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Encyclopedia > Isoroku Yamamoto
Isoroku Yamamoto
4 April 1884April 18, 1943 (aged 59)

Fleet Admiral (Admiral of the Fleet) Isoroku Yamamoto
Place of birth Nagaoka, Niigata, Japan
Place of death Solomon Islands
Allegiance Flag of Japan Empire of Japan
Service/branch Naval flag of Empire of Japan Imperial Japanese Navy
Years of service 1901–1943
Rank Fleet Admiral,
Commander-in-Chief
Unit Combined Fleet among others
Commands Kitakami
Isuzu
Akagi
Naval Air Command
Navy Ministry
Naval Air Command
1st Fleet
Combined Fleet
1st Battleship Division[1]
Battles/wars Russo-Japanese War
World War II (Battle of Midway)
Awards Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (posthumously)
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Paulownia Blossoms,
Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure,
Order of the Golden Kite (1st class),
Order of the Golden Kite (2nd class),
Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords[1]
In this Japanese name, the family name is Yamamoto.

Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto (Japanese: 山本五十六 Yamamoto Isoroku?) (4 April 188418 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 415 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (983 × 1421 pixel, file size: 155 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Fleet Admiral or a Admiral Of The Fleet, as it was first coined, is a military officer of very high rank and is a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. ... Nagaoka (長岡市) is a city located in the central part of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. ... Niigata Prefecture ) is located on HonshÅ« island on the coast of the Sea of Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... A Fleet Admiral or a Admiral Of The Fleet, as it was first coined, is a military officer of very high rank and is a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Combined Fleet was the ocean-going branch of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which was ruled under General Staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy (e. ... IJN Kitakami ) was a Kuma-class light cruiser in the Imperial Japanese Navy, named after the Kitakami River in Iwate prefecture, Japan. ... Isuzu was a Nagara-class light cruiser in the Imperial Japanese Navy, named after the Isuzu River. ... The Akagi (Japanese: 赤城) was an aircraft carrier serving with the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The only ship in her class, Akagi played a major part in the Attack on Pearl Harbor, but was sunk along with three other large carriers by dive bombers from US carriers Enterprise... Combined Fleet was the ocean-going branch of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which was ruled under General Staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy (e. ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... The Breast Star of the Order of the Chrysanthemum The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (大勲位菊花章 daikuni kikkashō, literally Grand Order of the Badge of the Chrysanthemums) is Japans highest order. ... Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun The Order of the Rising Sun or Kyokujitsu sho(旭日章) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... The Order of the Sacred Treasures ) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established on January 4, 1888 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... The Order of the Golden Kite ) was a Japanese Order (decoration), established on 12 February 1889 by Emperor Meiji. ... asdfsdfasasdfasdfasdsssd This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The penultimate expression of the award: the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with golden Oakleaves, Swords and Diamonds. ... Yamada Tarō (), a typical Japanese name (male), equivalent to John Smith in English. ... Last name redirects here. ... A Fleet Admiral or a Admiral Of The Fleet, as it was first coined, is a military officer of very high rank and is a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Combined Fleet was the ocean-going branch of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which was ruled under General Staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy (e. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Imperial Japanese Naval Academy ) was a school established to train officers for the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Old girl redirects here. ... Logo of the Naval War College The Naval War College (NWC) of the United States Navy is an education and research institution that specializes in developing ideas for naval strategy and passing them along to officers of the Navy. ... Harvard redirects here. ...


Yamamoto held several important posts in the Imperial Japanese Navy, and undertook many of its changes and reorganizations, especially its development of naval aviation. He was the commander-in-chief during the decisive early years of the Pacific War and so was responsible for major battles such as Pearl Harbor and Midway. He died during an inspection tour of forward positions in the Solomon Islands when his transport aircraft was ambushed by American P-38 Lightning fighter planes. His death was a major blow to Japanese military morale during World War II. For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Midway may refer to: Midway Atoll, an island in the Pacific Ocean Battle of Midway, a World War II battle fought on and around that island Midway (game), a board game by Avalon Hill based on the Battle of Midway Midway Campaign, a computer game, also by Avalon Hill Midway... P-38 redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Family background

Yamamoto was born as Isoroku Takano in Nagaoka, Niigata. His father was Sadayoshi Takano, an intermediate-ranking samurai of the Nagaoka Domain. "Isoroku" is an old Japanese term meaning "56"; the name referred to his father's age at Isoroku's birth. Nagaoka (長岡市) is a city located in the central part of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. ... Niigata Prefecture ) is located on Honshū island on the coast of the Sea of Japan. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ...


In 1916, Isoroku was adopted into the Yamamoto family (another family of former Nagaoka samurai) and took the Yamamoto name. It was a common practice for Japanese families lacking sons to adopt suitable young men in this fashion to carry on the family name. In 1918, Isoroku married a woman named Reiko with whom he had four children: two sons and two daughters.


Early career

After graduating from the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in 1904, Yamamoto served on the cruiser Nisshin during the Russo-Japanese War. He was wounded at the Battle of Tsushima, losing two fingers (the index and middle fingers) on his left hand. He returned to the Naval Staff College in 1914, emerging as a lieutenant commander in 1916. The Imperial Japanese Naval Academy ) was a school established to train officers for the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... Nisshin (Jp:日進), also transliterated as Nissin, was a Kasuga-class armored cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy designed and built by Ansaldo in Italy, where the type was known as the Garibaldi class. ... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski # Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships 27 cruisers destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships 3 coastal battleships 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead 583 injured 3 torpedo boats sunk 4,380 dead 5,917 captured 21 ships sunk 7 captured 6... In the Royal Navy, United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, a lieutenant commander (lieutenant-commander or Lt Cdr in the RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ...


1920s and 1930s

Yamamoto was a political dove who was fundamentally opposed to war with the United States by virtue of his studies at Harvard University (1919–1921), his tour as an admiral's aide, and his two postings as a naval attaché in Washington, D.C. He was promoted to captain in 1923. In 1924, at the age of 40, he changed his specialty from gunnery to naval aviation. His first command was the cruiser Isuzu in 1928, followed by the aircraft carrier Akagi. Yamamoto was a strong proponent of naval aviation, and (as vice admiral) served as head of the Aeronautics Department before accepting a post as commander of the First Carrier Division. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... The 43rd Secretary of the Navy, Curtis Dwight Wilbur, (10 May 1867–8 September 1954) was born in Boonesboro, Iowa. ... Harvard redirects here. ... A military attaché is a military expert who is part of a diplomatic mission. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... The Gunnery is a coeducational college preparatory boarding and day school for 9th-12th grade students. ... Naval aviation of the United States. ... Isuzu was a Nagara-class light cruiser in the Imperial Japanese Navy, named after the Isuzu River. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... The Akagi (Japanese: 赤城) was an aircraft carrier serving with the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The only ship in her class, Akagi played a major part in the Attack on Pearl Harbor, but was sunk along with three other large carriers by dive bombers from US carriers Enterprise... Naval aviation of the United States. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ...


He participated in the second London Naval Conference of 1930 as a rear admiral and the 1934 London Naval Conference as a vice admiral, as the government felt that a career military specialist needed to accompany the diplomats to the arms limitations talks. Yamamoto personally opposed the invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the subsequent land war with China (1937), and the Tripartite Pact (1940) with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. As Deputy Navy Minister, he apologized to United States Ambassador Joseph C. Grew for the bombing of the gunboat USS Panay in December 1937. These issues made him a target of assassination by pro-war militarists. There were three major international naval conferences in London, the first in 1908-09, the second in 1930 and the third in 1935. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Joseph C. Grew was the ambassador to America in Japan during the year of 1941. ... A gunboat is literally a boat carrying one or more guns. ... Panay underway during the standardization trial off Woosung, China on 30 August 1928. ...

Rank insignia (Admiral) of Isoroku Yamamoto
Rank insignia (Admiral) of Isoroku Yamamoto

Throughout 1938, many young army and naval officers began to speak publicly against Yamamoto and certain other Japanese admirals such as Yonai and Inouye for their strong opposition towards a Tripartite pact with Nazi Germany for reportedly being against "Japan's natural interests."[2] Yamamoto himself received a steady stream of hate mail and death threats from Japanese nationalists but his reaction to the prospect of death by assassination was passive and accepting. The Admiral wrote: Image File history File links Japan-navy-1931-1944-sleeve_30-1-.gif File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Japan-navy-1931-1944-sleeve_30-1-.gif File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Shigeyoshi Inoue (1889-1975) was a Japanese admiral of the navy during World War II. He was commander of the Fourth Fleet and later Vice-Minister of the Navy. ...

To die for Emperor and Nation is the highest hope of a military man. After a brave hard fight the blossoms are scattered on the fighting field. But if a person wants to take a life instead, still the fighting man will go to eternity for Emperor and country. One man's life or death is a matter of no importance. All that matters is the Empire. As Confucius said, "They may crush cinnabar, yet they do not take away its color; one may burn a fragrant herb, yet it will not destroy the scent." They may destroy my body, yet they will not take away my will.[3] Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ...

The Japanese army, annoyed at admiral Yamamoto's unflinching opposition to a Rome-Berlin-Tokyo treaty, dispatched military police to "guard" Yamamoto; this was an attempt by the Army to keep an eye on him.[4] He was later reassigned from the Navy Ministry to sea as the Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet on (30 August 1939). This was done as one of the last acts of the then acting Navy Minister Mitsumasa Yonai, under Baron Hiranuma's short-lived administration partly to make it harder for assassins to target Yamamoto; Yonai was certain that if Yamamoto remained ashore, he would be killed before the year (1939) ended.[5] For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The Japanese Naval Ministry was established at the end of the 19th century, along with the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mitsumasa Yonai (米内 光政 Yonai Mitsumasa; March 2, 1880–April 20, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 37th Prime Minister of Japan from January 16, 1940 to July 22, 1940. ... HIRANUMA,Kiichiro Kiichiro Hiranuma (平沼 騏一郎 Hiranuma Kiichirō, September 28, 1867–August 22, 1952) was a Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from January 5, 1939 to August 30, 1939. ...


