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Encyclopedia > Ismaili

Part of a series on Shia Islam
Ismailism
Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...

Branches

NizariDruzeMustaali
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 150 × 120 pixelsFull resolution (150 × 120 pixel, file size: 9 KB, MIME type: image/gif) It was found here http://www. ... Main article: Ismaili The Nizārīyya (Arabic النزاريون Al-Nizarin) are the largest branch of the Ismāīlī (in Persian: اسماعیلیه) and make up over two thirds of Ismāīlī Muslims. ... Religions Druze Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic. ... This group is named Mustaali because they follow Imam Mustalli, after Imam Mustansir Billah, and not Nazaar whom the Aga Khan group consider as their Imam. ...

Pillars

WalayahSalah
ZakahSawmHajjJihad
TaharahShahada Shia Ismaili Seven Pillars of Islam have three doctrines that are not included in the Sunni Five Pillars of Islam: Walayah, Taharah and Jihad. ... Guardianship is a Ismaili and Druze pillar of Islam. ... Salat redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... , // Shāhāda is a town in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India, now in Nandurbār District (formerly in Dhule District). ...

Concepts

The Qur'anThe Ginans
ReincarnationPanentheism
ImamPir • Da'i al-Mutlaq
AqlNumerologyTaqiyya
ZahirBatin An esoteric interpretation of the Qur’an is an interpretation of the Qur’an which includes attribution of esoteric or mystic meanings to the text by the interpretater and in this aspect its method is different from the conventional exegesis of the Qur’an called tafsir. ... The Ginans are Nizari Ismaili religious texts. ... The belief in reincarnation in Nizari Ismailism is attested to in the Ginans and Ismailis perform chantas yearly, one of which is for sins committed in past lives. ... With the exception of the Mustaali Ismaili, most Ismaili believe in panentheism, meaning God is both reality and transcendent of it. ... This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine). ... A Pir (Persian: پیر) meaning Old Man. ... The term Dāˤī al-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق) literally means the absolute or unrestricted missionary. In Ismāīlī Islām, the term dāˤī has been used to refer to important religious leaders other than the hereditary Imāms and the Daˤwa or Mission is a clerical-style organisation. ... Shias believe that the souls of the Prophets and the Imams are derived from the first light in the universe which was created by Allah, the light of Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as knowledge. ... Ismailis believe that numbers have religious meanings. ... Within Islamic tradition, the concept of Taqiyya (التقية - fear, guard against)[1] refers to a controversial dispensation allowing believers to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion. ... The exterior or apparent meaning of the Quran. ... The interior or hidden meaning of the Quran. ...

History

All ImamsFatimid Empire
Hamza ibn Ali • ad-Darazi
Hassan-i-SabbahHashashin
DawoodiSulaimaniAlavi
HafiziTaiyabiAinsarii
SevenersQarmatians
SadardinSatpanth
Baghdad Manifesto This is a list of the Imams recognized by the Ismaili Shiites and their sub-branches. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... Hamza ibn-Ali ibn-Ahmad was an 11th century Muslim preacher, and is counted among the founders of the Druze. ... Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazi (Arabic: ) was a 11th century Ismaili preacher and early leader of Druze. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hashashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) were a religious sect of Ismaili Shiites from the Nizari sub-sect originating from post-Islamic Persia. ... Dawoodi Bohras (Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ, Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रा) are the main branch of the Bohras, a Mustaˤlī subsect of Ismāīlī Shīˤa Islām, and are based in India. ... Sulaimani Bohra are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ... Alavi Bohra (Arabic: علوی بوہرہ) are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ... The Mustaˤlī (Arabic: مستعلي) group of Ismāīlī Muslims are so named because they accepted al-Mustaˤlī as the ninth Fatimid caliph and the legitimate successor to his father, al-Mustansir. ... A branch of Mustaali Ismailism that split with the Fatimid supporting Hafizi branch by believing Tayyab Abī l-Qāsim was the rightful Imam. ... The Ainsarii were a sect of the Ismaili Assassins who survived the destruction of the stronghold of Alamut. ... Seveners are a branch of Ismaili Shiism. ... The Qarmatians (from Arabic qaramita قرامطة, also spelled Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians etc. ... Pir Sadardin or Pir Sadruddin was a fourteenth century spiritual leader and is regarded as the founder of Khoja Ismaili sect otherwise known as Satpanth. ... // The people of the Satpanth are originally from the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan. ... The manifesto of Baghdad is the testimony given by number of Muslim Sunni and Twelvers Shiite Genealogists and law scholars known all across the Islamic world in 402/1011, doubting the Sacred Mohammedan-‘Alid lineage of the Fatimids, they were declared to be descended from a Jew by the Name...

Early Imams

AliHasanHusayn
al-Sajjadal-Baqiral-Sadiq
IsmailMuhammad
Ahmadat-Taqiaz-Zaki
al-Mahdi • al-Qa'im • al-Mansur
al-Muizz • al-Aziz • al-Hakim
az-Zahir • al-Mustansir • Nizar
al-Musta'li • al-Amir • al-Qasim
This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine). ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Muhammad al-Baqir Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ... ... Ismail bin Jafar (Arabic: إسماعيل بن جعفر) was the eldest son of the sixth Shia Imam, Jafar as-Sadiq. ... Muhammad ibn Ismail was the son of Ismail bin Jafar and an Ismaili Imam. ... The eighth Ismaili Imam, surnamed al-Wafi. ... The ninth Ismaili Imam. ... The tenth Ismaili Imam, surnamed az-Zaki. ... Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah a. ... Muhammad al-Qaim Bi-Amrillah (893 - 17 May 946) (Arabic: محمد القائم بأمر الله) was the second Caliph of the Fatimids in Ifriqiya and ruled from 934 to 946. ... Isma`îl al-Mansûr (913 - 953) was the third Caliph of the Fatimids in Ifriqiya and ruled from 946 to 953. ... Was the fourth Fatamid caliph. ... Al-Aziz (* 955; † 996) was the fifth Caliph of the Fatimids (975-996). ... Tāriqu l-Ḥakīm, called bi Amr al-Lāh (Arabic الحاكم بأمر الله Ruler by Gods Command), was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... ˤAlī az-Zāhir (20 June 1005 – 13 June 1036) (Arabic: الظاهر بالله) was the Seventh Caliph of the Fātimids (1021 - 1036). ... Al-Mustansir (July 2, 1029 - January 10, 1094), was born in Cairo on 16th Jamada II, 420/ and eight months afterwards was declared to succeed his father. ... Abu Mansur al-Nizar, (who was surnamed al-Mustapha al-dinillah, meaning the chosen for Gods religion) is a Nizari Ismaili Imam. ... Ahmad al-Mustali (d 1101) was the ninth Fatimid Caliph. ... Al-Amir (b. ... The 21st Fatimid Imam and son of the 20th Fatimid Imam Mansur al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah. ...

