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Encyclopedia > Isopropyl alcohol
Isopropyl alcohol
Isopropyl alcohol Isopropanol
General
Systematic name Propan-2-ol
Other names 2-propanol, isopropanol,
Isopropyl alcohol
Molecular formula C3H8O
SMILES CC(O)C
Molar mass 60.10 g/mol
Appearance Colorless liquid
CAS number 67-63-0
Properties
Density and phase 0.785 g/cm3, liquid
Solubility in water Fully miscible
Solubility in brine Slightly soluble
In ethanol, ether
In acetone, toluene
Fully miscible
Soluble
Melting point -89 °C (185 K)
Boiling point 82.3 °C (355 K)
Acidity (pKa) 16.5 for H on hydroxyl
Viscosity 2.86 cP at 15 °C
1.77 cP at 30 °C
Dipole moment 1.66 D (gas)
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Flammable
NFPA 704

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (681x679, 6 KB) Summary Description: Skeletal formula of isopropanol (2-propanol, C3H8O). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1003, 189 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Isopropyl alcohol ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per volume. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... Brine is water saturated or nearly saturated with salt. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, mildly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear, colorless, and highly flammable liquid with a low boiling point and a characteristic smell. ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, reminiscent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... In chemistry and biochemistry, the acid dissociation constant, the acidity constant, or the acid-ionization constant (Ka) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that indicates the extent of dissociation of hydrogen ions from an acid. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... The pitch drop experiment at the University of Queensland. ... The poise (P) is the cgs unit of viscosity, 1 P = 1 g·cm-1·s-1 The SI analog is 1 pascal second (Pa·s) = 1 kg·m-1·s-1 = 10 P. It is named after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille. ... The poise (P) is the cgs unit of viscosity, 1 P = 1 g·cm-1·s-1 The SI analog is 1 pascal second (Pa·s) = 1 kg·m-1·s-1 = 10 P. It is named after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille. ... // The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... A material safety data sheet or MSDS is a form containing data regarding the properties of a particular substance. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ...

3
1
0
 
Flash point 12 °C
R/S statement R11 R36 R67
S7 S16 S24 S25 S26
RTECS number NT8050000
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Thermal Conductivity: 0.14 W/m-K

Specific Heat: 2.56 kJ/kg-K
Heat of Vaporization: 664 kJ/kg[1]
The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture with air. ... Risk and Safety Statements, also known as R/S statements, R/S numbers, R/S phrases, and R/S sentences, is a system of hazard codes and phrases for labeling dangerous chemicals and compounds. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a material is the factor by which the phase velocity of electromagnetic radiation is slowed in that material, relative to its velocity in a vacuum. ... The dielectric constant εr (represented as or K in some cases) is defined as the ratio: where εs is the static permittivity of the material in question, and ε0 is the vacuum permittivity. ...

Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Related compounds
Related alcohols 1-propanol,
ethanol, 2-butanol
Other compounds acetone, propylene,

diisopropyl ether,
2-bromopropane Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... IR spectrum of a thin film of liquid ethanol. ... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR Spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of nuclei. ... Basic schematic of a mass spectrometer Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or in common speech mass-spec) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. ... Propan-1-ol is is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH. It is also known as 1-propanol, 1-propyl alcohol n-propyl alcohol, or simply propanol. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, mildly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... Butanol is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atoms and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol: butan-1-ol CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH butan-2-ol CH3-CH2-CH(OH)-CH3 sec-butanol CH3-CH-CH3 | CH2OH OH | tert-butanol CH3... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Propylene, also known by its IUPAC name propene, is an organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6. ... Chemical structure of diisopropyl ether Diisopropyl ether is an clear, colorless, and liquid secondary ether that is used as a solvent. ... 2-Bromopropane, also known as isopropyl bromide is the halogenated hydrocarbon with the formula CH3CHBrCH3. ...

