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Encyclopedia > Israel
מדינת ישראל
Medīnat Yisrā'el
دولة إسرائيل
Dawlat Isrā'īl

State of Israel
Flag of Israel Coat of arms of Israel
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Hatikvah ("The Hope")
Capital  Jerusalem
31°47′N 35°13′E
Largest city Jerusalem
Official languages Hebrew, Arabic
Government Parliamentary democracy
 - President Moshe Katsav1
 - Prime Minister Ehud Olmert
 - Knesset Speaker Dalia Itzik
Independence from the League of Nations mandate administered by the United Kingdom 
 - Declaration 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708) 
Area
 - Total 20,770 km² (151th)
8,019 sq mi 
 - Water (%) ~2
Population
 - December 2006 estimate 7,100,0002 (98th)
 - 1995 census 5,548,523 
 - Density 324 /km² (34th)
(787) /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 - Total $177.3 billion (47th)
 - Per capita $26,200 (28th)
HDI (2006) 0.927 (high) (23rd)
Currency New Israeli Sheqel (₪) (ILS)
Time zone IST (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST)  (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .il
Calling code +972
1 Has temporarily relinquished power (February 2007).
2 Includes Israeli population living in the West Bank, Golan Heights and East Jerusalem.

The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל , Medinat Yisra'el; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ إِسْرَائِيل‎, Dawlat Isrā'īl) is a country in the Western Asian Levant, on the southeastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Lebanon on the north, Syria and Jordan on the east, and Egypt on the south-west.[1] Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links COA_of_Israel. ... Flag ratio: 8:11 Another common colorization of the flag, using lighter blue. ... The coat of arms of Israel shows a menorah surrounded by an olive branch on each side, and the writing ישראל (Hebrew for Israel) below it. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Hatikvah or Hatikva (Hebrew: הַתִּקְוָה, The Hope) is the national anthem of Israel. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Israel Geography of Israel User:DanielZm/test Template:Israel infobox Template:Israel ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Image File history File links Jerusalem_emblem_crop. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: ‎, Nesí Hamdiná, literally: The President of the State) is the Head of State of Israel, but has a largely ceremonial, figurehead role with real power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister of Israel. ... Moshe Katsav (Hebrew: ‎; born December 5, 1945) is the eighth and current President of Israel (since 2000). ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... It has been suggested that Aliza Olmert be merged into this article or section. ... List of Speakers of the Knesset, the Israeli parliament: Joseph Shprinzak (Mapai) 1949-59 Nahum Nir (Ahdut Haavodah) 1959 Kadish Luz (Mapai, Alignment)1959-69 Reuven Barkat (Alignment) 1969-72 Yisrael Yeshayahu-Sharabi (Alignment) 1972-77 Yitzhak Shamir (Likud) 1977-80 Yitzhak Berman (Likud) 1980-81 Menachem... Dalia Itzik (Hebrew: ‎; born October 20, 1952) is the current speaker of the Israeli Knesset and Acting President of Israel. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Iyar (Standard Hebrew אִייָּר Iyyar, Tiberian Hebrew אִיָּר ʾIyyār: from Akkadian ayyaru Rosette; blossom) is the eighth month of the ecclesiastical year and the second month of the civil year on the Hebrew calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Purchasing power parity (PPP) is in economics the method of using the long-run equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize the currencies purchasing power. ... Map of world GDP (PPP) by country using the IMF list for 2005 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, based on the 2005 IMF data. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code ILS User(s) Israel, Palestinian Authority Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... The Israel Standard Time (IST) is the standard timezone in Israel and is 2 hours ahead of UTC (UTC+2). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ...  DST used  DST no longer used  DST never used Daylight saving time (DST), or summer time in British English, is the convention of advancing clocks so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .il is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) of Israel. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Image File history File links He-Medinat_Israel. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Israel declared its independence in 1948. With a diverse population currently exceeding seven million citizens of primarily Jewish background and religion, it is the world's only Jewish state.[2][3] Jerusalem is the capital city and seat of government.[4] Israel is the only country in the Middle East considered to be a liberal democracy, having a broad array of political rights and civil liberties present.[5][6] In addition, Israel is considered the most advanced in the region in terms of economic competition,[7] business regulations,[8] freedom of the press,[9] and overall human development.[10] David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... The term Jewish state is sometimes used to describe the State of Israel and refers to its status as a nation-state for the Jewish people. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... Economy (from Greek οικονομία, oikonomia, household) refers to the human activities related with the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services. ... Commercial law or business law is the body of law which governs business and commerce and is often considered to be a branch of civil law and deals both with issues of private law and public law. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Human development may refer to: Human development (biology) Human development (psychology) see Developmental psychology Occasionally, it may refer to both, but because each of these is already an immense area, few if any contemporary academic discussions attempt to tackle both with any completeness. ...

Name

The name "Israel" is rooted in the Hebrew Bible, Genesis 32:28, where Jacob is renamed Israel after successfully wrestling with an angel of God.[11] The biblical nation fathered by Jacob was then called "The Children of Israel" or the "Israelites". 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish term) or Old Testament (Christian term). ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The modern country was named State of Israel, and its citizens are referred to as Israelis in English. Other rejected name proposals included Eretz Israel, Zion and Judea.[12] The use of the term Israeli to refer to a citizen of Israel was decided by the Government of Israel in the weeks immediately after independence and announced by Foreign Minister Moshe Shertok.[13] The Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisrael) refers to the land making up the ancient Jewish Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. ... Dormition Church, situated on the modern Mount Zion Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister who helps form the governmental foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... Moshe Sharett (born Moshe Shertok, October 15, 1894 - July 7, 1965) was the second Prime Minister of Israel (1953-1955), serving for a little under two years between David Ben-Gurions two terms. ...


History

Main article: History of Israel

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Historical roots

See also: History of ancient Israel and Judah, Jewish history, and History of the Jews in the Land of Israel

The first historical record of the word "Israel" comes from an Egyptian stele documenting military campaigns in Canaan. Although this stele which referred to a people (the determinative for 'country' was absent) is dated to approximately 1211 BCE,[14] Jewish tradition holds that the Land of Israel has been a Jewish Holy Land and Promised land for four thousand years, since the time of the patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob). The land of Israel holds a special place in Jewish religious obligations, encompassing Judaism's most important sites (such as the remains of the First and Second Temples of the Jewish People). Connected with these two versions of the temple are religiously significant rites which stand as the origin for many aspects of modern Judaism.[15] Starting around the eleventh century BCE, the first of a series of Jewish kingdoms and states established intermittent rule over the region that lasted more than a millennium.[16] The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... History of the Jews in the Land of Israel begins mainly from the ancient Israelites (also known as Hebrews), who settled in the land of Israel. ... The Merneptah Stele is the reverse of a stela erected by Amenhotep III written by Merneptah. ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompass related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... Canaan (Canaanite: כנען, Hebrew: , Greek: Χαναάν whence Latin: Canaan; and from Hebrew, Aramaic: whence Arabic: ‎). Canaan is an ancient term for a region approximating present-day Israel(94%.) and West Bank and Gaza plus adjoining coastal lands and parts of Lebanon and Syria. ... In mesopotamian cuneiform texts (i. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... The expression The Holy Land (Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreṣ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta; Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah) generally refers to the Land of Israel. ... According to the Bible, the Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisrael) was promised to the descendants of Hebrew patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob by God, making it the Promised land. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... A stone (2. ... Era Vulgaris redirects here. ... The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... A millennium is a period of time, equal to one thousand years (from Latin mille, thousand, and annum, year). ...


Under Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, and (briefly) Sassanian rule, Jewish presence in the region dwindled because of mass expulsions. For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ‎ Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ...

The Menorah sacked from Jerusalem, as seen on the Arch of Titus.
The Menorah sacked from Jerusalem, as seen on the Arch of Titus.

In particular, the failure of the Bar Kokhba's revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE resulted in a large-scale expulsion of Jews. It was during this time that the Romans gave the name Syria Palaestina to the geographic area, in an attempt to erase Jewish ties to the land.[17] Nevertheless, the Jewish presence in Palestine remained constant. The main Jewish population shifted from the Judea region to the Galilee. The Mishnah and Jerusalem Talmud, two of Judaism's most important religious texts, were composed in the region during this period. The land was conquered from the Byzantine Empire in 638 CE during the initial Muslim conquests. The Hebrew niqqud was invented in Tiberias during this time. The area was ruled by the Omayyads, then by the Abbasids, Crusaders, the Kharezmians and Mongols, before becoming part of the empire of the Mamluks (1260-1516) and the Ottoman Empire in 1517. sack of jerusalem on inside wall ot arch of titus in rome, italy This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... sack of jerusalem on inside wall ot arch of titus in rome, italy This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A coin issued by Mattathias Antigonus, c. ... The Arch of Titus This article deals with the main arch of Titus on the Via Sacra. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Commanders Hadrian Simon Bar Kokhba Strength  ?  ? Casualties Unknown 580,000 Jews (mass civilian casualties), 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed (per Cassius Dio). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Events The messianic, charismatic leader Simon bar Kokhba starts a war of liberation against the Romans, which is crushed by emperor Hadrian. ... See related article Occupations of Palestine. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Jerusalem Talmud (In Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi, in short known as the Yerushalmi), also known as the Palestinian Talmud, like its Babylonian counterpart (see Babylonian Talmud), is a collection of Rabbinic discussions elaborating on the Mishnah. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Era Vulgaris redirects here. ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632-732) began after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and were marked by a century of rapid Arab expansion beyond the Arabian peninsula under the Rashidun and Umayyad caliphs, ending with the Battle of Tours— resulting in a vast Muslim... Note: This article contains special characters. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Standard Hebrew נִקּוּד, Biblical Hebrew נְקֻדּוֹת, Tiberian Hebrew vowels) is the system of diacritical vowel points (or vowel marks) in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Tiberias in 1862, the ruins reminiscent of its ancient heritage. ... The Umayyad dynasty (Banu Umayyah), deriving its name from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of Muawiyah I, was the first great dynasty of the Muslim Caliphate, 661–750. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... The Crusader states, c. ... Khwarezmia (also spelled Chorasmia) was a state centered around the Aral Salt Flats (formerly the Aral Sea) including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...

Zionism and immigration

State of Israel
Geography

Land of Israel · Districts · Cities
Transport · Mediterranean
Dead Sea · Red Sea · Sea of Galilee
Jerusalem · Tel Aviv · Haifa Image File history File links COA_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... Map of the districts of Israel There are six main administrative districts of Israel, known in Hebrew as mehozot (מחוזות; singular: mahoz) and fifteen sub-districts known as nafot (נפות; singular: nafa). ... Cities in Israel, by district: // Northern District See also North District, Israel. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎; Arabic: ‎) is the Earths lowest point not covered by ice, at 418 m (1371 feet) below sea level and falling[2], and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world, at 330 m (1083 feet) deep. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Sea of Galilee is Syrias largest freshwater lake. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

History

Jewish history · Timeline · Zionism · Aliyah
Herzl · Balfour · Mandate · 1947 UN Plan
Independence · Flag · Austerity · Refugees
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1917 was made in a letter dated November 2, 1917, from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization, on the partitioning... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Flag ratio: 8:11 Another common colorization of the flag, using lighter blue. ... Main article: History of Israel Austerity in Israel: From 1949 to 1959, the state of Israel was, to a varying extent, under a regime of austerity (צנע tsena), during which rationing and similar measures were enforced. ...

Arab-Israeli conflict · Proposals

1948 War · 1949 Armistice · Suez War
Six-Day War · Attrition War
Yom Kippur War · Lebanon War
2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict
Peace treaties with: Egypt, Jordan
Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Combatants Egypt Syria Transjordan  Lebanon Saudi Arabia Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army  Israel Commanders Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni† Hasan Salama† Fawzi al-Qawuqji Yaakov Dori Yigael Yadin Strength Egypt: 10,000 initially rising to 20,000 Iraq: 5,000 initially rising to 15,000–18... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Soviet Union Strength unknown Egyptian: unknown Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300 Casualties 1,424 soldiers and >100 civilians killed 2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded [1] [2] 10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹ 3 Soviet pilots killed The War of Attrition (Hebrew: ‎)(Arabic: ‎) was... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... Combatants Israel Phalange South Lebanon Army Amal PLO Syria Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength 76,000 37,000 Casualties 670 9,800 The 1982 Lebanon War (Hebrew: , Milkhemet Levanon, Milkhemet Levanon, Arabic: ‎), called by Israel the Operation Peace of... Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13...

Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Timeline · Peace process · Peace camp
1st Intifada · Oslo · 2nd Intifada
Barrier · Disengagement Israel, with the West Bank and Gaza Strip in diagonal stripes The Israeli-Palestinian conflict which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, that both claim the right to sovereignty over the... This is an incomplete timeline of notable events in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... The Israeli peace camp is a collection of political and non-political movements which desire to promote peace, mainly with the Arab neighbours of Israel (the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon) and encourage co-existence with the Arab citizens of Israel. ... The First Intifada, or Palestinian uprising refers to a series of violent incidents between Palestinians and Israelis between 1987 and approximately 1990. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... The barrier route as of May 2005. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (termed in Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to...

Economy

Science & technology · Companies
Tourism · Wine · Diamonds
Military industry This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Tourism in Israel includes a rich variety of historical and religious sites in the Holy Land, as well as modern beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. ... The Israeli wine industry is known for its vibrancy, with wineries numbering in the hundreds and ranging in size from small boutique enterprises making a few thousand bottles per year to the largest producing over ten million bottles per year. ... The Israeli Diamond industry is a world leader in producing cut diamonds for wholesale. ... The Military equipment of Israel includes a wide array of arms, tanks, planes, cannons, armored vehicles. ...

Demographics · Culture

Religion · Israeli Arabs · Kibbutz
Music · Archaeology · Universities
Hebrew · Literature · Sport · Israelis This article discusses the demographics of Israel. ... The culture of Israel, also called Israeli culture, is inseparable from long history of Judaism and Jewish history which preceded it (i. ... Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ‎; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... Modern Israeli music is heavily influenced by its constituents, which include Jewish immigrants (see Jewish music) from more than 120 countries around the world, which have brought their own musical traditions, making Israel a global melting pot. ... The archaeology of Israel is a national passion that also attracts considerable international interest on account of the regions Biblical links. ... There are eight official universities in Israel. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Israeli literature is the literature of the people or State of Israel. ...

