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Encyclopedia > Israeli Intelligence Community

The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. The organizations included are listed bellow, principal ones in bold. Image File history File links Aman-logo. ... Shabak (Shin Bet) Logo This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Official seal of the Mossad File links The following pages link to this file: Mossad ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית, ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ...

Contents


Current members

  • Mossad: the agency responsible primarily for overseas intelligence work
  • Shabak: the organization responsible for internal security, including in the Israeli-occupied territories

Aman badge Aman (אמן) is the Hebrew abbreviation for the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) Directorate of Military Intelligence (אגף מודיעין), Israels central, overarching military inteligence. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Navy. ... The Israeli Air Intelligence Directorate is a chief unit of the IDF Air Force. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF) (Hebrew: חיל האוויר Heyl HaAvir, literally Air Corps) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The Israeli Naval Intelligence Department is a chief unit of the IDF Sea Corps. ... Main operational areas of the Israeli Sea Corps as seen from Space Shuttle STS-40: Mediterranean Sea (north), Gulf of Aqaba (east), Red Sea (south), and Gulf of Suez (west). ... The Israeli Intelligence Corps is an Israel Defense Forces corps which falls under the jurisdiction of Aman and is responsible for collecting, disseminating, and publishing intelligence information for the General Staff and the political branch. ... The Israeli Field Intelligence Corps is the newest of the IDF GOC Army Headquarters’ five corps, created in April 2000, and is tasked with collecting combat intelligence and is responsible for intelligence units from the battalion level and up to the entire force. ... The Israeli GOC Army headquarters, abbreviated as Mazi, is a multi-corps command headquarters created in 1998, which amalgamates the ground forces of the Israeli Defense Forces. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Navy. ... The Israeli Central Command is a regional command of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The Israeli Southern Command is a regional command of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The Israeli Home Front Command is a relatively recent Israel Defense Forces regional command, created in February 1992 following the Gulf War, which was the first war since the 1948 Arab-Israeli War where the Home Front faced a significant threat. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for clandestine Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet Official seal of the Mossad (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations) is an Israeli intelligence agency, often referred to as Mossad (in English: Institution). ... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization devoted to gathering of information by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... Shabak emblem Defender who shall not be seen The Shabak (in Hebrew, שבכ ) an acronym of Shérūt Bītāhōn Klālī שירות ביטחון כללי) known in English as the Shin Bet (which was how the Shabak was known in Israel in its early days) or the GSS (General Security Service... The Golan Heights plateau, formerly known as the Syrian Heights, overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... Israeli Police logo The Israeli police (משטרת ישראל) is a civilian force in the State of Israel. ... Foreign Affair Ministers of Israel, 1948-present Moshe Sharett 1948-1956 Golda Meir 1956-1966 Abba Eban 1966-1974 Yigal Allon 1974-1977 Moshe Dayan 1977-1979 Menachem Begin 1979-1980 Yitzhak Shamir 1980-1986 Shimon Peres 1986-1988 Moshe Arens 1988-1990 David Levy 1990-1992 Shimon Peres 1992...

Former members

Lishkat Hakesher or The Israeli Liaison Office, codenamed Nativ (נתיב-path), is an Israeli liasion organization that maintained contact with Jews living in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... The Mossad Lealiyah Bet (Hebrew: המוסד לעלייה ב) was a branch of the Haganah that operated as the organizing body for the Yishuv leaderships Haapala programme: the illegal Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lekem or Leshkat Kesher Madao (English; Bureau of Scientific Relations) collected scientific and technical intelligence abroad from both open and covert sources. ... Rafael (Rafi) Eitan Rafael (Rafi) Eitan (Hebrew: רפי איתן) (born November 23, 1926) is the leader of Gil - Gimlaey Yisrael LaKneset (pensioners of Israel to the Knesset) party which has won an unexpected large number of seats in the Israeli legislative election of 2006. ... Jonathan Jay Pollard (born August 7, 1954) is a former civilian intelligence analyst who pled guilty and was convicted on one count of spying for Israel, and in 1986 received a life sentence with a recommendation against parole. ...

Parliamentary supervision

Parliamentary supervision over the Intelligence Community is undertaken by the Subcommittee for Intelligence and Secret Services, a subcomittee of the Security and Foreign Affairs Committee, which supervises the entire Israeli Security Forces. A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ... The Israeli Security Forces (ISF) are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ...