Contemporary Leaders

Aga Khan IV
Mohammed Burhanuddin
al-Fakhri Abdullah
Taiyeb Ziyauddin Saheb
Mowafak Tarif
Asghar Ali Engineer
Karīm al-Hussaynī, Āgā Khān IV KBE CC GCC (Arabic: سمو الأمیر شاہ کریم الحسیني آغا خان الرابع) -- (born December 13, 1936) is the current (49th) Imām of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims. ... Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin // The 52nd Vicegerent Of The Fatimid Imam His Holiness Dr. Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin is the 52nd Dai al-Mutlaq of the largest group of Mustali Ismailis, the Dawoodi Bohras. ... The 52nd Dai al-Mutlaq of the Ismaili Sulaimani Bohra religious community. ... Saiyedna Abu Haatim Taiyeb Ziyauddin Saheb (born August 6, 1932) is the forty fourth and current Dai-e-Mutlaq (Spiritual & Temporal Head) of the Taiyebi Alavi Dawat community, in succession from the first Dai-e-Mutlaq, Saiyedna Zoeb bin Moosa. ... Shaykh Muwaffak Tarīf (موفق طريف) is the current spiritual leader of the Druze community in Israel. ... Asghar Ali Engineer, The Laaentie was born in Bohra priestly family (amils family) on 10th March, 1939 in Salumbar, Rajasthan (near Udaipur) where Qurban Husain, his father, was an amil at that time. ...

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The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shī'a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). The Ismaili get their name from their acceptance of Ismail bin Jafar as the divinely appointed spiritual successor (Imam) to Jafar al-Sadiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers, who accept Musa al-Kazim, younger brother of Ismail, as the true Imam. The Ismaili and the Twelvers both accept the same initial Imams from the descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima Zahra and therefore share much of their early history. Urdu ( , , trans. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... Ismail bin Jafar (Arabic: إسماعيل بن جعفر) was the eldest son of the sixth Shia Imam, Jafar as-Sadiq. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... ... Imam Musa al Kazim (November 10, 745 - September 4, 799) was the seventh Shia Imam (he is not accepted by the Ismailis as the seventh Imam). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ...


Tracing its earliest theology to the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad, Ismailism rose at one point to become the largest branch of the Shia religion, and climaxed as a political power with the Fatimid Empire in the tenth through twelfth centuries.[1] Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ...


After the passing away -- or occultation (according to Sevener Ismailis) - of Imam Muhammad ibn Ismail in the 8th century CE, the teachings of Ismailism further transformed into the belief system as it is known today, with an explicit concentration on the deeper, esoteric meaning (batin) of the Islamic religion. With the eventual development of Twelverism into the more literalistic (zahir) oriented Akhbari and later Usooli schools of thought, Shiasm developed into two separate directions: the metaphorical Ismaili group focusing on the mystical nature of the Imams and the mystical path to Allah, and the more literalistic Twelver group focusing on divine law (sharia) and the deeds and sayings (sunnah) of Muhammad and his successors (Ahl al-Bayt).[2] In this July, 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation. ... Seveners are a branch of Ismaili Shiism. ... Muhammad ibn Ismail was the son of Ismail bin Jafar and an Ismaili Imam. ... Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... The interior or hidden meaning of the Quran. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are Shia Muslims who believe in twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili and Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... The exterior or apparent meaning of the Quran. ... Akhbaris are Twelver Shia Muslims who favor hadith over fatwas when trying to determine what the Sunnah says about any specific topic. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ...


Though there are several sub-groupings within the Ismailis, the term in today's vernacular generally refers to the Nizari community, who are followers of the Aga Khan and the largest group among the Ismailis. While many of the branches have extremely differing exterior practices, much of the spiritual theology has remained the same since the days of the faith's early Imams. The Ismaili are found primarily in India, Pakistan, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia[3], Yemen, China[4], Jordan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, East Africa and South Africa, but have in recent years emigrated to Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America.[5] Main article: Ismaili The NizārÄ«yya (Arabic النزاريون Al-Nizarin) are the largest branch of the IsmāīlÄ« (in Persian: اسماعیلیه) and make up over two thirds of IsmāīlÄ« Muslims. ... This article is about the hereditary title. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...

Contents

History

Part of a series on
Shī‘a Islam
Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...



Image File history File links Basmala. ...

Branches

Twelver · Ismaili · Zaidi Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a ShÄ«a maðhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlÄ«. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or are occasionally called Fivers in the West). ...

People of the House

Muhammad
Ali ibn Abu Talib
Fatima Zahra
HasanHusayn
Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...

Beliefs & Practices

Succession of Ali
Imamate of the Family
SahabaThe Four Companions
View of the Qur'an
Ghadir KhummKarbala
Mourning of Muharram
Light of Aql The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For other views of Sahaba and a short description, see sahaba. ... The Four Companions, also called the Four Pillars of the Sahaba is a Shia term that refers to the four Sahaba Shia belive stayed most loyal to Ali after the death of Muhammad: Miqdad Abu Dharr Salman al-Farsi Ammar ibn Yasir. ... This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view but it must be noted that the text of the Quran is exactly identical in both Shia and Sunni. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... The Mourning of Muharram is an important period of mourning in the Shia branch of Islam, taking place in Muharram which is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Shias believe that the souls of the Prophets and the Imams are derived from the first light in the universe which was created by Allah, the light of Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as knowledge. ...