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25°C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. It has the chemical formula CH3CHOHCH3, and is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol, where the alcohol carbon is attached to two other carbons. It is an isomer of propanol. In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. ... In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point 15 °C RTECS number UH8225000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

Contents

Uses

Sterilizing pads typically contain a 60-70% solution of isopropanol in water. Isopropyl alcohol is also commonly used as a cleaner and solvent in industry. It is also used as a gasoline additive for dissolving water or ice in fuel lines. Isopropanol is the main ingredient in rubbing alcohol. It is used as a disinfectant, and is a common solvent. Sterilization (or sterilisation) is the elimination of all transmissible agents (such as bacteria, prions and viruses) from a surface, a piece of equipment, food or biological culture medium. ... Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of one or more substances, known as solutes, dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... Daniel Myer Cleaner was the name of a German project specializing in electronic body music. ... A solvent is a fluid phase (liquid, gas, or plasma) that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Gasoline, also called petrol, is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Rubbing alcohol, U.S.P. / B.P. is a liquid prepared for topical application to skin prepared from specially denatured alcohol and containing 68. ... Disinfection The destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means Disinfectants are chemical substances used to kill viruses and microbes (germs), such as bacteria and fungi. ...


Isopropanol is a major ingredient in "dry-gas" fuel additive. In significant quantities, water is a problem in fuel tanks as it separates from the gasoline. If the engine tried to combust the water instead of gasoline serious engine problems could result, as water cannot be compressed by an engine (see hydrolock). The isopropanol does not remove the water from the gasoline. Rather, the isopropanol solubilizes the water in the gasoline. Once soluble, the water does not pose the same risk as insoluble water. Isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with the chemical formula CH3CHOHCH3. ... Water is a tasteless, odourless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known as the universal solvent. ... In automotive terminology, a hydrolock is the immobilization of an engines pistons by a liquid (usually water, hence the prefix hydro-). Hydrolocking occurs when liquid fills a cylinder on the intake stroke and, due to the incompressibility of a liquid, makes the compression stroke impossible. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ...


It is also a very good cleaning agent and often used for cleaning electronic devices such as contact pins (like those on ROM cartridges), magnetic tape deck and floppy disk drive heads, the lenses of lasers in optical disc drives (e.g. CD, DVD) and removing thermal paste from CPUs. It is also used to clean glass computer monitor screens (at some risk to the anti-reflection coating of the screen), and used by many music shops to give second-hand or worn records newer looking sheens. It cleans dry-erase boards very well and other unwanted ink related marks. The field of electronics comprises the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons (or other charge carriers) in devices such as thermionic valves (vacuum tubes) and semiconductors. ... Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... In a variety of electronic equipments, a cartridge (in video game terms, cart, game pack, or Game Pak) can be one method of programming different functionality, providing variable content, or a method by which consumables may be replenished. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... For alternative meanings see laser (disambiguation). ... The optical lens of a compact disc drive. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... DVD (sometimes called Digital Versatile Disc, or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... Thermal grease (also called Thermal compound or Thermal paste) is a substance used to help the conduction of heat between two (usually metal) surfaces. ... CPU redirects here. ... Nineteen inch (48 cm) CRT computer monitor A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card. ... The Beatles Magical Mystery Tour (1967) as a 33 ⅓ LP vinyl record A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove starting near the periphery and ending near the centre of the disc. ...


Chemistry

Isopropyl alcohol forms an azeotrope with water at 87.4% alcohol. It is impossible to dehydrate isopropanol further using standard distillation methods. For this reason, more expensive means, such as using a desiccant, are necessary for production of 100% isopropyl alcohol. This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... A desiccant is a substance that adsorbs moisture from the air. ...


Being a secondary alcohol, isopropanol can be oxidised to the ketone acetone. This can be achieved using oxidising agents such as chromic acid, or by dehydrogenation of isopropanol over a heated copper catalyst: Semi-accurate illustration of a redox reaction Redox reactions include all chemical processes in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Ketone group A ketone is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... In chemistry, chromic acid is a hypothetical chromium (Cr) compound, yet to be isolated, that would have the formula H2CrO4. ... Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction in which unsaturated bonds between carbon atoms are reduced by attachment of a hydrogen atom to each carbon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...


(CH3)2CH-OH → (CH3)2C=O + H2 In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ...