The structure of the IIC and the allocation of roles between its parts

The issue regarding the suitable structure of the IIC, and questions as to dividing responsibilities and jurisdictions between Aman, Shabak, and Mossad, as well as the format of work for the three in relation to Prime Ministers and Ministers, all of these became agenda issues many times in the past. Various commissions and individual inspectors were appointed throughout the years, whether due to traumatic experiences or as a matter of routine, in order to examine the issues and propose recommendations. These were: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

The government was tasked with the matter on a number of occasions and arrived at various decisions. The State Comptroller made the issue his agenda and submitted to the Knesset his findings and conclusions. In 1994, the Subcommittee for Intelligence also examined the questions and brought its recommendations before the Prime Minister. 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... The Agranat Commission was an official Commission of Inquiry appointed by the Israeli government to investigate the circumstances leading to the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Aluf is the term used for general in the Israeli Defence Forces. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from 2000 and 2001. ... Combatants Republic of Iraq (Saddam Hussein regime), Baath Loyalists, Iraqi insurgency Al Qaeda United States, United Kingdom, Multinational force in Iraq, New Iraqi Army, Kurdish forces Commanders Saddam Hussein Abu Musab al-Zarqawi† Moqtada al-Sadr Abu Ayyub al-Masri Mujahideen Shura Council Tommy Franks George Casey Strength 375... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Israel The power of the Knesset to supervise and review government policies and operations is exercised mainly through the state controller, also known as the ombudsman or ombudswoman (Hebrew: מבקר המדינה Mevaker HaMedina. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ...


The division of labour among the intelligence arms, Aman, Shabak, and Mossad, in the current structure of the IIC, is usually established upon a geographical basis. There are interfacing and overlapping segments, often rather wide, among the organizations. The level of coordination and inter-regional cooperation has suffered in the past from fundamental shortcomings, which has hindred the effectiveness of intelligence work on several fronts. The organizations repressed the necessity for the mutual sharing of intelligence information and in synchronizing some activities.


There are still open-ended issues remaining to be discussed, including disputed ones, as to the division of jurisdictions and inter-regional sectoral boundaries. In a document known as the "Magna Carta," the heads of the three services continue their attempt to arrive at agreements regarding these. The Intelligence Subcommittee follows this discourse and examines the steps required to practically settle key areas of dispute. If needed, the Subcommittee could become actively involved in the matter so as to ensure appropriate and reasonable standards for overall intelligence work in Israel. Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ...


The Role of Aman

The historical development of the IIC destined Aman with a range of activities and tasks that are conventionally outside the realm of military intelligence in the West, such as the responsibility for intelligence research in political matters and other markedly non-military affairs. This largely followed from the reliance by the State of Israel during its first years on the IDF as an anchor and mechanism to fulfill national tasks, it being a system with organizational capacities, resources, and available human resources. As such, Aman has assumed functions which ordinarily would be handled by other intelligence agencies. Accordingly, some critics say, there is a need to reexamine the position and placement assumed by intelligence bodies within the current structure, and transferring certain strategic and political areas and non-military ones, from Aman to a civilian intelligence authority.


Reforms to the structure of the IIC

The Commission to investigate the intelligence network following the War in Iraq maintained that, notwithstanding the historical consolidation behind the current IIC structure, and despite the advantages gained by Aman's Research Department and Unit 8200 during many years of service, it is finally time to restructure the IIC in accordance with a proper work distribution, professional designation, as well as a correct constitutional and legal frame of reference. Unit 8200 (read as eight-two hundred) is an IDF Intelligence Corps unit, responsible for collecting SIGINT intelligence and providing cryptographical analysis. ...


The Commission recommended on reforming the current IIC structure, ending up with three or four independent intelligence services, alongside the National Security Council, with the distinction between them being based upon the respective spheres of responsibility of each service: The Israeli National Security Council (Hebrew: המועצה לביטחון לאומי) is a council established by the Prime Ministers Office in 1999 during the prime ministership of Binyamin Netanyahu in the framework of drawing lessons from the Yom Kipur War. ...

  • Aman: its jurisdiction is to consist primarily of "military intelligence" - alerting the political leadership and the security arms to the possibility of war and estimating the means of the enemy, and identifying prospective targets during a war or a limited military conflict.
  • Mossad: is to be charged with, in addition to foiling attacks, a strategic-political emphasis, which includes evaluating the stability of regimes, and engaging in industrial-scientific-tehcnological and nuclear -related intelligence as well as against global terrorism.
  • Shabak: is to be tasked with the security of the State, its citizens, and organs, against Palestinian and other forms of terrorism, and against internal subversion.
  • National Security Council: is to evaluate global conditions according to overall intelligence, and preparing national and security responses.
  • SIGINT service: this proposed service would supply all the other services with SIGINT intelligence.

 
 

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