See Also

History of Shia Islam
...

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Succession crisis

The place where, according to tradition, Ali was killed

Ismailism shares its beginning with other early Shia sects that emerged during the succession crisis that spread throughout the early Muslim community. The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x600, 222 KB)YA ALI MADAD......TAQI JOYA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x600, 222 KB)YA ALI MADAD......TAQI JOYA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


From the beginning the Shia asserted the Prophet Muhammad's cousin, Ali's right to have both political and spiritual control over the community. This also included his two sons, who were the grandsons of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima Zahra. For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ...


The conflict remained relatively peaceful between the partisans of Ali and those who asserted a semi-democratic system of electing caliphs, until the third of the Rashidun caliphs, Uthman died, and Ali with popular support of the people ascended into the caliphate. [6] Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ...


Soon after his ascendancy, Aisha, the second of the Prophet's wives, claimed along with Uthman's tribe, the Ummayads, that Ali himself plotted the assassination of the third caliph. [citation needed] Ali rejected this allegation and soon Aisha would stage a revolt that culminated into the Battle of the Camel where her forces were defeated. Afterwards she retired to a quieter life. [7] For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... In 655 a Muslim force led by Caliph Ali defeated a superior force of rebel Arabs in the Battle of Bassorah (Bassorah = Basra). ...


Following this defeat, Muawiya, the Umayyad governor of Syria, also staged a revolt under the same pretenses. Ali led his forces against Muawiya until the side of Muawiya held copies of the Quran against their spears and demanded that the issue be decided by Islam's holy book. Ali accepted this, and an arbitration was done which ended in his favor. [8] Muawiya was the name of two Ummayad caliphs. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


A group among his army believed this was tantamount to apostasy, and abandoned his forces. This group was known as the Kharijites, and Ali wished to defeat their forces before they reached the cities where they would be able to blend in with the rest of the population. He was unable to do this, but nonetheless defeated their forces in the battles following afterward. [9] Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while initially accepting the caliphate of Ali, later rejected him. ...


Regardless of these defeats, the Kharijites survived and became a violently problematic group in Islamic history. After plotting an assassination against Ali, Muawiya, and the arbitrator of their conflict, only Ali was successfully assassinated in 40 AH (661 AD), and the Imamate passed on to his sons Hassan and Hussein, or according to the Nizari Ismaili, only to Hussein. However, the political caliphate was soon taken over by Muawiya who was the only leader in the empire at that time with an army large enough to seize control. [10]


Karbala and afterward

The Battle of Karbala

Main article: Battle of Karbala

After the passing away of Hassan, Hussein and his family were increasingly worried about the religious and political persecution that was becoming commonplace under the reign of Muawiya's son, Yazid. Amidst this turmoil in 61 AH (680 AD), Hussein along with the women and children of his family wished to go to Kufa and confront Yazid as an intercessor on part of the citizens of the empire. However, he was stopped by Yazid's army in Karbala, during the month of Muharram. His family was starved and deprived of water and supplies, until eventually the army came in on the tenth day and killed Hussein and his companions, and enslaved the rest of the women and family, taking them to Kufa. [11] Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... There were several notable persons named Yazid: Yazid I (born c. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ...


This battle would become extremely important to the Shia psyche. The Twelvers, as well as Mustaali Ismaili still mourn this event during a holiday known as Ashura. The Druze Ismaili and Nizari Ismaili however do not mourn this event because of the belief that the light of the Imam never dies but rather passes on to the succeeding Imam, making mourning arbitrary. The Day of Aashurah, sometimes spelled ‘Ashurah or Aashoorah, falls on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. ...


The beginnings of Ismaili dawah

After being set free by the caliph Yazid, Zainab, the daughter of Fatima and Ali and the sister of Hassan and Hussein, started to spread the word of Karbala to the Muslim world, making emotional speeches regarding the event. This was the first organized dawah of the Shia community, which would later develop into an extremely spiritual institution for the Ismailis. // Introduction Zainab was the 3rd child of Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima Zahra. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


After the poisoning of Ali al-Sajjad by Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik in 95 AH (713 AD), Shiism's first succession crisis rose with Zayd ibn Ali's companions and his Zaidi Shia that claim Zayd ibn Ali as the Imam, whilst the rest of the Shia maintained Muhammad al-Baqir as the Imam. The Zaidis argued that any sayyid who rebelled against tyranny and the injustice of his age, can be the Imam. The Zaidis created the first Shia states in Iran, Iraq and Yemen. Archaeological remains of a palace built in Hishams honor just north of present-day Jericho Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691–6 February 743) (Arabic: هشام بن عبد الملك) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 723 until his death in 743. ... Zayd ibn Ali (Arabic: , also spelled Zaid) (695-740 C.E.) He was given the title Zayd the Martyr (Zayd ash-Shahid) by his sympathizers. ... Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. ... Zayd ibn Ali (Arabic: , also spelled Zaid) (695-740 C.E.) He was given the title Zayd the Martyr (Zayd ash-Shahid) by his sympathizers. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Muhammad al-Baqir Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ...

Main article: Zaidi

In contrast to his predecessors, Muhammad al-Baqir focused on academic Islamic scholarship in Medina, where he promulgated his teachings to many Muslims, both Shia and non-Shia, in an extremely organized form of dawah. [12] Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


This tradition would pass on to his son, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who inherited the Imamate on his father's death in 114 AH (743 AD). Ja'far al-Sadiq excelled in the scholarship of the day and had many pupils, including three of the four founders of the Sunni madhabs. [13] Jafar Al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn (702 AD - 765 AD ) is the sixth infallible Imam and one of Ahl al-Bayt of the Shia Muslims. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ...


However, following Jaffir's poisoning in 148 AH (765 AD), a fundamental split would occur in the community. Ismail ibn Jaffir, who at one point seemed to be heir apparent, apparently predeceased his father in 138 AH (755 AD). While Twelvers either argue he was never heir apparent and that he truly predeceased his father, Ismailis argue that either the death was staged in order to draw harm away from al-Sadiq's successor or that his early death does not mean he was not an Imam, and rightfully the Imamate would pass to his son, Muhammad ibn Ismail.


