısı (Mecidiyeköy Antiques Bazaar) in the Mecidiyeköy quarter of Şişli is the largest antiques market in the city, while the Çukurcuma neighbourhood of Beyoğlu has rows of antiques shops in its streets. The Grand Bazaar, edificed between 1455-1461 by the order of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror and later enlarged in the 16th century during the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent also has numerous antiques shops, along with shops selling jewels, carpets and other items of art and artisanship. Historic and rare books are found in the Sahaflar Çarşısı near Beyazıt Square, which was known as the Forum Tauri in the Roman period. It is one of the oldest book markets in the world, and has continuously been active in the same location since the late Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. The State Apartments in Yıldız Palace Yıldız Palace is a collection of pavilions and villas in Istanbul, Turkey built in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... ÅžiÅŸli is a cosmopolitan district of Ä°stanbul, Turkey where many of Istanbuls Armenians live (In the Kurtulus area). ... Ä°stiklâl Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim Square and Tünel BeyoÄŸlu is a district located on the European side of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. ... A view from the entrance The Grand Bazaar is a massive labyrinth of 4000 shops lining up the flanks of 58 covered streets The Grand Bazaar (or Covered Bazaar, Kapalıçarşı in Turkish) in Istanbul (at ) is one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. ...


A significant culture has been developed around what is known as a Turkish Bath (Hamam), the origins of which can be traced back to the ancient Roman Bath, which was a part of the Byzantine lifestyle and customs that were inherited first by the Seljuk Turks and later the Ottomans, who developed it into something more elaborate. It was a culture of leisure during the Ottoman period. The hamams in the Ottoman culture started out as structural elements serving as annexes to mosques, however quickly evolved into institutions and eventually with the works of the great Ottoman architect Sinan, into monumental structural complexes, the finest example being the Çemberlitaş Hamamı (1584) in Istanbul, located on the Çemberlitaş (Column of Constantine) Square.[51] A hammam in Chefchaouen, Morocco The Turkish hammam (also Turkish bath or hamam) is the Middle Eastern variant of a steam bath, which can be categorized as a wet relative of the sauna. ... For other uses, see Sinan (disambiguation). ...


Live shows and concerts are hosted at a number of locations including historical sites such as the Hagia Irene, Rumeli Fortress, Yedikule Castle, the courtyard of Topkapı Palace, and Gülhane Park; as well as the Atatürk Cultural Center, Cemal Reşit Rey Concert Hall and other open air and modern theater halls. For those who enjoy night life, there are many night clubs, pubs, restaurants and taverns with live music. The night clubs, restaurants and bars increase in number and move to open air spaces in the summer. The areas around Istiklal Avenue and Nişantaşı offer all sorts of cafés, restaurants, pubs and clubs as well as art galleries, theaters and cinemas. The Church of St. ... Rumelihisarı, seen from the Bosporus. ... Map showing Constantinople and its walls The Walls of Constantinople surrounded the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey). ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... Gülhane Park (Turkish: Gülhane Parkı or Sarayburnu Parkı) is a historical, urban park in Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Atatürk Cultural Center (Turkish: Atatürk Kültür Merkezi), called also simply as AKM, is a multi-purpose cultural center located in Taksim Square of Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ... Cemal ReÅŸit Rey Concert Hall is a concert hall located in the Harbiye neighbourhood of Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ... Istiklal Avenue (Ä°stiklal Caddesi in Turkish), is one of the most famous avenues in Istanbul, Turkey. ... NiÅŸantaşı is a quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, comprising neighbourhoods like TeÅŸvikiye, Osmanbey, Maçka and Pangaltı. It includes stores of world famous brands and has many popular cafés, pubs, restaurants and night clubs. ...


Media

The first Turkish newspaper, Takvim-i Vekayi, was printed on 1 August 1831 in the Bâbıâli (Bâb-ı Âli, meaning The Sublime Porte) district. Bâbıâli became the main center for print media. Istanbul is also the printing capital of Turkey with a wide variety of domestic and foreign periodicals expressing diverse views, and domestic newspapers are extremely competitive. Most nationwide newspapers are based in Istanbul, with simultaneous Ankara and İzmir editions.[43] Major newspapers with their headquarters in Istanbul include Hürriyet, Milliyet, Sabah, Radikal, Cumhuriyet, Zaman, Türkiye, Akşam, Bugün, Star, Dünya, Tercüman, Güneş, Vatan, Posta, Takvim, Vakit, Yeni Şafak, Fanatik and Turkish Daily News. There are also numerous local and national TV and radio stations located in Istanbul, such as CNBC-e, CNN Türk, MTV Türkiye, Fox Türkiye, Fox Sports Türkiye, NTV, Kanal D, ATV, Show TV, Star TV, Cine5, SKY Türk, TGRT Haber, Kanal 7, Kanal Türk, Flash TV and many others. is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Sublime Porte in Ottoman times The Sublime Porte in 2006 Ottoman Porte, (Sublime Porte, High Porte, Ottoman Turkish Bab-ı Ali) used to refer to the Divan (court) of the Ottoman Empire where government policies were established. ... Hürriyet (in English means as Liberty) is a secular, high-circulation broadsheet daily Turkish newspaper. ... Milliyet (Nationality in Turkish) is a major Turkish daily newspaper founded in 1950. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ... Radikal is a daily Turkish language newspaper, published in Istanbul. ... Cumhuriyet (literally republic in Turkish) is an intellectual center-left Turkish daily newspaper founded on May 7, 1924 by journalist Yunus Nadi AbalıoÄŸlu. ... Zaman may refer to: famous [Turkish] newspapers with international editions Zaman, a town in Afghanistan; The Zaman people, one of the Beti-Pahuin ethnic groups of Cameroon. ... Turkish Daily News is a Turkish daily news newspaper. ... CNBC-e is a hybrid business and financial/entertainment channel operated in Turkey by CNBC Europe and the NTV Group. ... CNN TÃœRK is the Turkish version of the popular cable news channel CNN. CNN TÃœRK is a nation wide channel, broadcasting since October 11, 1999. ... MTV (Music Television) Türkiye is the Turkish subsidiary of MTV, officially launched on October 23, 2006. ... FOX redirects here. ... Fox Sports Türkiye is a division of Fox Sports that creates Turkish voiceovers for Fox Sports on Digiturk channel 70 and featuring sporting events in NCAA, NFL, NHL, MLB, impact, golf, soccer and organizations in Türkiye. ... NTV Turkey is a Turkish nationwide television news channel. ... Kanal D is a nation-wide television channel in Turkey. ... ATV is a nation wide tv channel in Turkey. ... Show TV is a nation-wide television channel in Turkey. ... Star TV is a Turkish nation wide TV channel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Recreation