Laws · Politics

Law of Return · Jerusalem Law
Parties · Elections · PM · President
Knesset · Supreme Court · Courts The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... Political parties in Israel: Israels political system is based on proportional representation which allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties, in which a single party usually has no chance of gaining power by itself, forcing the parties to cooperate and form coalition governments. ... Elections in Israel gives information on election and election results in Israel. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: ‎, Nesí Hamdiná, literally: The President of the State) is the Head of State of Israel, but has a largely ceremonial, figurehead role with real power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister of Israel. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... Judicial branch is an independent branch of the government which includes secular and religious courts. ...

Foreign affairs

Intl. Law · UN · US · Arab League High priorities in the foreign policy of Israel include seeking an end to hostilities with Arab forces, against which it has fought six wars since 1948 and gaining wide acceptance as a sovereign state with an important international role. ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Israel and the United Nations have had mixed relations since Israels founding on May 14, 1948. ... Israel-United States relations have evolved from an initial United States policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily powerful Israel, dependent on the United States for its economic and military strength, with the... From the time it was established in March 1945, the Arab League took an active role in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...

Security Forces

Israel Defense Forces
Intelligence Community · Security Council
Police · Border Police · Prison Service The Israeli Security Forces are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: ‎  , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Sea Corps. ... The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. ... The Israeli National Security Council (Hebrew: המועצה לביטחון לאומי) is a council established by the Prime Ministers Office in 1999 during the prime ministership of Binyamin Netanyahu in the framework of drawing lessons from the Yom Kipur War. ... The Israel Border Police (Hebrew: משמר הגבול, Mishmar HaGvul) is the combat branch of the Israeli Police. ... The Israel Prison Service (Hebrew: שירות בתי הסוהר, Sherut Batei HaSohar), commonly known by its acronym, Shabas, is the Israeli prison service. ...

Portal:Israel

v  d  e
Main articles: Zionism and Aliyah

Jews living in the Diaspora have sought to emigrate into Israel throughout the centuries. For example, in 1141 Yehuda Halevi issued a call to the Jews to emigrate to Eretz Israel and eventually died in Jerusalem. In 1267, Nahmanides settled in Jerusalem and since then a continual Jewish presence in Jerusalem has been maintained. Yosef Karo immigrated to the large Jewish community in Safed in 1535. Waves of immigration also occurred, for example in the years 1209-1211, the "aliyah of the Rabbis of France and England" to Acre became famous as in 1258 and 1266. In 1260, Yechiel of Paris emigrated to Acre along with his son and a large group of followers. Small waves of immigration occurred during the 18th century out of religious motives, famously Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk and 300 of his followers, Judah he-Hasid and over 1000 disciples, and over five hundred disciples (and their families) of the Vilna Gaon known as Perushim. Waves of rabbinical students immigrated in 1808-1809, settling in Tiberias, Safed and then in Jerusalem.[18] In 1860, the old Jewish community in Jerusalem started building neighborhoods outside the walls of the Old City (the first one being Mishkenot Sha’ananim). In 1878, the first modern agricultural settlement was founded in the form of Petah Tikva. Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout Babylonia and the Roman Empire. ... Judah Ha-Levi, also Yehudah Halevi, or Judah ben Samuel Halevi (Hebrew רבי יהודה הלוי) (c. ... Nahmanides (1194 - c. ... Yosef Dorfman (1488 - March 24, 1575) was one of the most significant leaders in Rabbinic Judaism and the author of the Shulkhan Arukh, an authoritative work on halakha (Jewish law). ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Yechiel ben Joseph of Paris (Jehiel of Paris) was a major Talmudic scholar and Tosafist from northern France. ... Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk (1730 – 1788) was an early leader of Hasidic Judaism. ... Judah he-Hasid (Hebrew: Yehudah he-Hasid, Judah the Pious) (around 1650, Siedlce - 1700, Jerusalem), was a Jewish Sabbatean preacher who led the largest organized group of Jewish immigrants to the Land of Israel in centuries. ... Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon The Vilna Gaon (April 23, 1720 – October 9, 1797) was a prominent Jewish rabbi, Talmud scholar, and Kabbalist. ... The Perushim (Hebrew: ) were disciples of Rabbi Elijah ben Solomon Zalman (the Vilna Gaon), who left Lithuania to settle in the Land of Israel, then a province of the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the nineteenth century. ... Tiberias in 1862, the ruins reminiscent of its ancient heritage. ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Mishkenot Sha’ananim was the first Jewish community built outside the walls of Jerusalem. ... The Coat of Arms of Petah-Tikva Petah-Tikva (Hebrew פֶּתַח-תִּקְוָה opening of hope, Standard Hebrew Pétaḥ-Tiqva, also transliterated as Petach Tikva, Petah Tikvah, Petach Tikvah, Petaḥ Tiqwa or Petach Tiqwa) and nicknamed as Mother of Cities, is a city in the west of the Center District of Israel...


The first big wave of modern immigration to Israel, or Aliyah (עלייה) started in 1881 as Jews fled growing persecution, or followed the Socialist Zionist ideas of Moses Hess and others of "redemption of the soil." Jews bought land from individual Arab landholders. After Jews established agricultural settlements, tensions erupted[citation needed] between the Jews and Arabs. Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Moses Hess Moses Hess (June 21, 1812– April 6, 1875), adopted the name Moritz. but later reverted to his original name Moses, thus re-claiming his Jewish identity. ...


Theodor Herzl (1860–1904), an Austro-Hungarian Jew, founded the Zionist movement. In 1896, he published Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State), in which he called for the establishment of a national Jewish state. The following year he helped convene the first World Zionist Congress. Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Der Judenstaat (German for: The Jewish State) is a book written by Theodor Herzl and published in 1896 in Berlin and Vienna (by M. Breitensteins Verlags-Buchhandlung). ... The World Zionist Organization [WZO] was founded as the Zionist Organization [ZO] on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ...


The establishment of Zionism led to the Second Aliyah (1904–1914) with the influx of around forty thousand Jews. In 1917, the British Foreign Secretary Arthur J. Balfour issued the Balfour Declaration that "view[ed] with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." In 1920, Palestine became a League of Nations mandate administered by Britain. Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 – 19 March 1930) was a British statesman and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 until 1905. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1917 was made in a letter dated November 2, 1917, from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization, on the partitioning... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


Jewish immigration resumed in third (1919–1923) and fourth (1924–1929) waves after World War I. In a massacre in 1929, 133 Jews, including 67 in Hebron were killed and 116 Arabs were killed in the riots. Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... In the summer of 1929, a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem became steadily more violent, and erupted in a series of demonstrations and riots in late August. ... The mostly deserted market in the old city. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The rise of Nazism in 1933 led to a fifth wave of Aliyah. The subsequent Holocaust in Europe led to additional immigration from other parts of Europe. The Jewish population in the region increased from 83,790 (11%) in 1922 to 608,230 (33%) in 1945.[19] National Socialism redirects here. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ...


In 1939, the British introduced a White Paper of 1939, which limited Jewish immigration over the course of the war to 75,000 and restricted purchase of land by Jews, perhaps in response to the 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. The White Paper was seen as a betrayal by the Jewish community and Zionists, who perceived it as being in conflict with the Balfour Declaration. The Arabs were not entirely satisfied either, as they wanted Jewish immigration halted completely. However, the White Paper guided British policy until the end of the term of their Mandate. As a result, many Jews fleeing to Palestine to avoid Nazi persecution and the Holocaust were intercepted and returned to Europe. Two specific examples of this policy involved the ships Struma and Exodus (carrying Holocaust survivors in 1947).[20] The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour... The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1917 was made in a letter dated November 2, 1917, from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization, on the partitioning... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Struma was a ship chartered to carry Jewish refugees from Romania to British-controlled Palestine. ... Exodus 1947 after British takeover (note damage to makeshift barricades). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Attempts by Jews to circumvent the blockade and flee Europe became known as Aliya Beth. Aliya Beth was a term used for illegal immigration to British Mandate of Palestine. ...

See also: Jewish refugees and 1922 Text: League of Nations Palestine Mandate

In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... The Palestine Mandate: The Council of the League of Nations: July 24, 1922. ...

Jewish underground groups

As tensions grew between the Jewish and Arab populations and Arab attacks on Jews increased, and with little apparent support from the British mandate authorities, the Jewish community began to rely on itself for defense. Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ...

Monument in Ramat Gan commemorating the rebels hanged by the British.
Monument in Ramat Gan commemorating the rebels hanged by the British.

Many Arabs, opposed to the Balfour Declaration, the mandate, and the Jewish National Home, instigated riots and pogroms against Jews in Jerusalem, Hebron, Jaffa, and Haifa. As a result of the 1921 Arab attacks, the Haganah was formed to protect Jewish settlements. The Haganah was mostly defensive in nature, which among other things caused several members to split off and form the militant group Irgun (initially known as Hagana Bet) in 1931. The Irgun adhered to a much more active approach, which included attacks and initiation of armed actions against the British, such as attacking British military headquarters, the King David Hotel, which killed 91 people. Haganah, on the other hand, often preferred restraint. A further split occurred when Avraham Stern left the Irgun to form Lehi, (also known as the Stern Gang) which was much more extreme in its methods. Unlike the Irgun, they refused any co-operation with the British during World War II and even attempted to work with the Germans to secure European Jewry's escape to Palestine. Image File history File links Hagardom. ... Image File history File links Hagardom. ... Ramat Gan (רמת-גן) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip, just east of Tel Aviv, and part of the metropolis known as Gush Dan, in the Tel Aviv District. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate for Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... Etzel emblem Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a clandestine militant Zionist group, considered Terrorist by the British, that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... Etzel emblem Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a clandestine militant Zionist group that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... The King David Hotel, built in Jerusalem with locally quarried pink sandstone, was opened in 1931. ... Avraham Stern Avraham Stern (Hebrew: אברהם שטרן Avraham Shtern), alias Yair (Hebrew: יאיר) (December 23, 1907 - February 12, 1942) was the founder and leader of the Zionist underground organization later known as Lehi and also known as the Stern Gang. Stern was born in Suwalki, Poland, immigrated to Israel in 1925, and studied... Lehi emblem Lehi (IPA: , Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel, לחי - לוחמי חירות ישראל) was an armed underground Zionist faction in the Palestine Mandate that had as its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine to allow unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


These groups had an enormous impact on events and procedures in the period preceding the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, such as Aliya Beth (the clandestine immigration from Europe), the forming of the Israel Defense Forces, and the withdrawal of the British, as well as to a great degree forming the foundation of the political parties which exist in Israel today. After the war, then Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion set about establishing order by dismantling the Palmach and underground organizations like the Irgun and Lehi. Combatants Egypt Syria Transjordan  Lebanon Saudi Arabia Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army  Israel Commanders Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni† Hasan Salama† Fawzi al-Qawuqji Yaakov Dori Yigael Yadin Strength Egypt: 10,000 initially rising to 20,000 Iraq: 5,000 initially rising to 15,000–18... Aliya Beth was a term used for illegal immigration to British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: ‎  , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Sea Corps. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Palmach (Hebrew: פלמח, an acronym for Plugot Mahatz (Hebrew: פלוגות מחץ), Strike Companies) was the regular fighting force of the Haganah, the unofficial army of the Yishuv (Jewish community) during the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Etzel emblem Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a clandestine militant Zionist group, considered Terrorist by the British, that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... Lehi emblem Lehi (IPA: , Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel, לחי - לוחמי חירות ישראל) was an armed underground Zionist faction in the Palestine Mandate that had as its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine to allow unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish...


Establishment of the State of Israel

In 1947, following increasing levels of Arab-Jewish violence and general war-weariness, the British government decided to withdraw from the Palestine Mandate.[21] Jewish nationalism and messianism led to Zionism, a movement to re-create a Jewish nation in the Land of Israel. Jewish immigration grew steadily after the late nineteenth century and took on added meaning, and gained added external support, in the wake of the Holocaust. The UN General Assembly approved the 1947 UN Partition Plan dividing the territory into two states, with the Jewish area consisting of roughly 55% of the land, and the Arab area consisting of roughly 45%. Jerusalem was to be designated as an international region administered by the UN to avoid conflict over its status. Caption: Source: jpg of Image:Declaration_of_State_of_Israel_1948. ... Caption: Source: jpg of Image:Declaration_of_State_of_Israel_1948. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2...


Immediately following the adoption of the Partition Plan by the UN General Assembly on November 29, 1947, David Ben-Gurion tentatively accepted the partition, while the Arab League rejected it. The Arab Higher Committee immediately ordered a violent three-day strike on Jewish civilians, attacking buildings, shops, and neighborhoods, and prompting insurgency organized by underground Jewish militias like the Lehi and Irgun. These attacks soon turned into widespread fighting between Arabs and Jews, this civil war being the first "phase" of the 1948 War of Independence.[22] November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Arab League or League of Arab States (Arabic: ‎), is an organization of predominately Arab states (compare Arab world). ... Avraham Stern Lehi (Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) was a radical underground Jewish paramilitary group, a terrorist group according to both its own description and that of its opponents. ... Etzel emblem Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a clandestine militant Zionist group, considered Terrorist by the British, that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ...


The State of Israel was proclaimed on May 14, 1948, one day before the expiry of the Palestine Mandate. Israel was admitted as a member of the United Nations on May 11, 1949. May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


1948 War of Independence and migration

Main article: 1948 Arab-Israeli War
See also: Jewish exodus from Arab lands, Palestinian exodus, and Arab-Israeli conflict

Following the State of Israel's establishment, the armies of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon declared war on Israel and began the second phase of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. From the north, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq were all but stopped relatively close to the borders. Jordanian forces, invading from the east, captured East Jerusalem and laid siege on the city's west. However, forces of the Haganah successfully stopped most invading forces, and Irgun forces halted Egyptian encroachment from the south. At the beginning of June, the UN declared a one-month ceasefire during which the Israel Defense Forces were officially formed. After numerous months of war, a ceasefire was declared in 1949 and temporary borders, known as the Green Line, were instituted. Israel had gained an additional 23.5% of the Mandate territory west of the Jordan River.[23] Jordan, for its part, held the large mountainous areas of Judea and Samaria, which became known as the West Bank. Egypt took control of a small strip of land along the coast, which became known as the Gaza Strip. Combatants Egypt Syria Transjordan  Lebanon Saudi Arabia Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army  Israel Commanders Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni† Hasan Salama† Fawzi al-Qawuqji Yaakov Dori Yigael Yadin Strength Egypt: 10,000 initially rising to 20,000 Iraq: 5,000 initially rising to 15,000–18... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate for Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... Etzel emblem Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a clandestine militant Zionist group, considered Terrorist by the British, that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: ‎  , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Sea Corps. ... The term Green Line is often used to refer to the 1949 Armistice lines established between Israel and its opponents (Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt) at the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... It has been suggested that Sebastia, Middle East be merged into this article or section. ...