Ascension of the Dais

Main article: Dai
Shams Tabrizi in a circa 1503 copy of his disciple Rumi's poem, the "Diwan-e Shams-e Tabriz-i". Shams Tabrizi is believed to have been an Ismaili Dai and his relationship with Rumi a symbolic manifestation of the sacred relationship between the guide and the guided
Shams Tabrizi in a circa 1503 copy of his disciple Rumi's poem, the "Diwan-e Shams-e Tabriz-i". Shams Tabrizi is believed to have been an Ismaili Dai and his relationship with Rumi a symbolic manifestation of the sacred relationship between the guide and the guided

For the Sevener Ismaili, the Imamate ended with Muhammad ibn Ismail, who was the expected Mahdi that Jaffir al-Sadiq had preached about. However, at this point the Ismaili Imams according to the Nizari, Mustaali, and Druze found areas where they would be able to be safe from the recently founded Abbasid Empire which had defeated and seized control from the Umayyads in 750 AD. [14]. Dai or DAI can mean: DAI, the IATA airport code of Darjeeling airport in India Dai people, one of the 56 recognized ethnic minorities of China Dai (midwife), a traditional midwife in India, belonging to a lower caste Da`i (داعي or داع) in Arabic is a missionary or caller to Islam... Image:Shams ud-Din Tabriz 1502-1504 BNF Paris. ... Image:Shams ud-Din Tabriz 1502-1504 BNF Paris. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Diwan-e Shams-e Tabriz-i or Diwan i Shams is Moulana Rumis masterpiece in the Persian language, a collection of poems that contains more than 40,000 verses. ... Muhammad ibn Ismail was the son of Ismail bin Jafar and an Ismaili Imam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Mahdi. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


With the Imams safe from harm, they began to propagate their faith through Dāʿiyyūn from their bases in Syria. This was the start of the spiritual beginnings of the dawah that would later blossom on the Mustaali branch of the faith, as well as play important parts in the other three branches. [15] The term Caller to Islam is an English adaptation of the Arabic word Da`ee. ...


The Dai was not a missionary in the typical sense, and he was responsible for both the conversion of his student as well as the mental and spiritual wellbeing. The Dai was a guide and light to the Imam, much like the present day Nizari position of the Pir. The student and teacher relationship of the Dai and his student was much like the one that would develop in Sufism. The student desired Allah, and the Dai could bring him to Allah by making him recognize the stature and light of the Imam descended from Muhammad, which in turn descended from Allah. The Dai was the path, and the Face of Allah which was a Qur'anic term the Ismaili took to represent the Imam, was the destination. [14] Look up pir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...


Shams Tabrizi and Rumi is a famous example of the importance between the guide and the guided, and Rumi dedicated much of his literature to Shams Tabrizi and his discovery of the truth. For the missionary, see Shams Tabraiz (missionary). ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ...


The Qarmatians

Main article: Qarmatians

While many of the Seveners and other Ismaili were content with the Dai teachings, a group that mingled Persian nationalism with Ismaili teachings surfaced known as the Qarmatians. With their headquarters in Bahrain, they accepted a Persian prisoner as their Mahdi, and violently rampaged across the Middle-East, climaxing their bloody campaign with the stealing of the Black Stone from the Kaaba in Mecca, and changing their qiblah from the Kaaba to the Zoroastrian-influenced fire. After their return of the Black Stone they slowly faded out of history and no longer have any adherents. [16] The Qarmatians (from Arabic qaramita قرامطة, also spelled Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians etc. ... This article is about the Islamic holy relic. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Kaaba or Kaaba, in the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah), is the holiest place in Islam. ...


The Fatimid Empire

Main article: Fatimid Empire

The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ...

Rise of the Fatimid Empire

Main article: Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah

The political asceticism practiced by the Imams during the period after Muhammad ibn Ismail was to be short lived and finally concluded with the Imamate of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, who was born in 260 AH (873 AD). After raising an army and successfully defeating the Alghabids in North Africa and a number of other victories, al-Mahdi Billah successfully established a Shi'ah political state ruled by the Imamate in 910 AD. Because of his founding of this empire he is often seen as the messianic Mahdi by Ismailis. [17] Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah a. ...


In parallel with the dynasty's claim of descent from Ali and Fatima, the empire was named “Fatimid.” However, this was not without controversy and with the extent that the Ismaili dawah had spread, the Abbasid caliphate assigned Sunni and Twelver scholars with the assignment to disprove the lineage of the new dynasty. This became known as the Baghdad Manifesto, and it traces the lineage of the Fatimid dynasty to a Jew. Its authenticity has been both questioned and supported by many Islamic scholars.[citation needed] Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The manifesto of Baghdad is the testimony given by number of Muslim Sunni and Twelvers Shiite Genealogists and law scholars known all across the Islamic world in 402/1011, doubting the Sacred Mohammedan-‘Alid lineage of the Fatimids, they were declared to be descended from a Jew by the Name...


The Middle-East under Fatimid rule

The Fatimid Empire expanded quickly under the subsequent Imams. Under the Fatimids, Egypt became the center of an empire that included at its peak North Africa, Sicily, Palestine, Syria, the Red Sea coast of Africa, Yemen and the Hejaz. Under the Fatimids, Egypt flourished and developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean, which eventually determined the economic course of Egypt during the High Middle Ages. This article is about the political and historical term. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Map with the region outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom in green “Hedjaz” redirects here. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ...


During Fatimid rule, in contrast with much of the world at this time period, there were two very modern ideas. The first was promotion by merit rather than genealogy. The second was religious toleration, under which both Jews and Coptic Christians flourished.[citation needed] Religions Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism Scriptures Bible Languages Mari, Coptic, Arabic, English, French, German A Copt (Coptic: , literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


Also during this period the three contemporary branches of Ismailism formed. The first branch, the Druze occurred with the Imam Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Born in 386 AH (985 AD), he ascended as ruler at the age of eleven and was feared for his eccentricity and believed insanity. The typical religiously tolerant Fatimid Empire saw much persecution under his reign. When in 411 AH (1021 AD) his mule returned without him soaked in blood, a religious group that was even forming in his lifetime broke off from mainstream Ismailism and refused to acknowledge his successor. Later to be known as the Druze, they believe Al-Hakim to be the incarnation of Allah and the prophecized Mahdi, who would one day return and bring justice to the world. [18] Tāriqu l-Ḥakīm, called bi Amr al-Lāh (Arabic الحاكم بأمر الله Ruler by Gods Command), was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ...