A street scene from Büyükada, the largest of the Princes' Islands
A street scene from Büyükada, the largest of the Princes' Islands

The most popular places for swimming in the city are in Bakırköy, Küçükçekmece, Sarıyer and the Bosphorus. Outside the city are the Marmara Sea's Princes' Islands, Silivri and Tuzla; as well as Kilyos and Şile on the Black Sea. Büyüd Ada (Big Island - Pringipos, Πρίγκιπος in Greek) is the largest of the nine islands consisting the Princes Islands in the Marmara Sea, close to Istanbul. ... The Princes Islands (today Adalar) are a chain of nine islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. ... Bakırköy is a middle class suburb of Ä°stanbul, Turkey on its European side. ... Küçükçekmece is a large, crowded suburb on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey 23 km out of the city, beyond Atatürk Airport. ... Sarıyer is a sleepy suburb on the outskirts of European Ä°stanbul proper. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... The Princes Islands (today Adalar) are a chain of nine islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. ... The fort and town of Silivria, the ancient Selymbria, on the Sea of Marmara - Drawn from nature by F. Hervé, Esq. ... Åžile bay Åžile is a small town just outside the city of Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ...


The Princes' Islands (Prens Adaları) are a group of islands in the Marmara Sea, south of the quarters Kartal and Pendik. Pine and stone-pine wooden neoclassical and art nouveau-style Ottoman era summer mansions from the 19th and early 20th centuries, horse-drawn carriages (motor vehicles are not permitted) and seafood restaurants make them a popular destination. They can be reached by ferry boats or high-speed catamaran Seabus (Deniz otobüsü) from Eminönü and Bostancı. Of the nine islands, only five are settled. The Princes Islands (today Adalar) are a chain of nine islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. ... Kartal is a district of Istanbul, Turkey located on the Asian side of the city, on the coast of the Marmara Sea between Maltepe and Pendik. ... Pendik is a suburb of Istanbul, Turkey on the Asian side between Kartal and Tuzla. ... Binomial name Pinus pinea L. The Stone Pine (Pinus pinea; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine native of southern Europe, primarily the Iberian Peninsula. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The New Mosque seen from Golden Horn Eminönü is a district of Istanbul in Turkey. ... Bostancı is a neighborhood located on the Anatolian side of Istanbul, Turkey and which fronts the Sea of Marmara and is not far from the Princes Islands. ...


Şile is a distant and well-known Turkish seaside resort on the Black Sea, 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Istanbul, where unspoiled white sand beaches can be found. Kilyos is a small calm seaside resort not far from the northern European entrance of the Bosphorus at the Black Sea. The place has good swimming possibilities and has become popular in the recent years among the inhabitants of Istanbul as a place for excursions. Kilyos offers a beach park with seafood restaurants and night clubs, being particularly active in the summer with many night parties and live concerts on the beach. Åžile bay Åžile is a small town just outside the city of Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ...


Shopping

See also: List of shopping malls in Istanbul
If one had but a single glance to give the world, one should gaze on Istanbul.

Alphonse de Lamartine This is a list of historical, modern and projected shopping malls in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born...

Istanbul has numerous historic shopping centers, such as the Grand Bazaar (1461), Mahmutpaşa Bazaar (1462) and the Egyptian Bazaar (1660). The first modern shopping mall was Galleria Ataköy (1987), which was followed by dozens of others in the later decades, such as Akmerkez (1993) which is the only mall to win both "Europe's Best" and "World's Best" awards by the ICSC; Metrocity (2003); Cevahir Mall (2005) which is the largest mall in Europe; and Kanyon Mall (2006) which won the 2006 Cityscape Architectural Review Award for its interesting design. İstinye Park (2007) and City's Nişantaşı (2008) are two new malls which target high-end consumers and are almost exclusively dedicated to world-famous fashion brands. An entrance to the Grand Bazaar The Grand Bazaar (Kapalıçarşı in Turkish) in Istanbul is one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58 streets and 4000 shops in it. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Galleria Ataköy, the first modern shopping mall in Turkey, is situated in the western suburb of Ataköy, Ä°stanbul. ... View of the dome Akmerkez is an elegant shopping mall located in the Etiler quarter of Istanbul, Turkey. ... The International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) is an international trade association of the shopping center industry. ... Metrocity, opened in May 2003, is a modern shopping mall in the finance and business quarter of 1. ... Cevahir Shopping Centre: Largest Mall of Europe, seen here with its six floors Cevahir Shopping Centre, opened on October 15, 2005, is a modern shopping and entertainment center located in the ÅžiÅŸli district of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Kanyon’s four winding retail levels offer unique views of a shifting landscape as well as a passageway to some of the world’s best brands A view from the mall Image:Kanyon Shopping Mall in Levent. ...


Bars, cafés and restaurants

Along with the traditional Turkish restaurants, many European and Far Eastern restaurants and numerous other cuisines are also thriving in the city.

Çiçek Pasajı on İstiklal Avenue
Çiçek Pasajı on İstiklal Avenue
Cafés of Etiler
Cafés of Etiler

Most of the city's historic pubs and winehouses are located in the areas around İstiklal Avenue in Beyoğlu. The 19th century Çiçek Pasajı (literally Flower Passage in Turkish, or Cité de Péra in French, opened in 1876) on İstiklal Avenue can be described as a miniature version of the famous Galleria in Milan, Italy, and has rows of historic pubs, winehouses and restaurants. Pano, established by Panayot Papadopoulos in 1898, and the neighbouring Viktor Levi, established in 1914, are among the oldest winehouses in the city and are located on Hamalbaşı Avenue near the British Consulate and Galatasaray Square. Cumhuriyet Meyhanesi (literally Republic Winehouse), called this way since the early 1930s but originally established in the early 1890s, is another popular historic tavern and is located in the nearby Sahne Street, along with the Hazzopulo Winehouse, established in 1871, inside the Hazzopulo Pasajı which connects Sahne Street and Meşrutiyet Avenue. The famous Nevizade Street, which has rows of historic pubs next to each other, is also in this area. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... Çiçek Pasajı on Ä°stiklal Avenue Çiçek Pasajı (literally Flower Passage), originally called the Cité de Péra, is a famous historic passage (galleria or arcade) on Ä°stiklal Avenue in the BeyoÄŸlu (Pera) district of Istanbul. ... Ä°stiklal Avenue Ä°stiklal Avenue (Ä°stiklal Caddesi in Turkish), is one of the most famous avenues in Istanbul, Turkey, approximately visited by 3 million people in one day over the course of weekends. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 409 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 460 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cafés on the streets of the Etiler neighbourhood in Istanbul, on April 10, 2006 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 409 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 460 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cafés on the streets of the Etiler neighbourhood in Istanbul, on April 10, 2006 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ä°stiklal Avenue Ä°stiklal Avenue (Ä°stiklal Caddesi in Turkish), is one of the most famous avenues in Istanbul, Turkey, approximately visited by 3 million people in one day over the course of weekends. ... Ä°stiklâl Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim Square and Tünel BeyoÄŸlu is a district located on the European side of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. ... Çiçek Pasajı on Ä°stiklal Avenue Çiçek Pasajı (literally Flower Passage), originally called the Cité de Péra, is a famous historic passage (galleria or arcade) on Ä°stiklal Avenue in the BeyoÄŸlu (Pera) district of Istanbul. ... Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, Piazza del Duomo entrance The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is a covered arcade situated on the northern side of the Piazza del Duomo in Milan, connecting to the Piazza della Scala. ...


