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Encyclopedia > Israel Defense Forces
Emblem of the IDF
Emblem of the IDF

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראלTsva HaHagana LeYisrael , "Defense Military of Israel", commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym צה"ל, pronounced Tsahal), is Israel's military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, Air Force and Sea Corps. Image File history File links Idf_logo4. ... Image File history File links Idf_logo4. ... The Israeli Security Forces are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Image File history File links He-Israeli_Defense_Forces. ... Look up acronym, initialism, alphabetism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mazi logo The Israeli GOC Army headquarters (Hebrew: , Mifkedet Zroa HaYabasha), abbreviated as Mazi (מזי), is a multi-corps command headquarters created in 1998, which amalgamates the ground forces of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The naval ensign of Israel The Israeli Sea Corps (Hebrew: חיל הים הישראלי) is the naval arm of the Israel Defense Forces, operating primarily in the Mediterranean Sea in the west and to the Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea, and Gulf of Suez in the south. ...

Contents

History

Military of Israel
Military age 18
Conscription 18
Available for
military service
1,499,186 males, age 17-49 (2000 est.),
1,462,063 females, age 17-49 (2000 est.)
Fit for
military service
1,226,903 males, age 17-49 (2000 est.),
1,192,319 females, age 17-49 (2000 est.)
Reaching military
age annually
50,348 males (2000 est.),
47,996 females (2000 est.)
Active personnel 168,000 (ranked 33rd)
Expenditures
Budget $18.7 billion (FY99)
Percent of GDP 9.4% (FY99)

The IDF was founded May 26, 1948 after the establishment of the state of Israel "to protect the inhabitants of Israel and to combat all forms of terrorism which threaten the daily life".[1] The IDF succeeded the Haganah (in particular, its operational branch, the Palmach) as the permanent army of the Jewish state. It was also joined by former elements of the Jewish Brigade that fought under the British flag during World War II. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... Number of active troops per country This is a list of countries sorted by the total number of active troops where the military manpower of a country is measured by the total amount of active troops within the command of that country. ... The history of the Israel Defense Forces is intertwined with history of the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Haganah (Hebrew: Defense, ×”×’× ×”) was a Zionist para-military organization in Palestine during the British mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... The Palmach (Hebrew: פלמח, an acronym for Plugot Mahatz (Hebrew: פלוגות מחץ), Strike Companies) was the regular fighting force of the Haganah, the unofficial army of the Yishuv (Jewish community) during the British Mandate of Palestine. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Jewish Brigade recruitment poster: For Vengeance and Salvation! A recruitment drive poster for the Jewish Brigade: Soldiers of 1915-1918: to the flag! (Figure in background represents the Jewish Legion of World War I) The Jewish Brigade was a fighting unit in the British Army composed of volunteers from the... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


After the establishment of the IDF the two Jewish underground organizations the Etzel and Lehi joined with the IDF in a loose confederation but were allowed to operate independently in some sectors until the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, after which these two organizations were disbanded, and their members integrated into the IDF. The modern IDF came into existence during the period from 1949 to 1956 by experience gained through regional conflicts with their Arab neighbours. From 1956 to 1966, the IDF faced less conflict and used this time to purchase new equipment and change from an upstart army to a professional fighting force. As well, this period allegedly saw Israel develop its nuclear capability. Following these developments, the IDF increasingly emerged as one of the most powerful and modern military forces in the world recognized by many as "The Modern Sparta". [2] Irgun emblem. ... For other uses, see Lehi. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Israel is widely believed to be the sixth country in the world to develop nuclear weapons[2] and to be one of four nuclear-armed countries not recognized as a Nuclear Weapons State by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the others being India, Pakistan and North Korea. ...


Overview

Regular service

National military service is mandatory for Jewish and Druze men and Jewish women over the age of 18, although exceptions may be made on religious, physical or psychological grounds (see Profile 21). The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... Profile 21 (Hebrew: פרופיל 21) is a code used by the military of Israel to classify Israelis who are deemed to have physical or psychological disabilities making them permanently unfit for military service. ...


Men serve three years in the IDF, while women serve two. The IDF allowed women who volunteer for several combat positions to serve for three years because combat soldiers must undergo a lengthy period of training. Women in other positions, such as programmers, who require lengthy training time may also serve three years. Women in most combat positions are also required to serve as reserve for several years after their dismissal from regular service.

IDF soldiers of the religious 97th "Netzah Yehuda" Infantry Battalion
IDF soldiers of the religious 97th "Netzah Yehuda" Infantry Battalion

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... It has been suggested that Nahal Charedi be merged into this article or section. ...

Haredim

Men in the Haredi community may choose to be exempt while enrolled in Yeshivas (see Tal Law), a practice that is a source of tension. Haredim are allowed to serve in the IDF in an atmosphere conducive to their religious convictions, however most Haredim do not serve in the IDF and therefore cause a social inequality among the citizens of Israel who are obligated to serve by law. Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... In Israel, Tal Law, a temporary law set to expire in 2007, is a special exemption to the required military service in the Israel Defense Forces. ...


Women in the IDF

Female soldiers at the train station
Female soldiers at the train station

Israel has female conscription, but about a third of female conscripts (more than double the figure for men) are exempted, mainly for religious and nuptial reasons. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 512 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (618 × 723 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Delete all revisions of this file) (cur) 13:15, 13 November 2006 . ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 512 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (618 × 723 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Delete all revisions of this file) (cur) 13:15, 13 November 2006 . ...


Following their active service, women, like men, are in theory required to serve up to one month annually in reserve duty. However, in practice only some women in combat roles get called for active reserve duty, and only for a few years following their active service, with many exit points (e.g., pregnancy).


Apart from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, when manpower shortages saw many of them taking active part in battles on the ground, women were historically barred from battle in the IDF, serving in a variety of technical and administrative support roles. During this period however, the IDF reputedly favored female instructors for training male soldiers in certain roles, particularly tank crews. This was on the basis that female instructors of similar age to the young conscripts were more likely to receive the full attention of their students. But after a landmark 1994 High Court appeal by Alice Miller, a Jewish immigrant from South Africa, the Air Force was instructed to open its pilots course to women (several served as transport pilots during the first Arab-Israeli War in 1948 and "Operation Kadesh" in 1956, but the Air Force later closed its ranks to women fliers). Miller failed the entrance exams, but since her initiative, many additional combat roles were opened. As of 2005, women are allowed to serve in 83% of all positions in the military, including Shipboard Navy Service (except submarines), and Artillery. Combat roles are voluntary for women. Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... The Israeli Air Force (IAF) (Hebrew: חיל האוויר Heyl haAvir) is the Air branch of the Israel Defense Force. ... (Redirected from 1956 Suez War) The Suez Crisis, also known as the Suez War, Suez Campaign or Kadesh Operation was a war fought on Egyptian territory in 1956. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


As of 2002, 33% of lower rank officers are women, 21% of Captains and Majors, and 3% of the most senior ranks.