Large numbers of the Arab population fled the newly-created Jewish State during the Palestinian exodus, which is referred to by many Palestinian groups and individuals as the Nakba (Arabic: النكبة ), meaning "disaster" or "cataclysm". Estimates of the final Palestinian refugee count range from 400,000 to 900,000 with the official United Nations count at 711,000.[24] The unresolved conflict between Israel and the Arab world that persists to this day has resulted in a lasting displacement of Palestinian refugees. The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


In addition, the entire Jewish population of the West Bank and Gaza Strip also fled to Israel. Within a year of 1948 war, immigration of Jewish refugees from Arab lands doubled Israel's population. Over the following years approximately 850,000 Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews fled or were expelled from surrounding Arab countries. Of these, about 600,000 settled in Israel; the remainder went to Europe and the Americas (see Jewish exodus from Arab lands). Languages Ladino also Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, and Shuadit Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Sephardi Jews (Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Tiberian ; plural ספרדים, Standard Tiberian ) are a subgroup of Jews originating in the Iberian Peninsula, usually defined in contrast to Ashkenazi Jews; frequently used... Mizrahi Jews, or Mizrahim (מזרחי Easterner, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ; plural מזרחים Easterners, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) sometimes also called Edot HaMizrah (Congregations of the East) are Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Middle East. ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ...


1950s and 1960s

Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in a bulletproof glass booth during the open trial in 1961.
Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in a bulletproof glass booth during the open trial in 1961.

Between 1954 and 1955, under Moshe Sharett as prime minister, the Lavon Affair – a failed attempt to bomb targets in Egypt – caused political disgrace in Israel. Compounding this, in 1956, Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal, much to the chagrin of the United Kingdom and France. Following this and a series of Fedayeen attacks, Israel created a secret military alliance with those two European powers and declared war on Egypt. After the Suez Crisis, the three collaborators faced international condemnation, and Israel was forced to withdraw its forces from the Sinai Peninsula. Image File history File links Eichmann2. ... Image File history File links Eichmann2. ... Adolf Eichmann in Germany in 1940 Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... Moshe Sharett (Hebrew: משה שרת); born Moshe Shertok (Hebrew: משה שרתוק), (October 15, 1894 – July 7, 1965) was the second Prime Minister of Israel (1954-1955), serving for a little under two years between David Ben-Gurions two terms. ... The Lavon Affair refers to the scandal over a failed Israeli covert operation in Egypt known as Operation Suzannah, in which Egyptian, American and British-owned targets in Egypt were bombed in the summer of 1954. ... Ships moored at El Ballah during transit Egypt: Site of Suez Canal (top). ... Fedayeen (from Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyÄ«n فدائيون, one who is ready to sacrifice his life for the cause) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


In 1955, Ben-Gurion once again became prime minister and served as such until his final resignation in 1963. After Ben-Gurion's resignation, Levi Eshkol was appointed to the post. David Ben-Gurion was the first prime minister of Israel. ... ▶(?) (Hebrew לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל ) (Born Levi Skolnick) (Hebrew לֵוִי שְׁקוֹלְנִיק) (October 25, 1895 - February 26, 1969), was the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death of a heart attack in 1969. ...


In 1961, the Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann, who had been largely responsible for the Final Solution, the planned extermination of the Jews of Europe, was captured in Buenos Aires, Argentina, by Mossad agents and brought to trial in Israel. Eichmann became the only person ever sentenced to death by the Israeli courts. National Socialism redirects here. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Adolf Eichmann in Germany in 1940 Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel). ... In a February 26, 1942, letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ... For other uses see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ...

On the political field, tensions once again arose between Israel and her neighbors in May 1967. Syria, Jordan, and Egypt had been hinting at war[25] and Egypt expelled UN Peacekeeping Forces from the Gaza Strip. When Egypt violated prior treaties and closed the strategic Straits of Tiran to Israeli vessels, and began massing large amounts of tanks and aircraft on Israel's borders, Israel deemed it a casus belli for pre-emptively attacking Egypt on June 5. In the ensuing Six-Day War between Israel and its Arab neighbors, Israel defeated the armies of three large Arab states and won a decisive victory over their air forces. Territorially, Israel conquered the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights. The Green Line of 1949 became the administrative boundary between Israel and the Occupied Territories (more recently called the Disputed Territories). The Sinai was later returned to Egypt following the signing of a peace treaty. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 194 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Israel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 194 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Israel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Western Wall by night “Wailing Wall” redirects here. ... The United Nations has authorized 61 peacekeeping missions as of 2005. ... The Straits of Tiran The Straits of Tiran are the narrow sea passages, about 3 miles wide, formed by the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separates the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... An Air force is a military or armed service that primarily conducts aerial warfare. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ... The term Green Line is often used to refer to the 1949 Armistice lines established between Israel and its opponents (Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt) at the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ...


During the war, Israeli aircraft attacked the USS Liberty, killing thirty-four American servicemen. American and Israeli investigations into the incident concluded that the attack was a tragic accident involving confusion over the identity of the Liberty. Help arrives after the Israeli attack on USS Liberty. ... USS Liberty (AGTR-5) was a Belmont-class technical research ship. ...


In 1969, Golda Meir, Israel's first (and, to date, only) female prime minister was elected. Golda Meir (born Golda Mabovitz, May 3, 1898, died December 8, 1978, also known as Golda Myerson) was one of the founders of the State of Israel. ...

See also: Positions on Jerusalem, Jerusalem Law, Golan Heights, and Israeli-occupied territories

The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Frontal view of The Supreme Court building All the branches of Israeli government (Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Administrative) are seated in Jerusalem. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ...

1970s

Between 1968 and 1972, a period known as the War of Attrition, numerous scuffles erupted along the border between Israel and Syria and Egypt. Furthermore, in the early 1970s, Palestinian groups embarked on an unprecedented wave of attacks against Israel and Jewish targets in other countries. The climax of this wave occurred at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, when, in the Munich massacre, Palestinian militants held hostage and killed members of the Israeli delegation. Israel responded with Operation Wrath of God, in which agents of Mossad assassinated most of those who were involved in the massacre. Combatants Israel Egypt Soviet Union Strength unknown Egyptian: unknown Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300 Casualties 1,424 soldiers and >100 civilians killed 2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded [1] [2] 10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹ 3 Soviet pilots killed The War of Attrition (Hebrew: ‎)(Arabic: ‎) was... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: NPOV: similar articles on one-sided violence committed by Israelis have been deleted for being NPOV fork. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX. Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... One of the Black September terrorists on the balcony of the Israeli team quarters at the Olympic village The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian organization Black September, a militant group... The operation was ordered in response to the massacre of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. ...   (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations), often referred to as The Mossad (meaning The Institute), is Israels intelligence agency and is responsible for intelligence collection, counter-terrorism, covert operations such as paramilitary activities, and the facilitation of aliyah where it is banned. ...


Finally, on October 6, 1973, the day in 1973 of the Jewish Yom Kippur fast, the Egyptian and Syrian armies launched a surprise attack against Israel. Despite early successes against an unprepared Israeli army, Egypt and Syria were eventually repelled by the Israeli forces. A number of years of relative calm ensued, which fostered the environment in which Israel and Egypt could make peace. October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


In 1974, Yitzhak Rabin, with Meir's resignation, became Israel's fifth prime minister. A major turning point in Israeli political history came in the 1977 Knesset elections, when the Alignment, which together with its predecessor Mapai had been the ruling party since 1948, was beaten by Menachem Begin's Likud, an event that became known in Israel as the "revolution". For other people named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... The Elections for the ninth Knesset were held on 17 May, 1977. ... The Alignment (Hebrew: המערך, HaMaarakh), originally called the Labour Alignment (Hebrew: המערך העבודה, HaMaarakh HaAvoda) was the dominant left-wing political party in Israel from its founding in 1965 until its transformation into the Labour Party in 1992. ... Labour (העבודה HaAvoda) is an Israeli political party. ...   (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בְּגִין) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ...


Then, in November of that year, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, making a historic visit to the Jewish State, spoke before the Knesset: the first recognition of Israel by its Arab neighbors. Military reserves officers formed the Peace Now movement to encourage this effort. Following the visit, the two nations conducted negotiations which led to the signing of the Camp David Accords. In March 1979, Begin and Sadat signed the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in Washington, DC. As laid out in the treaty, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula and evacuated the settlements established there during the 1970s. It was also agreed to lend autonomy to Palestinians across the Green Line. Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... Peace Now (Hebrew: שלום עכשיו - Shalom Achshav) is an extra-parliamental political movement in Israel, with the agenda of swaying popular opinion and convincing the Israeli government of the need and possibility for achieving a just peace and an historic conciliation with the Palestinian people and neighboring Arab countries; this in exchange... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords (1978): Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... An autonomous area is an area of a country that has a degree of autonomy. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... Green Line may refer to: Provisional demarcation lines: Green Line (Cyprus), between the Cypriot government and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Green Line (Israel), between Israel and its Arab neighbors Green Line (Lebanon), between Christian and Muslim militias Public transit lines: The Green Line (Baltimore), a proposed transit line...

See also: War of Attrition, Munich Massacre, Yom Kippur War, Anwar Sadat, and Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty

Combatants Israel Egypt Soviet Union Strength unknown Egyptian: unknown Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300 Casualties 1,424 soldiers and >100 civilians killed 2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded [1] [2] 10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹ 3 Soviet pilots killed The War of Attrition (Hebrew: ‎)(Arabic: ‎) was... One of the Black September terrorists on the balcony of the Israeli team quarters at the Olympic village The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian organization Black September, a militant group... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ...

1980s

Ilan Ramon participated in Operation Opera and later became the first Israeli astronaut.
Ilan Ramon participated in Operation Opera and later became the first Israeli astronaut.

On July 7, 1981, the Israeli Air Force bombed the Iraqi nuclear reactor at Osiraq in an attempt to foil Iraqi efforts at producing an atomic bomb. This operation was known as Operation Opera. Image File history File links Ilan_Ramon. ... Image File history File links Ilan_Ramon. ... Ilan Ramon (Hebrew: אילן רמון) (June 20, 1954 – February 1, 2003) was a combat pilot in the Israeli Air Force and later the first Israeli astronaut. ... Combatants Israel Iraq Strength 8 F-16A fighters 6 F-15A fighters Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery Casualties None 10 Iraqi soldiers and 1 French researcher killed Operation Opera (also known as Operation Babylon and Operation Ofra) is the Israeli Air Force designation used to describe an... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official shield of the IAF The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Osiraq was a 40 MW light water nuclear materials testing reactor (MTR) in Iraq. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Combatants Israel Iraq Strength 8 F-16A fighters 6 F-15A fighters Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery Casualties None 10 Iraqi soldiers and 1 French researcher killed Operation Opera (also known as Operation Babylon and Operation Ofra) is the Israeli Air Force designation used to describe an...


In 1982, Israel launched an attack against Lebanon, which had been embroiled in the Lebanese Civil War since 1975. The reason Israel gave for the attack was to defend Israel's northernmost settlements from terrorist attacks, which had been occurring frequently. After establishing a forty-kilometer barrier zone, the IDF continued northward and even captured the capital, Beirut. Israeli forces expelled Palestinian Liberation Organization forces from the country, forcing the organization to relocate to Tunis. Unable to deal with the stress of the ongoing war, Prime Minister Begin resigned from his post in 1983 and was replaced by Yitzhak Shamir. Though Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon in 1986, a buffer zone was maintained until May 2000 when Israel unilaterally withdrew from Lebanon. The 1982 Invasion of Lebanon, dubbed Operation Peace for Galilee (Shlom HaGalil in Hebrew), began June 6, 1982, when the Israel Defence Force invaded southern Lebanon purportedly in response to the Abu Nidal organizations assassination attempt against Israels ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, and to halt... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The multi-sided Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) had its origin in the conflicts and political compromises after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire and was exacerbated by the nations... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: ‎  , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Sea Corps. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the...   (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בְּגִין) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... Israeli Security Zone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Through the rest of the 1980s, the government shifted from the right, led by Yitzhak Shamir, to the left under Shimon Peres. Peres was prime minister from 1984, but handed the position over to Shamir in 1986 under an agreement reached following the creation of the unity coalition in the aftermath of the 1984 elections. The First Intifadah then broke out in 1987 and was accompanied by waves of violence in the Occupied Territories. Following the outbreak, Shamir once again was elected prime minister, in the 1988 elections. (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ...   (Hebrew: ‎; born Szymon Perske on August 2, 1923 in Poland, and immigrated with his family to the land that would later become Israel in 1934), is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minister and current Vice Premier. ... The first Intifada was an uprising that took place from 1987 to 1991 or 1993 (see Intifada). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

See also: 1982 Lebanon War, Lebanese Civil War, and PLO

Combatants Israel Phalange South Lebanon Army Amal PLO Syria Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength 76,000 37,000 Casualties 670 9,800 The 1982 Lebanon War (Hebrew: , Milkhemet Levanon, Milkhemet Levanon, Arabic: ‎), called by Israel the Operation Peace of... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The multi-sided Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) had its origin in the conflicts and political compromises after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire and was exacerbated by the nations... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the...

1990s

During the Gulf War, Iraq hit Israel with thirty-nine Scud missiles, although Israel was not a member of the anti-Iraq coalition and was not involved in the fighting. The missiles did not kill Israeli citizens directly, but there were some deaths from incorrect use of the gas masks provided against chemical attack, one Israeli died from a heart attack following a hit, and one Israeli died from a Patriot missile hit. During the war, Israel also provided gas masks for the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza.[26] The PLO, however, supported Saddam Hussein.[27] Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza marched and famously stood on their rooftops while Scud missiles were falling and cheered Saddam Hussein calling for him to bomb Israel with chemical weapons.[28][29][30][31] Ultimately, Palestinians also used the gas masks against Israeli use of tear gas in the coming years.[32] For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Polish missile wz. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ... Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ... Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ...


The early 1990s were marked by the beginning of a massive immigration of Soviet Jews, who, according to the Law of Return, were entitled to become Israeli citizens upon arrival. About 380,000 arrived in 1990-91 alone. Although initially favouring the right, the new immigrants became the target of an aggressive election campaign by Labor, which blamed their employment and housing problems on the ruling Likud. As a result, in the 1992 elections the immigrants voted en masse for Labor, allowing the left to emerge victorious. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ...