Other historic pubs are found in the areas around Tünel Pasajı and the nearby Asmalımescit Street. Some historic neighbourhoods around İstiklal Avenue have recently been recreated, such as Cezayir Street near Galatasaray Lisesi, which became known as La Rue Française and has rows of francophone pubs, cafés and restaurants playing live French music. Galatasaray Lisesi in winter // Introduction Galatasaray Lisesi Lycée de Galatasaray is one of the most renowned and influential high schools of modern Turkey, in addition to being the oldest school of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Kanyon Mall in Levent with its award-winning architecture
Kanyon Mall in Levent with its award-winning architecture
Istinye Park shopping mall in İstinye on the Bosporus
Istinye Park shopping mall in İstinye on the Bosporus

Istanbul is also famous for its historic seafood restaurants. Many of them were originally established by the local Greeks, such as Aleko'nun Yeri in Yeniköy on the European side of the Bosphorus, or Koço Restaurant in the Moda neighbourhood on the Asian side of the city, which also has a small Greek Orthodox Chapel and Hagiasma (Holy Spring) inside. The most popular seafood restaurants are generally found along the shores of the Bosphorus and by the Marmara Sea shore towards the south of the city; from the south to the north Kumkapı, Ortaköy, Kuruçeşme (Park Fora, Marina), Arnavutköy (Kuyu), Bebek (Bebek Balıkçısı), Rumeli Hisarı (İskele), Yeniköy (İzmirli Balıkçı), Kireçburnu (historic Ali Baba) and Sarıyer on the European side; or Üsküdar, Kuzguncuk (İsmet Baba), Beylerbeyi (Villa Bosphorus), Kandilli, Anadolu Hisarı, Çengelköy (Deniz Yıldızı) on the Anatolian side. The Princes' Islands in the Sea of Marmara (Büyük Ada, Heybeli Ada, Kınalı Ada, Burgaz Ada) and Anadolu Kavağı near the northern entrance of the Bosphorus towards the Black Sea (close to Yoros Castle, which was also known as the Genoese Castle due to Genoa's possession of it in the mid-15th century) also have many historic seafood restaurants. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2219 KB) Kanyon shopping center in Istanbul File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kanyon Shopping Mall, Istanbul Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 2219 KB) Kanyon shopping center in Istanbul File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kanyon Shopping Mall, Istanbul Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Kanyon’s four winding retail levels offer unique views of a shifting landscape as well as a passageway to some of the world’s best brands A view from the mall Image:Kanyon Shopping Mall in Levent. ... Levent financial district View from Sporcular Park A double decker commuter bus on Taksim Square, running between the European and Asian districts of Istanbul, with a Turkcell advertisement showing Levent financial district and the Bosphorus Bridge, as seen from NakkaÅŸtepe Hill on the Asian side of the Bosphorus Levent... The historic Haldun Taner Theatre on the harbour of Kadıköy Kadıköy Municipality on the harbour Nostalgic tram running between Kadıköys centrum and the neighbourhood of Moda, with the Catholic Eglise de LAssomption seen in the background Historic buildings in YeldeÄŸirmeni Historic... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that separates the Black Sea from the Aegean Sea (thus the Asian part of Turkey from its European part) by Bosporus and... Kumkapı (meaing sand gate in Turkish) is part of the Eminönü district of Istanbul. ... Ortaköy is a small town located in the middle of the Bosphorus, Istanbul. ... Arnavutköy (meaning Albanian village in Turkish) is a historic neighborhood in Istanbul, famous for its wooden Ottoman mansions and fish restaurants as well as the prestigious Robert College campus with its centennial buildings. ... Bebek is a district of the city of Istanbul. ... Rumelihisari, seen from the Bosporus. ... Sarıyer is a sleepy suburb on the outskirts of European Ä°stanbul proper. ... Ãœsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ... Kuzguncuk is a district of Ãœsküdar, Istanbul, Turkey. ... Beylerbey or (Turkish for Bey of beys, Leader of leaders, Polish: bejlerbej) is the Ottoman title used for the most important person in the hierarchy of provincial leaders (a governor over several vilayet), second only to the Vizier. ... The Princes Islands (today Adalar) are a chain of nine islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ...


Clubs

There are thousands of alternatives for night life in Istanbul but the most popular open air summer time seaside night clubs are found on the Bosphorus, such as Reina, Sortie and Anjelique in the Ortaköy district. Babylon and Nu Pera in Beyoğlu are popular night clubs both in the summer and in the winter, while Istanbul Arena in Maslak frequently hosts the live concerts of famous singers and bands from all corners of the world. Parkorman in Maslak hosted the Isle of MTV Party in 2002 and is a popular venue for live concerts and rave parties in the summer. Q Jazz Bar in Ortaköy offers live jazz music in a stylish environment. Ortaköy is a small town located in the middle of the Bosphorus, Istanbul. ... Ä°stiklâl Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim Square and Tünel BeyoÄŸlu is a district located on the European side of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. ... Skyline of Maslak business district at sunset Maslak is one of the main business districts of Istanbul, Turkey, located in the northern European part of the city. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ...


Education

Further information: Education in Turkey
Main entrance gate of Istanbul University on Beyazıt Square, which was known as Forum Tauri in the Roman period. Beyazıt Tower, located within the campus, is seen in the background.
Main entrance gate of Istanbul University on Beyazıt Square, which was known as Forum Tauri in the Roman period. Beyazıt Tower, located within the campus, is seen in the background.
Boğaziçi University
Boğaziçi University
Marmara University
Marmara University

The Turkish Education System mandates 8 years of primary education between the ages of 6 and 14, and in 2001 the enrollment of children in this age range was nearly 100%. Three or more years of secondary education are available in public, open, and vocational high schools. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Istanbul University (Turkish: İstanbul Üniversitesi) was founded as an institution of higher education named the Darülfünun (House of Multiple Sciences) on July 23, 1846; but the Medrese (Theological School) which was founded immediately after Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 is regarded as the precursor to the... Beyazıt Tower Main entrance gate of Istanbul University on Beyazıt Square which was known as Forum Tauri in the Roman period. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... The former Robert College building on South Campus Boğaziçi University is one of the most prominent educational institutions in Turkey, located at the European Side of the Bosphorus, Istanbul (hence the name which means University of Bosphorus). The institution currently known as Boğaziçi University was established... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 257 pixel Image in higher resolution (1204 × 387 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 257 pixel Image in higher resolution (1204 × 387 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Marmara University is one of the leading universities in Turkey. ...