450 women currently serve in combat units of Israel's security forces, primarily in the Border Police. Yael Rom, the first female pilot in the Israeli Air Force earned her wings in 1951[3]. The first female jet fighter pilot, Roni Zuckerman, received her wings in 2001[4]. In November 2007 the first woman was appointed to the rank of deputy squadron commander[5]. MAGAV (in Hebrew מגב ) is an acronym for Mishmar Ha-Gvul ( מישמר הגבול ), which in Hebrew means Frontier Guard. MAGAV is the combat branch of the Israeli Police and its composed from professional officers on payroll and field policemen redirected from the IDF (men at the age of 18...


In a controversial move, the IDF abolished its "Women's Corps" command in 2001, with a view that it had become an anachronism and a stumbling block towards integration of women in the army as regular soldiers with no special status. However, after pressures from feminist lobbies, The Chief of Staff was persuaded to keep an "adviser for women's affairs". Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...


After the Yon Kippur War, Israel removed women from infantry combat because it was discovered that Arab men would not (could not?) surrender to a woman. ("Hammer of God, The Yon Kipper War October 1973" by Aker, Frank Lll, Publisher: Simulation Design Corporation?) (This "unintended consequence" is an interesting - if tragic - illustration of "failure to communicate" between members of a "shame-avoidance" based culture and a "guilt-avoidance" based culture.)


Minorities in the IDF

Druze and Circassians are subject to mandatory conscription to the IDF just like Israeli Jews. Originally, they served in the framework of a special unit called "The Minorities' Unit", which still exists today, in the form of the Harev independent battalion. However, since the 1980s Druze soldiers have increasingly protested this practice, which they considered a means of segregating them and denying them access to elite units. The army has increasingly admitted Druze soldiers to regular combat units and promoting them to higher ranks from which they had been previously excluded. In recent years, several Druze officers have reached ranks as high as Major General and many have received commendations for distinguished service. It is important to note that, proportionally to their numbers, the Druze people achieve much higher—documented—levels in the Israeli army than other soldiers. Nevertheless, some Druze still charge that discrimination continues, such as exclusion from the Air Force, although the official low security classification for Druze has been abolished for some time. The first Druze aircraft navigator completed his training course in 2005; his identity is protected as with all air force pilots. After the battle of Ramat Yohanan during the Israel's War of Independence, approximately 1000 Syrian Druze soldiers and officers deserted and joined Israel. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially...


The issue of their mandatory conscription, unlike other Israeli Arab citizens, is the subject of an ongoing controversy inside the Druze community itself. Since the late 1970s the Druze Initiative Committee centered at the village of Beit Jan and linked to the Israeli Communist Party had been campaigning to abolish Druze conscription - arguing that the Druze are Arabs and Palestinians and should not be compelled to fight their brothers and sisters; that Druze conscription was instituted in 1956 following an appeal by the heads of the Druze community to then PM Ben Gurion which should not be considered binding on youths born many decades later. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Beit Jan is an agricultural settlement in the country of Israel. ... The Communist Party of Israel (known as Maki , an acronym for Miflaga Komunistit Yisraelit) was formed in 1948 by the remnant of the Communist Party of Palestine within the borders of the new state of Israel. ... David Ben-Gurion was the first prime minister of Israel. ...

By law, all Israeli citizens are subject to conscription and it is the Defense Minister's complete discretion to grant exemption to individual citizens or classes of citizens. A long-standing policy dating to Israel's early years extends an exemption to all other Israeli minorities (most notably Israeli Arabs). However, there is a long-standing government policy of encouraging Bedouins to volunteer and offer them various inducements, and in some impoverished Bedouin communities a military career seems one of the few means of (relative) social mobility available. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ...

An Israeli checkpoint on the West Bank.
An Israeli checkpoint on the West Bank.

From among non-Bedouin Arab citizens, the number of volunteers for military service—some Christian Arabs and even a few Muslim Arabs—is minute, and the government makes no special effort to increase it. Six Israeli Arabs have received orders of distinction as a part of their military service; of them the most famous is a Bedouin officer, Lieutenant Colonel Abd el-Amin Hajer (also known as Amos Yarkoni), who received the Order of Distinction. Recently, a Bedouin officer was promoted to the rank of Colonel.[citation needed] Christian Arabs are found mainly in Lebanon, with significant other populations in Iraq (e. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Until the second term of Yitzchak Rabin as Prime Minister, social benefits given to families in which at least one member (including a grandfather, uncle or cousin) had served at some time in the armed forces were significantly higher than to "non-military" families, which was considered a means of blatant discrimination between Jews and Arabs. Rabin had led the abolition of the measure, in the teeth of strong opposition from the Right. At present, the only official advantage from military service is the attaining of security clearance and serving in some types of government positions (in most cases, security-related), as well as some indirect benefits. In practice, however, a large number of Israeli employers placing "wanted" ads include the requirement "after military service" even when the job is in no way security-related, which is considered as a euphemism for "no Arab/Haredim need apply". The test of former military service is also frequently applied in admittance to various newly-founded communities, effectively barring Arabs from living there. Also, the Israeli national airline El Al hires only pilots who had served in the Air Force, which in practice excludes Arabs from the job. Yitzhak Rabin Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין) (March 1, 1922–November 4, 1995) was an Israeli politician and military general. ... Categories: Airline stubs | Companies of Israel | Transportation in Israel | Airlines of Israel ...


On the other hand, non-Arab Israelis argue that the mandatory three-year (two years for women) military service puts them at a disadvantage, as they effectively lose three years of their life through their service in the IDF, while the Arab Israelis are able to start right into their jobs after school, or study at a university. In fact, the most frequently heard argument whenever the subject of the discrimination of Arabs comes up - whether on the Knesset floor, in the media or among ordinary citizens - is that the Arabs' "non fulfilment of military duty" justifies their exclusion from some or all the benefits of citizenship. The late former general Rafael Eitan, when he went into politics in the 1980s, proposed that the right to vote be linked to military service. The idea occasionally crops up again among right-wing groups and parties. Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... Rafael Eitan (Hebrew: רפאל איתן) (January 11, 1929 – November 23, 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israeli Defence Forces and later a politician, a Knesset member, and Minister of Agriculture. ...


According to the 2004 U.S. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for Israel and the occupied territories, "Israeli Arabs were not required to perform mandatory military service and, in practice, only a small percentage of Israeli Arabs served in the military. Those who did not serve in the army had less access than other citizens to social and economic benefits for which military service was a prerequisite or an advantage, such as housing, new-household subsidies, and employment, especially government or security-related industrial employment. Regarding the latter, for security reasons, Israeli Arabs generally were restricted from working in companies with defense contracts or in security-related fields." The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Country Reports on Human Rights Practices are submitted annually by the U.S. Department of State to the U.S. Congress. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ...