Following the elections, Yitzhak Rabin became prime minister, forming a coalition with Meretz and Shas. During the election campaign his Labor party promised Israelis a significant improvement in personal security and achievement of a comprehensive peace with the Arabs "within six to nine months" after the elections. By the end of 1993 the government abandoned the framework of Madrid and signed the Oslo Accords with the PLO. In 1994, Jordan became the second of Israel's neighbours to make peace with it. For other people named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Meretz. ... Shas (Hebrew: שס) is an political party in Israel, primarily representing Ultra-orthodox Sephardi Judaism. ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ‎;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary organization regarded by the Arab League since October 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ...

The initial wide public support for the Oslo Accords began to wane as Israel was struck by an unprecedented wave of attacks supported by the militant Hamas group, which opposed the accords. Public support slipped even further. On November 4, 1995, a Jewish nationalist militant named Yigal Amir assassinated Rabin. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 417 KB) Grave of w:Yitzhak Rabin (black stone) and w:Lea Rabin (white stone) atop w:Mount Herzl File links The following pages link to this file: Yitzhak Rabin ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 417 KB) Grave of w:Yitzhak Rabin (black stone) and w:Lea Rabin (white stone) atop w:Mount Herzl File links The following pages link to this file: Yitzhak Rabin ... For other people named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Tomb of Theodor Herzl at the top of Mount Herzl, Jerusalem, Israel. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Hamas (Arabic: ‎; acronym: Arabic: ‎, or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement; the Arabic acronym means zeal) is a Palestinian Islamist organization that currently (since January 2006) forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Yigal Amir (Hebrew: יגאל עמיר) (born May 23, 1970) is the Israeli assassin of the late Prime Minister of Israel Yitzhak Rabin. ... Site of the rally before the assassination: Rabin Square and Tel Aviv City Hall during the day. ...


Public dismay with the assassination created a backlash against Oslo opponents and significantly boosted the chances of Shimon Peres, Rabin's successor and Oslo architect, to win the upcoming 1996 elections. However, a new wave of suicide bombings combined with Arafat's statements extolling the Muslim nationalist militant Yahya Ayyash, made the public mood swing once again and in May 1996 Peres narrowly lost to his challenger from Likud, Benjamin Netanyahu.   (Hebrew: ‎; born Szymon Perske on August 2, 1923 in Poland, and immigrated with his family to the land that would later become Israel in 1934), is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minister and current Vice Premier. ... Yahya Ayyash (يحيى عياش; March 6, 1966 - January 5, 1996) was a member and chief bombmaker of the Hamas organization. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ...   (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is a leading figure in the Likud party. ...


Although seen as a hard-liner opposing the Oslo Accords, Netanyahu withdrew from Hebron and signed the Wye River Memorandum giving wider control to the Palestinian National Authority. During Netanyahu's tenure, Israel experienced a lull in attacks against Israel's civilian population by Palestinian groups, but his government fell in 1999. Ehud Barak of One Israel (an alliance of Labor, Meimad and Gesher) beat Netanyahu by a wide margin in the 1999 elections and succeeded him as prime minister. The mostly deserted market in the old city. ... The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority completed on October 23, 1998. ... It has been suggested that Palestinian government of March 2006 be merged into this article or section. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz,[1] then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ... Meimad is a left-leaning religious political party in Israel, founded in 1988. ... Gesher (Hebrew: גשר, Bridge) was a political party in Israel. ... The Elections for the 15th Knesset were held on 17 May, 1999 alongside elections for Prime Minister. ...

See also: Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace

The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley...

2000s

Barak initiated unilateral withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000. This process was intended to frustrate Hezbollah attacks on Israel by forcing them to cross Israel's border. Barak and Yassir Arafat once again conducted negotiations with President Clinton at the July 2000 Camp David summit. However, the talks failed. Barak offered to form a Palestinian State initially on 73% of the West Bank and 100% of the Gaza Strip. In ten to twenty-five years, the West Bank area would expand to 90% (94% excluding greater Jerusalem).[5] [6] Arafat rejected this deal. For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Yasser Arafat Yasser Arafat (August 4 or August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born Muhammad `Abd ar-Rauf al-Qudwa al-Husayni (Arabic محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسي&#1606... Order: 42nd President Term of Office: January 20, 1993–January 20, 2001 Preceded by: George H. W. Bush Succeeded by: George W. Bush Date of birth: August 19, 1946 Place of birth: Hope, Arkansas Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Hillary Rodham Clinton Political party: Democratic Vice... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also State of Palestine). ...


The thrust of the Gaza departure and of the security barrier, Gilady said in a rare interview two months ago, was the opposite of that which impelled the 1993 Oslo Accords. The Oslo architects believed a peace treaty would bring security. That notion exploded with the outbreak of the intifada in September 2000. Under the Sharon strategy, Gilady told the Jerusalem Post, security would lead to peace, not the other way around. Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... Intifada (also Intefadah or Intifadah; from ‎ shaking off) is an Arabic term for uprising. It came into common usage in English as the popularized name for two recent Palestinian campaigns directed at Israel. ... Sharon(שָׁרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Šaron, Tiberian Hebrew Šārôn) is a female (or, less frequently, male) name which can be spelt with one r or two (Sharron). ... The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli newspaper in the English language. ...


After the collapse of the talks, Palestinians began a second uprising, known as the Al-Aqsa Intifadah, just after the leader of the opposition Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The failure of the talks and the outbreak of a new war caused many Israelis on both the right and the left to turn away from Barak, and also discredited the peace movement. The al-Aqsa Intifada is the wave of violence and political conflict that began in September 2000 between Palestinian Arabs and Israelis; it is also called the Second Intifada (see also First Intifada). ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2...

The Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
The Temple Mount in Jerusalem.

Ariel Sharon became the new prime minister in March 2001 in a special election for Prime Minister, and was subsequently re-elected, along with his Likud party in the 2003 elections. Sharon initiated a plan to unilaterally withdraw from the Gaza Strip. This disengagement was executed between August and September 2005. Image File history File links Jerusalem_kotel_mosque. ... Image File history File links Jerusalem_kotel_mosque. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Prime Ministerial elections were held in Israel on 6 February 2001, following the resignation of Prime Minister Ehud Barak of the Israeli Labour Party. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... Elections for the 16th Knesset were held in Israel on 28 January 2003. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (termed in Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to...


Israel also is building the Israeli West Bank Barrier with the stated purpose of defending the country from attacks by armed Palestinian groups. Because the barrier, which is planned to measure 681 kilometers, meanders past the Green Line, effectively annexes 9.5% of the West Bank, and creates hardships for Palestinians living near it,[33] it has been met with criticism from the international community and numerous protest demonstrations by the Israeli far-left. It has, however, significantly reduced the number of terrorist attacks against Israel.[34] The barrier route as of May 2005. ... The term Green Line is often used to refer to the 1949 Armistice lines established between Israel and its opponents (Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt) at the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ...


After Ariel Sharon suffered a severe hemorrhagic stroke, the powers of the office were passed to Ehud Olmert, who was designated the "Acting" Prime Minister. On April 14, 2006, Olmert was elected Prime Minister after his party, Kadima, Hebrew for "Forward", won the most seats in the 2006 elections.   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Hemorrhagic stroke, or cerebral hemorrhage is a form of stroke that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures. ... It has been suggested that Aliza Olmert be merged into this article or section. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105 in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Kadima (Hebrew: קדימה, QādÄ«māh, forward) is an Israeli political party. ... The Elections for the 17th Knesset were held in Israel on 28 March 2006, following an agreement between the Prime Minister, Ariel Sharon, and the new Leader of the Israel Labour Party, Amir Peretz. ...


On June 28, 2006, Hamas militants dug a tunnel under the border from the Gaza Strip and attacked an IDF post, capturing an Israeli soldier and killing two others. In response, Israel began Operation Summer Rains, which consisted of heavy bombardment of Hamas targets as well as bridges, roads, and the only power station in Gaza. Israel has also deployed troops into the territory. Israel’s critics have accused it of disproportionate use of force and collective punishment of innocent civilians and not giving diplomacy a chance. Israel argues that they have no other option to get their soldier back and put an end to the rocket attacks into Israel, although the soldiers were not recovered. June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Hamas (Arabic: ‎; acronym: Arabic: ‎, or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement; the Arabic acronym means zeal) is a Palestinian Islamist organization that currently (since January 2006) forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Gaza Strip Barrier near the Karni Crossing The Israeli Gaza Strip barrier is a separation barrier along the armistice line of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War between the Gaza Strip and Israel. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: ‎  , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Sea Corps. ... Combatants Israel Defense Forces (Israeli Security Forces) Hamas Popular Resistance Committees, al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, Jaish al-Islam Commanders Dan Halutz (Chief of Staff) Yoav Galant (Regional) Khaled Mashal (Leader of Hamas[1])Mohammed Deif (Leader of Hamas military wing) Strength 3,000 unknown Casualties 5 soldiers killed 21 soldiers... Hamas (Arabic: ‎; acronym: Arabic: ‎, or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement; the Arabic acronym means zeal) is a Palestinian Islamist organization that currently (since January 2006) forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Collective punishment is a term describing the punishment of a group of people for the crime of a few or even of one. ... Diplomat redirects here. ...


The 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict refers to the military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel, primarily between Hezbollah and Israel, which started on 12 July 2006. The conflict began with a cross-border Hezbollah raid and shelling, which resulted in the capture of two and killing of eight Israeli soldiers. Israel held the Lebanese government responsible for the attack, as it was carried out from Lebanese territory, and initiated an air and naval blockade, airstrikes across much of the country, and ground incursions into southern Lebanon. Hezbollah continuously launched rocket attacks into northern Israel and engaged the Israeli Army on the ground with hit-and-run guerrilla attacks. A ceasefire came into effect at 05:00 UTC, 14 August 2006, although violations of the ceasefire have occurred from both sides. The conflict killed over one thousand Lebanese civilians,[35] 440 Hezbollah militants, and 119 Israeli soldiers,[36] as well as forty-four Israeli civilians,[36] and caused massive damage to the civilian infrastructure and cities of Lebanon and damaged thousands of buildings across northern Israel, many of which were completely destroyed.[37][38][39] Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... Airstrike in Kosovo War An airstrike is a military strike by air forces on an enemy ground position, which depending on the selected tactics may or may not be followed up by artillery, armor, or infantry units. ... Southern Lebanon is the geographical area of Lebanon composed of two Governates: the South Lebanon Governate and the Nabatiyeh Governate. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Geography and climate

Map of Israel
Map of Israel
Relief map of Israel
Relief map of Israel
Main article: Geography of Israel

Israel is bordered by Lebanon in the north, Syria and Jordan in the east, and Egypt in the south-west. It has coastlines on the Mediterranean in the west and the Gulf of Eilat (also known as the Gulf of Aqaba) in the south. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (330x715, 18 KB)An altered Image:Cia-is-map. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (330x715, 18 KB)An altered Image:Cia-is-map. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x2013, 755 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Israel ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x2013, 755 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Israel ... Map of Israel Israel is located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The bay at San Sebastián, Spain A headland is an area of land adjacent to water on three sides. ... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 45,800 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... Sinai Peninsula, with the Gulf of Aqaba (east) and the Gulf of Suez (west), as viewed from the Space Shuttle STS-40. ...


During the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel captured the West Bank from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the Golan Heights from Syria, Gaza Strip (which was under Egyptian occupation), and Sinai from Egypt. It withdrew all troops and settlers from Sinai by 1982 and from the Gaza Strip by September 12, 2005. The future status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip remains to be determined. Israel annexed the Golan Heights. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... The Israeli Security Forces are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The sovereign territory of Israel, excluding all territories captured by Israel in 1967, is 20,770 km² (8,019 mi²) in area (1% is water). The total area under Israeli law, including East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, is 22,145 km² or 8,550 mi²; with a little less than one per cent being water. The total area under Israeli control, including the military-controlled and Palestinian-governed territory of the West Bank, is 28,023 km² (10,820 mi²) (~1% water). A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ... It has been suggested that Palestinian government of March 2006 be merged into this article or section. ...


The climate of the coastal areas can be very different from that of the mountainous areas, particularly during the winter months. The northern mountains can get cold, wet and often snowy and even Jerusalem experiences snow every couple of years. The coastal regions, where Tel Aviv and Haifa are located, have a typical Mediterranean climate with cool, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Metropolitan areas

A Tel Aviv beach at sundown.
A Tel Aviv beach at sundown.
See also: Districts of Israel and List of cities in Israel

As of 2006, The Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics defines three metropolitan areas: Tel Aviv (population 3,040,400), Haifa (population 996,000) and Beersheba (population 531,600)[7]. The capital, Jerusalem, has a population of 719,900. The Jerusalem Institute of Israel Studies defines the metropolitan area Jerusalem (population 2,300,000, including 700,000 Jews and 1,600,000 Arabs)[8]. Image File history File linksMetadata TelAviv-Beach2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata TelAviv-Beach2. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Map of the districts of Israel There are six main administrative districts of Israel, known in Hebrew as mehozot (מחוזות; singular: mahoz) and fifteen sub-districts known as nafot (נפות; singular: nafa). ... Cities in Israel, by district: // Northern District See also North District, Israel. ... Gush Dan (Hebrew: גּוּשׁ דָּן, Standard Hebrew GuÅ¡ Dan) is the name of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area including areas from both the Tel Aviv District and the Central District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Beersheba (Hebrew romanization Beer Sheva or Beer Sheba) is the largest city in the Negev desert of Israel, and is often called the Capital of the Negev. In 2005, Beersheba had a population of 185,500 making it the sixth largest city in Israel. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2...


Government

Main article: Politics of Israel

Israel is a democratic republic with universal suffrage that operates under a parliamentary system. Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule[1]) is a form of government. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, or economic or social status. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ...


Legislature

The Knesset building, Israel's parliament.
The Knesset building, Israel's parliament.

Israel's unicameral legislative branch is a 120-member parliament known as the Knesset. Membership in the Knesset is allocated to parties based on their proportion of the vote, via a proportional representation voting system. Elections to the Knesset are normally held every four years, but the Knesset can decide to dissolve itself ahead of time by a simple majority, known as a vote of no-confidence. Twelve parties currently hold seats. Download high resolution version (4235x2613, 454 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (4235x2613, 454 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ...

See also: List of political parties in Israel

Political parties in Israel: Israels political system is based on proportional representation which allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties, in which a single party usually has no chance of gaining power by itself, forcing the parties to cooperate and form coalition governments. ...