Universities

See also: List of universities in Istanbul

Istanbul holds some of the finest institutions of higher education in Turkey, including more than 20 public and private universities. Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. Istanbul University (1453) is the oldest Turkish educational institution in the city, while Istanbul Technical University (1773) is the world's second-oldest technical university dedicated entirely to engineering sciences. Other prominent state universities in Istanbul are the Boğaziçi University (1863), Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts (1882), Marmara University (1883), Yıldız Technical University (1911) and Galatasaray University (1992). The major private universities in the city include Koç University (1993), Sabancı University (1994), Yeditepe University (1996), Bilgi University (1996), Işık University (1996), Fatih University (1996), Maltepe University (1997), Beykent University (1997), Kadir Has University (1997), Haliç University (1998), Bahçeşehir University (1998), Okan University (1999), and Istanbul Commerce University (2001). The list of universities in Istanbul lists the universities within the city limits of Istanbul. ... Istanbul University (Turkish: Ä°stanbul Ãœniversitesi) was founded as an institution of higher education named the Darülfünun (House of Multiple Sciences) on July 23, 1846; but the Medrese (Theological School) which was founded immediately after Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 is regarded as the precursor to the... Maçka Campus Istanbul Technical University (ITU, Turkish: commonly referred to as Ä°TÃœ or teknik üniversite) is an international technical university located in Istanbul, Turkey. ... A University of Technology is an university with a focus on technology. ... The former Robert College building on South Campus BoÄŸaziçi University is one of the most prominent educational institutions in Turkey, located at the European Side of the Bosphorus, Istanbul (hence the name which means University of Bosphorus). The institution currently known as BoÄŸaziçi University was established... Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts (Turkish: ) is a Turkish state university dedicated to the higher education of fine arts. ... Marmara University is a public university in Turkey. ... Yıldız Technical University YTU Central Campus Yıldız Teknik Ãœniversitesi (YTÃœ, or YTU for the English name Yildiz Technical University) is a technical university dedicated to engineering sciences in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Galatasaray University (Turkish:Galatasaray Ãœniversitesi) is a Turkish public university established in Istanbul, created in 1992 following an agreement between France and Turkey whose Ambassador CoÅŸkun Kirca was the force-motor coach. ... Koç University is a private university in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Sabancı University (SU) is a private research institution located in Istanbul, Turkey. ... The big university in the istanbul. ... Işık University is a private university located in Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ... Image:Dis. ... Maltepe University (Turkish: ) is a private university located in Maltepe district of Istanbul, Turkey. ... Established in 1997, the Beykent University has four faculties comprising 28 academic departments in the fields of Engineering and Architecture, Fine Arts, Science, Economics and Administrative Sciences; a school of foreign languages; and Institutes of Social Sciences and Science and Technology. ... University established by of of the leading business tycoons of Turkey, Kadir HasoÄŸlu. ... BahçeÅŸehir University is a private educational institution in Turkey, located at the European Side of Istanbul. ...


High schools

See also: List of schools in Istanbul

Galatasaray Lisesi, established in 1481 as Galata Sarayı Enderun-u Hümayunu (Galata Palace Imperial School) and later known as Galatasaray Mekteb-i Sultanisi (Galatasaray School of the Sultans) is the oldest Turkish high school in Istanbul and the second oldest Turkish educational institution in the city after Istanbul University which was established in 1453. Galatasaray gives education primarily in Turkish and French, but there are also courses in English, Italian, Latin, Greek, Ottoman Turkish, Persian and Arabic. The list of schools in Istanbul lists the relevant high schools within the city limits of Istanbul. ... Galatasaray Lisesi in winter // Introduction Galatasaray Lisesi Lycée de Galatasaray is one of the most renowned and influential high schools of modern Turkey, in addition to being the oldest school of the Ottoman Empire. ... Istanbul University (Turkish: Ä°stanbul Ãœniversitesi) was founded as an institution of higher education named the Darülfünun (House of Multiple Sciences) on July 23, 1846; but the Medrese (Theological School) which was founded immediately after Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 is regarded as the precursor to the...


İstanbul Lisesi, also commonly known as İstanbul Erkek Lisesi (established in 1884), abbreviated İEL, is one of the oldest and internationally renowned high schools of Turkey located in İstanbul. The school is considered among the elite of Turkish public high schools. Germany recognizes the school as a Deutsche Auslandsschule (German International school). This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

İstanbul Lisesi

Almost all Turkish private high schools and universities in Istanbul teach in English, German or French as the primary foreign language, usually accompanied by a secondary foreign language. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (850x569, 146 KB)by Tansel Atasagun (IEL 87) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (850x569, 146 KB)by Tansel Atasagun (IEL 87) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Robert College of Istanbul (Turkish: Istanbul Amerikan Robert Lisesi), is one of the most selective[1][2] independent[3] private high schools in Turkey. ...


Fen Liseleri (Science High Schools) were established with the aim of providing education to exceptionally gifted students in mathematics, physics, chemistry and other sciences. These are boarding schools which offer a three-year program with a curriculum that emphasises science and mathematics. The schools have a standard class size of 24 pupils and the language of instruction is Turkish.


Anadolu Liseleri (Anatolian High Schools) were originally furnished for the Turkish children who returned home from foreign countries, such as the Üsküdar Anadolu Lisesi with German as the primary foreign language and technical instruction in German. Kadıköy Anadolu Lisesi on the Asian side, however, is one of the first six special Ministry of Education Colleges (Maarif Koleji) established in 1950s in big cities across Turkey. Those English-medium colleges, too, were renamed as "Anadolu Lisesi" in subsequent decades. The Kadıköy Anadolu Lisesi was used to be one of the most prestigious high schools in Istanbul (formerly known as Maarif Koleji); located in Moda, Istanbul. ...