In recent years, there have been several initiatives to enable Israeli Arabs to volunteer for civilian National Service instead of to the IDF, completion of which would grant the same privileges as those granted to IDF veterans. However, this plan has gained strong resistance from Arab members of the parliament, and as a result, has not been implemented yet. Sherut Leumi (‎, lit. ...


Since 1993, gays have been allowed to openly serve in the military, including special units.


Overseas volunteers

There are three ways to serve with IDF as a foreigner: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

  • The Mahal2000 program is for non-Israeli Jewish men younger than 23 and women younger than 20. The program consists of 14 months of IDF service, including a lengthy training for those in combat units or 1 month of non-combat training. (Volunteers may also be required to spend extra time learning Hebrew before enlisting if necessary.) There are also two subcategories of Mahal, both geared specifically for religious men: Mahal Nahal Hareidi, in which units are comprised solely of religious men, and Mahal Hesder, which combines yeshiva study with IDF service for a total of 21 months.
  • Sar-El is a program for 16-year-old non-Israeli citizens. It usually consists of three weeks unarmed auxiliary service with (not in) the IDF.
  • Garin Tzabar accepts all Jews, although a basic knowledge of the Hebrew language is not mandatory, it is helpful. Of all the programs listed, only Garin Tzabar offers a full service in the IDF. The program is set up in stages: first the participants go through five seminars in the country of origin, and then one has the absorption period in Israel at a Kibbutz. Each Garin is adopted by a Kibbutz in Israel and has living quarters designated for the Garin. The Garin shares responsibilities on the Kibbutz when on military leave. Participants start the program 3 months before being enlisted in the army at the beginning of August.
  • Marva is a program for anyone who is 18 years or older. The program consists of two months of actual basic training in the Israel Defense Forces.

Sar-El is a volunteer program of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... Marva is a program in the Israel Defense Forces that allows young Jews to learn and experience the basics of IDF and Israeli life. ...

Reserve service

Following regular service, men may be called for reserve service of up to one month annually, until the age of 43-45 (reservists may volunteer after this age), and may be called for active duty immediately in times of crisis. In most cases, the reserve duty is carried out in the same unit for years, in many cases the same unit as the active service and by the same people. Many soldiers who have served together in active service continue to meet in reserve duty for years after their discharge, causing reserve duty to become a strong male bonding experience in Israeli society. A well-known Israeli joke refers to civilians as soldiers on 11-month furlough. Male bonding is a term that is used in ethology, social science, and in general usage to describe patterns of friendship and/or cooperation in men (or in the case of ethology: males of various species). ... Look up Furlough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A furlough (IPA: ) is temporary leave of absence, especially from duty in the armed services or from a prison term. ...


Although still available to be called up in times of crisis, most Israeli men, and virtually all women, do not actually perform reserve service in any given year. Units do not always call up all of their reservists every year, and a variety of exemptions are available if called for regular reserve service. Virtually no exemptions exist for reservists called up in a time of crisis, but experience has shown that in such cases (most recently, Second Lebanon War in 2006) exemptions are rarely requested or exercised; units generally achieve recruitment rates above those considered fully-manned. Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ...


Recently, legislation has been proposed for reform in the reserve service, lowering the maximum service age to 40, designating it as a purely emergency force, as well as many other changes to the current structure (although the Defence Minister can suspend any portion of it at any time for security reasons). The age threshold for many reservists whose positions are not listed, though, will be fixed at 49. The legislation is set out to take effect by 13 March 2008. is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

A Magav Sufa in Jerusalem with the Mount of Olives in the background.
A Magav Sufa in Jerusalem with the Mount of Olives in the background.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 459 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 459 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... MAGAV (in Hebrew מגב ) is an acronym for Mishmar Ha-Gvul ( מישמר הגבול ), which in Hebrew means Frontier Guard. MAGAV is the combat branch of the Israeli Police and its composed from professional officers on payroll and field policemen redirected from the IDF (men at the age of 18... The AIL Storm (‎, Sufa) is an Israeli manufactured mini SUV and the workhorse of the Israeli Security Forces. ...

Border Guard service

Some IDF soldiers will serve their mandatory military service in the Mishmar HaGvul (Magav), the Israel Border Police - a section of the Israel Police. Once the soldiers complete their IDF combat training they undergo additional counter-terror and Border Guard training. They are then assigned to any one of the Border Guard units around the country. MAGAV (in Hebrew מגב ) is an acronym for Mishmar Ha-Gvul ( מישמר הגבול ), which in Hebrew means Frontier Guard. MAGAV is the combat branch of the Israeli Police and its composed from professional officers on payroll and field policemen redirected from the IDF (men at the age of 18... Israeli Police logo The Israel Police (משטרת ישראל Mishteret Yisrael) is a civilian force in the State of Israel. ...


The Border Guard units fight side by side with the regular IDF combat units. They also are responsible for security in heavy urban areas such as the City of Jerusalem.


Many officers in the Border Guard come from the IDF combat units. While the Border Guard does retain their own command structure, on the ground they are almost indistinguishable from the regular IDF units.


Expenditures and alliances

See also Israel-United States military relations.

During 1950-66, Israel spent an average of 9% of its GDP on defense. Defense expenditures increased dramatically after both the 1967 and 1973 wars. They reached a high of about 24% of GDP in the 1980s, but have since come back down to about 9% [1], about $15 billion, following the signing of peace agreements with Jordan and Egypt. Israel and the United States maintain a close military relationship. ...


In 1983, the United States and Israel established a Joint Political Military Group, which convenes twice a year. Both the U.S. and Israel participate in joint military planning and combined exercises, and have collaborated on military research and weapons development. Additionally the U.S. military maintains two classified, pre-positioned War Reserve Stocks in Israel valued at $493 million.[6] Israel has the official distinction of being an American Major non-NATO ally. As a result of this, The US and Israel share the vast majority of their security and military technology. On November 29, 1983 a memorandum of agreement was set up between Israel and the United States regarding political, military and economic cooperation. ... The United States Armed Forces are the military services of the United States. ... A War Reserve Stock (WRS) is a collection of warfighting material held in reserve in pre-positioned storage to be used if needed in wartime. ... Map of countries designated by the United States as major non-NATO allies Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to exceptionally close allies who have close strategic working relationships with American forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ...


Since 1976, Israel had been the largest annual recipient of U.S. foreign assistance. In 2004, Israel was receiving $2.16 billion a year in Foreign Military Financing (FMF) grants from the Department of Defense.[7]This amount has increased in recent years due to non-military economic aid being shifted to military aid.[8] A large proportion of this military aid is for the purchase of American military equipment only.