1940–41

Yamamoto was promoted to full admiral on 15 November 1940. This in spite of the fact that when General Hideki Tojo was appointed Prime Minister on October 18, 1941, many political observers thought that Yamamoto's career was essentially over. Tojo had been Yamamoto's old opponent from the time when the latter served as Japan's deputy navy minister and Tojo was the prime mover behind Japan's takeover of Manchuria. It was believed that Yamamoto would be appointed to command the Yokosuka Naval Base, "a nice safe demotion with a big house and no power at all."[6] After the new Japanese cabinet was announced, however, Yamamoto found himself left alone in his position as Admiral despite his open conflicts with General Tojo and other members of the Army's oligarchy who favoured war with the European powers and America. Two of the main reasons for Yamamoto's political survival was his immense popularity within the navy fleet where he commanded the respect of his men and officers respectively as well as his close relations with the royal family.[7] Emperor Hirohito, like Yamamoto, shared a deep respect for the West.[citation needed] A third reason was probably the acceptance by Japan's naval hierarchy that: For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

there was no officer more competent to lead the Combined Fleet to victory than Admiral Yamamoto. His daring plan for the Pearl Harbor attack had passed through the crucible of the Japanese naval establishment, and after many expressed misgivings, his fellow admirals had realized that Yamamoto spoke no more than the truth when he said that Japan's hope for victory in this [upcoming] war was limited by time and oil. Every sensible officer of the navy was well aware of the perennial oil problems. Also, it had to be recognized that if the enemy could seriously disturb Japanese merchant shipping, then the fleet would be endangered even more."[8]

Consequently, Yamamoto stayed in his post. With General Tojo now in charge of Japan's highest political office, it became clear the Army would lead the Navy into a war about which Yamamoto had serious reservations. He wrote to an ultranationalist;

Should hostilities once break out between Japan and the United States, it is not enough that we take Guam and the Philippines, nor even Hawaii and San Francisco. To make victory certain, we would have to march into Washington and dictate the terms of peace in the White House. I wonder if our politicians (who speak so lightly of a Japanese-American war) have confidence as to the final outcome and are prepared to make the necessary sacrifices.[9] This article is about the U.S. State. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...

This quote was spread by the militarists, minus the last sentence, where it was interpreted [10] in America as a boast that Japan would conquer the entire continental United States. The omitted sentence showed Yamamoto's counsel of caution towards a war that could cost Japan dearly. Nevertheless, Yamamoto accepted the reality of impending war and planned for a quick victory by destroying the US fleet at Pearl Harbor while simultaneously thrusting into the oil and rubber resource rich areas of Southeast Asia--especially the Dutch East Indies, Borneo and Malaya. In naval matters, Yamamoto opposed the building of the super-battleships Yamato and Musashi as an unwise investment of resources. For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Musashi (武蔵), named after the ancient Japanese Musashi Province, was a battleship belonging to the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was the second and final ship of the Yamato class to be completed as a battleship. ...


Yamamoto was responsible for a number of innovations in Japanese Naval Aviation. Although remembered for his association with aircraft carriers due to Pearl Harbor and Midway, Yamamoto did more to influence the development of land-based naval aviation, particularly the G3M and G4M medium bombers. His demand for great range and the ability to carry a torpedo was intended to conform to Japanese conceptions of attriting the American fleet as it advanced across the Pacific in war. The planes did achieve long range, but long-range fighter escorts were not available. These planes were lightly constructed and when fully fueled, they were especially vulnerable to enemy fire. This earned the G4M the sardonic nick-name "the Flying Cigarette Lighter." Yamamoto would eventually die in one of these aircraft. The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service or Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Koku Hombu was a major force in the Pacific War during World War II. The Japanese military acquired their first aircraft in 1910 and followed the development of air combat during World War I with great interest. ... Attack on Pearl Harbor Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date December 7, 1941 Place Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Result Japanese victory On the morning of December 7, 1941, planes and midget submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy commanded by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, carried out a surprise assault on the... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Imperial Japanese Navy bomber Mitsubishi G3M. The Mitsubishi G3M (九六式陸上攻撃機:Type 96 land-based attack aircraft; Allied reporting name Nell) was a Japanese bomber aircraft used during World War Two, mostly against the Chinese. ... The Mitsubishi G4M (一式陸上攻撃機:Type 1 land-based attack aircraft; Allied reporting name Betty) was a twin-engined, land-based bomber aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. It had exceptional range and high-speed at the time of its introduction. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Pacific redirects here. ...


The range of the G3M and G4M contributed to a demand for great range in a fighter aircraft. This partly drove the requirements for the A6M Zero which was as noteworthy for its range as for its maneuverability. Both qualities were again purchased at the expense of light construction and flammability that later contributed to the A6M's high casualty rates as the war progressed. The Mitsubishi A6M Zero (A for fighter, 6th model, M for Mitsubishi) was a lightweight, carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service from 1940 to 1945. ...

Fleet Admiral Yamamoto, U.S. file photo
Fleet Admiral Yamamoto, U.S. file photo

As Japan moved toward war during 1940, Yamamoto gradually moved toward strategic as well as tactical innovation, again with mixed results. Prompted by talented young officers such as Minoru Genda, Yamamoto approved the reorganization of Japanese carrier forces into the First Air Fleet, a consolidated striking force that gathered Japan's six largest carriers into one unit. This innovation gave great striking capacity, but also concentrated the vulnerable carriers into a compact target; both boon and bane would be realized in war. Yamamoto also oversaw the organization of a similar large land-based organization in the 11th Air Fleet, which would later use the G3M and G4M to neutralize American air forces in the Philippines and sink the British Force "Z". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (595x765, 91 KB) Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Imperial Japanese Navy Portrait photograph, taken during the early 1940s, when he was Commander in Chief, Combined Fleet. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (595x765, 91 KB) Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Imperial Japanese Navy Portrait photograph, taken during the early 1940s, when he was Commander in Chief, Combined Fleet. ... Minoru Genda (源田実 Genda Minoru, 16 August 1904–15 August 1989) served in the Imperial Japanese Navy before and during World War II and in the Japanese Air Self-Defense Force after the war, eventually rising to the rank of major general. ... Two World War II military groups were called Force Z An Allied force attached to General Sir Archibald Wavells Middle East Command in 1941, consisting of Nos. ...


In January 1941, Yamamoto went even further and proposed a radical revision of Japanese naval strategy. For two decades, in keeping with the doctrine of Captain Alfred T. Mahan,[11] the Naval General Staff had planned in terms of Japanese light surface forces, submarines and land-based air units whittling down the American Fleet as it advanced across the Pacific until the Japanese Navy engaged it in a climactic "Decisive Battle" in the northern Philippine Sea (between the Ryukyu Islands and the Marianas Islands), with battleships meeting in the traditional exchange between battle lines. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (27 September 1840 - 1 December 1914) was a United States Navy officer, naval strategist, and educator, widely considered the foremost theorist of sea power. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff or Gunreibo Socho, was in charge of Imperial Japanese Navy planning and operations. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... The Philippine Sea The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east of Philippines. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... Mariana Islands (sometimes called The Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called the Ladrone Islands) are a group of islands made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the Pacific Ocean. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... British and Danish ships in line of battle at the Battle of Copenhagen (1801). ...


Correctly pointing out this plan had never worked even in Japanese war games, and painfully aware of American strategic advantages in military productive capacity, Yamamoto proposed instead to seek a decision with the Americans by first reducing their forces with a preemptive strike, and following it with a "Decisive Battle" sought offensively, rather than defensively. Yamamoto hoped, but probably did not believe, if the Americans could be dealt such terrific blows early in the war, they might be willing to negotiate an end to the conflict. As it turned out, however, the note officially breaking diplomatic relations with the United States was delivered late, and he correctly perceived the Americans would be resolved upon revenge and unwilling to negotiate. Yamamoto's thoughts on this matter were later dramatically encapsulated in the apocryphal "sleeping giant" quote uttered in the movie Tora! Tora! Tora!. ŚŚŚ♥ Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto is portrayed in the 1970 film Tora! Tora! Tora!, as saying after his attack on Pearl Harbor, I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve. ... For the Melvinss album, see Tora Tora Tora (album) Tora! Tora! Tora! is a 1970 American-Japanese film that dramatizes the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the series of American blunders that unintentionally improved its effectiveness. ...


The Naval General Staff proved reluctant to go along and Yamamoto was eventually driven to capitalize on his popularity in the fleet by threatening to resign to get his way. Admiral Osami Nagano and the Naval General Staff eventually caved in to this pressure, but only insofar as approving the attack on Pearl Harbor. Surprise attacks have a long military tradition when starting a war, and Japan could see clear to supporting such to give themselves six months to secure the resources of the Netherlands East Indies without the interference of the American navy. In this Japanese name, the family name is Nagano Fleet Admiral Osami Nagano , 15 June 1880 – 5 January 1947) was a career naval officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1934. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ...


The First Air Fleet commenced preparations for the Pearl Harbor Raid, solving a number of technical problems along the way, including how to launch torpedoes in the shallow water of Pearl Harbor and how to craft armor-piercing bombs by machining down battleship gun projectiles.