Executive

The President of Israel is Head of State, serving as a largely ceremonial figurehead. The President selects the leader of the majority party or ruling coalition in the Knesset as the Prime Minister, who serves as head of government and leads the Cabinet.[40] The current President is Moshe Katsav, though the acting President is Dalia Itzik; the current Prime Minister is Ehud Olmert. President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: ‎, Nesí Hamdiná, literally: The President of the State) is the Head of State of Israel, but has a largely ceremonial, figurehead role with real power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister of Israel. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... A figurehead is a person, usually in a political role, who may hold an important title or office yet executes little actual power. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The Cabinet of Israel is a formal body comprised of government officials chosen and led by a Prime Minister. ... Moshe Katsav (Hebrew: ‎; born December 5, 1945) is the eighth and current President of Israel (since 2000). ... Dalia Itzik (Hebrew: ‎; born October 20, 1952) is the current speaker of the Israeli Knesset and Acting President of Israel. ... It has been suggested that Aliza Olmert be merged into this article or section. ...


Legal system

Israel has not completed a written constitution. Its government functions according to the laws of the Knesset, including the "Basic Laws of Israel", of which there are presently fourteen. These are slated to become the foundation of a future official constitution. In mid-2003, the Knesset's Constitution, Law, and Justice Committee began drafting an official constitution.[41] The effort is still underway as of early 2007.[42] The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ...


Israel's legal system mixes influences from Anglo-American, Continental and Jewish law, as well as the declaration of the State of Israel. The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ...


As in Anglo-American law, the Israeli legal system is based on the principle of stare decisis (precedent). It is an adversarial system, not an inquisitorial one, in the sense that the parties (for example, plaintiff and defendant) are the ones that bring the evidence before the court. The court does not conduct any independent investigation on the case. Stare decisis (Latin: , Anglicisation: , to stand by things decided) is a Latin legal term, used in common law to express the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law. ... The adversarial system (or adversary system) of law is the system of law, generally adopted in common law countries, that relies on the skill of the different advocates representing their partys positions and not on some neutral party, usually the judge, trying to ascertain the truth of the case. ... An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in determining the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is solely that of an impartial referee between parties. ...


As in Continental legal systems, the jury system was not adopted in Israel. Court cases are decided by professional judges. Additional Continental Law influences can be found in the fact that several major Israeli statutes (such as the Contract Law) are based on Civil Law principles. Israeli statute body is not comprised of Codes, but of individual statutes. However, a Civil Code draft has been completed recently, and is planned to become a bill. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Religious tribunals (Jewish, Muslim, Druze and Christian) have exclusive jurisdiction on annulment of marriages. A beth din (בית דין, Hebrew: house of judgment, plural battei din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism. ... Sharia ( Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...


Judiciary

Frontal view of The Supreme Court building.
Frontal view of The Supreme Court building.

Israel's Judiciary branch is made of a three-tier system of courts. At the lowest level are Magistrate Courts, situated in most cities. Above them are District Courts, serving both as appellate courts and as courts of first instance, situated in five cities: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa, Be'er Sheva and Nazareth. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 140 KB) Summary Israel supreme court, Jerusalem. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 140 KB) Summary Israel supreme court, Jerusalem. ... The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... It has been suggested that Mandate (law) be merged into this article or section. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Beer Sheva is a city in Israel and the largest city of the Negev desert, often known as the Capital of the Negev. In 2004, Beer Sheva had a population of 184,500 making it the fifth largest city in Israel. ... Nazareth (IPA: ) (Arabic الناصرة an-Nāṣira lit. ...


At the top of the judicial pyramid is the Supreme Court of Israel seated in Jerusalem. The current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is Dorit Beinisch. The Supreme Court serves a dual role as the highest court of appeals and as the body for a separate institution known as the High Court of Justice (HCOJ). The HCOJ has the unique responsibility of addressing petitions presented to the Court by individual citizens. The respondents to these petitions are usually governmental agencies (including the Israel Defense Forces). The result of such petitions, which are decided by the HCOJ, may be an instruction by the HCOJ to the relevant Governmental agency to act in a manner prescribed by the HCOJ. The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... Dorit Beinisch Dorit Beinisch (Hebrew: ) (born: 1942) is the president of the Supreme Court of Israel. ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (usually known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of England and Wales: see Courts of England and Wales. ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (usually known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales (which under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, is to be known as the... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: ‎  , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Sea Corps. ...


A committee composed of Knesset members, Supreme Court Justices, and Israeli Bar members carries out the election of judges. The Courts Law requires judges to retire at the age of seventy. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, with the approval of the Minister of Justice, appoints registrars to all courts.


Israel is not a member of the International Criminal Court as it fears it could lead to prosecution of Israeli settlers in the disputed territories. Official logo of the ICC. The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, crime of aggression, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ...


Military

Israel's military consists of a unified Israel Defense Forces (IDF), known in Hebrew by the acronym Tzahal (צה"ל). Historically, there have been no separate Israeli military services. The Navy and Air Force are subordinate to the Army. There are other paramilitary agencies that deal with different aspects of Israel's security (such as Magav and Shin Bet). The IDF was based on paramilitary underground armies, chiefly Haganah. The Israeli Security Forces are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: ‎  , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Sea Corps. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Official shield of the IAF The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The Israel Border Police (Hebrew: משמר הגבול, Mishmar HaGvul) is the combat branch of the Israeli Police. ... Shabak emblem Defender who shall not be seen The Shabak (in Hebrew, שבכ   Shabak?} an acronym of Sherut ha-Bitachon ha-Klali שירות ביטחון כללי) known abroad as the Shin Bet or the GSS (General Security Service), is the Internal General Security Service of Israel. ... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate for Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ...

Emblem of the IDF.
Emblem of the IDF.

The IDF is one of the best funded military forces in the Middle East and ranks among the most battle-trained armed forces in the world, having been involved in five major wars and numerous border conflicts. In terms of personnel, the IDF's main resource is the training quality of its soldiers and expert institutions, rather than sheer numbers of soldiers. It also relies heavily on high technology weapons systems, some developed and manufactured in Israel for its specific needs, and others imported (largely from the United States). Image File history File links Idf_logo4. ... Image File history File links Idf_logo4. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: ‎  , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Sea Corps. ... // Military expenditure by country using CIA World Factbook figures Military spending as a percentage of GDP using CIA World Factbook figures This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Most Israelis (males and females) are drafted into the military at age 18.[43] Also immigrants sometimes volunteer to join the IDF. An exception are Israeli Arabs, most of whom are not conscripted because of a possible conflict of interests, due to the possibility of war with neighbouring Arab states. Other exceptions are those who cannot serve because of injury or disability, women who declare themselves married, or those who are religiously observant. Compulsory service is three years for men, and two years for women. Circassians and Bedouin also actively enlist in the IDF. Since 1956, Druze men have been conscripted in the same way as Jewish men, at the request of the Druze community. Men studying full-time in religious institutions can get a deferment from conscription. Most Haredi Jews extend these deferments until they are too old to be conscripted, a practice that has fueled much controversy in Israel. For other uses, see Conscript (disambiguation). ... Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... A Bedouin man resting on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ‎), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via... Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzī or durzī درزي, pl. ... Haredi or Charedi Judaism (alternatively Hareidi or Chareidi - this spelling being usually preferred by Haredim themselves) is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ...


While Israeli Arabs are not conscripted, they are allowed to enlist voluntarily. This is the same policy as the Bedouin and many non-Jewish citizens of Israel.


Following compulsory service, Israeli men become part of the IDF reserve forces, and are usually required to serve several weeks every year as reservists until their forties.


Nuclear capability

There is much speculation regarding the nuclear capabilities of Israel, estimates suggest that the Israeli arsenal may contain as many as 400 nuclear weapons.[44] Since the middle of the twentieth century, the Negev Nuclear Research Center has been operational and capable of producing weapons grade nuclear material. This site has never been under the watch of the International Atomic Energy Agency, for which reason the IAEA has stated outright that it believes Israel "to be a state possessing nuclear weapons," an assertion the Israeli government has neither affirmed nor denied. Although the size of nuclear arsenal is debated, it is generally believed that Israel, which is not a signatory of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, possesses at least one hundred devices. Israel is widely believed to possess a substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons and maintains intermediate-range ballistic missiles to deliver them. ... Institute 2, Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Dimona, photographed by Mordechai Vanunu The Negev Nuclear Research Center is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, near the city of Dimona, at . ... Weapons-grade means that a substance is pure enough to be used to make a weapon or has properties that make it suitable for weapons use. ... Nuclear material consists of materials used in nuclear systems, such as nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


Data on Israeli nuclear deployment capability is much more freely available than hard data on their nuclear program. Israel leads the Middle East in medium-range ballistic missile development. The Jericho series of ballistic missile was begun in the 1970s, with three major designs built to date; Jericho I, II, and III. The Jericho II series has been in service since the mid 1980s and has a confirmed range of 1500 km. The latest missile design, the Jericho III (based on the "Shavit" booster), has a conservative range estimate of 4500 km,[45]other estimates suggest that the Jericho III have a maximum range of 7800 km.[46] A Medium Range Ballistic Missile, commonly abreviated to MRBM, is a type of ballistic missile with a range between 1500 and 2000 km. ... boobies ... Shavit (Hebrew: comet) is a launch vehicle produced by Israel. ...


In addition to ballistic missile technology, Israel maintains a fleet of Dolphin class submarines, widely suspected of being armed with Israeli made medium range (1450 km) cruise missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads.[47] The Dolphin class is a non-nuclear type of submarine developed and constructed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) for the Israeli Navy. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ...


On 9 December 2006, the incoming U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates suggested at a Senate confirmation hearing that Israel had atomic weapons. Gates said Iran might want an atomic bomb because it is "surrounded by powers with nuclear weapons: Pakistan to their east, the Russians to the north, the Israelis to the west and us in the Persian Gulf".


On 11 December 2006, Prime Minister Olmert made a statement some see as an admission of Israel's possession of nuclear weapons. While commenting on Iran's nuclear program, Olmert said: "Iran openly, explicitly and publicly threatens to wipe Israel off the map. Can you say that this is the same level, when they are aspiring to have nuclear weapons as America, France, Israel, Russia?" However, Olmert's aides immediately denied that this was an official confirmation, saying a grammatical nuance of the sentence was lost in translation.[48] December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew: אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Israel

Israel is the most industrially and economically developed country in the Middle East. It has a technologically advanced market economy with substantial government participation. It depends on imports of fossil fuels (crude oil, natural gas, and coal), grains, beef, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past twenty years. Israel is largely self-sufficient in food production except for grains and beef. Diamonds, high technology, military equipment, software, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables and flowers) are leading exports. Israel usually posts sizable current account deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans (although some economists would say the deficit is a sign of Israel's advancing markets). Israel possesses extensive facilities for oil refining, diamond polishing, and semiconductor fabrication. According to international data reported by the World Bank, Israel has the best regulations for businesses and strongest protections of property rights in the Greater Middle East. Israel has a diversified modern economy with substantial government ownership and a rapidly developing high-tech sector. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Natural gas is gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium and hydrogen sulfide. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... An assortment of grains The word grain has a great many meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... The term current account usually refers to the current account of the balance of payments (BOP) and contains the import and export items of goods and services. ... View of the Shell/Valero Martinez oil refinery An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into useful petroleum products. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... World map of the Ease of Doing Business Index. ...


Roughly half of the government's external debt is owed to the United States, which is its major source of economic and military aid. A relatively large fraction of Israel's external debt is held by individual investors, via the Israel Bonds program. The combination of American loan guarantees and direct sales to individual investors, allow the state to borrow at competitive and sometimes below-market rates.

A main business district in Gush Dan where the diamond stock exchange is located.
A main business district in Gush Dan where the diamond stock exchange is located.

The influx of Jewish immigrants from the former USSR topped 750,000 during the period 1989–1999, bringing the population of Israel from the former Soviet Union to one million, one-sixth of the total population, many of them highly educated, adding scientific and professional expertise of substantial value for the economy's future. The influx, coupled with the opening of new markets at the end of the Cold War, energized Israel's economy, which grew rapidly in the early 1990s. But growth began slowing in 1996 when the government imposed tighter fiscal and monetary policies and the immigration bonus petered out. Those policies brought inflation down to record low levels in 1999. Image File history File links 800px-Habursa_2. ... Image File history File links 800px-Habursa_2. ... Gush Dan (Hebrew: גּוּשׁ דָּן, Standard Hebrew GuÅ¡ Dan) is the name of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area including areas from both the Tel Aviv District and the Central District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is very long Some browsers may have difficulty rendering this article. ...


Twenty-four percent of Israel's workforce holds university degrees, ranking Israel third in the industrialized world after the United States and Netherlands. Twelve percent hold advanced degrees.[49]


The important diamond industry has been affected by changing industry conditions and shifts of certain industry activities to the Far East.


As Israel has liberalized its economy and reduced taxes and spending, the gap between the rich and poor has grown. As of 2005, 20.5% of Israeli families (and 34% of Israeli children) are living below the poverty line, though around 40% of those are lifted above the poverty line through transfer payments[citation needed].


Israel's nominal GDP per capita, as of 28 July 2005, was $19,248 per person (30th in the world), and its GDP per capita at purchase power parity was 26, 200 (26th in the world). Israel's overall productivity was $54,510.40, and the amount of patents granted was 74/1,000,000 people[citation needed]. At the end of September 2006, Israel's population was 7.1 million, of whom 2.6 million were employed during the second quarter of 2006. As of August 2006, average monthly wages per employee were 7,521 Shekels or 1,749 USD, whilst private consumption expenditure per capita (2006, second quarter) was 12,208 Shekels or 2,839 USD. In Israel, 8.7% of people are unemployed (2006, first quarter). July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 2006 is the ninth month of 2006 and has begun on a Friday. ... August 2006 is the eighth month of that year, and has yet to occur. ... Silver half-shekel struck in the Greek colony of Taras, during the Punic occupation. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Silver half-shekel struck in the Greek colony of Taras, during the Punic occupation. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


Science and technology

Israeli contributions to science and technology have been significant. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, Israel has worked in science and engineering. Israeli scientists have contributed in the areas of genetics, computer sciences, electronics, optics, engineering and other high-tech industries. Israeli science is well known for its military technology, as well as its work in advancing fields such as agriculture, physics, and medicine[citation needed]. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1982x2944, 4688 KB) Summary Koffler accelerator at the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1982x2944, 4688 KB) Summary Koffler accelerator at the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... The Koffler accelerator, one of the best-known buildings on campus. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to genetics. ... Computer science (informally: CS or compsci) is, in its most general sense, the study of computation and information processing, both in hardware and in software. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Table of Opticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia Optics ( appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: ‎  , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Sea Corps. ...