High command (General Staff)

For a list of individual members (2005), see Israeli General Staff

All branches of the IDF are subordinate to a single General Staff. The Chief of the General Staff (Hebrew acronym: רמטכ"ל, pronounced: Ramatkal) is the only serving officer having the rank of Lieutenant General (in Hebrew: רב אלוף, pronounced: "Rav Aluf"). He reports directly to the Defense Minister and indirectly to the Prime Minister of Israel and the cabinet. Chiefs of Staff are formally appointed by the cabinet, based on the Defense Minister's recommendation, for three years, but the government can vote to extend their service to four (and in rare occasions even five) years. The current chief of staff is (Lieutenant) General (Rav-Aluf) Gabi Ashkenazi. He replaced Dan Halutz, who announced his resignation on January 17, 2007, following a critical report by former Chief of Staff Dan Shomron concerning some aspects of the 2006 Lebanon War[2]. The Israeli General Staff is the general staff of the Israel Defense Forces, constituting its supreme command. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... Insignia of the Rav Aluf The Ramatkal (Hebrew: רמטכל, abbr. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Aluf is the term used for general in the Israeli Defence Forces. ... Defense Ministers of Israel, 1948-present David Ben-Gurion 1948-1954 Pinhas Lavon 1954-1955 David Ben-Gurion 1955-1963 Levi Eshkol 1963-1967 Moshe Dayan 1967-1974 Shimon Peres 1974-1977 Ezer Weizman 1977-1980 Menachem Begin 1980-1981 Ariel Sharon 1981-1983 Moshe Arens 1983-1984 Yitzhak Rabin... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gabi (Gabriel) Ashkenazi (Hebrew: ) (born 1954 in Hagor, Israel[1]), is the 19th Chief of General Staff of Israel Defence Forces (Hebrew: רמטכל Ramatkal). ...   (Hebrew: ) (born August 7, 1948 in Tel Aviv, Israel) is an Israeli Air Force Lt. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Dan Shomron (born 1937) was the 13th Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, from 1987 to 1991. ... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ...


Landbased Force structure

The IDF is composed of the following bodies (those whose respective heads are members of the General Staff are in bold): The Israeli General Staff (Hebrew: המטה הכללי של צהל), abbreviated Matkal (מטכל), is the supreme command of the Israel Defense Forces. ...

Structure of the IDF landbased Forces. (click to enlarge)
Structure of the IDF landbased Forces. (click to enlarge)

Branches

Regional commands

Arms

  • Air and Space Arm
  • Sea Arm

Other bodies

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 503 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 2517 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 503 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 2517 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Israeli General Staff is the general staff of the Israel Defense Forces, constituting its supreme command. ... The Israeli Operations Directorate is a directorate in the General Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, established in 1999, and alongside the regional commands, the Air Force and Sea corps and General Staff directorates, is responsible in planning for the exercising military force. ... The IDF Spokespersons Unit is a unit in the IDF Operations Directorate, responsible for information policy and media relations. ... Aman badge Aman (אמן) is the Hebrew abbreviation for the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) Directorate of Military Intelligence (אגף המודיעין), Israels central, overarching military intelligence. ... The Israeli Intelligence Corps is an Israel Defense Forces corps which falls under the jurisdiction of Aman and is responsible for collecting, disseminating, and publishing intelligence information for the General Staff and the political branch. ... The Israeli Military Censor is a unit in the IDF Directorate of Military Intelligence which watches over the publication of information regarding the military network, and generally, the security of Israel. ... The Israeli Human Resources Directorate is the Israel Defense Forces body that coordinates and assembles activities related to the control over human resources and its placement. ... The military police of the Israel Defense Forces (Hebrew: חיל המשטרה הצבאית, Heyl HaMishtara HaTzvait) is the Israeli military police. ... The Israeli Education and Youth Corps is the IDF Human Resources Directorate corps responsible for the education of soldiers and commanders in Israel’s military. ... The Israeli General Corps is the Israel Defense Forces authority which amalgamates all professional staff soldiers and officers. ... The Military Rabbinate is a unit in the Israel Defense Forces that provides religious services to soliders, including non-Jews. ... The Womens Affairs advisor to the Chief of Staff is a female officer in the Israel Defense Forces, in-charge of promoting freedom of opportunities for women soldiers so as to better develop their abilities and talents in the military, and to provide them with a functional, suitable and diverse... The Israeli Chief Reserve Officer (Hebrew: קצין מילואים ראשי) is the commander of the Israel Defense Forces military reserve force. ... The Israeli Planning Directorate is the central body in the Israel Defense Forces General Staff which deals with strategic planning, the building of military forces, and military organization. ... The Israeli Computer Services Directorate is the Israel Defense Forces body which charts the communication, wireless transmission, computerization, command and control over and defense of information in the IDF. The Directorate was created on March 3, 2003, on the basis of some functions previously held by the C4I Corps, which... The Israeli C4I Corps is a crops in the IDF GOC Army Headquarters responsible for military-related communication. ... Technological and Logistics Directorate logo The Israeli Logistics, Medical, and the Centers Directorate is a directorate in the General Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, responsible for the its logistics responses and tasks, and in particular: the building of military bases, maintaining a medical infrastructure during peacetime and times of... The Israeli Medical Corps is an Israel Defense Forces corps responsible for providing healthcare services and medical treatment and instruction to all levels of the Security Forces. ... Northern Command logo The Israeli Northern Command (Hebrew: פיקוד צפון, Pikud Tzafon) is the Israel Defense Forces regional command responsible for the northern front with Syria and Lebanon. ... The Israeli Central Command is a regional command of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The Israeli Southern Command is a regional command of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The Israeli Home Front Command is a relatively recent Israel Defense Forces regional command, created in February 1992 following the Gulf War, which was the first war since the 1948 Arab-Israeli War where the Home Front faced a significant threat. ... Mazi logo The Israeli GOC Army headquarters (Hebrew: , Mifkedet Zroa HaYabasha), abbreviated as Mazi (מזי), is a multi-corps command headquarters created in 1998, which amalgamates the ground forces of the Israel Defense Forces. ... Infantry Corps logo The Israeli Infantry Corps is a corps in the IDF GOC Army Headquarters. ... Armor Corps logo The Israeli Armor Corps is a corps of the Israel Defense Forces, since 1998 subordinate to GOC Army Headquarters. ... The Israeli Engineering Corps are the combat engineering forces of צהל - the Israeli Defence Forces. ... The Israeli Artillery Corps is the Israel Defense Forces corps responsible for operating the medium and long-range artillery network. ... The Israeli Field Intelligence Corps is the newest of the IDF GOC Army Headquarters’ five corps, created in April 2000, and is tasked with collecting combat intelligence and is responsible for intelligence units from the battalion level and up to the entire force. ... The Israeli Adjutant Corps is a support corps in the IDF Human Resources Directorate. ... The Israeli Ordnance Corps is a combat-support corps in the IDF GOC Army Headquarters. ... The Israeli Logistics Corps is a support corps in the IDF Central Technological, Logistics, and Medical Directorate, which centralizes the logistical activity in the IDF, including the transporting of supplies, shipments of fuel, construction, and transport. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The Israeli Air Defense Network is the IDF Air Force unit responsible for the surface front of Israels air defense, complimenting the air defense provided by the active squadrons. ... The naval ensign of Israel The Israeli Sea Corps (Hebrew: חיל הים הישראלי) is the naval arm of the Israel Defense Forces, operating primarily in the Mediterranean Sea in the west and to the Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea, and Gulf of Suez in the south. ... The Military Advocate General assists the Israel Defense Forces in imposing rules of conduct through legal advice, legal instruction, maintaining the mechanisms for military prosecution and legal defense, and fulfilling special legal tasks. ... The Israeli Military Court of Appeals is the supreme military court of the Israel Defense Forces which judges over appeals to the district military tribunals: The Central and Air Force district. ... The Financial Advisor to the Chief of Staff is a role assumed by the head of the Budgeting Directorate of Israel’s Ministry of Defense. ... The Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories is a unit in the Israeli Ministry of Defense that engages in coordinating civilian issues between the Government of Israel, the Israel Defense Forces, foreign organizations, and the Palestinian Authority. ... The Military Secretary is the senior military assistant to the British Secretary of State for Defence and formerly to the Secretary of State for War. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ...