The Attack on Pearl Harbor, December 1941

As Yamamoto had planned, the First Air Fleet of six carriers armed with about 390[citation needed] planes, commenced hostilities against the Americans on 7 December 1941, launching 353[12] aircraft against Pearl Harbor in two waves. The attack was a complete success according to the parameters of the mission which sought to sink at least four American battleships and prevent the U.S. Fleet from interfering in Japan's southward advance for at least six months. American aircraft carriers were also considered a choice target, but were not in port at the time of the attack. This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...

Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto

In the end, five American battleships were sunk, three damaged, and eleven other cruisers, destroyers and auxiliaries were sunk or seriously damaged. The Japanese lost only 29 aircraft, but suffered damage to more than 111 aircraft. The damaged aircraft were disproportionately dive- and torpedo-bombers, seriously impacting available firepower to exploit the first two waves' success and First Air Fleet Commander Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo withdrew. Yamamoto later lamented Nagumo's failure to seize the initiative to seek out and destroy the American carriers, absent from the harbor, or further bombard various strategically important facilities on Oahu. Nagumo had absolutely no idea where the American carriers might be, and remaining on station while his forces cast about looking for them ran the risk his own force might be found first and attacked while his aircraft were absent searching. Further, his aircraft also lacked appropriate ordnance for attacking the machine tools and drydocks of the shipyard, or even the revetted fuel tanks, whose destruction could have been more serious losses than the fighting ships themselves. In any case, insufficient daylight remained after recovering the aircraft from the first two waves for the carriers to launch and recover a third before dark, and Nagumo's escorting destroyers lacked the fuel capacity for him to loiter long. Much has been made of Yamamoto's hindsight, but (in keeping with Japanese military tradition not to criticize the commander on the spot)[13] he did not punish Nagumo in any way for his withdrawal, which was according to plan. Image File history File links Yamamoto-Isoroku-improvedContrast. ... Image File history File links Yamamoto-Isoroku-improvedContrast. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Nagumo Admiral Chuichi Nagumo , 25 March 1887 - 6 July 1944) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. // Nagumo was born in Yonezawa city, Yamagata prefecture in northern Japan in 1887. ... Oʻahu (usually Oahu outside Hawaiian and Hawaiian English), the Gathering Place, is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous island in the State of Hawaiʻi. ... U.S. Navy submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock following collision with a fishing boat. ...


On the political level, the attack was a disaster for Japan, rousing American passions for revenge due to it being a "sneak attack". In fact, the Japanese had begun all their modern wars in this fashion and it was fully expected they would do so again—just not at Pearl Harbor. The shock of the attack coming in an unexpected place, with such devastating results and without the expected "fair play" of a declaration of war galvanized the American public's determination to avenge the attack. When asked by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe in mid-1941 concerning the outcome of a possible war with the United States, Yamamoto made a well known and prophetic statement: If ordered to fight, "I shall run wild considerably for the first six months or a year but I have utterly no confidence for the second and third years."[14] His prediction would be vindicated as Japan easily conquered territories and islands for the first 6 months of the war until it suffered a shattering defeat at the Battle of Midway on June 4—7, 1942, which tilted the balance of power in the Pacific towards the U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Fumimaro Konoe Prince Fumimaro Konoe (è¿‘è¡ž{è¡› in Shinjitai} 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier...


As a strategic blow intended to prevent American interference in the Netherlands East Indies for six months, the attack was a success, but unbeknownst to Yamamoto, it was a pointless one. The U.S. Navy had abandoned any intention of attempting to charge across the Pacific towards the Philippines at the outset of war in 1935 (in keeping with the evolution of War Plan Orange). In 1937, the U.S. Navy had further determined even fully manning the fleet to wartime levels could not be accomplished in less than six months, and myriad other logistic assets needed to execute a trans-Pacific movement simply did not exist and would require two years to construct after the onset of war. In 1940, U.S. Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Harold Stark had penned "Plan Dog", which emphasized a defensive war in the Pacific while the U.S. concentrated on defeating Nazi Germany first, and consigned Admiral Husband Kimmel's Pacific Fleet to merely keeping the IJN out of the eastern Pacific and away from the shipping lanes to Australia. Moreover, it is in question the U.S. would have gone to war at all had Japan only attacked British and Dutch possessions in the Far East.[15] The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ... War Plan Orange (commonly known as Plan Orange or just Orange) refers to a series of United States Navy war plans for dealing with a possible war with Japan during the interwar years. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the senior military officer in the United States Navy. ... Harold Raynsford Stark (12 November 1880 – 21 August 1972) served as an officer in the United States Navy during World War I and World War II. Stark was the US Navys 8th Chief of Naval Operations, from August 1, 1939 to 26 March 1942. ... Husband Edward Kimmel (February 26, 1882 - May 14, 1958) was an admiral in the United States Navy. ... The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is part of the US Navy. ...


December 1941 to May 1943

Japan's Aggressor: Admiral Yamamoto, photomechanical print on paper.Time Magazine, December 22, 1941.
Japan's Aggressor: Admiral Yamamoto, photomechanical print on paper.Time Magazine, December 22, 1941.

With the American Fleet largely neutralized at Pearl Harbor, Yamamoto's Combined Fleet turned to the task of executing the larger Japanese war plan devised by the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy General Staff. The First Air Fleet proceeded to make a circuit of the Pacific, striking American, Australian, Dutch and British installations from Wake Island to Australia to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in the Indian Ocean. The 11th Air Fleet caught the American 5th Air Force on the ground in the Philippines hours after Pearl Harbor, and then proceeded to sink the British Force "Z" (battleship HMS Prince of Wales and battlecruiser HMS Repulse) underway at sea. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (619 × 855 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japans Aggressor: Admiral Yamamoto, photomechanical print on paper. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 434 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (619 × 855 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japans Aggressor: Admiral Yamamoto, photomechanical print on paper. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff or Gunreibo Socho, was in charge of Imperial Japanese Navy planning and operations. ... For other ships with the same name, see HMS Prince of Wales. ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ... HMS Repulse was a Renown-class battlecruiser, the second to last battlecruiser built for the Royal Navy. ...


Under Yamamoto's able subordinates, Vice Admirals Ozawa, Kondo and Takahashi, the Japanese swept the inadequate remaining American, British, Dutch and Australian naval assets from the Netherlands East Indies in a series of amphibious landings and surface naval battles that culminated in the Battle of the Java Sea on 27 February 1942. With the occupation of the Netherlands East Indies, and the reduction of the remaining American positions in the Philippines to forlorn hopes on the Bataan Peninsula and Corregidor island, the Japanese had secured their oil- and rubber-rich "Southern Resources Area". Jisaburo Ozawa (小沢治三郎 Ozawa Jisaburō, October 2, 1886 – November 9, 1966) was a Japanese admiral during World War II. He was the last Commander-in-Chief of Combined Fleet. ... Nobutake Kondo Nobutake Kondo (September 25, 1886 - February 19, 1953) was a Vice Admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Kondo graduated from the Japanese Naval Academy in 1907. ... Ibo Takahashi (1888-1947) was a Japanese vice admiral during WWII, later serving as commander of the Imperial Japanese Navys Southwest Area Fleet. ... Combatants Netherlands United States United Kingdom Australia Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Karel Doorman â€  Conrad Helfrich Takeo Takagi Strength 2 heavy cruisers 3 light cruisers 12 destroyers 2 heavy cruisers 2 light cruisers 14 destroyers 10 transports Casualties 5 cruisers sunk 5 destroyers sunk 2,300 sailors killed 4 loaded troop... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bataan Peninsula is a rocky extension of the Zambales Mountains, on Luzon in the Philippines. ... Corregidor and the entrance to Manila Bay Corregidor in 1941 Corregidor is an island in the entrance of the Philippines Manila Bay. ...


Having achieved their initial aims with surprising speed and little loss (albeit against enemies ill-prepared to resist them), the Japanese paused to consider their next moves. Since neither the British nor the Americans were willing to negotiate, their thoughts turned to securing and protecting their newly seized territory, and acquiring more with an eye toward additional conquest and/or attempting to force one or more of their enemies out of the war.


Competing plans were developed at this stage, including thrusts to the west against India, the south against Australia and the east against the United States. Yamamoto was involved in this debate, supporting different plans at different times with varying degrees of enthusiasm and for varying purposes, including "horse-trading" for support of his own objectives.


Plans included ideas as ambitious as invading India or Australia, as well as seizing Hawaii. These grandiose ventures were inevitably set aside as the Army could not spare enough troops from China for the first two, nor shipping to support the latter two. (Shipping was allocated separately to IJN & IJA, and jealously guarded.[16]) Instead, the Imperial General Staff supported an Army thrust into Burma in hopes of linking up with Indian Nationalists revolting against British rule, and attacks in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands designed to imperil Australia's sea line of communication with the United States. Yamamoto agitated for an offensive Decisive Battle in the east to finish the American fleet, but the more conservative Naval General Staff officers were unwilling to risk it. This article is about the U.S. State. ...


In the midst of these debates, the Doolittle Raid struck Tokyo and the surrounding areas, galvanizing the threat posed by the American aircraft carriers in the minds of staff officers, and giving Yamamoto an event he could exploit to get his way. The Naval General Staff agreed to Yamamoto's Midway (MI) Operation, subsequent to the first phase of the operations against Australia's link with America, and concurrent with their own plan to seize positions in the Aleutian Islands. Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900...