Four Israelis have won science Nobel Prizes. Biologists Avram Hershko and Aaron Ciechanover of the Technion shared the Chemistry prize in 2004. Israeli-American psychologist Daniel Kahneman had previously won the 2002 prize in Economics. In 2005, Robert Aumann from The Hebrew University also won the prize in Economics. The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awards in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. ... Avram Hershko (born December 31, 1937) is an Israeli biologist. ... Aaron Ciechanover (אהרון צחנובר) (born October 1, 1947) is an Israeli biologist. ... The Technion - Israel Institute of Technology (הטכניון - מכון טכנולוגי לישראל) is a university in Haifa, Israel. ... Daniel Kahneman Daniel Kahneman (born March 5, 1934 in Tel Aviv, in the then British Mandate of Palestine, now in Israel), is a key pioneer and theorist of behavioral finance, which integrates economics and cognitive science to explain seemingly irrational risk management behavior in human beings. ... Israel Robert John Aumann (ישראל אומן) (born June 8, 1930) is an Israeli mathematician and a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ...


High technology industries have taken a pre-eminent role in the economy, particularly in the last decade. Israel's limited natural resources and strong emphasis on education have also played key roles in directing industry towards high technology fields. As a result of the country’s success in developing cutting edge technologies in software, communications and the life sciences, Israel is frequently referred to as a second Silicon Valley.[50][51] A view of downtown San Jose, the self-proclaimed Capital of Silicon Valley. ...


As of 2004, Israel receives more venture capital investment than any country in Europe,[52] and has the largest VC/GDP rate in the world, seven times that of the United States[citation needed]. Israel has the largest number of startup companies in the world after the United States[citation needed]. Outside the United States and Canada, Israel has the largest number of NASDAQ-listed companies.[53] Israel also has one of the highest percentage in the world of home computers per capita[citation needed]. A startup company is a company with a limited operating history. ... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ...


Israel produces more scientific papers per capita than any other nation: 109 per 10,000 people.[54] It also boasts one of the highest per capita rates of patents filed.


Israel is ranked third in research and development (R&D) spending; eighth in technological readiness (companies spending on R&D, the creativity of its scientific community, personal computer and internet penetration rates); eleventh in innovation; sixteenth in high technology exports; and seventeenth in technological achievement in Nation Master's list of countries in the world by economy standards.


Tourism

Sand Mountains in the Negev.
Sand Mountains in the Negev.
Landscape in the Golan Heights.
Landscape in the Golan Heights.
Main article: Tourism in Israel

Another leading industry is tourism, which benefits from the plethora of important historical sites for Judaism, Christianity and Islam and from Israel's warm climate and access to water resources. Tourism in Israel includes a rich variety of historical and religious sites in the Holy Land, as well as modern beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. Image File history File linksMetadata Negev-2005-1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Negev-2005-1. ... Ruins in the Negev desert The Negev (Hebrew נֶגֶב;, Tiberian Hebrew Néḡeḇ; Arabic النقب an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ein-Pik-2005-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ein-Pik-2005-3. ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ... Tourism in Israel includes a rich variety of historical and religious sites in the Holy Land, as well as modern beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. ... The expression The Holy Land (Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreṣ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta; Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah) generally refers to the Land of Israel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Heritage tourism involves visiting historical or industrial sites that may include old canals, railways, battlegrounds, etc. ... Ecotourism means ecological tourism, where ecological has both environmental and social connotations. ...


Population

Demographics

Israeli soldiers chat with Arab civilians in Galilee, 1978.
Israeli soldiers chat with Arab civilians in Galilee, 1978.

According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, as December 2006, of Israel's 7.1 million people, 76% were Jews, 20% Arabs, and 4% "others".[55] Among Jews, 68% were Israeli-born, mostly second or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are foreign-born: 22% from Europe and the Americas, and 10% from Asia and Africa, including the Arab countries.[56] Download high resolution version (668x866, 519 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (668x866, 519 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... This article discusses the demographics of Israel. ... The Israeli population is a linguistically and culturally diverse community. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Muslim Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews[], Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Semitic-speaking people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... World map showing the Americas CIA map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ...


Israel has two official languages: Hebrew and Arabic. Hebrew is the major and primary language of the state and is spoken by the majority of the population. Arabic is spoken by the Arab minority and by some members of the Mizrahi Jewish community. English is studied in school and is spoken by the majority of the population as a second language. Other languages spoken in Israel include Russian, Yiddish, Ladino, Romanian, Polish, French, Italian, Dutch, German, Amharic and Persian. American and European popular television shows are commonly presented. Newspapers can be found in all languages listed above as well as others. Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Mizrahi Jews, or Mizrahim (מזרחי Easterner, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ; plural מזרחים Easterners, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) sometimes also called Edot HaMizrah (Congregations of the East) are Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Middle East. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


As of 2004, 224,200 Israeli citizens lived in the West Bank in numerous Israeli settlements, (including towns such as Ma'ale Adummim and Ariel, and a handful of communities that were present long before the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and were re-established after the Six-Day War such as Hebron and Gush Etzion). Around 180,000 Israelis lived in East Jerusalem,[57] which came under Israeli control following its capture from Jordan during the Six-Day War. About 8,500 Israelis lived in settlements built in the Gaza Strip, prior to their forcible removal by the government in the summer of 2005 as part of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan. Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ... Maale Adummim Copyright Applied Research Institute of Jerusalem The city of Maale Adummim (Hebrew: ; unofficially also spelled Maale Adumim) is a city and Israeli settlement in the Judea region of the West Bank, east of Jerusalem. ... Houses in Ariel, Samaria Ariel (אריאל) is an Israeli city in Samaria (Northern West Bank). ... Combatants Egypt Syria Transjordan  Lebanon Saudi Arabia Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army  Israel Commanders Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni† Hasan Salama† Fawzi al-Qawuqji Yaakov Dori Yigael Yadin Strength Egypt: 10,000 initially rising to 20,000 Iraq: 5,000 initially rising to 15,000–18... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... The mostly deserted market in the old city. ... Tunnel to Gush Etzion Gush Etzion (Hebrew גוש עציון, literally bloc of the tree) is a group of Israeli settlements in the northern Judea region of the West Bank. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (termed in Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to...


Culture of Israel

Leo Roth, Flute Players, oil on canvas, 1967.
Leo Roth, Flute Players, oil on canvas, 1967.
Main article: Culture of Israel

The culture of Israel is inseparable from long history of Judaism and Jewish history which preceded it. Image File history File links Roth_Oil. ... Image File history File links Roth_Oil. ... Leo Roth, Flute Players, oil on canvas, 1967 Leo Roth (1914-2002) (variant name Lior Roth) was an Israeli painter, born in 1914 in Poland. ... The culture of Israel, also called Israeli culture, is inseparable from long history of Judaism and Jewish history which preceded it (i. ...


Tel Aviv, Haifa, Herzliya, and Jerusalem have excellent art museums, and many towns and kibbutzim have smaller high-quality museums. The Israel Museum in Jerusalem houses the Dead Sea Scrolls along with an extensive collection of Jewish religious and folk art. The Museum of the Diaspora is located on the campus of Tel Aviv University. Israel has artist colonies in Safed, Jaffa, and Ein Hod, as well as three major repertory companies, the most famous being Habima Theater which was founded in 1917. Ben-Gūryōn Avenue in the centre of Herzliyyāh, facing north towards Sōkōlōv Street (1998) Herzliya (in Hebrew: הֶרְצְלִיָּה, without Niqqud: הרצלייה, commonly pronounced in Hebrew as Hertseliya) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip in the south of the Sharon region, just north... The road sign The Shrine of the Book The Israel Museum in Jerusalem, was founded in 1965 as Israels national museum. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran... Beth Hatefutsoth (Hebrew for The Diaspora House) - the Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora, was established in 1978, and is located on the Tel Aviv University campus in Ramat Aviv. ... An art colony is a place where artists live and work, interacting with one another, often creating a distinctive style. ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. ... Ein Hod was established in Israel by the Dada artist Marcel Janco, next to the abandoned Arab village of Ein Houd, near Mount Carmel, south-east of Haifa. ... Habima Theater (Hebrew: the stage) in Tel Aviv is Israels national theater and it is one of the first Hebrew theaters. ...


As regards gay rights, Israel remains the most tolerant country in the Middle East. LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence Israel remains the most advanced and tolerant in the Middle East in terms of gay rights, and indeed one of the most tolerant in the whole world. ...

See also: Archaeology of Israel, Israel Antiquities Authority, Jewish cuisine, Israeli wine, and Kibbutz

The archaeology of Israel is a national passion that also attracts considerable international interest on account of the regions Biblical links. ... The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) (before 1990, the Israel Department of Antiquities) is an independent Israeli governmental authority responsible for enforcing the 1978 Law of Antiquities by regulating excavation and conservation, and by promoting research. ... Jewish shop (Le Marais, Paris) // Unlike most other cuisines, Jewish cuisine - because of the sheer age of the worldwide Jewish diaspora - isnt one unified cuisine, but a collection of worldwide cookery traditions loosely linked by the rules of kashrut, the Jewish dietary laws. ... The Israeli wine industry is known for its vibrancy, with wineries numbering in the hundreds and ranging in size from small boutique enterprises making a few thousand bottles per year to the largest producing over ten million bottles per year. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ‎; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ...

Education

Main article: Education in Israel

Israel has the highest school life expectancy in the Greater Middle East and Western Asia, and is tied with South Korea for highest school life expectancy in the entire Asian continent. It is ranked 22 out of 111 nations.[58] Israel also has the highest literacy rate in the Middle East according to the UN.[59] This article is about the education in Israel. ... World literacy rates by country The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ...


The education system in Israel, up to secondary education level, consists of three tiers: the primary education (grades 1-6), followed by a middle school (grades 7-9), then high school (grades 10-12). Compulsory education is from grades 1 to 9. The secondary education mostly consists of preparation for the Israeli matriculation exams (bagrut). The exams consist of a multitude of subjects, some of them mandatory (Hebrew language, English language, mathematics, Bible studies, civics and literature), and some optional (e.g. Chemistry, Music, French). In 2003, 56.4% of Israeli grade 12 students received a matriculation certificate: 57.4% in the Hebrew sector and 50.7% in the Arab sector. [9] Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A large elementary school in Magome, Japan. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... Main article: Secondary education High school is a name used in some parts of the world, and particularly in North America, to describe the last segment of compulsory education. ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ... Teudat Bagrut (Hebrew: The entire process of the examination is governed by the the countrys Ministry of Education. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Religious education teaches the doctrines of a religion. ... Civics is the science of comparative government and means of administering public trusts—the theory of governance as applied to state institutions. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... Allegory of Music on the Opéra Garnier Music is an art form that involves organised sounds and silence. ...


Any Israeli with a full matriculation certificate can proceed to higher education, as in any country. Institutions generally require a certain grade average, as well as a good grade in the psychometric exam (similar to the American SAT). As all universities (and some colleges) are subsidized by the state, students pay only a small part of the actual cost as tuition. The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The SAT is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States. ... Tuition means instruction, teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning. ...


Israel has eight universities and several dozen colleges. According to Webometrics (2006), of the top ten universities in the Middle East, seven out of ten are in Israel, including the top four.[60] However, as of January 2007, Webometrics ranks Israeli (and Turkish) schools among European universities, boasting four in its top 100. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is the only university in the Middle East ranked in the Webometrics top-200 in the world. Israel is the only country in the Middle East (and one of only two in Asia, the other being Japan) that is home to a university listed in SJTU's Top 100 Academic Ranking of World Universities (Hebrew University, #60). [10] [11] Also, Israel, out of all countries in the Middle East and Western Asia, has the highest number of Yale University alumni.[61] The science of webometrics (also cybermetrics, web metrics) tries to measure the Internet to get knowledge about number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... The science of webometrics (also cybermetrics, web metrics) tries to measure the Internet to get knowledge about number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. ... Shanghai Jiao Tong University, (SJTU, 上海交通大學), abbreviated Jiao Da (交大), is one of the leading universities in China. ... “Yale” redirects here. ...

See also: List of universities and colleges in Israel

There are eight official universities in Israel. ...

Sports

Gal Fridman won Israel's first Olympic gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics.
Gal Fridman won Israel's first Olympic gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics.
Main article: Sports in Israel

Sports in Israel, as in other countries, are an important part of the national culture. The Israeli sporting culture is much like that of European countries. Israeli athletics go back as far as before the establishment of the state of Israel. While football (soccer) and basketball are considered the most popular sports in Israel, the nation has attained achievements in other sports, such as American Football,handball and athletics. Israelis are also involved in hockey, rugby and chess. Image File history File links Galfridman. ... Image File history File links Galfridman. ... Gal Fridman (Hebrew: גל פרידמן) (born 16 September 1975 in Karkur (near Hadera), Israel) is an Israeli windsurfer and an Olympic gold medalist. ... Gold Medal is an album by American band The Donnas, released in 2004. ... The 2004 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, were held in Athens, Greece, from August 13 to August 29, 2004. ... Sports in Israel, as in other countries, are an important part of the national culture. ... Football is a ball game played between two teams of eleven players, each attempting to win by scoring more goals than their opponent. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Handball is the name of several different sports: Team handball, or Olympic/European Handball is a game somewhat similar to association football, but the ball is played with the hand, not the foot. ... A womens 400 metre hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ... Hockey is any of a family of sports in which two teams compete by trying to maneuver a ball, or a hard, round disc called a puck, into the opponents net or goal, using a hockey stick. ... A BCRFC match at Boston College Rugby football, often just referred to as rugby, refers to sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England. ... Chess is a recreational and competitive game for two players. ...


To date, Israel has won six Olympic medals. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Literature

Main article: Israeli literature

Israeli literature is mostly written in Hebrew and the history of Israeli literature is mostly the product of the revival of the Hebrew language as a spoken language in modern times. Israeli literature is the literature of the people or State of Israel. ...


Since the middle of the nineteenth century, the Hebrew language was increasingly used for speaking as well as writing modern forms of prose, poetry and drama. Every year thousands of new books are published in Hebrew and most of them are original to the Hebrew language.


Shmuel Yosef Agnon won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1966. Shmuel Yosef Agnon (Hebrew: שמואל יוסף עגנון; known as shay agnon, born Shmuel Yosef Czaczkes) (July 17, 1888 – February 17, 1970) was the first Hebrew writer to win the Nobel Prize in literature (1966). ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ...