There are many foreign high schools in Istanbul, most of which were established in the 19th century in order to give education to the foreigners residing in Istanbul, or to local Stambouliotes with European roots. Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, most of these schools went under the administration of the Turkish Ministry of Education, but some of them still have considerable foreign administration, such as the Liceo Italiano (Özel İtalyan Lisesi, 1861) which is still regarded as an Italian state school by the government of Italy and continues to receive funding and teachers from Rome. The oldest such school is the French Lycée Saint-Benoit, established in 1783 with its current name (the school's roots go back to 1362). Robert College, established in 1863, is the world's oldest American school outside the United States. The first international school in the city, Istanbul International Community School, was founded in 1911 to educate the children of international professors at Robert College.[52] The name of the school was [[Robert College Community School until 1979, when it was changed to its current name, Istanbul International Community School (IICS).[53] With a law passed by the Turkish Parliament in 1971, foreign universities in Turkey (i.e. Boğaziçi University which was originally the university section of Robert College) went under the jurisdiction of the Turkish state, but high schools were allowed to operate with foreign headmasters and curricula, such as the high school section of Robert College which continues to have an American headmaster. Other similar examples are the Lycée Notre Dame de Sion (1856), Deutsche Schule Istanbul (1868), Lycée Saint-Joseph (1870), Üsküdar American Academy (1876), Lycée Saint-Michel (1886), Sankt Georg Austrian High School (1892), Zappeion Greek Girls' High School, Italian Girls' Junior High School, Esayan Armenian Girls' High School, Saint Jean Baptiste French Boys' School, Saint Pulcherie Jesuit School, Zoğrafyon Greek Boys' High School and the British Girls' School. Phanar Greek Orthodox College (Fener Rum Erkek Lisesi), established in 1454, is the oldest surviving and most prestigious Greek high school in the city. Many Ottoman viziers as well as Wallachian and Moldavian princes appointed by the Ottoman state were graduated from this school. The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... The liceo Italiano scientifico or more popularly known as italyan lisesi is under legislation a private school which is situated in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Robert College of Istanbul (Turkish: Istanbul Amerikan Robert Lisesi), is one of the most selective[1][2] independent[3] private high schools in Turkey. ... International schools are private schools that cater mainly to children who are not nationals of the host country, often the children of the staff of international businesses, international organizations, embassies, missions, or missionary programs. ... Istanbul International Community School was founded in 1911, as the first international school to be established,[1] to educate the children of international professors at Robert College. ... Robert College of Istanbul (Turkish: Istanbul Amerikan Robert Lisesi), is one of the most selective[1][2] independent[3] private high schools in Turkey. ... Istanbul International Community School was founded in 1911, as the first international school to be established,[1] to educate the children of international professors at Robert College. ... The Grand National Assembly (Turkish: Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi - TBMM, usually referred to simply as Meclis) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... The former Robert College building on South Campus BoÄŸaziçi University is one of the most prominent educational institutions in Turkey, located at the European Side of the Bosphorus, Istanbul (hence the name which means University of Bosphorus). The institution currently known as BoÄŸaziçi University was established... Deutsche Schule Istanbul, also known as Özel Alman Lisesi (German High School Istanbul, in English) is one of the most prestigious high schools in Turkey. ... Lycee Saint Joseph St. ... Ãœsküdar American Academy is an high school in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Özel Sankt Georg Avusturya Lisesi, also known as Österreichisches St. ... Phanar Greek Orthodox College (Fener Rum Erkek Lisesi) located on the Golden Horn in the Fener (Phanar) district of Istanbul Phanar Greek Orthodox College (Turkish: Fener Rum Erkek Lisesi) is the oldest surviving and most prestigious Greek Orthodox school in Istanbul, Turkey. ...


Libraries

See also: List of libraries in Istanbul

Istanbul has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents from the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods, as well as from other civilizations of the past. The most important libraries in terms of historic document collections include the Topkapı Palace Library, Library of the Archaeological Museum, Library of the Naval Museum, Beyazıt State Library, Nuruosmaniye Library, Süleymaniye Library, Istanbul University Library, Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Paşa Library, Atatürk Library and Çelik Gülersoy Library. The list of libraries in Istanbul lists the libraries within the city limits of Istanbul. ...


Sports

See also: Sport facilities
Atatürk Olympic Stadium

During the Roman and Byzantine periods, the most important sporting events were the chariot races that were held at the Hippodrome of Constantinople, which had a capacity to accommodate more than 100,000 spectators. The list of sport facilities in Istanbul lists the relevant architectural entities within the city limits of Istanbul. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links GrandPrix_Circuit_Turkey_2006. ... Image File history File links GrandPrix_Circuit_Turkey_2006. ... Official logo of Istanbul Park Istanbul Park (Turkish: Ä°stanbul Park), also known as the Istanbul Racing Circuit or initially Istanbul Otodrom, is a motor sports race track near Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... The Hippodrome today, with the Walled Obelisk in the foreground Obelisk of Thutmosis III The base of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III showing Theodosius the Great as he offers a laurel wreath to the victor from the Kathisma (emperors box) at the Hippodrome The Delphi Tripod known as the...


Today, sports like football, basketball and volleyball are very popular in the city. In addition to Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş, which field teams in multiple sports, several other clubs have also excelled in particular team sports; such as Efes Pilsen and Fenerbahçe Ülker in basketball; or Eczacıbaşı and Vakıfbank in volleyball. Galatasaray Spor Kulübü (in English: Galatasaray Sports Club) or Galatasaray SK is a Turkish sports club based in Ä°stanbul which is most famous for its football section. ... Fenerbahçe is the name of a district in Kadikoy region of Istanbul, Turkey. ... This article is about a district in Ä°stanbul. ... Efes Pilsen Spor Kulübü (English: Efes Pilsen Sport Club) is a Turkish basketball club based in İstanbul and sponsored by the Efes Beverage Group. ... Fenerbahçe guard and 2007 Turkish Basketball League MVP Willie Solomon. ... Vakıfbank GüneÅŸ Sigorta Istanbul is a Turkish volleyball club which plays its home matches at the Haldun AlagaÅŸ Sports Hall in Istanbul. ...


The Atatürk Olympic Stadium is a five-star UEFA stadium and a first-class venue for track and field, having reached the highest required standards set by the International Olympic Committee and sports federations such as the IAAF, FIFA and UEFA. The stadium hosted the 2005 UEFA Champions League Final. The Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium will host the 2009 UEFA Cup Final. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Union Européenne de Football Association or Union of European Football Associations in English, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red urethane track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... UEFA Champions League, which replaced the European Champions Cup, is a seasonal club football competition organised by UEFA since 1992 for the most successful football clubs in Europe. ... Şükrü SaracoÄŸlu Stadium is a football stadium in the Kadıköy district of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, and is the home venue of Fenerbahçe S.K.. It was inaugurated in 1908, renovated between 1999 and 2006 and currently increased in capacity. ... The UEFA Cup (also known as European Cup 3, CE3 or C3) is a football competition for European club teams, organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). ...