Yamamoto rushed planning for the Midway and Aleutians missions, while dispatching a force under Rear Admiral Takeo Takagi, including the Fifth Carrier Division (the large, new carriers Shōkaku and Zuikaku), to support the effort to seize the islands of Tulagi and Guadalcanal for seaplane and airplane bases, and the town of Port Moresby on Papua New Guinea's south coast facing Australia. Takeo Takagi (高木武雄 Takagi Takeo, January 25, 1892 – July 8, 1944) was a Vice Admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Takagi commanded forces during the Japanese invasion of the Phillipine Islands, at the Battle of the Java Sea, Coral Sea and Midway. ... Shōkaku (Japanese: 翔鶴 shōkaku meaning flying crane) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: ずいかく Kanji: 瑞鶴 fortunate crane) was a Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Tulagi, less commonly Tulaghi, is a small island (5. ... Guadalcanal, a 2,510 square mile (6,500 km²) island in the Pacific Ocean and a province of the Solomon Islands, is largely a jungle. ... Downtown Port Moresby Port Moresby (IPA: ), or Pot Mosbi in Tok Pisin, population 255,000 (2000), is the capital of Papua New Guinea. ...


The Port Moresby (MO) Operation proved an unwelcome reverse. Although Tulagi and Guadalcanal were taken, the Port Moresby invasion fleet was compelled to turn back when Takagi clashed with an American carrier task force in the Battle of the Coral Sea in early May. Although the Japanese sank the American carrier Lexington in exchange for a smaller carrier, the Americans damaged the carrier Shōkaku so badly that she required dockyard repairs. Just as importantly, Japanese operational mishaps and American fighters and anti-aircraft fire devastated the dive bomber and torpedo plane elements of both Shōkaku’s and Zuikaku’s air groups. These losses sidelined Zuikaku while she awaited replacement aircraft and aircrews, and saw to tactical integration and training. These two ships would be sorely missed a month later at Midway. Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... The fourth USS Lexington (CV-2), nicknamed the Gray Lady or Lady Lex, was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ... Shōkaku (Japanese: 翔鶴 shōkaku meaning flying crane) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy. ... A torpedo bomber is a bomber aircraft designed primarily to attack ships with torpedoes, but they could also carry out conventional bombings. ... Shōkaku (Japanese: 翔鶴 shōkaku meaning flying crane) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: 瑞鶴, meaning fortunate crane) was a Shokaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: 瑞鶴, meaning fortunate crane) was a Shokaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Midway may refer to: Midway Atoll, an island in the Pacific Ocean Battle of Midway, a World War II battle fought on and around that island Midway (game), a board game by Avalon Hill based on the Battle of Midway Midway Campaign, a computer game, also by Avalon Hill Midway...

References: Dull (1978), Evans & Peattie (1997), Lundstrom (1984), Parillo.

The Battle of Midway, June 1942

Main article: Battle of Midway

Yamamoto's plan for the MI was an extension of his efforts to knock the U.S. Pacific Fleet out of action long enough for Japan to fortify her defensive perimeter in the Pacific island chains. Yamamoto felt it necessary to seek an early, offensive decisive battle. Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier...


This was long believed to have been to draw American attention—and possibly carrier forces—north from Pearl Harbor by sending his Fifth Fleet (two light carriers, five cruisers, 13 destroyers and four transports) against the Aleutians, raiding Dutch Harbor on Unalaska Island and invading the more distant islands of Kiska and Attu. Recent scholarship[17] using Japanese language documents has revealed it was, rather, an unrelated venture of the Naval General Staff which Yamamoto agreed to conduct concurrently with the Midway operation, in exchange for the latter's approval. Unalaska is a town on Unalaska Island in the Aleutian Islands. ... Unalaska is an island in the Fox Islands group in the middle of the Aleutian Islands southwest of Alaska, at . ... Map of Kiska Kiska is an island in the Rat Islands group of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska located at 52. ... Attu Island Attu is the westernmost and largest island in the Near Islands group of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, making it the westernmost point of land relative to Alaska and the United States. ...


While Fifth Fleet attacked the Aleutians, First Mobile Force (4 carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, and 12 destroyers) would raid Midway and destroy its air force. Once this was neutralized, Second Fleet (1 light carrier, 2 battleships, 10 cruisers, 21 destroyers, and 11 transports) would land 5,000 troops to seize the atoll from the American Marines. Portion of a Pacific atoll showing two islets on the ribbon or barrier reef separated by a deep pass between the ocean and the lagoon. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ...


The seizure of Midway was expected to draw the American carriers west into a trap where the First Mobile Force would engage and destroy them. Afterward, First Fleet (1 light carrier, 7 battleships, 3 cruisers and 13 destroyers), in conjunction with elements of Second Fleet, would mop up remaining American surface forces and complete the destruction of the Pacific Fleet.


To guard against mischance, Yamamoto initiated two security measures. The first was an aerial reconnaissance mission (Operation K) over Pearl Harbor to ascertain if the American carriers were there. The second was a picket line of submarines to detect the movement of the American carriers toward Midway in time for First Mobile Force, First Fleet, and Second Fleet to combine against it. In the event, the first was aborted and the second delayed until after American carriers had sortied.


The plan was a compromise and hastily prepared, but appeared well thought out, well organized, and finely timed when viewed from a Japanese viewpoint. Against four carriers, two light carriers, 11 battleships, 16 cruisers and 46 destroyers likely to be in the area of the main battle the Americans could field only three carriers, eight cruisers, and 15 destroyers. The disparity appeared crushing. Only in numbers of available aircraft and submarines was there near parity between the two sides. Despite various frictions developed in the execution, it appeared—barring something extraordinary—Yamamoto held all the cards.


Unfortunately for Yamamoto, something extraordinary had happened. The worst fear of any commander is for an enemy to learn his battle plan in advance, which was exactly what American cryptographers had done, thanks to breaking the Japanese naval code D (known to the U.S. as JN-25). As a result, Admiral Chester Nimitz, the Pacific Fleet commander, was able to circumvent both of Yamamoto's security measures and position his outnumbered forces in the exact position to conduct a devastating ambush. By Nimitz's calculation, his three available carrier decks, plus Midway, gave him rough parity with Nagumo's First Mobile Force. The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... JN-25 is the name used by Western cryptography organizations for the main secure command and control communications scheme used by the Imperial Japanese Navy (JIN) during and before WWII (it was the 25th Japanese Navy system identified). ... Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939. ...


Following a foolish nuisance raid by Japanese flying boats in May,[18] Nimitz dispatched a minesweeper to guard the intended refueling point for Operation K, causing the reconnaissance mission to be aborted and leaving Yamamoto ignorant of whether Pacific Fleet carriers were still at Pearl Harbor. (It remains unclear why Yamamoto permitted the early flight, when pre-attack reconnaissance was essential to the success of MI.) He also dispatched his carriers toward Midway early, and they passed the intended picket line force of submarines before they arrived on station, negating Yamamoto's back-up security measure. Nimitz's carriers then positioned themselves to ambush the First Mobile Force when it struck Midway. A token cruiser and destroyer force was dispatched toward the Aleutians, but otherwise ignored it. Days before Yamamoto expected American carriers to interfere in the Midway operation, they destroyed the four carriers of the First Mobile Force on 4 June 1942, catching the Japanese carriers at precisely their most vulnerable moment. Boeing 314 A flying boat is an aircraft that is designed to take off and land on water, in particular a type of seaplane which uses its fuselage as a floating hull (instead of pontoons mounted below the fuselage). ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


With his air power destroyed and his forces not yet concentrated for a fleet battle, Yamamoto attempted to maneuver his remaining forces, still strong on paper, to trap the American forces. He was unable to do so because Admiral Raymond Spruance prudently withdrew to the east in a position to further defend Midway Island, believing (based on a mistaken submarine report) the Japanese still intended to invade.[19] Not knowing that several battleships including the extremely powerful Yamato were on the Japanese order of battle, he did not comprehend the severe risk of a night surface battle, in which his carriers and cruisers would be at a disadvantage.[19] However, his move to the east did avoid the possibility of such a battle taking place. Correctly perceiving that he had lost, Yamamoto aborted the invasion of Midway and withdrew. The defeat ended Yamamoto's six months of success and marked the high tide of Japanese expansion. Raymond Spruance Raymond Ames Spruance (July 3, 1886 - December 13, 1969) was a US Navy admiral in World War II, victor of the Battle of Midway and commander in the capture of many islands of the Pacific Ocean, and later ambassador to the Philippines. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... An order of battle (often abbreviated as ORBAT, OOB, or OB) is an organizational tool used by military intelligence to list and analyze enemy military units. ...


Yamamoto's plan for MI has been the subject of much criticism. Many commentators state it violated the principle of concentration of force, and was overly complex. Others point out similarly complex Allied operations that were successful, and note the extent to which the American intelligence coup derailed the operation before it began. Had Yamamoto's dispositions not denied Nagumo pre-attack reconnaissance assets, both the American cryptanalytic success and the unexpected appearance of Fletcher's carriers would have been irrelevant.[20]


Actions after Midway

The Battle of Midway solidly checked Japanese momentum, but the IJN was still a powerful force and capable of regaining the initiative. They planned to resume the thrust with Operation FS aimed at eventually taking Samoa and Fiji to cut the American life-line to Australia. This was expected to short-circuit the threat posed by General Douglas MacArthur and his American and Australian forces in New Guinea. To this end, development of the airfield on Guadalcanal continued and attracted the baleful eye of Yamamoto's opposite number, Admiral Ernest King. Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Fleet Admiral Ernest Joseph King (November 23, 1878 – June 25, 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations (COMINCH-CNO) during World War II. As COMINCH, he directed the United States Navys operations, planning, and administration and was a member of the Joint Chiefs...