The second split occurred following the death of Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah in 487 AH (1094 AD). His rule was the longest of any caliph in both the Fatimid and other Islamic empires. Upon his passing away his sons, the older Nizar and the younger Al-Musta'li fought for the political and spiritual control of the dynasty. Nizar was defeated and jailed, and his son was forced to escape to Alamut where the Iranian Ismaili had accepted his claim. [19] Al-Mustansir (July 2, 1029 - January 10, 1094), was born in Cairo on 16th Jamada II, 420/ and eight months afterwards was declared to succeed his father. ... Abu Mansur al-Nizar, (who was surnamed al-Mustapha al-dinillah, meaning the chosen for Gods religion) is a Nizari Ismaili Imam. ... Ahmad al-Mustali (d 1101) was the ninth Fatimid Caliph. ...


The Mustaali line split again between the Taiyabi and the Hafizi, the former claiming that the 21st Imam and son of Al-Amir went into occultation and appointed a Da'i al-Mutlaq to guide the community, in a similar manner as the Ismaili had lived after the death of Muhammad ibn Ismail. The latter claimed that the ruling Fatimid caliph was the Imam. Al-Amir (b. ... The term Dāˤī al-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق) literally means the absolute or unrestricted missionary. In Ismāīlī Islām, the term dāˤī has been used to refer to important religious leaders other than the hereditary Imāms and the Daˤwa or Mission is a clerical-style organisation. ...


Decline of the empire

In the 1040s, the Zirids (governors of North Africa under the Fatimids) declared their independence from the Fatimids and their conversion to "orthodox" Sunni Islam, which led to the devastating Banū Hilal invasions. After about 1070, the Fatimid hold on the Levant coast and parts of Syria was challenged by first Turkish invasions, then the Crusades, so that Fatimid territory shrunk until it consisted only of Egypt. [citation needed] Events March War of Independence of Western Xia occurred. ... The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim...


After the decay of the Fatimid political system in the 1160s, the Zengid ruler Nūr ad-Dīn had his general, Saladin, seize Egypt in 1169, forming the Sunni Ayyubid Dynasty. This signaled the end of the Hafizi Mustaali branch of Ismailism as well as the finish of the Fatimid Empire. The Zengid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Seljuk Turkish origin, which ruled parts of Northern Iraq and Syria during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ...


Alamut

Main article: Alamut
Artistic Rendering of Hassan-i-Sabbah
Artistic Rendering of Hassan-i-Sabbah

For other uses, see Alamut (disambiguation). ... File links The following pages link to this file: Hassan-i-Sabah ... File links The following pages link to this file: Hassan-i-Sabah ...

Hassan-i-Sabbah

Main article: Hassan-i-Sabbah

Very Early on in the empire's life, the Fatimids sought to spread the Ismaili faith which in turn would spread loyalties to the Imamate in Egypt. One of their earliest attempts would be taken by a Dai by the name of Hassan-i-Sabbah. Artistic Rendering of Hassan-Sabbah Hassan-i-Sabbah (in Persian: بن صباح or حسن صباح) (circa 1034 - 1124), or The Old Man of the Mountain (Arabic شيخ الجبل), was an Iranian Ismaili missionary who converted a community in the late 11th century in the heart of the Elburz Mountains of northern Iran. ...


Hassan-i-Sabbah was born into a Twelver family living in the scholarly city of Qom in 1056 AD. His family later relocated to the city of Tehran which was an area with an extremely active Ismaili dawah. He immersed himself into Ismaili thought however did not choose to convert until he was overcome with an almost fatal illness, where he finally feared dying without knowing the Imam of his time.


Afterwards, Hassan-i-Sabbah, became one of the most influential Dais in Ismaili history, and would be important to the survival of the Nizari branch of Ismailism, which today is its largest branch.


Legend holds that he met with Imam Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah and asked him who his successor would be, to which he responded his eldest son, Nizar.


Hassan-i-Sabbah would continue his Dai activities and they would climax with his taking of Alamut. Taking two years, he first converted most of the surrounding villages to Ismailism. Afterwards, he converted most of the staff to Ismailism and then took over the fortress, and presented the current leader with payment for the fortress. With no choice, the leader abdicated and Hassan-i-Sabbah turned Alamut into an outpost of Fatimid rule within Abbasid territory.


The Hashashin

Main article: Hashashin

Surrounded by the Abbasids and other hostile powers, and low in numbers, Hassan-i-Sabbah derived a way to attack the Ismaili enemies with a small loss and number. Using the method of assassination, from which the English word is derived from Hashashin, he ordered the killing of Sunni scholars and politicians that threatened the Ismailis. Knives and daggers were used. Sometimes in warning, a knife would be put into the pillow of the enemy, and often they understood the message. [20] Hashshashin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


However, when an assassination was actually made, the Hashashin would not be allowed to run away, but rather to strike further fear in the enemy by showing no emotion, they would stand there. This further increased the reputation of the Hashashin in the Sunni world. [20]


Amin Maalouf, in his novel, Samarkand disputes the origin of the word Assassin. According to him, it is not derived from the word Hashashin - which he believes is a story fabricated by Orientalists to explain how faithfully the Ismailis would carry out these suicide-assassinations without fearing death. Maalouf suggests that the term is derived from the word Assaas (foundation), and Assassiyoon, which means "those faithful to the foundation."[21] Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


Threshold of the Imamate

Main article: Nizar

After the imprisonment of Nizar by his younger brother Mustaal, Nizar's son al-Hadi was forced to flee. He was offered a safe place in Alamut where Hassan-i-Sabbah welcomed him. However, this was not announced to the public and the lineage was hidden until a few Imams later. [20] Abu Mansur al-Nizar, (who was surnamed al-Mustapha al-dinillah, meaning the chosen for Gods religion) is a Nizari Ismaili Imam. ...