Music

Main article: Music of Israel

Israeli music is diverse and combines elements of both western and eastern music. It tends toward eclecticism and contains a wide variety of influences from today's Jewish diaspora. It also makes use of modern cultural importation. Hassidic songs, Asian and Arab pop, especially Yemenite singers, hip hop and heavy metal are all part of the musical scene. Download high resolution version (1788x2731, 485 KB)Itzhak Perlman press photo. ... Download high resolution version (1788x2731, 485 KB)Itzhak Perlman press photo. ... Itzhak Perlman Itzhak Perlman (born August 31, 1945 in Jaffa) is an Israeli virtuoso violinist and teacher. ... Modern Israeli music is heavily influenced by its constituents, which include Jewish immigrants (see Jewish music) from more than 120 countries around the world, which have brought their own musical traditions, making Israel a global melting pot. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed between 1969 and 1974. ...


Israel's canonical folk songs often deal with Zionist hopes and dreams and glorify the life of idealistic Jewish youth who intend on building a home and defending their homeland. These are usually known as שירי ארץ ישראל ("Songs of the land of Israel"). Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and for the common people. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ...


Israel is well-known for its famous classical orchestras and the Israeli Philharmonic Orchestra under the management of Zubin Mehta has a worldwide reputation. Dudu Fisher, Itzhak Perlman and Pinchas Zukerman are some of the more renowned classical musicians from Israel. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Fredric R. Mann Auditorum (he:Hichal Hatarbot), home of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra The Leonard Bernstein Plaza in front of the Mann Auditorum The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (abbreviation IPO; Hebrew: התזמורת הפילהרמונית הישראלית, ha-Tizmoret ha-Filharmonit ha-Yisreelit) is the leading symphony orchestra in Israel, and one of the top orchestras... Zubin Mehta (born April 29, 1936) is an Indian conductor of Western classical music. ... David (Dudu) Fisher (born 1951, Petah Tikva; ) is an Israeli cantor and stage performer. ... Itzhak Perlman Itzhak Perlman (born August 31, 1945 in Jaffa) is an Israeli virtuoso violinist and teacher. ... Image:Zukerman. ...


Music styles popular in Israel include pop, rock, heavy metal, hip hop and rap, trance (especially Goa trance and psychedelic trance), Oriental Mizrahi music and ethnic music of various sorts. Goa trance (often referred as Goa or by the number 604) is a form of electronic music and is a style of trance music which originated in the Indian state of Goa, as opposed to most other forms of trance music which appeared in Europe. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Mizrahi music usually refers to the new wave of music in Israel which combines Israeli music with the flavor of Arabic and Mediterranean (especially Greek) music. ...


Israel has won the Eurovision Song Contest three times (1978, 1979, 1998). Red (7), Dark blue (5), Yellow (4), Orange (3), Green (2), Blue (1) Helena Paparizou, the winner of the Eurovision Song Contest 2005, perfoming her song in Congratulations // Winners of the Eurovision Song Contest ↑  In 1969 four countries were joint winners as there was no rule for a tie. ...

See also: Hatikvah

Hatikvah or Hatikva (Hebrew: הַתִּקְוָה, The Hope) is the national anthem of Israel. ...

Religion

Main article: Religion in Israel

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, 76.1% of Israelis are Jewish; 16.2% are Muslim; 2.1% are Christian; 1.6% are Druze; and 3.9% unclassified.[62] Religion in Israel is unique in that Israel is the only country in which Judaism is the religion of the majority of citizens. ... Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה) is a state organization for the creation and maintenance of numeric data related to populations vis-à-vis the ethnic makeup of Israel and its cities. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... // Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzÄ« or durzÄ« درزي, pl. ...


Roughly 12% of Israeli Jews defined as haredim (ultra-orthodox religious); an additional 9% are "religious"; 35% consider themselves "traditionalists" (not strictly adhering to Jewish Halakha); and 43% are "secular" (termed "hiloni"). Among the seculars, 53% believe in God. However, 78% of all Israelis participate in a Passover seder.[63] Israelis tend not to align themselves with a movement of Judaism (such as Reform Judaism or Conservative Judaism) but instead tend to define their religious affiliation by degree of their religious practice. Haredi or Charedi Judaism (alternatively Hareidi or Chareidi - this spelling being usually preferred by Haredim themselves) is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday (lasting seven days in Israel and among some liberal Diaspora Jews, and eight days among other Diaspora Jews) that commemorates the exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Egypt; it is also observed by... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ...


Among Arab Israelis, 82.6% were Muslim, 8.8% were Christian and 8.4% were Druze. There is also a small community of Ahmadi Muslims in the country.[64] Tiny communities of Ismaili Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs also live in Israel, but to date they are not sizable enough for any Mandirs, Gurudwaras, or Ismaili Mosques to have yet built. Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzī or durzī درزي, pl. ... Ahmadi Muslims are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A Sikh (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent of Sikhism. ... The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with colourful icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... A Gurdwara is the Sikh place of worship. ...


There are fourteen diverse Buddhist groups are presently active in Israel, catering to Israeli Jubus as well as a tiny number of Vietnamese Buddhists who came to Israel as refugees from the crisis in their homeland and were granted citizenship.[65] The Bahá'í world centre, which includes the Universal House of Justice, is situated in Haifa and attracts pilgrimage from all over the world.[66] Apart from a few hundred staff, Bahá'ís do not live in Israel. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A Jubu is a Jewish Buddhist, a person with a Jewish ethnic and/or religious background who practices forms of Buddhist meditation and spirituality. ... This article is about asylum seekers travelling by boat. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Baháí House of Worship attracts an average of four million visitors a year (around 13,000 each day). ... Seat of The Universal House of Justice For the building, see the Seat of the Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Baháí Faith. ... The Shrine of the Báb and its Terraces, 2003. ...

See also: Holidays and events in Israel

Note: for exact dates in the Gregorian calendar see Jewish holidays 2000-2050. ...

Human rights

The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel proclaimed that the state "...will foster the development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants; it will be based on freedom, justice and peace as envisaged by the prophets of Israel; it will ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex; it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture; it will safeguard the Holy Places of all religions; and it will be faithful to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations."[67] However, like many democracies, Israel often struggles with issues of minority rights, especially when it comes to the often contentious issues surrounding the treatment of Israel's large Arab minority, which constitutes 15% of Israel's population.[68][69] In 2005, Israel's interior minister Ophir Pines-Paz termed the country's policy toward its Arab citizens "institutional discrimination".[70] The Arab minority, however, is represented in Israel's cabinet.[71] The State of Israel is a multiparty parliamentary democracy and the worlds only Jewish state, though its population includes citizens from many different ethnic and religious backgrounds. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous and serves as an intermediary with humanity for the divine. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... The United Nations Charter is the constitution of the United Nations. ... Ophir Pines-Paz Ophir Pines-Paz (in Hebrew אופיר פינס - פז) (born July 11, 1961) is the Israeli Interior Minister and a Knesset member. ...


While Israel does not have a constitution, it has a set of Basic Laws, intended to form the basis of a future constitution. One of those Basic Laws, Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty, serves as one of the major tools for defending human rights and liberties. The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ...


According to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, Sephardi Jews "have long charged that they suffered social and economic discrimination at the hands of the state's Ashkenazi establishment."[72] Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, Aškanazi,Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAškănāzî, ʾAškănāzîm, pronounced sing. ...


Various countries, international bodies, non-governmental organizations and individuals have evaluated and often criticized Israel's human rights record, often in relation to the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Groups such as Amnesty International[73] and Human Rights Watch[74] are highly critical of Israel's policies. In turn, these groups were accused of anti-Israel bias: in the AI, in the HRW. According to the 2005 US Department of State report on Israel, "The government generally respected the human rights of its citizens; however, there were problems in some areas..."[75] In 2006, Freedom House rated political rights in Israel as "1" (1 representing the most free and 7 the least free rating); civil liberties as "2"; and gave it the freedom rating of "Free". Other areas, controlled by Israel through military occupation but not considered with the country's main territory were rated as "6," "5," and "Not Free" (territories administered by the Palestinian Authority were rated as "5", "5", and "Partly Free").[76] Most of the countries in the Middle East were classified as "Not Free". Btselem, the Israeli human rights organization, has stated that Israel has created in the West Bank a regime of separation based on discrimination, applying two separate systems of law in the same area and basing the rights of individuals on their nationality.[77] A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Israel, with the West Bank and Gaza Strip in diagonal stripes The Israeli-Palestinian conflict which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, that both claim the right to sovereignty over the... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Founded in the UK in 1961, AI compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Founded in the UK in 1961, AI compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these... Human Rights Watch, a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights, has been criticised by some countries and organisations for its reporting. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... BTselem (Hebrew בצלם, in the image of, as in Genesis 1:27)_ The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories was founded in 1989 by a group of Israeli public figures, attorneys, academics, journalists, and Members of Knesset. ...


Within Israel, policies of its government are often subjected to criticism from the left and right by its press as well as by a vast variety of political, human rights and watchdog groups such as Association for Civil Rights in Israel, B'Tselem, Machsom Watch, Women in Black, Women for Israel's Tomorrow, among others. According to the Reporters Without Borders (RWB), "The Israeli media were once again in 2005 the only ones in the region that had genuine freedom to speak out."[78] RWB ranked Israel 47th out of 167 countries as regards freedom of the press, the highest of any country in the Middle East and just behind the United States (44th).[79] Israel is also the only country in the region to be ranked as "Free" (28 on the scale 1-100) by Freedom House[80]). The Association for Civil Rights in Israel (Hebrew: האגודה לזכויות האזרח) was created as an independent non-partisan organization to protect human rights and civil rights in Israel and the territories under its control. ... // BTselem (Hebrew בצלם, in the image of, as in Genesis 1:27) is an non-governmental organization (NGO) that describes itself as The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. ... Machsom Watch, or Checkpoint Watch (also Women for Human Rights), is a group of Israeli women who monitor iraqi human-rights at Israeli checkpoints. ... Women in Black is a world wide organization of women, committed to non - violence and non agression, both as a goal and as a means. ... Women for Israels Tomorrow (Hebrew: נשים למען עתיד ישראל) is a right-wing political womens group in Israel. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ...


Foreign relations

The State of Israel joined the United Nations on May 11, 1949 (see Israel and the United Nations). Today, Israel has diplomatic relations with 161 states.[81] Israel is still not recognized by several countries most of which are Arabs. High priorities in the foreign policy of Israel include seeking an end to hostilities with Arab forces, against which it has fought six wars since 1948 and gaining wide acceptance as a sovereign state with an important international role. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Israel and the United Nations have had mixed relations since Israels founding on May 14, 1948. ...


Israel is a member of many international agencies and organizations and is also a member of the Mediterranean Dialogue with NATO. The Mediterranean Dialogue, first launched in 1994 is a forum of cooperation between NATO and seven countries of the Mediterranean with the aim of contributing to regional security and stability by achieving mutual understanding and dispelling misconceptions about NATO among Dialogue countries. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[2] (NATO; French: ; also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance, or the Western Alliance) is a military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. ...


Annotated list of Israeli media sources

General references to the Israeli media

English-language periodicals The following are some of the newspapers published in Israel. ...

  • Azure [12] English edition of the quarterly journal offering essays and criticism on Israeli and Jewish public policy, culture and philosophy
  • Globes [13] English-language website of Israel's business and technology daily
  • Haaretz [14] English edition of the relatively highbrow Hebrew-language newspaper, Haaretz has a liberal editorial stance similar to that of The Guardian. It's published online as well as included as a supplement to the local edition of the International Herald Tribune.
  • IsraelInsider [15] - Independent outlet. Target audience is American Jewry.
  • Jerusalem Newswire [16] Independent Christian-run news outlet
  • The Jerusalem Post [17] Israel's oldest English-language newspaper
  • The Jerusalem Report [18]English weekly newspaper
  • YNetNews [19] English-language website of Israel's largest newspaper Yedioth Ahronoth

Hebrew-language periodicals Azure is the name of the quarterly journal of the Shalem Center, an academic research institute in Jerusalem. ... Globes is a Hebrew language daily financial newspaper, published in Israel. ... Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... The Jerusalem Report is a biweekly newsmagazine that covers political and social issues in Israel, the Middle East and the Jewish world, from a centrist viewpoint. ... A weekly newspaper, or semi-weekly newespaper is usually a smaller publication than a larger, daily newspaper (such as one that covers a metropolitan area). ... Ynetnews is an English language Israel news and content website operated by Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel’s most-read newspaper, and the Hebrew Israel news portal, Ynet. ... Yedioth Ahronoth (Hebrew: ידיעות אחרונות, meaning latest news) is a major daily Israeli newspaper, written in Hebrew. ...

Hebrew-language periodicals (continued) Globes is a Hebrew language daily financial newspaper, published in Israel. ... Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Hamodia (Hebrew המודיע, meaning the announcer) is a Hebrew language daily newspaper, published in Israel. ... Haredi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto: (Royal) (French) God and my right Anthem: God Save the Queen  United Kingdom() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital London Largest Most populous conurbation Greater London Urban Area Official languages de facto English Government  - Monarch Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair Formation  -  24 March 1603   - Acts... Hazofe (Hebrew הצופה, meaning the watcher) is a Hebrew language daily newspaper published in Israel. ... Kippot Sruggot: Modern Orthodox Jewish students carry the flag of Israel at a public parade in Manhattan, NY, USA The Religious Zionist Movement, or Religious Zionism, also called Mizrachi, is an ideology combining Zionism and Judaism, which offers Zionism based on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... Maariv (Hebrew evening) is a daily newspaper in Israel. ... Makor Rishon is an Israeli weekly newspaper, identified with conservative national and religious values. ... A weekly newspaper, or semi-weekly newespaper is usually a smaller publication than a larger, daily newspaper (such as one that covers a metropolitan area). ... Haaretz (הארץ, The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ...

German-language periodicals: Azure is the name of the quarterly journal of the Shalem Center, an academic research institute in Jerusalem. ... Yated Neeman (Hebrew: יתד נאמן) is a Hebrew language daily newspaper published in Israel. ... Haredi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. ... Yedioth Ahronoth (Hebrew: ידיעות אחרונות, meaning latest news) is a major daily Israeli newspaper, written in Hebrew. ...

  • Israel Nachrichten [27] The German-language daily from Tel Aviv for the 100,000 German-speaking Jews in Israel

Arabic-language periodicals Israel-Nachrichten (meaning Israel news) is a German daily newspaper published in Tel Aviv. ...

  • Al-Ittihad Arabic-language daily newspaper

Israeli broadcast media

  • Israel Broadcasting Authority, TV News in Hebrew, some English.
  • JerusalemONLINE video news update from Israel in English by Channel 2 News.
  • Radio Israel
  • Arutz Sheva news site representing the settler community, right-wing religious (English)
  • Kol Israel - Voice of Israel Also produced by the IBA. In Hebrew, Arabic, French, English, Spanish, Ladino, Russian, Persian, Yiddish, etc.
  • IsraCast - Independent, multimedia broadcast and distribution network that focuses on Israeli foreign affairs and defense issues (in English).
  • Israelisms Podcast [28] Weekly podcast (in English) about everyday life and politics in Israel.