King ramrodded the idea of an immediate American counter-attack to prevent the Japanese from regaining the initiative through the Joint Chiefs of Staff. This precipitated the American invasion of Guadalcanal and beat the Japanese to the punch, with Marines landing on the island in August 1942 and starting a bitter struggle that lasted until February 1943 and commenced a battle of attrition Japan could ill-afford.


Admiral Yamamoto remained in command, retained at least partly to avoid diminishing the morale of the Combined Fleet. However, he had lost face in the Midway defeat and the Naval General Staff were disinclined to indulge further gambles. This reduced Yamamoto to pursuing the classic defensive Decisive Battle strategy he had attempted to overturn.


Guadalcanal caught the Japanese over-extended and attempting to support fighting in New Guinea while guarding the Central Pacific and preparing to conduct the Operation FS. The FS operation was abandoned and the Japanese attempted to fight in both New Guinea and Guadalcanal at the same time. Already overextended, they perpetually fell short of success for lack of shipping, lack of troops, and a disastrous inability to coordinate Army and Navy activities.


Yamamoto committed Combined Fleet units to a series of small attrition actions that stung the Americans, but suffered losses he could ill-afford in return. Three major efforts to carry the island precipitated a pair of carrier battles that Yamamoto commanded personally at the Eastern Solomons and Santa Cruz Islands in September and October, and finally a wild pair of surface engagements in November, all timed to coincide with Japanese Army pushes. The timing of each major battle was successively derailed when the Army could not hold up its end of the operation. Yamamoto's forces caused considerable loss and damage, but he could never draw the Americans into a decisive fleet action. As a result, the Japanese Navy's strength began to bleed off. Battle of the Eastern Solomons Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date August 24, 1942 – August 25, 1942 Place North of Santa Isabel, United States Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr. ... Combatants Allied forces including:  United States  Australia  Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Daniel J. Callaghan† Willis A. Lee Isoroku Yamamoto Nobutake Kondo Hiroaki Abe Strength 1 carrier, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 12 destroyers 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers Casualties 2 cruisers, 7 destroyers sunk, 36 aircraft destroyed...


There were severe losses of carrier dive-bomber and torpedo-bomber crews in the carrier battles, emasculating the already depleted carrier air groups. Japan could not hope to match the United States in quantities of well-trained replacement pilots, and the quality of both Japanese land-based and naval aviation began declining. Particularly harmful however, were losses of destroyers in the foolish Tokyo Express supply runs. The IJN already faced a shortage of such ships, and their losses further exacerbated Japan's already weakened commerce defense.[16] With Guadalcanal lost in February 1943, there was no further attempt to seek a major battle in the Solomon Islands although smaller attrition battles continued. Yamamoto shifted the load of the air battle from the depleted carriers to the land-based naval air forces. USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Tokyo Express was the nickname given by United States sailors and marines to the Japanese attempts to reinforce and resupply their forces during the battle of Guadalcanal and subsequent operations in the Solomon Islands in World War II. Airplanes from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal made it too dangerous for... For other uses, see Convoy (disambiguation). ...


Death

To boost morale following the defeat at Guadalcanal, Yamamoto decided to make an inspection tour throughout the South Pacific. On 14 April 1943, the US naval intelligence effort, code-named "Magic", intercepted and decrypted a message containing specific details regarding Yamamoto's tour, including arrival and departure times and locations, as well as the number and types of planes that would transport and accompany him on the journey. Yamamoto, the itinerary revealed, would be flying from Rabaul to Ballalae Airfield, on an island near Bougainville in the Solomon Islands, on the morning of 18 April 1943. Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders William F. Halsey, Jr. ... The Pacific Ocean theater was one of four major theaters of the Pacific War, between 1941 and 1945. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In World War II, Magic was the United States codename for intelligence derived from the cryptanalysis of PURPLE, a Japanese foreign office cipher. ... For the volcanic caldera within which Rabaul lies, see Rabaul caldera. ... For other uses of Bougainville, see Bougainville. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt requested Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox to "Get Yamamoto." Knox instructed Admiral Chester W. Nimitz of Roosevelt's wishes. Admiral Nimitz consulted Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr., Commander, South Pacific, then authorized a mission on 17 April to intercept Yamamoto's flight en route and down it. FDR redirects here. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... Fleet Admiral Chester William Nimitz GCB (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of... William Bull Halsey William Frederick Bull Halsey, Jr. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The 339th Fighter Squadron of the 347th Fighter Group, 13th Air Force, was assigned the mission, since only their P-38 Lightning aircraft possessed the range to intercept and engage. Pilots were informed that they were intercepting an "important high officer," although they were not aware of who their actual target was. The mission of 13th Air Force is to plan, execute and control aerospace operations throughout the Southwest Pacific and Indian Ocean areas. ... P-38 redirects here. ...


On the morning of April 18, despite urgings by local commanders to cancel the trip for fear of ambush, Yamamoto's planes left Rabaul as scheduled for the 315-mile trip. Shortly after, eighteen specially-fitted P-38s took off from Guadalcanal. They wave-hopped most of the 430 miles to the rendezvous point, maintaining radio silence throughout. At 09:34 Tokyo time, the two flights met and a dogfight ensued between the P-38s and the six Zeroes escorting Yamamoto. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


1st Lt. Rex T. Barber engaged the first of the two Japanese bombers, which turned out to be Yamamoto's plane. He sprayed the plane with gunfire until it began to spew smoke from its left engine. Barber turned away to attack the other bomber as Yamamoto's plane crashed into the jungle. Afterwards, another pilot, Capt Thomas George Lanphier, Jr., claimed he had shot down the lead bomber, which led to a decades-old controversy until a team inspected the crash site to determine direction of the bullet impacts. Most historians now credit Barber with the claim. Rex Barber is awarded the Navy Cross for his actions during the mission that killed Yamamoto. ... T1-323 was the tail number of the plane carrying Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto on an inspection tour throughout the South Pacific when he was shot down and killed by American fighter aircraft during World War II. On 18 April 1943, T1-323, a Mitsubishi G4M Betty long-range bomber... Thomas George Lanphier, Jr. ...


One US pilot—1st Lt. Raymond K. Hine—was killed in action. Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ...


The crash site and body of Admiral Yamamoto were found the next day in the jungle north of the then-coastal site of the former Australian patrol post of Buin by a Japanese search and rescue party, led by Army engineer Lieutenant Hamasuna. According to Hamasuna, Yamamoto had been thrown clear of the plane's wreckage, his white-gloved hand grasping the hilt of his katana, still upright in his seat under a tree. Hamasuna said Yamamoto was instantly recognizable, head dipped down as if deep in thought. A post-mortem of the body disclosed that Yamamoto had received two gunshot wounds, one to the back of his left shoulder and another to his left lower jaw that exited above his right eye. Despite the evidence, the question of whether or not the Admiral initially survived the crash has been a matter of controversy in Japan. For other uses, see Katana (disambiguation). ... The term post mortem means after death. It is also short for postmortem examination, or autopsy. ...

State Funeral for Admiral Yamamoto in Tokyo
State Funeral for Admiral Yamamoto in Tokyo

This proved to be the longest fighter-intercept mission of the war. In Japan it became known as the "Navy A Incident" (海軍甲事件 Kaigun kō-jiken). It raised morale in the United States, and shocked the Japanese who were officially told about the incident only on 21 May 1943. To cover up the fact that the Allies were reading Japanese code, American news agencies were told that civilian coast-watchers in the Solomon Islands saw Yamamoto boarding a bomber in the area. They also did not publicize the names of most of the pilots that attacked Yamamoto's plane because one of them had a brother who was a prisoner of the Japanese and U.S. military officials feared for his safety. The ten heavenly stems (Chinese: 天干; pinyin: ) or ten stems (Chinese: 十干; pinyin: ) are an ancient Chinese cyclic numeral system. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Captain Martin Clemens, Australian Coastwatcher on Guadalcanal, rendered services to Allied forces during the battle for the island (August, 1942-February, 1943). ...


Captain Watanabe and his staff cremated Yamamoto's remains at Buin, and the ashes were returned to Tokyo aboard the battleship Musashi, Yamamoto's last flagship. Yamamoto was given a full state funeral on 3 June 1943, where he received, posthumously, the title of Fleet Admiral and awarded the Order of the Chrysanthemum, (1st Class). He was also awarded Nazi Germany's Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. Part of his ashes were buried in the public cemetery in Tama, Tokyo (多摩霊園), and the remainder at his ancestral burial grounds at the temple of Chuko-ji in Nagaoka City. Musashi (武蔵), named after the ancient Japanese Musashi Province, was a battleship belonging to the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was the second and final ship of the Yamato class to be completed as a battleship. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Fleet Admiral or a Admiral Of The Fleet, as it was first coined, is a military officer of very high rank and is a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. ... The Breast Star of the Order of the Chrysanthemum The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (大勲位菊花章 daikuni kikkashō, literally Grand Order of the Badge of the Chrysanthemums) is Japans highest order. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The penultimate expression of the award: the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with golden Oakleaves, Swords and Diamonds. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... Tama (多摩市; -shi) is a city located in Tokyo, Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Nagaoka (長岡市) is a city located in the central part of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. ...