It was announced with the advent of Imam Hassan II. In a show of his Imamate and to emphasize the interior meaning, the batin, over the exterior meaning, the zahir, he prayed with his back facing to Mecca, as did the rest of the congregation which prayed behind him. He made a speech saying he was in communication with the Imam, which many of the Ismailis understood to mean he was the Imam himself. [20]


Afterwards his descendants would rule as the Imams at Alamut until its destruction by the Mongols.


Destruction by the Mongols

Main article: Mongol Empire

The stronghold at Alamut, though it had warded off the Sunni attempts to take it several times, including one by Saladin, would soon meet with destruction. By 1206 AD, Genghis Khan had managed to unite many of the once antagonistic Mongol tribes into a unified force. Using many new and unique military techniques, Genghis Khan led the Mongols across Central Asia into the Middle-East where they won series of tactical military victories. Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... This article is about the person. ...


A grandson of Genghis Khan, Hulagu Khan, led the devastating attack on Alamut in 1256 AD, only a short time before he would sack the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad in 1258 AD. As he would later do to the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, he destroyed all Ismaili religious texts. The Imamate that was located in Alamut along with its few followers were forced to flee and take refuge in the surrounding Iranian countryside. Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... The House of Wisdom (Arabic بيت الحكمة Bayt al-Hikma) was a library and translation institute in Abbassid-era Baghdad. ...


Aftermath

After the fall of the Fatimid Empire and its bases in Iran and Syria, the three currently living branches of Ismaili generally developed geographically isolated from each other, with the exception of Syria (which has both Druze and Nizari) and the Subcontinent (which had both Mustaali and Nizari). All three groups in general no longer accepted converts for different reasons. The Nizari cite the unity of religions, while the Druze believe every individual had a chance to accept the religion in a previous life before it closed itself to converts. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir) A subcontinent is a large part of a continent. ...


The Nizari kept large populations in Syria, Uzbekistan, and the Subcontinent, and had smaller populations in China and Iran. This community is the only one with a living Imam, who is titled today as the Aga Khan. This article is about the hereditary title. ...


The Druze mainly settled in Syria and Lebanon, and developed a community based upon the principles of reincarnation through their own descendants. Their leadership is based through community scholars, who are the only individuals allowed to read their holy texts.


The Mustaali split three times because of disputes regarding who was the rightful Da'i al-Mutlaq, whom is the leader of the community within the Occultation. The Sulaimani Bohra are mostly concentrated in Yemen and Saudi Arabia with some communities in the Subcontinent. The Dawoodi Bohra and Alavi Bohra are mostly exclusive to the Subcontinent. The current Mustaali beliefs and practices, unlike the Nizari and Druze, are very closely tied with mainstream Islam. Sulaimani Bohra are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ... Dawoodi Bohras (Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ, Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रा) are the main branch of the Bohras, a Mustaˤlī subsect of Ismāīlī Shīˤa Islām, and are based in India. ... Alavi Bohra (Arabic: علوی بوہرہ) are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ...


Beliefs

Concepts

View on the Qur'an

The Ismailis understand the Qur'an to have several layers of meaning, but generally divide those types of meanings into two: the exterior (zahir) meaning and the interior (batin) meaning. While a believer can understand the batin meaning to some extent, the Imam alone has the complete understanding of the Qur'an and it is to him alone to interpret it according to the times. An esoteric interpretation of the Qur’an is an interpretation of the Qur’an which includes attribution of esoteric or mystic meanings to the text by the interpretater and in this aspect its method is different from the conventional exegesis of the Qur’an called tafsir. ...


The Ginans

Main article: Ginans

The Ginans are Nizari Ismaili religious texts. They are written in the form of poetry by Pirs to interpret the meanings of Qur’anic ayat into the languages of the Indian subcontinent, especially Gujarati and Urdu. In comparison to Ginans, Ismailis of other origins, such as Persians and Arabs have Qasidas (قصيدة) written by Dai's داعي (جمع دعاة)ـ. The Ginans are Nizari Ismaili religious texts. ... Main article: Ismaili The NizārÄ«yya (Arabic النزاريون Al-Nizarin) are the largest branch of the IsmāīlÄ« (in Persian: اسماعیلیه) and make up over two thirds of IsmāīlÄ« Muslims. ... Look up pir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ayah is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ...


Reincarnation

The belief in reincarnation in the Satpanth tradition of Nizari Ismailism is attested to in the Ginans and Ismailis perform chantas monthly, which is done for the forgiveness of the sins committed in the last month but only those sins which are committed unintentionally; and strictly not for the forgiveness for sins committed in past lives. However they believe that there are four yugs (eras). People who are born in the first 3 yugs are reincarnated in the present kalyug if they have committed sin, because they are given a chance of doing good deeds. However those who have taken birth in this yug i.e Kalyug won't be given a chance. The system of the four Yugas viz. Sat, Treta, Dwapar and Kali is a Hindu belief. Descriptions of each yuga are codified in the various Puranas, a set of holy books of Hinduism. However, it must be mentioned that the Ginans of Nizari Ismailism do not assert the doctrine of rebirth, but rather, invoke the doctrine in their attempts to teach the message of Ismailism to the people of India. The belief in reincarnation in Nizari Ismailism is attested to in the Ginans and Ismailis perform chantas yearly, one of which is for sins committed in past lives. ... // The people of the Satpanth are originally from the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan. ... Main article: Ismaili The Nizārīyya (Arabic النزاريون Al-Nizarin) are the largest branch of the Ismāīlī (in Persian: اسماعیلیه) and make up over two thirds of Ismāīlī Muslims. ... The Ginans are Nizari Ismaili religious texts. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Reincarnation also exists in the Druze branch of Ismailism. The Druze believe that only the members of their community will be reincarnated as humans in the form of future descendants. It is also known that Druze believe in five cosmic principles, represented by the five colored Druze star: intelligence/reason (green), soul (red), word (yellow), precedent (blue), and immanence (white). These virtues take the shape of five different spirits which, until recently, have been continuously reincarnated on Earth as prophets and philosophers including Adam, the ancient Greek mathematician and astronomer Pythagoras, and the ancient Pharaoh of Egypt Akhenaten, and many others. The Druze believe that, in every time period, these five principles were personified in five different people who came down together to Earth to teach humans the true path to God and nirvana, but that with them came five other individuals who would lead people away from the right path into "darkness". Religions Druze Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic. ... Immanence, derived from the Latin in manere to remain within, refers to philosophical and metaphysical theories of the divine as existing and acting within the mind or the world. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ...