Personal sports like golf, horse riding and tennis are gaining popularity as the city hosts international tournaments such as the WTA Istanbul Cup. For aerobics and bodybuilding, numerous fitness clubs are available. Paintball is a sport which has recently gained popularity and is practiced by two large clubs in the proximity of Istanbul. Martial arts and other Eastern disciplines and practices such as Aikido and Yoga can be exercised in several centers across the city. Istanbul also hosts the annual MTB races in the nearby Belgrad Forest and Büyükada Island. Two of the most prominent cycling teams of Turkey, namely the Scott/Marintek MTB Team and the Kron/Sektor Bikes/Efor Bisiklet MTB Team, are from Istanbul. The Istanbul Cup is a tennis tournament held in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Aikido ) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yog, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices designed for the purpose of cultivating a steady mind. ... MTB could refer to: The British designation for Motor Torpedo Boat; Magandang Tanghali Bayan, a variety show in the Philippines; Mountain Bike. ... Büyüd Ada (Big Island - Pringipos, Πρίγκιπος in Greek) is the largest of the nine islands consisting the Princes Islands in the Marmara Sea, close to Istanbul. ...


Istanbul hosts several annual motorsports events, such as the Formula One Turkish Grand Prix, the MotoGP Grand Prix of Turkey, the FIA World Touring Car Championship, the GP2 and the Le Mans Series 1,000 km (621 mi) races at the Istanbul Park GP Racing Circuit. F1 redirects here. ... The Turkish Grand Prix is a Formula One motor race that debuted on August 21, 2005 as part of the 2005 Formula One season. ... Grand Prix motorcycle racing refers to the premier categories of motorcycle road racing. ... The Grand Prix have been held in Istanbul, Turkey for more than two years. ... The Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile, commonly referred to as the FIA, is a non-profit association established in 1904 to represent the interest of motoring organisations and motor car users. ... The World Touring Car Championship (WTCC) is an international Touring Car championship organized by the FIA. The first WTCC, which was open to Group A Touring Cars, was held in 1987 concurrent to the long-running European Touring Car Championship (ETCC). ... For the article about the Asian version of the GP2 series, see GP2 Asia Series The GP2 Series, GP2 for short, is a form of motor racing introduced in 2005 following the discontinuation of the long-term Formula One feeder sport, Formula 3000. ... The Le Mans Endurance Series or LMES is a European sports car racing series created as a support series to the famed 24 Hours of Le Mans race. ... Official logo of Istanbul Park Istanbul Park (Turkish: Ä°stanbul Park), also known as the Istanbul Racing Circuit or initially Istanbul Otodrom, is a motor sports race track near Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ...


From time to time Istanbul also hosts the Turkish leg of the F1 Powerboat Racing on the Bosphorus. Several annual sailing and yacht races take place on the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmara. The Golden Horn is where the rowing races take place. Major clubs like Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş, and major universities such as the Bosphorus University have rowing teams. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... Inshore yacht racing on Sydney Harbour, Australia Yacht racing is the sport of competitive sailing. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden... A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ...


Air racing is new to the city. On July 29, 2006, Istanbul hosted the 4th round of the spectacular Red Bull Air Race World Series above the Golden Horn. A pair of Sport Class racers passing the finish pylon at the Reno Air Races. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Red Bull Air Race World Series, established in 2003 and created by Red Bull, is an international series of air races with the participation of the worlds most skilled pilots, in which competitors have to navigate a challenging obstacle course in the sky, in the fastest possible time. ... Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden...

Club Sport Established League Venue
Beşiktaş JK Football 1903 Turkcell Super League İnönü Stadium
Galatasaray SK Football 1905 Turkcell Super League Ali Sami Yen Stadium
Fenerbahçe SK Football 1907 Turkcell Super League Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium
Istanbulspor AS Football 1926 Turkish 2nd Division Güngören Stadium
Beşiktaş Cola Turka Basketball 1903 Turkish Basketball League BJK Akatlar Arena
Galatasaray Cafe Crown Basketball 1905 Turkish Basketball League Ayhan Şahenk Sports Hall
Fenerbahçe Ülkerspor Basketball 1907 Turkish Basketball League Abdi İpekçi Arena
Beykoz 1908 Basketball 1908 Turkish Basketball League R. Şahin Köktürk Sports Hall
Darüşşafaka S.K. Basketball 1914 Turkish Basketball League Ayhan Şahenk Sports Hall
Tekelspor Basketball 1941 Turkish Basketball League Haldun Alagaş Sports Hall
Efes Pilsen S.K. Basketball 1976 Turkish Basketball League Abdi İpekçi Arena
Alpella Basketball 2006 Turkish Basketball League Caferağa Sports Hall
Eczacıbaşı Volleyball 1977 Turkish Women's Volleyball League Eczacıbaşı Sports Hall
Vakıfbank Güneş Sigorta Volleyball 1986 Turkish Women's Volleyball League Haldun Alagaş Sports Hall

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Ä°nönü. BeÅŸiktaÅŸ Ä°nönü Stadium (Turkish: BeÅŸiktaÅŸ Ä°nönü Stadyumu) is the home of the football club BeÅŸiktaÅŸ J.K. in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Galatasaray SK Logo Galatasaray Spor Kulübü (Galatasaray Sports Club) is a Turkish sports club based in İstanbul which is most famous for its football section. ... Ali Sami Yen Stadı is the home of the football club Galatasaray SK in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Fenerbahçe Spor Kulübü (Fenerbahçe Sports Club), commonly known as Fenerbahçe [pronounced fe-nehr-baah-che], is a sports club of Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ... Şükrü SaracoÄŸlu Stadium is a football stadium in the Kadıköy district of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, and is the home venue of Fenerbahçe S.K.. It was inaugurated in 1908, renovated between 1999 and 2006 and currently increased in capacity. ... Istanbulspor (Turkish: İstanbulspor) is a Turkish football and sports club, founded by Istanbul Lisesi (Istanbul Lycée) students in 1926. ... Güngören M.Yahya BaÅŸ Stadyumu is a multi-use stadium in Istanbul, Turkey. ... BeÅŸiktaÅŸ Cola Turka is the basketball team of BeÅŸiktaÅŸ J.K., which is a Turkish sports club from Ä°stanbul. ... BJK Akatlar Arena is an indoor arena located in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Galatasaray Café Crown is the basketball team section of the Galatasaray S.K. Turkish club. ... Ayhan Åžahenk Sports Hall is an indoor arena located in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Fenerbahçe guard and 2007 Turkish Basketball League MVP Willie Solomon. ... Abdi Ä°pekçi Arena, formerly known as Abdi Ä°pekçi Sports Complex, is a multi-purpose indoor arena located in Zeytinburnu district of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, situated just outside of the ancient city walls in Yedikule. ... Beykoz 1908 is a Turkish football club. ... Darüşşafaka Spor Kulübü is a basketball club based in Ä°stanbul, Turkey that plays in the Turkish Basketball League. ... Ayhan Sahenk Sport Hall is an indoor arena located in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Haldun AlagaÅŸ Sports Hall is an indoor arena located in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Efes Pilsen Spor Kulübü (English: Efes Pilsen Sport Club) is a Turkish basketball club based in Ä°stanbul and sponsored by the Efes Beverage Group. ... Abdi Ä°pekçi Arena, formerly known as Abdi Ä°pekçi Sports Complex, is a multi-purpose indoor arena located in Zeytinburnu district of Ä°stanbul, Turkey, situated just outside of the ancient city walls in Yedikule. ... Alpella is a Turkish basketball team founded in 2006 and been as Fenerbahçe Ãœlkerspors second team by the players. ... CaferaÄŸa Sport Hall, (Turkish: ) is a multi-purpose indoor arena located in Kadıköy district of Ä°stanbul, Turkey and opened in 1982. ... Vakıfbank GüneÅŸ Sigorta Istanbul is a Turkish volleyball club which plays its home matches at the Haldun AlagaÅŸ Sports Hall in Istanbul. ... Haldun AlagaÅŸ Sports Hall is an indoor arena located in Istanbul, Turkey. ...