Personal life

While other military leaders avoided the image of being "soft", Yamamoto continued to practice calligraphy and wrote poems, though his poems have been criticized by some as being monotonous. He and his wife, Reiko, had four children: two sons and two daughters. Yamamoto was an avid gambler, enjoying shogi, billiards, bridge, mah jong, poker, and other games that tested his wits and sharpened his mind. He frequently made jokes about moving to Monaco and starting his own casino. He enjoyed the company of geisha, and his wife Reiko revealed to the Japanese public in 1954 that Yamamoto was closer to his favorite geisha Kawai Chiyoko than to her, which stirred some controversy.[21] After his death, his funeral procession passed by Kawai's quarters on the way to the cemetery, perhaps with hidden purpose.[22] Although he reportedly liked to socialize with geisha and gamble, Yamamoto is usually described in most sources as a teetotaler. Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... This article is about the Japanese board game. ... This article is about the various cue sports. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... This article discusses the four-player game of Chinese origin. ... For the domestic fireplace tool, see fireplace poker. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Typical nape make-up Geisha ) or Geigi ) are traditional, female Japanese entertainers, whose skills include performing various Japanese arts, such as classical music and dance. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Yamamoto as a commander

Yamamoto is generally regarded as one of the most prominent leaders in the Imperial Japanese Navy for making significant changes to its organization although he was also responsible for several critical defeats. Yamamoto is considered to be an imaginative and brave leader for formulating a plan to launch a pre-emptive attack on US forces in the Pacific Fleet. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... A preemptive attack (or preemptive war) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat an imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (usually unavoidable) war. ...


Having visited and studied at the U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University, he was reluctant to enter into war with the United States. He was aware of the overwhelming industrial capacity of the United States compared to that of Japan, and felt that only a knockout blow would remove the US threat to Japan. He also didn't trust Nazi Germany-somewhat ironically, he became the only non-German to be given the Knights Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords, which was awarded after his death. He correctly anticipated that the aircraft carrier would play a role in any decisive battle with the United States. Furthermore, he supported increasing the striking range of the air fleets by combining as many as 6 aircraft carriers into one carrier battle group. Additionally, he often assigned capable individuals such as Minoru Genda to form his battle plans. Logo of the Naval War College The Naval War College (NWC) of the United States Navy is an education and research institution that specializes in developing ideas for naval strategy and passing them along to officers of the Navy. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... The Abraham Lincoln battle group during the 2000 RIMPAC exercises A carrier battle group (CVBG) consists of an aircraft carrier (CV) and its escorts. ... Minoru Genda (源田実 Genda Minoru, 16 August 1904–15 August 1989) served in the Imperial Japanese Navy before and during World War II and in the Japanese Air Self-Defense Force after the war, eventually rising to the rank of major general. ...


His forces suffered severely in certain areas, with torpedoes from Allied submarines dealing major blows to the Imperial Japanese Navy shipping and causing the war economy of Japan to be starved of resources. The Imperial Japanese Navy's codes were decrypted by the United States, which proved to be a fatal development as it resulted in the biggest direct blow to the Imperial Japanese Navy at the Battle of Midway. The battle proved to be Yamamoto's most prominent defeat—his force lost four aircraft carriers and 228 planes and suffered significant casualties. The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier...


Decorations

Order of Chrysanthemum - Breast Star This image is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship. ... The Breast Star of the Order of the Chrysanthemum The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (大勲位菊花章 daikuni kikkashō, literally Grand Order of the Badge of the Chrysanthemums) is Japans highest order. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun The Order of the Rising Sun or Kyokujitsu sho(旭日章) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 640 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 480 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Order of the Sacred Treasures Metadata... The Order of the Sacred Treasures ) is a Japanese Order (decoration), established on January 4, 1888 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. ... The Order of the Golden Kite ) was a Japanese Order (decoration), established on 12 February 1889 by Emperor Meiji. ... The Order of the Golden Kite ) was a Japanese Order (decoration), established on 12 February 1889 by Emperor Meiji. ... Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oakleaves and Swords File links The following pages link to this file: Iron Cross Talk:Iron Cross Categories: Images with unknown source ... The Iron Cross (German: Eisernes Kreuz) is a military decoration of Germany which was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813. ...

Yamamoto's career promotions

is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Film portrayals

Several motion pictures depict the character of Isoroku Yamamoto. One of the most notable films is the movie Tora! Tora! Tora!. The 1970 film, which depicts the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, is considered by many to be the definitive look at the battle from both sides of the conflict. The film features Japanese actor Sô Yamamura as Yamamoto. He is seen planning the Japanese attack. For the Melvinss album, see Tora Tora Tora (album) Tora! Tora! Tora! is a 1970 American-Japanese film that dramatizes the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the series of American blunders that unintentionally improved its effectiveness. ... This article is about the actual attack. ...

I fear that all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve.

attributed to Yamamoto in Tora! Tora! Tora! (1970), in reference to the attack on Pearl Harbor. ŚŚŚ♥ Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto is portrayed in the 1970 film Tora! Tora! Tora!, as saying after his attack on Pearl Harbor, I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve. ... For the Melvinss album, see Tora Tora Tora (album) Tora! Tora! Tora! is a 1970 American-Japanese film that dramatizes the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the series of American blunders that unintentionally improved its effectiveness. ...

The 1960 film, The Gallant Hours, starring James Cagney, depicts the battle of wits between Admirals Halsey and Yamamoto from the time of Guadalcanal to Yamamoto's death. In 1976, the film Midway was released. An epic look at the battle that turned the tide of the war in the Pacific, the film features Toshirô Mifune (star of The Seven Samurai) as Yamamoto. He is depicted planning the attack on Midway Atoll, and sees his plans fall apart as he sees the destruction of all four Japanese carriers during the battle of June 4–6, 1942. Unlike Tora! Tora! Tora!, all the Japanese characters speak in English. James Francis Cagney, Jr. ... Midway is a 1976 war film made by the Mirisch Corporation and released by Universal Pictures . ... Toshiro Mifune in Yojimbo Toshiro Mifune (三船 敏郎 Mifune Toshirō) (April 1, 1920 - December 24, 1997) was a charismatic Japanese actor who appeared in almost 170 feature films. ... 7 Samurai redirects here. ... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ...


The latest depiction of Yamamoto on film was in 2001's Pearl Harbor, a Jerry Bruckheimer—produced epic. While mostly focused on the love triangle between American characters, the film does show several scenes depicting the Japanese planning of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Yamamoto is played by Oscar-nominated actor Mako, star of such films as The Sand Pebbles and Conan the Barbarian. One of Yamamoto's most notable quotes in the film is: "A brilliant man would find a way not to fight a war." Pearl Harbor is an Oscar-winning war film released in the summer of 2001 by Touchstone Pictures. ... Jerome Leon Bruckheimer (born September 21, 1945) is a film and television producer in the genre of action, drama, and science fiction. ... The epic film is a film genre typically featuring expensive production values, an emotionally moving music soundtrack, and dramatic themes. ... Makoto Iwamatsu (マコ 岩松, also 岩松 ä¿¡ Iwamatsu Makoto, December 10, 1933 – July 21, 2006) was an Academy Award-nominated Japanese American actor. ... The Sand Pebbles is a 1966 film based on the 1962 novel The Sand Pebbles by Richard McKenna. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ...


Yamamoto is also featured in a number of alternate history anime series. He is seen in the TV series Zipang, where he leads the Combined Fleet after seeing the JMSDF destroyer Mirai for the first time. In the 1997 OVA series Konpeki no Kantai (Deep Blue Fleet) and its TV sequel, Kyokujitsu no Kantai (Fleet of the Rising Sun), the original timeline proceeds until the shootdown. However, instead of dying in the crash, Yamamoto blacks out and suddenly wakes up as his younger self, Isoroku Takano, after the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. His memory from the original timeline intact, Yamamoto uses his knowledge of the future to make Japan a stronger naval power, even launching a coup d'etat against the monarchy. Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... Zipang ) is a manga by Kaiji Kawaguchi. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski # Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships 27 cruisers destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships 3 coastal battleships 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead 583 injured 3 torpedo boats sunk 4,380 dead 5,917 captured 21 ships sunk 7 captured 6... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 — January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death. ...


See also

This article is about the 1940 battle. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://navalhistory.flixco.info/G/131432x19846(a90670z2e79211)/8330/a0.htm
  2. ^ Edwin P. Hoyt, Yamamoto: The man who planned Pearl Harbor, Mc Graw-Hill 1990. p.101
  3. ^ Hoyt, op. cit., pp. 101—02
  4. ^ Hoyt, op. cit., pp.102-103
  5. ^ Hoyt, op. cit., p.103
  6. ^ Hoyt, op. cit., p.114
  7. ^ Hoyt, op. cit., p.115
  8. ^ Hoyt, op. cit., pp.115-116
  9. ^ Prange, At Dawn We Slept, p. 11
  10. ^ Prange op. cit. p.11
  11. ^ Mahan, The Influence of Seapower on History
  12. ^ Parillo 2006, p. 288
  13. ^ Peattie & Evans, Kaigun; Coox, Kobun.
  14. ^ Harry A. Gailey, The War in the Pacific: From Pearl Harbor to Tokyo Bay, Presidio Press: 1995. p.68
  15. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin.
  16. ^ a b Parillo, Japanese Merchant Marine in World War II
  17. ^ John Parshall & Anthony Tully in "Shattered Sword" (2006)
  18. ^ Holmes, Wilfred J. "Jasper". Double-Edged Secrets and Undersea Victory
  19. ^ a b Blair, Clay, Jr. Silent Victory. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1975.
  20. ^ Willmott, H.P. Barrier and the Javelin. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute Pres, 1983.
  21. ^ H-Net Review: Charles C. Kolb <[email protected]> on The Pearl Harbor Papers: Inside the Japanese Plans
  22. ^ Davis, Lightning Strike.