Related bodies

The following bodies work closely with the IDF, but do not (or only partially) belong to its formal structure (those whose respective heads are members of the General Staff are in bold).

Security forces

Development

Oversight

The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... The Israeli National Security Council (Hebrew: המועצה לביטחון לאומי) is a council established by the Prime Ministers Office in 1999 during the prime ministership of Binyamin Netanyahu in the framework of drawing lessons from the Yom Kipur War. ... Israeli Police logo The Israeli police (משטרת ישראל) is a civilian force in the State of Israel. ... The Israel Border Police (Hebrew: משמר הגבול, Mishmar HaGvul) is the combat branch of the Israeli Police. ... The Israel Prison Service (Hebrew: שירות בתי הסוהר, Sherut Batei HaSohar), commonly known by its acronym, Shabas, is the Israeli prison service. ... Honor guard at the Knesset The Knesset Guard is an organization responsible for the protection of Knesset members immunity and the Knesset building. ... IMI logo Israel Military Industries Ltd. ... IAI new logo The Avocet ProJet with IAI Logo Israel Aerospace Industries (Hebrew: התעשייה האווירית לישראל) or IAI (תעא) is Israels prime aerospace and aviation manufacturer, producing aerial systems for both military and civilian usage. ... The Administration for the Development of Weapons and the Technological Industry (Hebrew: מינהל למחקר ,פיתוח אמצעי לחימה ותשתית טכנולוגית), abbreviated Mafat (מפאת), is a joint Israeli Ministry of Defense and Defense Forces body, responsible for ensuring the States ability to develop the material military basis for the IDF. The Administration centralizes and helps to coordinate the... Defense Establishment Comptroller Unit (Hebrew: יחידת מבקר מערכת הביטחון) is an Israel Defense Forces unit which supervises and overseas the fitness, preparedness, and legality of the Israeli Security Forces activities, in all its parts. ... Director-general is the professional head of a UK Executive Agency which contains other agencies headed by directors. ... The Ministry of Defense (or Ministry of Defence) of the government of Israel, is the governmental department responsible for defending the State of Israel from internal and external military threats. ...

Weapons and equipment

Equipment Number
Main Battle Tank 4,000
APC 10,419
Artillery 1,600
Combat Aircraft 402
Helicopters 130

The Military equipment of Israel includes a wide array of arms, tanks, planes, cannons, armored vehicles. ... Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Flying machine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ...

Israeli military technology

The IDF possesses top-of-the-line weapons and computer systems used and recognized worldwide. Some is American-made (with some equipment being modified for IDF use) such as the M4A1 assault rifle, F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon jets and Apache helicopter). Israel also has developed its own independent weapons industry, which has developed weapons and vehicles such as the Merkava battle tank series, Kfir fighter aircraft, and various small arms such as the Galil and Tavor assault rifles and the Uzi submachine gun. M4A1 redirects here. ... F-15 redirects here. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ... The Boeing IDS AH-64 Apache is the US Armys principal attack helicopter, the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ... // The Merkava (Hebrew:  , Chariot) is the main battle tank of the Israel Defense Forces. ... KFIR AM is a classic country radio station on the dial 720 AM Slogan is Better Country 720 AM Power: 1000 watts day and 780 watts night KFIR is under a (CP) Constuction Permit and will be soon at 10,000 watts day and at night 780 watts KFIR is... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Estonian soldiers armed with Galil rifles in Baghdad during the Iraq War. ... Caliber: 5. ... Look up uzi in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The IDF also has several large internal research and development departments, and it purchases many technologies produced by the Israeli security industries including IAI, IMI, Elbit, El-Op, Rafael, Soltam and dozens of smaller firms. Many of these developments have been battle-tested in Israel's numerous military engagements, making the relationship mutually beneficial, the IDF getting tailor-made solutions and the industries a very high repute. The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use... Israel Aircraft Industries or IAI is Israels prime aerospace and aviation manufacturer, producing aerial systems for both military and civilian usage. ... IMI logo Israel Military Industries Ltd. ... Elbit Systems Ltd. ... Elbit Systems Ltd. ... RAFAEL logo RAFAEL Armament Development Authority, known as RAFAEL or Rafael, (also spelled as Raphael or Rephael, and in Hebrew: רפאל - רשות לפיתוח אמצעי לחימה) is the Israeli authority for development of weapons and military technology. ... Soltam is an Israeli-International company which operate both on the military market and the civilian market. ...


Main Israeli developments

An Israeli Merkava main battle tank.
An Israeli Merkava main battle tank.

Israel's military technology is most famous for its guns, armored fighting vehicles (tanks, tank-converted APCs, armoured bulldozers, etc.) and rocketry (missiles and rockets). Israel also designs and in some cases it has manufactured aircraft (Kfir, Lavi; both discontinued) and naval systems (patrol and missile ships). Much of the IDF's electronic systems (intelligence, communication, command and control, navigation etc.) are Israeli-developed, including many systems installed on foreign platforms (esp. aircraft, tanks and submarines). So are many of its precision-guided munitions. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 522 pixelsFull resolution (978 × 638 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 522 pixelsFull resolution (978 × 638 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... // The Merkava (Hebrew:  , Chariot) is the main battle tank of the Israel Defense Forces. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ... East German BRDMs on parade during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of East Germany in 1989 Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are light armoured fighting vehicles for the transport of infantry. ... World War 2 Armoured bulldozer. ... The Israel Aircraft Industries Kfir (Hebrew: כפיר, Lion Cub) is an Israeli-built all-weather, multi-role combat aircraft based on a modified Dassault Mirage 5 airframe, with Israeli avionics and an Israeli-made version of the General Electric J79 turbojet engine. ... IAI Lavi (Hebrew for - Young Lion) is a prototype concept fighter jet Indigenously developed by Israel. ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence...