Town twinning

The following is a list of Istanbul's sister cities:[54][55] Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... County ConstanÅ£a Mayor Radu Åžtefan Mazăre Area 124. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... View of Durrës Durrës (Greek: Δυρράχιον dyrakhion, Επίδαμνος epidamnos, Latin: Dyrrhachium, Italian: Durazzo, Turkish: Dıraç, Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian: Драч) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important cities of Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Filiba redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in Macedonia Country Macedonia Municipality Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - Total 1,854 km² (715. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan[1] is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Saigon redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Nickname: Motto: Berkhidmat, Berbudaya, Berwawasan (English: Servicing, cultured, visionary) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Johor Establishment 1855 Granted city status 1994 Government  - Mayor Latiff Yusof Area  - City 185 km²  (72. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... Mary is a city of Turkmenistan, capital of the Mary Province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan. ... For the home improvement store, see Orchard Supply Hardware. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of the Samarkand region (Samarqand Wiloyati). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Shimonoseki (下関市; -shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi, Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Location of Surabaya in Indonesia Coordinates: , Country Province Area  - Total 459. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Xian redirects here. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... Nickname: Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Houston redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... Position of Constantine in Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sudan. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban 2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Mausoleum of Mohammed V through mosque ruins NASA image of Rabat Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ), population 1. ...

Related lists

The list of architectural structures in Istanbul lists the relevant architectural entities within the city limits of Istanbul. ... The following is a list of columns and towers located in İstanbul, Turkey: Column of Constantine (Çemberlitaş) Obelisk of Theodosius (Dikilitaş) Goths Column (Gotlar Sütunu) Marcianus Column (Kıztaşı) Column of Constantine V Porphyrogenetus (Örme Sütun) The Serpentine Column (Yılanlı Sütun) Beyazit Tower Çamlıca TV... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of famous people hailing from the city of Istanbul Ahmet & Nesuhi Ertegün, Founder of Atlantic Records and the legendary New York Cosmos. ... The list of libraries in Istanbul lists the libraries within the city limits of Istanbul. ... This is a list of Mayors of Istanbul, Turkey. ... The list of museums and monuments in Istanbul lists the relevant architectural entities within the city limits of Istanbul. ... The list of schools in Istanbul lists the relevant high schools within the city limits of Istanbul. ... This is a list of historical, modern and projected shopping malls in Istanbul, Turkey. ... The list of urban centers in Istanbul lists the relevant civic centers (Markets, neighborhoods and places) within the city limits of Istanbul. ... The list of universities in Istanbul lists the universities within the city limits of Istanbul. ... Opening ceremony of Kanyon Shopping Mall (center of the photo) in Istanbuls Levent financial district, 30 May 2006. ...