Sources

  • Agawa, Hiroyuki; Bester, John (trans.). The Reluctant Admiral. New York: Kodansha, 1979. ISBN 4-7700-2539-4. A definitive biography of Yamamoto in English. This book explains much of the political structure and events within Japan that lead to the war.
  • Davis, Donald A. Lightning Strike: The Secret Mission to Kill Admiral Yamamoto and Avenge Pearl Harbor. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2005. ISBN 0-312-30906-6.
  • Dull, Paul S. A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941–1945. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1978. ISBN 0-87021-097-1.
  • Evans, David C. and Mark R. Peattie. Kaigun: Strategy, Tactics, and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy 1887–1941. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1997. ISBN 0-87021-192-7.
  • Glines, Carroll V. Attack on Yamamoto (1st edition). New York: Crown, 1990. ISBN 0-517-57728-3. Glines documents both the mission to shoot down Yamamoto and the subsequent controversies with thorough research, including personal interviews with all surviving participants and researchers who examined the crash site.
  • Hoyt, Edwin P. Yamamoto: The Man Who Planned Pearl Harbor. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990. ISBN 1-58574-428-X.
  • Lundstrom, John B. The First Team: Pacific Naval Air Combat from Pearl Harbor to Midway. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1984. ISBN 0-87021-189-7.
  • Miller, Edward S. War Plan Orange: The U.S. Strategy to Defeat Japan, 1897–1945. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991. ISBN 0-87021-759-3.
  • Peattie, Mark R. Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power, 1909–1941. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2002. ISBN 1-55750-432-6.
  • Prados, John. Combined Fleet Decoded: The Secret History of American Intelligence and the Japanese Navy in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001. ISBN 1-55750-431-8.
  • Prange, Gordon. At Dawn We Slept. New York: Penguin Books, 1982. ISBN 0-1-00.6455-09
  • Ugaki, Matome; Chihaya, Masataka (trans.). Fading Victory: The Diary of Admiral Matome Ugaki, 1941-45. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8229-5462-1. Provides a high-level view of the war from the Japanese side, from the diaries of Yamamoto's Chief of Staff, Admiral Matome Ugaki. Provides evidence of the intentions of the imperial military establishment to seize Hawaii and to operate against the British navy in the Indian Ocean. Translated by Masataka Chihaya, this edition contains extensive clarifying notes from the U.S. editors derived from U.S. military histories.
  • Parillo, Mark (2006), "The United States in the Pacific", in Higham, Robin & Harris, Stephen, Why Air Forces Fail: the Anatomy of Defeat, The University Press of Kentucky, <http://books.google.com/books?id=T0gt_RjeCrgC&pg=PA287&vq=%22The+United+States+in+the+Pacific%22&dq=%22Why+Air+Forces+Fail:+the+Anatomy+of+Defeat%22&sig=9OCPJyX_OLYNK6GW9fU90OtGBVg> 