Israel is the only country in the world with an operational anti-ballistic missile defense system ("Hetz", Arrow, developed with funding and technology from the United States), though an operational system is in place protecting the Moscow area. Israel has also worked with the U.S. on development of a tactical high energy laser system against medium range rockets (called Nautilus or THEL). Arrow anti-ballistic missile launch The Arrow Interceptor (‎, Til hetz) is a theater missile defense (TMD) system; it is the first missile developed by Israel that was specifically designed and built to intercept and destroy ballistic missiles on a national level. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... The Tactical High-Energy Laser, or THEL, is a laser developed for military use. ...


Israel has the independent capability of launching reconnaissance satellites into orbit (a capability which only Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the People's Republic of China, India and Japan hold). Both the satellites (Ofeq) and the launchers (Shavit) were developed by the Israeli security industries. A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite or recon sat) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ... Ofeq 5 Ofeq, also spelled Offek or Ofek (Hebrew: אופק, Horizon) is the designation of a series of Israeli reconnaissance satellites. ... Shavit (Hebrew: comet) is a launch vehicle produced by Israel. ...

An Israeli Wolf APC.

Israel is also said to have developed an indigenous nuclear capability, although no official details or acknowledgments have ever been publicized. On the issue of this nuclear weapons program, Israel chooses to follow a policy of deliberate ambiguity. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For the German vehicle, see Mercedes-Benz G-Class and AGF (Light infantry vehicle). ... Israel is widely believed to be the sixth country in the world to develop nuclear weapons[2] and to be one of four nuclear-armed countries not recognized as a Nuclear Weapons State by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the others being India, Pakistan and North Korea. ... Many nations may find it to their advantage to maintain a policy of deliberate ambiguity (also known as a policy of strategic ambiguity). ...


Israel has also recently purchased the brand new APC, The Wolf Armoured Vehicle, to be used in urban warfare and to protect an official. For the German vehicle, see Mercedes-Benz G-Class and AGF (Light infantry vehicle). ...


Ranks and insignia

Unlike most world armies, these ranks are common for all corps in the IDF, including the air force and navy. All ranks in ascending order: Notes If the ranks of the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) are to be translated one-to-one to Western ranks then a Rav Aluf is equivalent to Lieutenant General (since Major General is Aluf). But since Rav Aluf in Israel is the high commander of the army (including air force... This page details the insignia of the Israel Defense Forces, excluding rank insignia. ...


Enlisted soldiers

Enlisted soldiers in mandatory service (Hogrim).


Ranks: Turai, Rav-turai (Rabat), Samal, Samal rishon (Samar).


NCOs past mandatory service

Non-commissioned officers who are past their mandatory service and decide to stay in the army (Nagadim).


Ranks: Rav-samal (Rasal), Rav-samal rishon (Rasar), Rav-samal mitkadem (Rasam), Rav-samal bakhír (Rasab), Rav-nagad (Ranag).


Officers

Officers (Ktzinim)


Ranks: Segen mishne (Sagam), Segen, Seren, Rav-seren (Rasan), Sgan-aluf (Sa'al), Aluf mishne (Alam), Tat-aluf (Ta'al), Aluf, Rav-aluf (Ra'al). Insignia of the Rav Aluf The Ramatkal (Hebrew: רמטכל, abbr. ...


Academic Officers

Ranks: Katsin miktsoi academai (Kama), Katsin academai bakhir (Ka'ab).


They can become full officers by going through an officers course. Katsin miktsoi academai is in his mandatory service while Katsin academai bakhir is past his mandatory service.


Code of Conduct

In 1992, the IDF drafted a Code of Conduct that is a combination of international law, Israeli law, Jewish heritage and the IDF's own traditional ethical code - Ruach Tzahal רוח צה"ל ("The Spirit of the IDF"). For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...


The Stated Values of the IDF

  • Tenacity of Purpose in Performing Missions and Drive to Victory - "The IDF servicemen and women will fight and conduct themselves with courage in the face of all dangers and obstacles; They will persevere in their missions resolutely and thoughtfully even to the point of endangering their lives."
  • Responsibility - "The IDF servicemen or women will see themselves as active participants in the defense of the state, its citizens and residents. They will carry out their duties at all times with initiative, involvement and diligence with common sense and within the framework of their authority, while prepared to bear responsibility for their conduct."
  • Credibility - "The IDF servicemen and women shall present things objectively, completely and precisely, in planning, performing and reporting. They will act in such a manner that their peers and commanders can rely upon them in performing their tasks."
  • Personal Example - "The IDF servicemen and women will comport themselves as required of them, and will demand of themselves as they demand of others, out of recognition of their ability and responsibility within the military and without to serve as a deserving role model."
  • Human Life - "The IDF servicemen and women will act in a judicious and safe manner in all they do, out of recognition of the supreme value of human life. During combat they will endanger themselves and their comrades only to the extent required to carry out their mission."
  • Purity of Arms - "The soldier shall make use of his weaponry and power only for the fulfillment of the mission and solely to the extent required; he will maintain his humanity even in combat. The soldier shall not employ his weaponry and power in order to harm non-combatants or prisoners of war, and shall do all he can to avoid harming their lives, body, honor and property."
  • Professionalism - "The IDF servicemen and women will acquire the professional knowledge and skills required to perform their tasks, and will implement them while striving continuously to perfect their personal and collective achievements."
  • Discipline - "The IDF servicemen and women will strive to the best of their ability to fully and successfully complete all that is required of them according to orders and their spirit. IDF soldiers will be meticulous in giving only lawful orders, and shall refrain from obeying blatantly illegal orders."
  • Comradeship - "The IDF servicemen and women will act out of fraternity and devotion to their comrades, and will always go to their assistance when they need their help or depend on them, despite any danger or difficulty, even to the point of risking their lives."
  • Sense of Mission - "The IDF soldiers view their service in the IDF as a mission; They will be ready to give their all in order to defend the state, its citizens and residents. This is due to the fact that they are representatives of the IDF who act on the basis and in the framework of the authority given to them in accordance with IDF orders."

Look up responsibility in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Cred” redirects here. ... Part of the Israeli Defense Forces official doctrine of ethics is a purity of arms code. ... A profession is a specialized work function within society, generally performed by a professional. ... Comrade is a term meaning friend, colleague, or ally. ...