Panentheism

With the exception of the Mustaali Ismailis, most Ismaili believe in panentheism, meaning God is both reality and transcendent of it. While the figure of the Godhead is beyond this universe, the Godhead has created reality, which is God itself. All living beings exist in this reality, however reality in its entirety is invested in the form of the Imam. With the exception of the Mustaali Ismaili, most Ismaili believe in panentheism, meaning God is both reality and transcendent of it. ... This group is named Mustaali because they follow Imam Mustalli, after Imam Mustansir Billah, and not Nazaar whom the Aga Khan group consider as their Imam. ... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ... In Christianity, the Godhead is a unit consisting of God the Father, Jesus Christ (the Son), and the Holy Spirit. ...


Numerology

Ismailis believes that numbers have religious meanings. The number seven plays a general role in the theology of the Ismā'īliyya, including mystical speculations that there are seven heavens, seven continents, seven orifices in the skull, seven days in a week, seven prophets, and so forth. Ismailis believe that numbers have religious meanings. ...


Imamate

In Ismailism, the Imam is seen through the Qur'anic phrase, “The Face of Allah.” It is through the Imam that the individual believer can truly know the light of Allah, and hence he is their one true desire in this world. [22] This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine). ...


Old Ismaili doctrine holds that divine revelation had been given in six periods (daur) entrusted to six prophets, who they also call Natiq (Speaker), who were commissioned to preach a religion of law to their respective communities.


Whereas the Natiq was concerned with the rites and outward shape of religion, the inner meaning is entrusted to a Wasi (Representative). The Wasi would know the secret meaning of all rites and rules and would reveal them to a small circles of initiates.


The Natiq and the Wasi are in turn succeeded by a line of seven Imams, who would guard what they received. The seventh and last Imam in any period would in turn be the Natiq of the next period. The last Imam of the sixth period however would not bring about a new religion of law but supersede all previous religions, abrogate the law and introduce din Adama al-awwal ("the original religion of Adam") practised by Adam and the Angels in paradise before the fall, which would be without cult or law but consist merely in all creatures praising the creator and recognizing his unity. This final stage was called Qiyamah.[23] For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation). ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... Paradise, Jan Bruegel Paradise is an English word from Persian roots that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. ... Yawm al-Qīyāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ...


Pir and Dawah

Main article: Da'i al-Mutlaq

Just as the Imam is seen as the Face of Allah, from which his light shines through, the guide to that light is known as the Dai. During the period between the Imamates of Muhammad ibn Ismail and al-Madhi Billah, the relationship between the teacher and the student became a sacred one, and the Dai became a position much beyond a normal missionary. The Dai passed on the sacred and hidden knowledge of the Imam to the student who could then use that information to ascend to higher levels. First the student loved the Dai, and from the Dai he learned to love the Imam, and by learning to love the Imam he learned to love Allah. In Nizari Ismailism, the head Dai is called the Pir. [14]. The term Dāˤī al-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق) literally means the absolute or unrestricted missionary. In Ismāīlī Islām, the term dāˤī has been used to refer to important religious leaders other than the hereditary Imāms and the Daˤwa or Mission is a clerical-style organisation. ...


However, in the Mustaali branch, the Dai came to have a similar but more important task. The term Dāˤī al-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق) literally means "the absolute or unrestricted missionary". This dai was the only source of the Imam's knowledge after the occultation of al-Qasim in Mustaali thought. Arabic redirects here. ... The term Caller to Islam is an English adaptation of the Arabic word Da`ee. ...


According to Tayyabī Mustaˤlī Ismā'īlī tradition, after the death of Imam al-Amīr, his infant son, AtTaiyab abi-l-Qasim, about 2 years old, was protected by the most important woman in Musta'li history after Prophet's daughter Fatima. She was al-Malika al-Sayyida (Hurratul-Malika), wife of Fatimid Dai of Yemen. She was promoted to the post of hujja long before by Imam Mustansir at the death of her husband and she now ran the dawat from Yemen in the name of Imaam Tayyib. She was instructed and prepared by Imam Mustansir and following Imams for the second period of Satr. It was going to be on her hands, that Imam Tayyib would go into seclusion, and she would institute the office of Dāˤī al-Mutlaq. Syedna Zueb-bin-Musa was first to be instituted to this office and the line of Tayyib Dais that began in 526 AH (1132 AD) have passed from one Dai to another and is continuing till date. Present dai is 52nd in line. This group is named Mustaali because they follow Imam Mustalli, after Imam Mustansir Billah, and not Nazaar whom the Aga Khan group consider as their Imam. ...


Zahir

Main article: Zahir (Islam)

In Ismailism, things have an exterior meaning, what is apparent. This is called zahir. The exterior or apparent meaning of the Quran. ...


Batini

Main article: Batin (Islam)

In Ismailism, things have an interior meaning that is reserved for a special few who are in tune with the Imam, or are the Imam himself. This is called batin. The interior or hidden meaning of the Quran. ...


Aql

Main article: Aql (Shiasm)

As with other Shias, Ismailis believe that the souls of the Prophets and the Imams are derived from the first light in the universe, the light of Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as knowledge. It is through this knowledge that all living and non-living entities know Allah, and all of humanity is dependent and united in this light. [24] [20] Shias believe that the souls of the Prophets and the Imams are derived from the first light in the universe which was created by Allah, the light of Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as knowledge. ...