See also

The 1509 Istanbul earthquake, referred to as The Lesser Judgment Day by contemporaries, was an earthquake that occurred in the Sea of Marmara on September 10, 1509. ... Honoring the start of the 2-day NATO Summit in Istanbul, fighter jets fly in formation over the summit site. ... Istanbul (Not Constantinople) is a swing-style song, written by Jimmy Kennedy and Nat Simon. ... The Large Cities Climate Leadership Group is a group of cities committed to the reduction of urban carbon emissions and adapting to climate change. ... This article is about megacities in general. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Türkiye istatistik kurumu Address-based population survey 2007. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
  2. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Districts of Istanbul
  3. ^ "The Names of Istanbul". Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi 5. (1994). Ciltli. 
  4. ^ "The Names of Istanbul". Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi 5. (1994). Ciltli. 
  5. ^ Prof. Dr. Murat Belge. Kültür Haritaları Serisi (Turkish). National Geographic Türkiye. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  6. ^ Robinson, Richard D. (1965). The First Turkish Republic: A Case Study in National Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  7. ^ 5th World Congress of the International Economic Association (pdf). Retrieved on 2007-09-12.]
  8. ^ Cultural Details of Istanbul. Republic of Turkey, Minister of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  9. ^ Vailhé, S. (1908). "Constantinople". Catholic Encyclopedia 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved on 2007-09-12. 
  10. ^ "Istanbul". Britannica Online. (September 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  11. ^ "Imperial Battle Descriptions, A.D. 306-363". De Imperatoribus Romanis. (November 2004). Retrieved on 2007-09-12. 
  12. ^ Vailhé, S. (1908). "Constantinople". Catholic Encyclopedia 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved on 2007-09-12. 
  13. ^ Phillips, Jonathan (2005). The Fourth Crusade. London: Pimlico. ISBN 1844130800. 
  14. ^ a b Kinross, Patrick (2002). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. New York: Perrenial. ISBN 0688080936. OCLC 57554744. 
  15. ^ Bamber Gascoigne. History of the Byzantine Empire. HistoryWorld. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  16. ^ Ian Traynor. A disaster waiting to happen - why a huge earthquake near Istanbul seems inevitable. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  17. ^ a b Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation Information. Retrieved on Jan 4, 2008.
  18. ^ Heightened odds of large earthquakes near Istanbul: An interaction-based probability calculation. Science (2000).
  19. ^ "Quake increases risk for temblor in Istanbul", MIT News Office, 1999-09-25. Retrieved on 2006-08-20. 
  20. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality attends to Madrid-FITUR Tourism Fair. Retrieved on 2008-07-05.
  21. ^ a b Ana Britannica: Turkish edition of Encyclopedia Britannica
  22. ^ Çemberlitas (Burnt Column), Istanbul. TurkeyTravelPlanner.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-15.
  23. ^ Bury, John Bagnell (1923). History of the Later Roman Empire Vol. I. Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 70. 
  24. ^ Istanbul. Brittanica (2008). Retrieved on 2008-05-15.
  25. ^ Council. İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi (2008). Retrieved on 2008-05-15.
  26. ^ Districts. İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi (2008). Retrieved on 2008-05-15.
  27. ^ Istanbul population
  28. ^ Presentation of Reference City: Istanbul. Urban Green Environment. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  29. ^ Ortaylı, İlber. İstanbul'dan Sayfalar, p. 286. İstanbul: Alkım Yayınevi. ISBN 9944-148-01-6. 
  30. ^ Mansel, Phillip (1995). Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924. John Murray, 28. 
  31. ^ PriceWaterhouseCoopers: U.K. Economic Outlook and Global City GDP Ranking 2005-2020 Full Report (PDF)
  32. ^ CNN Türk: Dış ticaretin lokomotifi İstanbul (Istanbul is the locomotive of foreign trade)
  33. ^ Forbes list of "Billionaire Cities" in The Sunday Times article "Turkey's new rich find the Midas touch". March 9, 2008.
  34. ^ Financial sector (PDF). Foreign Economic Relations Board Turkey DEIK. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  35. ^ World Gold Council > jewellery:Turkey. World Gold Council. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  36. ^ Hürriyet: 2006’da Türkiye’ye gelen turist başına harcama 728 dolara indi
  37. ^ Sabah: Turist sayısı genelde düştü İstanbul'da arttı
  38. ^ EIBTM 2007 - The Global Meetings & Incentive Exhibition for the MICE Industry. Reed Exhibitions Limited (member of the Association of Event Organisers (AEO)). Retrieved on 2006-03-11.
  39. ^ Med Retreat - Medical Tourism: Turkey
  40. ^ BBC News - Health - Personal story: IVF in Istanbul
  41. ^ Med-Istanbul: Laser Eye Surgery in Istanbul
  42. ^ Plastic Surgery in Turkey
  43. ^ a b CIA — The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved on 2006-03-11.
  44. ^ a b İSKİ İstanbul Su ve Kanalizasyon İdaresi: Tarihce. Istanbul water and sewerage administration (history). Retrieved on 2006-03-11.
  45. ^ İSKİ Administration. Istanbul water and sewerage administration. Retrieved on 2006-03-11.
  46. ^ Silahtarağa Santral becomes Santralistanbul Museum
  47. ^ a b c d e PTT Chronology
  48. ^ Istanbul City Guide: Beylerbeyi Palace
  49. ^ a b c Türk Telekom: History
  50. ^ "Orient Express". Britannica Online. (September 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-27. 
  51. ^ Istanbul's Hamam. Retrieved on 2007-02-22.
  52. ^ Turkish Embassy.org - Republic of Turkey. Retrieved on 18 Feb 2007.
  53. ^ CIS Directory. Retrieved on 18 Feb 2007.
  54. ^ Sister Cities of Istanbul. Retrieved on 2007-09-08.
  55. ^ Erdem, Selim Efe. "İstanbul'a 49 kardeş", Radikal, 2003-11-03. (Turkish) "49 sister cities in 2003" 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Patrick Balfour, 3rd Baron Kinross, (1904-1976), was a writer noted for his biography of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and other works in Islamic historiography. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  • Website of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality
  • Office of the Governor of Istanbul Province
  • WikiSatellite view of Istanbul at WikiMapia
  • Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Interactive aerial photos (maps) of Istanbul from 1946, 1966, 1982 and 2005
  • Istanbul city guide
  • Emporis Buildings Database: Historic and modern buildings of Istanbul
  • Ottoman Engineer-Architect Sinan's works in Istanbul
  • Official website of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Monthly Press Magazine

Coordinates: 41°00′44″N 28°58′34″E / 41.01224, 28.976018 Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) accepted nine cities as applicants to bid on hosting the 2012 Summer Olympics. ... London 2012 redirects here. ... London 2012 was the successful bid for the 2012 Summer Games, to be held in London with most events taking place in Stratford, Newham. ... Paris 2012 was one of the five short-listed bids for the 2012 Summer Olympics, proposing that the games be held in Paris, France. ... Madrid 2012 was one of the five short-listed bids for the 2012 Summer Games. ... The New York City 2012 Olympic bid was one of the five short-listed bids for the 2012 Summer Olympics, ultimately won by London 2012. ... Moscow 2012 is one of the five short-listed bids for the 2012 Summer Games, and is to be held in Moscow, Russia. ... The International Olympic Committee (IOC) accepted nine cities as applicants to bid on hosting the 2012 Summer Olympics. ... At the 117th IOC Session, Londons bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics emerged victorious among bids from Madrid, Moscow, New York City and Paris. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ordered according to population (as of 2007). ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... This article is about the city. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... This article is about the city. ... For the capital city of the Philippines, see Manila. ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Japanese city. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shenzhen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Lagos (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Karachay-Cherkessia. ... Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Location Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Saigon redirects here. ... Nickname: Map of the Dem. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Bogota redirects here. ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Madras redirects here. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... A map of Gauteng, showing the East Rand. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... Dongguan (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Miami redirects here. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California Location of San Jose with the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Pueblo founded November 29, 1777 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Type charter city, mayor-council  - Mayor Chuck Reed  - Vice... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


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Albergo Istanbul (1148 words)
Metamondo (www.metamondo.it) dal 30 aprile al 4 maggio offre per Istanbul interessanti proposte di soggiorno: 5 gg/4 n in camera doppia con colazione all’Hotel Berr**** € 433 a persona; Hotel Eresin Taxim**** € 480 a persona; Hotel Richmond**** € 530 a persona; Novotel**** € 490 a persona; Hotel Ramada Plaza***** € 710 a persona.
Istanbul Exhibition & Convention Center si trova a una distanza di 5 minuti a piedi dall’hotel.
Il suo staff amichevole ed multi-linguale offre a tutti gli ospiti un’ospitalità che fa l’albergo uno dei piu’ affascinanti in cuore di Istanbul.
Istanbul - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4778 words)
Istanbul extends both on the European (Thrace) and on the Asian (Anatolia) side of the Bosphorus, and is thereby the only metropolis in the world which geographically is situated on two continents.
Istanbul is chosen as the European Capital of Culture for 2010.
Istanbul is situated near the North Anatolian fault line, which drags on from the northern Anatolia to the Marmara Sea.
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