Code of Conduct against militants and Palestinian civilians

Recently, a team of professors, commanders and former judges, led by Tel Aviv University the holder of the Ethics chair, Professor Asa Kasher, developed a code of conduct which emphasizes the right behavior in low intensity warfare against terrorists, where soldiers must operate within a civilian population. Reserve units and regular units alike are taught the following eleven rules of conduct, which are an addition to the more general IDF Spirit: The Engineering Faculty Boulevard The Smolarz Auditorium Tel Aviv University (TAU, אוניברסיטת תל אביב, אתא) is one of Israels major universities. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Asa Kasher (‎, born on 6 June 1940 in Jerusalem) is an Israeli philosopher and linguist working at Tel Aviv University, Israel. ... Low intensity conflict (LIC) is an armed conflict, usually between a regular army or law enforcement and non-regular armed militias (terror organization, guerrilla fighters, gangs, rioters etc). ...

  1. Military action can only be taken against military targets.
  2. The use of force must be proportional.
  3. Soldiers may only use weaponry they were issued by the IDF.
  4. Anyone who surrenders cannot be attacked.
  5. Only those who are properly trained can interrogate prisoners.
  6. Soldiers must accord dignity and respect to the Palestinian population and those arrested.
  7. Soldiers must give appropriate medical care, when conditions allow, to oneself and one's enemy.
  8. Pillaging is absolutely and totally illegal.
  9. Soldiers must show proper respect for religious and cultural sites and artifacts.
  10. Soldiers must protect international aid workers, including their property and vehicles.
  11. Soldiers must report all violations of this code.

Controversies

Despite describing itself as "the most moral army in the world," the IDF has become embroiled in a number of controversies over its "alleged" human rights record, and has been increasingly accused by such organisations as Amnesty International of violating the laws of war. Its supporters dismiss such accusations as biased that they do not take into account the reality of the threats faced by the IDF.


Sinai Peninsula

Several specific allegations of killings of prisoners of war by members of the IDF have been made by former members with regard to incidents in the 1956 Sinai War and the 1967 Six-Day War.[9][10] One former IDF officer admitted taking part in a killing during the 1956 war. Though it should be noted that both Egypt and Syria killed Israeli prisoners of war as well. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...


On June 8, 1967, during the Six-Day War, IDF forces fired on a U.S. Navy intelligence ship, USS Liberty in the USS Liberty incident, the IDF stated that its forces mistook the Liberty for an Egyptian naval vessel, as it was not in international waters. The attack resulted in the deaths of 34 U.S. servicemen and injuries to 173 others. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... USS Liberty (AGTR-5) was a Belmont-class technical research ship. ... Help arrives after the Israeli attack on USS Liberty. ...


Lebanon

In September, 1982, it is belived that IDF forces permitted Lebanese Phalangist troops to enter the Sabra and Shatilla refugee camps. The Lebanese troops then carried out a massacre of Palestinian civilians. The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre; Arabic: مذبحة صبرا وشاتيلا) was an attack carried out in September 1982 by a Lebanese Forces militia group against Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut. ...


Palestinian territories

Palestinian news agencies,[11] and the Palestinian Center for Human Rights,[12] as well as some pro-Palestinian activists abroad,[13] call the IDF the "Israeli Occupation Forces" ("IOF") rather than "Israel Defense Forces." This attempt to reframe[14] discourse has been recommended by some Palestinian activists and rejected by others.[15]


Counterterrorism tactics

Owing to the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the tactics of the IDF have been adapted for low intensity warfare primarily against Palestinian militants operating from within densely-populated civilian territory.[citation needed] Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Low intensity conflict (LIC) is an armed conflict, usually between a regular army or law enforcement and non-regular armed militias (terror organization, guerrilla fighters, gangs, rioters etc). ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


Focused Foiling

The IDF employs a strategy of "focused foiling" (in Hebrew: סיכול ממוקד sikul memukad) of Palestinian terrorists, aimed at preventing future acts of violence by killing terrorists who are about to commit an act of terrorism such as suicide bombings. Those "focused foiling" are possible thanks to human intelligence who warns in advance about such an attack in the immediate future. Hebrew redirects here. ...


House demolitions

Main article: House demolition in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

The IDF has historically used a strategy of demolishing houses of family members of suicide bombers, originally claiming that this was a very effective prevention tactic: would-be bombers' families sometimes prevent the bomber, sometimes even going as far as informing to the IDF, in the hope of preventing their family-member's death as well as their house being demolished. Some would-be bombers even relented at the last moment, fearing their parent's home would be demolished. Critics, including human right organizations,[16] contend that effectiveness (i.e., actually preventing Israeli civilians' deaths in a terrorist attack) does not legitimize excessive force. They also contend that the demolitions carried out by the IDF disproportionately affect civilians. However, an overwhelming majority of Israelis accepts this tactic as necessary.[citation needed] A Palestinian home after demolition by Israeli security forces House demolition in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a controversial tactic used by the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. ...


During the recent conflict, the number of houses demolished has increased significantly, both as the result of an increase in the number of suicide bombers, as well as due to more lenient criteria for house demolition. The IDF now routinely demolishes houses from which shots were fired at nearby traffic or settlements, houses harboring concealed Smuggling tunnel entrances in the Gaza strip, and for other security reasons. A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death in addition to the attacks primary purpose (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... Smuggling tunnels are secret tunnels, usually hidden underground, used for smuggling of goods, illegal weapons and people. ... The Gaza Strip (Arabic: transliteration: , ‎ Retzuat Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west and Israel on the north and east. ...


Another main source for house demolition is in the course of fighting. After several IDF soldiers were killed early in the conflict while searching houses containing militants, the IDF started employing a tactic of surrounding such houses, calling on the occupants (civilian and militant) to exit, and demolishing the house on top of the militants that do not surrender. This tactic, called "Noal Sir Lachatz" נוהל סיר לחץ "Pressure Pot" ,is now used whenever feasible (i.e., non multi-rise building that's separated from other houses). Palestinians claim several cases in which houses were demolished on top of incapacitated or deaf civilian occupants. However, the IDF claims that in the vast majority of cases the occupants were militants.