Matome Ugaki (宇垣纏; 1890-August 14, 1945?) was a Japanese admiral during World War II, most notably serving at the Battle of Leyte Gulf. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Yamamoto, Isoroku
ALTERNATIVE NAMES 山本五十六 (Japanese); Takano, Isoroku (birth name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Japanese general
DATE OF BIRTH 4 April 1884(1884-04-04)
PLACE OF BIRTH Nagaoka, Niigata, Japan
DATE OF DEATH 18 April 1943
PLACE OF DEATH Solomon Islands
The penultimate expression of the award: the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with golden Oakleaves, Swords and Diamonds. ... Generalleutnant Ernst-Günther Baade (1897-1945), was a German general serving during World War II. He was wounded in action and died from his injuries on the last day of World War II in Europe. ... A colour photograph of Oberst der Reserve Dr.med. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Heinz Pritzl Bär (21 March 1913 - 28 April 1957) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace who served through the whole of World War II. He had a total of 221 victories,[1] fighting in all the major German theaters of war, including ETO, MTO and the Eastern Front. ... Erich Bärenfänger was a German officer during World War II. He was born on 12 January 1915 in Menden, Germany, and was the son of an upper post office secretary. ... 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Fritz-Hubert Gräser (January 3, 1888 - November 4, 1960), was a German general of World War II and recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. ... Anton Toni Hackl (born 25 March 1915 in Regensburg, died 10 July 1984 in Regensburg) was a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords during World War II. Anton Hackl flew about 1000 combat missions and... Josef Harpe (1887-1968), was a German Generaloberst, serving during World War II. Iron Cross (1914) 2nd and 1st Class Wound Badge (1914) in Black Cross of Honor Wehrmacht-Dienstauszeichnung 4th to 1st Class Clasp to the Iron Cross 2nd and 1st Class Panzer Badge in Silver Eastern Front Medal... Erich Alfred Bubi Hartmann (April 19, 1922 - September 20, 1993), also nicknamed The Blond Knight Of Germany by friends and The Black Devil by his enemies, is the most successful fighter ace in the history of aerial combat. ... Paul Papa Hausser (October 7, 1880 - December 21, 1972) was an officer in the German Army, achieving the high rank of Lieutenant General in the inter-war Reichswehr, after retirement from regular Army he became the father (thus the nickname “Papa”) of the Waffen-SS and one of its most... Gotthard Heinrici. ... Oberst Joachim Helbig (born 10 September 1915 in Börln, Torgau-Oschatz; killed in car accident on 5 October 1985 while on vacation in Spain) was a bomber pilot in the German Luftwaffe during World War II and recipient of the Knights Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. ... Traugott Herr (1890-1976), was a German general of the Panzer troops, serving during World War II. Wound Badge in Black 1914 Iron Cross 2nd Class (14 September 1914) 1st Class (21 October 1915) House Order of Hohenzollern with Swords Bavarian Military Merit Cross (3. ... Hajo Herrmann (born 1 August 1913 in Kiel, Germany), is a German lawyer focusing his activities mostly on the defense of former Nazis and Neo-Nazis, deniers of the holocaust and political activists of the far-right. ... General Hermann Hoth Hermann Papa Hoth (12 April 1885 - 26 January 1971) was a general of the Third Reich during World War II, notable for victories in France and on the Eastern Front, and later, after serving six years in prison for war crimes, as a writer on military history. ... General der Panzertruppen Hans-Valentin Hube Hans-Valentin Hube (29 October 1890-21st April 1944) was a General who served in the German Heer during the First and Second World Wars. ... Herbert Ihlefeld (born 1 June 1914 in Pinnow, Pommern, died 8 August 1995 in Wenningsen, Niedersachsen) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1936 until the end of World War II in 1945. ... ==Biography== Albrecht von Kesselring (August 8, 1881 - July 16, 1960) was a Generalfeldmarschall during World War II. One of the most respected and skillful generals of Nazi Germany, he was nicknamed Smiling Albert or Smiling Kesselring. At least one source claims that Kesselring was born on August 8, 1881 [2... Otto Kittel (February 21, 1917 - February 14, 1945) was a World War II pilot. ... Ewald von Kleist Ewald von Kleist Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (August 8, 1881, Braunfels an der Lahn - ca. ... Günther “Hans” von Kluge (October 30, 1882 – August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... Otto von Knobelsdorff (1886-1966), was a German general of the Panzer troops, serving during World War II. Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords Knights Cross (17 September 1941) 322. ... Hans Kreysing, (born 17 August 1890; died 14 April 1969) was a German general who commanded the . ... Hans Kroh (born 13 May 1907 in Heidelberg; died 18 July 1967 in Braunschweig) was a highly decorated German Fallschirmjäger and general in the Bundeswehr. ... For other persons named Walter Krüger, see Walter Krüger (disambiguation). ... Otto Kumm, (born 1 October 1909 in Hamburg; died 23 March 2004) was was a SS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor of the Waffen-SS. He was also a recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. ... Oberst Dr. Ernst Kupfer (born 2 July 1907 in Coburg – Killed in aircraft accident 6 November 1943 60km north of Thessaloniki in the Belasica mountain range) was a German World War II Luftwaffe Stuka ace. ... Major Friedrich Lang (born 12 January 1915 in Mährisch-Trübau – died 29 December 2003 in Hannover) was a German World War II Luftwaffe Stuka ace[1]. Verwundetenabzeichen in Black Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe in Gold with Pennant 1. ... Heinz-Georg Lemm (born 1 June 1919 in Schwerin; died 17 November 1994 in Ruppichteroth) fought in the 12th Infantry Division. ... German Night-fighter pilot. ... One of Nazi Germanys most successful U-Boat aces, Wolfgang Lüth (15 October 1913–13 May 1945) was the youngest German ever appointed captain, and the youngest to ever command the German Naval Academy. ... Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz[1] (1896-1969), was a German general of the Panzer troops, serving during World War II. His cousins Smilo Freiherr von Lüttwitz and Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz were also decorated with the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with... Smilo Freiherr von Lüttwitz[1] (1895-1976), was a German general of the Panzer troops, serving during World War II and son of Walther von Lüttwitz. ... Günther Lützow (4 September 1912 - 24 April 1945) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace and a leader in the Fighter Pilots Revolt. Lützow was credited with 110 victories achieved in over 300 combat missions. ... Hellmuth Mäder, (born 5 July 1908 in Rotterode, Thuringia; died 12 May 1984 in Konstanz) was a German general during World War II. He was also a recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. ... Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ... Hans-Joachim Marseille (13 December 1919 - 30 September 1942) was a Luftwaffe pilot and flying ace during World War II. He was nicknamed the Star of Africa. Marseille scored all but seven of his 158 victories against the British Commonwealths Desert Air Force over North Africa. ... Dr. Karl Mauss (May 17, 1898 - February 9, 1959) was one of the most distinguished tank commanders of the Wehrmacht during World War II. He was a lieutenant general and commander of The 7th Panzer Division, and one of only 31 ever to receive the Knights Cross with Oakleaves... Egon Mayer (born 19 August 1917 in Konstanz at the Bodensee, killed in action March 2, 1944 near Montmédy) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1937 until his death in 1944. ... Kurt Panzermeyer Meyer in 1942 after being awarded the Oakleaves to the Knights Cross Kurt Panzermeyer Meyer (December 23, 1910-December 23, 1961) served as an officer in the Waffen-SS during the Second World War. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his... Werner Mölders (March 18, 1913 - November 22, 1941) was a German Luftwaffe World War II fighter ace. ... Friedrich-Wilhelm Müller (b. ... Werner Mummert (31 March 1897 to January/February 1950) was a German officer during both World War I and World War II. Mummert was born in Luttwitz/Saxony. ... Joachim Müncheberg was born on 18 December 1918 at Friedrichsdorf. ... Walter Nehring (August 15, 1892 - April 20, 1983), was a German General of World War II, known for his involvement with the Afrika Korps. ... Hermann Niehoff was a German General during World War II. Niehoff was the garrison commander of Festung Breslau during the Battle of Breslau. ... Major Theodor Nordmann (born 18 December 1918 in Dorsten – Killed in flying accident 19 January 1945 near near Insterburg) was a German World War II Luftwaffe Stuka ace[1]. His radio operator and gunner, Feldwebel Gerhard Rothe, was one of only 15 Stuka gunners to be honored with the Knight... Walter Nowi Nowotny (December 7, 1920 - November 8, 1944) was a Sudeten German fighter ace of World War II with 258 confirmed victories in 442 missions, 255 victories over Russian pilots. ... Hans von Obstfelder (1886-1976), was a German general of the Infantry, serving during World War II. Bavarian Military Merit Cross (3. ... Walter Gulle Oesau (28 June 1913 – 11 May 1944) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1934 until his death in 1944. ... Hermann Leopold August von Oppeln-Bronikowski (born 2 January 1899 in Berlin; died 19 September 1966 in Gaißach, in the district of Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen, Bavaria) was German Army officer and panzer ace. ... Max-Hellmuth Ostermann (born 11 December 1917 in Hamburg, killed in action 9 August 1942 near Amossovo on the Eastern front) was a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords during World War II. // Max-Hellmuth... Joachim Peiper (January 30, 1915 - July 13, 1976) more often known as Jochen Peiper from the common German nickname for Joachim, was a senior Waffen-SS officer in World War II and a convicted war criminal. ... Generalmajor Dietrich Peltz (born 9 June 1914 in Gera – died 10 August 2001 in Munich) was a German World War II Luftwaffe bomber pilot. ... Hans Philipp (born 13 March 1917 in Meißen, Sachsen, killed in action 8 October 1943 near Neuenhaus in the Nederlands) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1936 until he was killed in action 8 October 1943 by P-47 Thunderbolts. ... Hermann Prieß (May 24, 1901 - February 2, 1985) was the commander of 3rd SS Division Totenkopf following the death of Theodor Eicke in February 1943. ... Josef Pips Priller (27 July 1915 - 20 May 1961) was a Luftwaffe World War II fighter ace. ... Günther Rall (10 March 1918) was the third most successful Luftwaffe fighter ace of World War 2. ... Hermann-Bernhard Gerhard Ramcke (January 24, 1889 - July 04, 1968) is a winner of the Knights Cross with Swords, Oak Leaves, and Diamonds, one of only 27 people in the German military to do so. ... Ernst-Wilhelm Reinert (born 2 February 1919 in Lindenthal) was a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords[1] during World War II. Reinert flew 715 combat missions and was officially credited with shooting down 174... Georg-Hans Reinhardt (March 1st, 1887 to November 23rd, 1963)) was Colonel General of the German Third Reichs Panzer Group 3, 3rd Panzer Army, Army Group Center. ... Lothar Rendulic (November 23, 1887 – January 18, 1971) was a Colonel General in the Wehrmacht during WWII. Rendulic was born on in Wiener Neustadt, Austria to a Croatian family (Croatian spelling of the surname is Rendulić). He entered the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1910 and served during World War I... Robert Ritter von Greim. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was perhaps the most famous German field marshal of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he waged... Hans-Ulrich Rudel (July 2, 1916 – December 18, 1982) was a Stuka dive-bomber pilot during World War II. Rudel is famous for being the most highly decorated German serviceman of the war. ... Erich Rudorffer (born 1 November 1917 in Zwochau, Sachsen) is a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace, one of a handful who served with the Luftwaffe through the whole of World War II. He had a total of 222 victories, fighting in all the major German theaters of war, including ETO... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Dietrich von Saucken (1892–1990) was a General in the German Army (Wehrmacht) during World War II. He was born in East Prussia in 1892 and personified all the aristocratic Prussian militarists who despised the braune Bande of Nazis. ... Prince Heinrich Zu Sayn-Wittgenstein was one of two fighting night-fighter pilot aces in the Luftwaffe in World War Two. ... Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer (February 16, 1922-1950) was the top night fighter ace of all time. ... SS-Gruppenführer Fritz von Scholz, as commander of 11. ... Ferdinand Schörner (December 5, 1892 - February 7, 1973) was a general and later Field Marshal in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. // Early life He was born in Munich, Bavaria. ... Adelbert Schulz (1900 to 1/28/1944) was a Generalmajor and Division Commander in the German Wehrmacht in WWII. He was one of only 27 people to be awarded the Knights Cross with oakleaves, swords, and diamonds. ... General der Panzertruppe (Lieutenant-General) Gerhard (Gerd) Helmuth Detloff Graf von Schwerin was a German commander in World War II who was tasked with defending the city of Aachen while in command of the 116. ... SS-Brigadeführer Sylvester Stadler (1910 - 1995) was a German Waffen-SS officer, a commander of the 4. ... Reiner Stahel (1892 – 1952 or 1955), also known as Rainer Stahel, was a German and Finnish military officer and a notable member of the Nazi Party. ... Leopold Bazi Steinbatz (born 25 October 1918 in Wien, Austria, killed in action 23 June 1942 near Volchansk, Kharkov region, on the Eastern front) was a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace and sole non Officer recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... Johannes Steinhoff (September 15, 1913 - February 21, 1994) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace of World War II and a senior West German air force officer after the war . ... Generalleutnant der Reserve & SS-Brigadeführer Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz, 1943 Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz (July 30, 1893 -April 25, 1968) was a Silesian officer and panzer ace. ... Werner Streib (born 13 June 1911 in Pforzheim, died 15 June 1986 in München) was a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords during World War II. After the war he attained the rank of... Reinhard Teddy Suhren (April 16, 1916 - August 25, 1984) was a German U-boat commander in World War II and younger brother of Korvettenkapitän (Ing. ... Theodor Tolsdorff (November 3, 1909 to May 25, 1978) was lieutenant general and one of 27 carriers of Oak Leaves with Swords and Diamonds to the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross in the Second World War . ... Erich Topp (b. ... General Helmuth Weidling was the German officer who surrended Berlin to the Soviet forces in the final stages of world war two. ... Wolf-Dietrich Fürst Wilcke (born 11 March 1913 in Schrimm, Posen, killed in action 23 March 1944 near Schöppenstedt) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1935 until his death on 23 March 1944. ... Theodor Wisch (born 13 December 1907 in Wesselburener Koog Schleswig-Holstein, died 11 January 1995 in Norderstedt), was a German Officer in the Waffen-SS, serving during World War II. Infantry Assault Badge in Silver Wound Badge in Silver German Cross in Gold (25 February 1943) Iron Cross 2nd Class... Günther-Eberhardt Wisliceny (5 September 1912 in Angerburg - 25 August 1985 in Hannover) was a highly decorated German Waffen-SS officer. ... Michael Wittmann (April 22, 1914 - August 8, 1944) was a German SS-Hauptsturmführer during World War II. Wittmans crews (chiefly gunner Balthasar Bobby Woll, also a Knights Cross holder) are credited with the confirmed destruction of 138 tanks and 141 artillery pieces, along with an unknown number... Josef Sepp Wurmheller (born 4 May 1917 in Hausham, Bavaria, killed in action 22 June 1944 near Alençon, France) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1937 until his death on 22 June 1944. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nagaoka (長岡市) is a city located in the central part of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Isoroku Yamamoto - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4506 words)
Yamamoto was a strong proponent of naval aviation, and (as vice admiral) served as head of the Aeronautics’ Department before accepting a post as commander of the First Carrier Division.
Yamamoto's plan was to draw American attention—and possibly carrier forces—north from Pearl Harbor by sending his Fifth Fleet (2 light carriers, 5 cruisers, 13 destroyers and 4 transports) against the Aleutians, raiding Dutch Harbor on Unalaska Island and invading the more distant islands of Kiska and Attu.
Yamamoto, the itinerary revealed, would be flying from Rabaul to Ballalae Airfield, on an island near Bougainville in the Solomon Islands, on the morning of 18 April 1943.
Isoroku Yamamoto's sleeping giant quote - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (574 words)
Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto is credited with saying, after the attack on Pearl Harbor, "I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve." The quote has come down to us as one of the most famous lines ever uttered by anyone during World War II.
Yamamoto certainly believed that Japan could not win a protracted war with the United States, and moreover seems to have believed that the Pearl Harbor attack had become a blunder — even though he was the person who came up with the idea of a surprise attack.
Yamamoto, when once asked his opinion on the war, pessimistically said that the only way for Japan to win was to fight the United States until Japan could dictate terms in the White House in Washington.
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