Notable Internet sources Channel 2 (Israel) is an Israeli commercial television channel that started broadcasting in November 4, 1993 under the Second Israeli Broadcasting Authority. ...

Related non-Israeli media Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs was founded in 1976 by Professor Daniel J. Elazar, as an independent, non-profit institute for policy research and education serving Israel and the Jewish people. ... The Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations (abbreviated as COPOMAJO or CPMAJO) is self described as a central address for key American, Israeli and other world leaders to consult on issues of critical concern to the Jewish community. It is often referred to as simply the Presidents Conference...

The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA) is an international news agency serving Jewish community newspapers and media around the world. ... A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ...

See also

It has been suggested that one solution has to be found for a series of articles including this article. ... The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ... Religion in Israel is unique in that Israel is the only country in which Judaism is the religion of the majority of citizens. ... This is a list of prominent Israelis (including Arab citizens of Israel). ... Cities in Israel, by district: // Northern District See also North District, Israel. ... Communications in Israel: Telephones - main lines in use: 2. ... Transportation in Israel is well developed, and is continuously being upgraded to meet the demands of rapid population growth, political factors, military needs of the Israel Defense Force, tourism and increased traffic. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: ‎  , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels military forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Sea Corps. ... High priorities in the foreign policy of Israel include seeking an end to hostilities with Arab forces, against which it has fought six wars since 1948 and gaining wide acceptance as a sovereign state with an important international role. ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... Israel and the United Nations have had mixed relations since Israels founding on May 14, 1948. ... There are eight official universities in Israel. ... Logo The Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE), in Tel Aviv, is Israels only stock exchange. ... The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, based in Jerusalem, was set up in 1961 by the State of Israel to foster contact between scholars from the sciences and humanities in Israel, to advise the government on research projects of national importance, and to promote excellence. ... Modern Israeli music is heavily influenced by its constituents, which include Jewish immigrants (see Jewish music) from more than 120 countries around the world, which have brought their own musical traditions, making Israel a global melting pot. ... Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) is a form of waste processing. ... Israel-United States relations have evolved from an initial United States policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily powerful Israel, dependent on the United States for its economic and military strength, with the... The accession of Israel to the European Union has been supported by several prominent Israeli politicians, such as former Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom, Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu and Simon Peres. ... List of the UN resolutions concerning Israel and Palestine: Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir commissioned an analysis of UN voting concerning Israel. ... Cover of Israeli passport Israeli passport personal-information page An Israeli entry stamp in a passport Israeli passports are issued to citizens and nationals of the State of Israel for the purpose of international travel[1] and entitle the bearer to the protection of Israels consular officials overseas. ... Sports in Israel, as in other countries, are an important part of the national culture. ... Same-sex marriage in Israel is not currently legal. ...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/facts%20about%20israel/land/
  2. ^ "Country Report — Israel (2006)", Freedom House, 2006, accessed October 17, 2006.
  3. ^ [http://www1.cbs.gov.il/shnaton57/st02_07x.pdf PDF (130 KiB) , Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, accessed October 2, 2006.
  4. ^ The national President's residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament are located in Jerusalem, which is Israel's capital according to Israel's Basic Law. This states that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel." However, the Palestinian Authority sees East Jerusalem as the future capital of Palestine. Also, the United Nations and most countries do not accept the Basic Law, arguing that Jerusalem's final status must await future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. Most countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv (see CIA Factbook and Map of Israel) See Positions on Jerusalem for more information.
  5. ^ Global Survey 2006: Middle East Progress Amid Global Gains in Freedom
  6. ^ freedomhouse.org: Methodology
  7. ^ Global Competitiveness Report
  8. ^ Ease of Doing Business Index
  9. ^ Reporters Without Borders
  10. ^ Human Development Index
  11. ^ This adversary was "a man", and later "God" according to Genesis 32:24–30; or "the angel", according to Hosea 12:4
  12. ^ In The Palestine Post December 7, 1947, page 1. "Popular Opinion" column, the name New Judea was even discussed.
  13. ^ "On the Move", TIME Magazine, May 31, 1948.
  14. ^ The Stones Speak: The Merneptah Stele. Retrieved on 2006-04-08.
  15. ^ The Land of Israel. Retrieved on 2006-04-08.
  16. ^ Maps of war shows Jewish rule
  17. ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles (Summer 1998). Palestine: History: 135-337: Syria Palaestina and the Tetrarchy. The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  18. ^ Benzion Dinur, "The Messianic Fermentation and Immigration to the Land of Israel from the Crusades until the Black Death, and Their Ideological Roots," in Benzion Dinur, Historical Writings (Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik, 1975), vol. ii. , Elhanan Reiner, Pilgrims and Pilgrimage to the Land of Israel, 1099-1517, doctoral dissertation, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1988.
  19. ^ 1922 census and 1945 survey figures [1]
  20. ^ WHITE PAPER. [www.IsraelToday.co.il] (2005-10-09). Retrieved on 2006-10-08.
  21. ^ British Rule (see "The Termination of the British Mandate"). Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved on 2006-10-02.
  22. ^ Myth & Facts - The War of 1948
  23. ^ "The incredible shrinking Palestine".
  24. ^ General Progress Report and Supplementary Report of the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine, Covering the Period from 11 December 1949 to 23 October 1950, published by the United Nations Conciliation Commission, October 23, 1950. (U.N. General Assembly Official Records, Fifth Session, Supplement No. 18, Document A/1367/Rev. 1)
  25. ^ Michael B. Oren, Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East
  26. ^ (Hebrew) Court ruling Israeli High Court of Justice ruling mentioning how it enforced handing masks to all Palestinians during the Gulf War as a principle of equality.
  27. ^ Mideast Mirror, August 6, 1990.
  28. ^ Associated Press, August 12, 1990.
  29. ^ (Hebrew) article An article in Ha'aretz discussing Palestinian support for Nasrallah, mentioning that Saddam captivated the hearts of the Palestinians in the 1990s through his goal of eradicating Israel.
  30. ^ (Hebrew) An article in Ma'ariv discussing an Israel-wide demonstration by Arabs citing their Gulf War song "Ya Saddam Ya Habib" ("Destroy Tel Aviv").
  31. ^ [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3346342,00.html Palestinians on Saddam: We lost a leader] "PA residents reminisced over the Gulf War, when dozens of Scud missiles were launched at Israel . The missiles, which landed in the center of the country in 1991, were accompanied by celebrations and chants: "Saddam, strike Tel Aviv."
  32. ^ (Hebrew) [2] Yediot Ahronot article: Israeli Deputy Minister of Defense says that in case Israel is 100% sure of another Iraqi attack (in 2002), gas masks will be provided for the Palestinians.
  33. ^ B'Tselem separation barrier statistics
  34. ^ http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/media/makovsky/makovsky020504.pdf [1, p56]
  35. ^ Humanitarian Assistance to Lebanon. United States Agency for International Development Disaster Assistance (1 September 2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-03.
  36. ^ a b "Israel-Hizbullah conflict: Victims of rocket attacks and IDF casualties", Israel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  37. ^ Mideast War, by the numbers. Guardian / Associated Press (2006-08-18). Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
  38. ^ Hizballah's Rocket Campaign Against Northern Israel: A Preliminary Report. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (2006-08-31). Retrieved on 2006-09-08.
  39. ^ Assessing the Environmental Costs of the War in the North - Summer 2006. Ministry of Environmental Protection (2006-08-30). Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  40. ^ For a short period in the 1990s, the Prime Minister was directly elected by the electorate. This change was not viewed a success and was abandoned.
  41. ^ Steven Mazie, Israel's Higher Law: Religion and Liberal Democracy in the Jewish State (Lexington Books, 2006), chapter 2.
  42. ^ Constitution for Israel. Retrieved on 2006-04-08.
  43. ^ The Israel Defense Forces. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  44. ^ [3]
  45. ^ [4]
  46. ^ http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/basics/nuclear-stockpiles.htm
  47. ^ http://www.fas.org/news/israel/e20000619israelmakes.htm
  48. ^ In a Slip, Israel’s Leader Seems to Confirm Its Nuclear Arsenal. The New York Times (2006-12-11).
  49. ^ Top Ten Reasons to Invest in Israel. Israel Consulate in New York. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  50. ^ Israel keen on IT tie-ups. The Hindu Business Line (2001-01-11).
  51. ^ Israel: Punching above its weight. The Economist (2005-11-14).
  52. ^ Venture capital invests in Israeli techs Recovering from recession, country ranks behind only Boston, Silicon Valley in attracting cash for startups. San Francisco Chronicle (2004-04-02).
  53. ^ NASDAQ Appoints Asaf Homossany as New Director for Israel. NASDAQ (2005-02-06).
  54. ^ "BOYCOTT ISRAEL? DO IT PROPERLY..", Mideast Outpost, 2004-12-31.
  55. ^ Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Israel. Population, by religion and population group. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  56. ^ Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Israel. Jews and others, by origin, continent of birth and period of immigration. Retrieved on 2006-04-08.
  57. ^ Settlements information, Foundation for Middle East Peace. East Jerusalem Population and Area, 2000-2002. Retrieved on 2006-04-08.
  58. ^ NationMaster - Statistics > School life expectancy
  59. ^ United Nations Development Programme Report 2005
  60. ^ http://www.webometrics.info/top100_continent.asp?cont=meast
  61. ^ http://world.yale.edu/graduates/mideast_map.html
  62. ^ Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Israel. Population, by religion and population group. Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  63. ^ Religion in Israel: A Consensus for Jewish Tradition by Daniel J. Elazar (JCPA).
  64. ^ Ahmadis in Israel (1999-06-05).
  65. ^ BuddhaNet Middle East Directory. BuddhaNet. Retrieved on 2006-11-24.
  66. ^ http://info.bahai.org/article-1-6-0-5.html
  67. ^ wikiquote:Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel
  68. ^ A Status Report – Equality for Arab Citizens of Israel. The Association for Civil Rights In Israel (2002). Retrieved on August 2, 2006.
  69. ^ Human Rights. A joint project of the Knesset and the Jewish Agency for Israel, operated in North America by the Israeli American Jewish Forum.. Retrieved on August 25, 2006.
  70. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2005 - Israel and the occupied territories. United States Department of State (March 8, 2006). Retrieved on September 22, 2006.
  71. ^ BBC News retrieved 28 January 2007.
  72. ^ Jewish Agency Probe Ordered on Confiscation of Sephardi IDs. The Jewish News Weekly of Northern California. Retrieved on October 18, 2006.
  73. ^ Israel and the Occupied Territories. AI Report 2005. Amnesty International (2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-03.
  74. ^ Israel/Palestinian Authority. Human Rights Watch (2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-03.
  75. ^ Israel and the Occupied Territories. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2005. Israel and the Occupied Territories. Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (March 8, 2006). Retrieved on July 27, 2006.
  76. ^ Freedom in the World 2006 (PDF). Freedom House (2005-12-16). Retrieved on 2006-07-27.
    See also Freedom in the World 2006 and List of indices of freedom.
  77. ^ Land Grab: Israel's Settlement Policy in the West Bank. B'Tselem (May, 2002). Retrieved on September 29, 2006.
  78. ^ Israel - Annual report 2006. Reporters Without Borders (2006).
  79. ^ "Little improvement in Middle East: Few of the region’s countries rank high in the Index. Israel (47th) does best..." Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2005, Middle East, Reporters Without Borders, retrieved October 16, 2006.
  80. ^ Press Freedom Rankings by Region 2005. Freedom House (2005). Retrieved on 2006-08-12.
  81. ^ Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad (Israeli MFA).

This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Frontal view of The Supreme Court building All the branches of Israeli government (Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Administrative) are seated in Jerusalem. ... World map of the 2006-2007 Global Competitiveness Index. ... World map of the Ease of Doing Business Index. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... The Book of Hosea is a book of the Jewish Hebrew Bible, known to Christians as the Old Testament written by Hosea. ... The Palestine Post was an English language Zionist newspaper founded on December 1, 1932 by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor, Gershon Agron in the British mandate of Palestine and subsequently, in Israel. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (282nd in leap years). ... Jewish Agency for Israel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... The UN Conciliation Commission was set up by UN General Assembly Resolution 194, in order to conclude the 1948 Arab-Israeli War in the region of Palestine. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... USAID logo The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the U.S. government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 2006 was a month with thirty-one days, like all Augusts, that began on a Tuesday. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... Jewish Agency for Israel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States Government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Founded in the UK in 1961, AI compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... There are several non-governmental organizations that publish and maintain assessments of the state of freedom in the world and rank countries as being free, partly free, or unfree using various measures of freedom, including political rights, economic rights, and civil liberties. ... // BTselem (Hebrew בצלם, in the image of, as in Genesis 1:27) is an non-governmental organization (NGO) that describes itself as The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

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  • Israel's official Blog
  • Israel is a democracy in which Arabs vote

Legislation and the legal system

  • The Knesset (Parliament)
  • Basic Laws, legal code of Israel
  • Israeli Commercial, Banking, Tort and Insurance Laws (in English)

History

  • State of Israel The Jewish History Resource Center, Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • The birth of Israel from the BBC
  • Israel Museum, Jerusalem
  • Historical documents (MFA)
  • Authentic historical recordings (Isracast)
  • State of Israel History
  • Original Document: Press Release Announcing US Recognition of Israel

Economy, science, and technology

  • Standard and Poor's Israel Economic Information
  • Israel Science and Technology Directory
  • IsraCast: Israeli Science and Technology News

Society

  • Israel Women's Network
  • Gay Middle East - Israel section
  • Freedom of Religion in Israeli Society and Politics by Prof. Shimon Shetreet, former minister of Religious Affairs.
  • Neve Shalom/Wahat al-Salam the Oasis of Peace, an experimental Arab-Jewish cooperative village.
  • Zinonist Youth Movement (Bne Akiwa)
  • Israel Movement for Progressive Judaism, Reform Judaism in Israel
Geographic locale


  Results from FactBites:
 
Israel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7354 words)
Israel is bordered by Lebanon in the north, Syria and Jordan in the east, and Egypt in the south-west.
Israel held the Lebanese government responsible for the attack, as it was carried out from Lebanese territory, and initiated an air and naval blockade, airstrikes across much of the country, and ground incursions into southern Lebanon.
Israel is not a member of the International Criminal Court as it fears it could lead to prosecution of Israeli settlers in the occupied territories.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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