Image:D9rafah01.jpg
IDF armored D9R demolish building during Operation Rainbow in Rafah, at May 2004

In some heavy fighting incidents, esp. in the Battle of Jenin 2002 and Operation Rainbow in Rafah 2004, heavily-armored IDF Caterpillar D9 bulldozers were used to demolish houses to widen alleyways or to secure locations for IDF troops. The use of the D9 proved to be effective, as it prevented further casualties in Jenin and prevented casualties at Rafah. The Battle of Jenin took place in April 2002 in Jenins Palestinian refugee camp as part of Operation Defensive Shield, a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israel Defence Forces (IDF), the largest conducted in the West Bank since the 1967 Six-Day War. ... Operation Rainbow (In Hebrew, מבצע קשת בענן) is a controversial military operation which began on May 18, 2004 in the Gaza Strip. ... Rafah (Arabic: رفح Hebrew: רפיח) is a town in the Gaza Strip, on the Egyptian border, and a nearby town on the Egyptian side of the border, on the Sinai Peninsula. ... Alternative meanings: vehicle armour, Armor (novel) A hoplite wearing a helmet, a breastplate and greaves (and nothing else). ... The Caterpillar D9 is a large track-type tractor (commonly referred to as a bulldozer) with caterpillar tracks designed and manufactured by Caterpillar Inc. ... A bulldozer is a powerful crawler (tractor) equipped with a blade. ...


Palestinians and international organizations say the use of bulldozers for purposes of demolishing civilian structures is illegal. In one well-known incident, International Solidarity Movement activist Rachel Corrie was killed when she tried to obstruct a Caterpillar D9 armoured bulldozer in Rafah after being ordered several times by the IDF soldiers to exit the area of the demolition. For information on the Polish trade union, see Solidarity. ... Rachel Corrie Rachel Corrie (April 10, 1979 – March 16, 2003) was an American member of the International Solidarity Movement (ISM) who traveled to the Gaza Strip during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. ... World War 2 Armoured bulldozer. ...


In the summer 2005, after numerous houses had been destroyed, the Israeli army itself came to the conclusion that these demolitions had outgrown their usefulness and announced putting an end to this policy. This does not however mean that, as part of its low intensity warfare doctrine, the IDF would not destroy civilian homes that are used by enemy combatants. Low intensity conflict (LIC) is an armed conflict, usually between a regular army or law enforcement and non-regular armed militias (terror organization, guerrilla fighters, gangs, rioters etc). ...

See also: urban warfare, counter terror, and CQB

Urban warfare is a modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with MOUT. (Discuss) CQB, sometimes CQC, is an acronym for Close Quarters Battle or Close Quarters Combat, and refers to fighting methods within buildings, streets, narrow alleys and other places where visibility and maneuverability are limited. ...

See also

Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... The Israeli Security Forces are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... The history of the Israel Defense Forces is intertwined with history of the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. ... This page details the insignia of the Israel Defense Forces, excluding rank insignia. ... This is a navigation page for brigades in the Israeli Defence Forces. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... // Military Unit Mottos: Australia Military Unit Mottos: Canada Republic of China Armed Force 防衛固守,有效嚇阻(fang-wei-gu-shou, yo-siao-he-zu): persistent defense, effective intimidation. ... Krav Maga (Hebrew קרב מגע: contact combat) is a martial art, at first developed in Czechoslovakia in the 1930s. ...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ Summary from the Israel Democracy Institute
  2. ^ Global Security entry
  3. ^ "First woman pilot in Israeli Air Force dies", The Jewish news weekly of Northern California, June 2, 2005. Accessed Jan 20, 2008.
  4. ^ "First woman pilot in Israeli Air Force dies", The Jewish news weekly of Northern California, June 2, 2005. Accessed Jan 20, 2008.
  5. ^ Azoulay, Yuval "Israel Air Force appoints first female deputy squadron commander", Haaretz, November 28, 2007. Accessed Jan 20, 2008.
  6. ^ Global Security.org. 31st Munitions Squadron [31st MUNS]. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  7. ^ US House of Representatives. [http://www.house.gov/budget_democrats/pres_budgets/fy2004/fy04update/150.htm Summary and Analysis of the President's 2004 Budget]. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  8. ^ US State Department. Congressional Budget Justification for Foreign Operations. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  9. ^ "A Soldier's Confession", Time Magazine, August 28, 1995
  10. ^ "Opening Grave Wounds", Time Magazine, October 2, 1995
  11. ^ As of 2008-02-07 Google indexed 1,420 pages at ipc.gov.ps containing "israeli occupation forces" and 117 containing "israel defense forces" or "idf".
  12. ^ As of 2008-02-07 Google indexed 984 pages at pchrgaza.org containing "israeli occupation forces" and 86 containing "israel defense forces" or "idf".
  13. ^ 'Suggested language for talking about the Palestinian struggle for self-determination.' Palestine Media Watch
  14. ^ Mor, Ben D. 'Strategic Self-Preservation in Public Diplomacy: The Israeli-Palestinian Case.' Paper presented at the annual conference of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago 04-2003
  15. ^ Finkelstein, Norman. 'How can we help the Palestinian cause?' Workshop hosted by The Federation of Student Islamic Societies at Birkbeck College, University of London. 2008-01-23
    Quote: "It is the IDF, and it's also illegally occupying Gaza, it's illegally invading them. But don't use terminology which is going to make it seem as if you're a propagandist. Use the terminology that everybody else uses. [...] You should insist on [the term "occupation."] But I would not use 'IOF.' It's 'IDF.' We don't have to become propagandists because we could just use the mainstream [term] and still succeed."
  16. ^ Human Rights Watch - Mass Home Demolitions in the Gaza Strip
  • Rosenthal, Donna. The Israelis. Free Press, 2003, ISBN 0-7432-7035-5

is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Israel Defense Forces
  • IDF Official Website
  • IDF Code of Conduct
  • The IDF Spirit - the ethical code of the IDF
  • Palestinian violence and terror attacks since September 2000
  • A list of Israeli civilians who died during Palestinian terror attacks since September 2000
  • CNN.com Special - Victims of Terror
  • isayeret.com - The Israeli Special Forces Database
  • Israeli Weapons
  • Jerusalem volunteer Border Guard
  • Israeli Armed Forces at Flags of the World
This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Israel Defense Forces - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3398 words)
After the establishment of the IDF, the two Jewish underground organizations the Etzel and Lehi joined with the IDF in a loose confederation, but were allowed to operate independently in some sectors until the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, after which these two organizations were disbanded, and their members integrated into the IDF.
The IDF requires women who volunteer for combat positions to serve for three years because combat soldiers must undergo a lengthy period of training, and it is in the interests of the IDF to get as much use of that training as possible.
IDF soldiers will not use their weapons and force to harm human beings who are not combatants or prisoners of war, and will do all in their power to avoid causing harm to their lives, bodies, dignity and property".
Israel Defense Forces - Israel (927 words)
Israel's ground, air, and naval forces, known as the Israel Defense Force (IDF), fall under the command of a single general staff.
The highest ranking IDF officer, the only officer to hold the rank of lieutenant general, is the chief of staff, who is chairman of the general staff and is responsible to the minister of defense.
Currently, the IDF's security objectives are to defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the State of Israel, deter all enemies and curb all forms of terrorism which threaten daily life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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