Isopropanol may be converted to 2-bromopropane using phosphorus tribromide, or dehydrated to propylene by heating with sulfuric acid. With sodium hydroxide and a halogen, or with sodium hypochlorite, it undergoes the haloform reaction. This means it would give a positive result for an iodoform test. 2-Bromopropane, also known as isopropyl bromide is the halogenated hydrocarbon with the formula CH3CHBrCH3. ... Phosphorus tribromide is a clear colourless liquid. ... Propylene, also known by its IUPAC name propene, is an organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda, is a caustic metallic base. ... The halogens exist as diatomic molecules in the gas, liquid and solid phases. ... ... The haloform reaction is a chemical reaction where a haloform CHX3) is produced by the multiple halogenation of a methyl ketone (a molecule containing the R-CO-CH3 group) in the presence of a base. ... Iodoform, or triiodomethane (I3CH) is a pale yellow substance with a relatively high molar mass due to the iodine atoms. ...


Isopropanol is often used as a hydride source in the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction. A hydride is a compound of hydrogen with more electropositive elements. ... The reduction of ketones to secondary alcohols with aluminumisopropylate catalysis in isopropanol solution is called Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley-Reduction. ...


Like most alcohols, isopropyl alcohol reacts with active metals such as potassium to form alkoxides which can be called isopropoxides. The reaction with aluminium (initiated by a trace of mercury) is used to prepare the catalyst aluminium isopropoxide. Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance brownish white Atomic mass 39. ... An alkoxide has an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom, they are generally basic. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 200. ... Aluminium isopropoxide is an inorganic compound and the adduct of aluminum and isopropyl alcohol. ...


Isopropanol has a maximal absorbance at 204 nm in an ultraviolet-visible spectrum. In spectroscopy, the absorbance A is defined as , where I is the intensity of light at a specified wavelength λ that has passed through a sample (transmitted light intensity) and is the intensity of the light before it enters the sample (or incident light intensity). ... Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons and spectrophotometry. ...


Safety

Isopropyl alcohol vapour is heavier than air and is highly flammable with a very wide combustible range. It should be kept away from heat and open flame. When mixed with air or other oxidisers it can explode through deflagration. [1] Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ...


Isopropyl alcohol is oxidized by the liver into acetone. Symptoms of isopropyl alcohol poisoning include flushing, headache, dizziness, CNS depression, nausea, vomiting, anesthesia, and coma. Use in well-ventilated areas and use protective gloves while using. Poisoning can occur from ingestion, inhalation, or absorption. In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... The term symptom (from the Greek syn = con/plus and pipto = fall, together meaning co-exist) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions. ... A headache (medically known as cephalalgia, sometimes spelled as cephalgia) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Dizziness (Latin: Vertigo) is the sensation of instability. ... Clinical depression is a state of sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Comatose redirects here. ...


Long term application to the skin can cause defatting. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Medicine/Toxicology

Isopropyl alcohol is about twice as toxic as ethanol. Isopropyl alcohol does not cause an anion gap acidosis (like ethanol or methanol). It produces an elevated osmolal gap, but generally no abnormal anion gap (though this may be seen as a result of hypotension and lactic acidosis). Overdoses may cause a fruity, acetone-like odor on the breath. Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, mildly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... The anion gap is used to aid in the differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis. ... Acidosis is an increased acidity (i. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, mildly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Osmolal Gap is the difference between measured serum osmolality and calculated serum osmolality. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... Lactic acidosis is a condition caused by the buildup of lactic acid in the body. ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ...


References

  1. ^ Safety (MSDS) data for 2-propanol. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
eMedicine - Toxicity, Alcohols : Article Excerpt by: Ann G Egland, MD (561 words)
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is an aliphatic alcohol present in aftershaves, colognes, perfumes, mouthwashes, over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and a myriad of alcoholic beverages.
When metabolized by hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase, methanol forms formaldehyde and formic acid, both of which are toxic.
Methanol is primarily metabolized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Isopropyl Alcohol (4197 words)
Isopropyl alcohol is incompatible with strong oxidizers, acetaldehyde, chlorine, ethylene oxide, acids, and isocyanates.
Before a worker is placed in a job with a potential for exposure to isopropyl alcohol, a licensed health care professional should evaluate and document the worker's baseline health status with thorough medical, environmental, and occupational histories, a physical examination, and physiologic and laboratory tests appropriate for the anticipated occupational risks.
Isopropyl alcohol should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910.1200].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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