Taqiyya

Main article: Taqiyya

Ismailis believe in taqiyya, which means to hide one's true religious beliefs. This has been pivotal to the survival of Ismaili groups since they have been small minorities in many countries and empires hostile to them. Within Islamic tradition, the concept of Taqiyya (التقية - fear, guard against)[1] refers to a controversial dispensation allowing believers to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion. ...


Niranjan Nirakar Swaroop

Main article: Niranjan Nirakar Swaroop

Niranjan Nirakar Swaroop is a Sanskrit term and refers to the Satpanth idea (found in the Ginans of the Ismaili religious tradition) that the true spiritual teacher is esoteric and all-pervading, found by the Mureed when meditating upon special mantras given by the exoteric spiritual teacher (Bandagi). Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... // The people of the Satpanth are originally from the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan. ...


Seven Pillars

Shia Ismaili Seven Pillars of Islam have three doctrines that are not included in the Sunni Five Pillars of Islam: Walayah, Taharah and Jihad. ...

Walayah

Main article: Walayah

A pillar which translates from Arabic as “guardianship.” It denotes, “Love and devotion for God, the Prophets, the Imam, and the Dai.” In Ismaili doctrine, Allah is the true desire of every soul, and he manifests himself in the forms of Prophets and Imams, and to be guided to his path, one requires a messenger or a guide: a Dai. Guardianship is a Ismaili and Druze pillar of Islam. ...


Taharah or Shahada

Taharah
Main article: Taharah

A pillar which translates from Arabic as “purity.” The Druze do not believe in this pillar and instead substitute shahada in its place. This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... , // Shāhāda is a town in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India, now in Nandurbār District (formerly in Dhule District). ...


Shahada
Main article: Shahada

In place of Taharah, the Druze have the Shahada, or affirmation of faith. , // Shāhāda is a town in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India, now in Nandurbār District (formerly in Dhule District). ...


Salah

Main article: Salah

A pillar which translates from Arabic as “prayer.” Unlike Sunni and Twelver Muslims, Nizari Ismai'lis do not necessarily follow the mainstream Ummah in regards to the number of daily prayers. Nizari Ismai'lis reason that it is up to the Imam of the time to designate the style and form of prayer, and for this reason current Nizari prayer resembles a dua (translated word of Salah from the Quran) and is done three times a day. These three times have been related with the three times that have been mentioned in the Holy Quran, i-e, Sunrise, before Sunset, and After Sunset. In this regard, Imam of the time has the right to amend the prayers according to the needs of the time. The Druze choose not to follow Islamic sharia hence have attributed a solely metaphorical meaning to salah. In contrast, the Mustaali (Bohra) branch of Ismailism has kept five prayers and their style is generally closely related to Twelver groups. Salat redirects here. ...


Zakah

Main article: Zakah

A pillar which translates as “charity.” With the exception of the Druze branch, all Ismailis form of zakat resembles mainstream Muslims, only with the addition of khumms, which is 1/8 of one's unspent money at the end of the year. This resembles Twelvers who after the believed occultation of Muhammad ibn Hassan al-Askari pay khumms to their Ayatollahs under whom they do taqleed, meaning religious emulation. In addition to khums, Ismailies pay 12.5% of their monthly gross income to the Hazir Imam, which goes to the central accounts and then spent on welfare of the humankind like education and health projects. One of the major examples of these projects is the Aga Khan Development Network, that is one of the biggest welfare networks of the world. Thus, Ismailies believe that as Prophet Muhammad was designated to take Zakah from the muslims in the past, it is now the duty of muslims to pay their Zakah to the Imam of the time. This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Sawm

Main article: Sawm

A pillar which translates as “fasting.” The Nizari and Mustaali believe in both a metaphorical and literal meaning of fasting. The literal meaning is that one must fast as an obligation, such as during the Holy Month of Ramadan, and the metaphorical meaning being that one is in attainment of the Divine Truth and must strive to avoid worldy activities which may detract from this goal. In particular, Ismailiese believe that the real and esoteric meaning of the fasting is the fasting of soul by avoiding devilish acts, and doing the good deeds everytime. The fasting by not eating during the month of Ramadan has been considered as a metaphorical implementation of fasting, and has been appreciated, but has not been considered compulsory for the Ismailies, as the real challenge of a Muslim is the fasting of his emotions and fantasies, rather than his hunger. Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ...


Hajj

Main article: Hajj

A pillar which translates from Arabic as “pilgrimage.” In Ismaili sects this has come to metaphorically mean visiting the Imam himself, and that this is the greatest and most spiritual of all pilgrimages. However, as the Druze do not follow shariah, they do not believe in a literal pilgrimage to the Kaaba in Mecca like other Muslims do, while the Mustaali still hold on to the literal meaning as well. [25] A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...


Jihad

Main article: Jihad

A pillar which translates from Arabic as “struggle.” The definition of jihad is generally controversial, with it having two meanings and dispute concerning which is the correct or literal one. One meaning is that of personal struggle, while the other is that of "holy warfare", similar to the English word crusade. In general, in contrast to other Muslim groups, the Nizari group is primarily pacifist hence uses the former definition, and does not encourage the warfare interpretation of the Jihad. The Druze have been engaged in warfare with other religious and ethnic groups even into the 20th and 21st centuries. It is unclear what the Mustaali believe. For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...


Branches

Nizari

Main article: Nizari
Aga Khan III, grandfather of the current Aga Khan IV.

The largest part of the Ismaili community today accepts Prince Karim Aga Khan IV as their 49th Imam, who is descended from Nizar.[citation needed] The 46th Imam, Aga Hassan Ali Shah, fled Iran to South Asia in the 1840s after a failed coup against the Shah of the Qajar dynasty.[26] Aga Hassan Ali Shah settled in Mumbai in 1848.[26] Main article: Ismaili The NizārÄ«yya (Arabic النزاريون Al-Nizarin) are the largest branch of the IsmāīlÄ« (in Persian: اسماعیلیه) and make up over two thirds of IsmāīlÄ« Muslims. ... Image File history File links Aga_Khan_III.jpg Licensing This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Aga_Khan_III.jpg Licensing This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Aga Khan III Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah, The Aga Khan III (Persian: آغا خان الثالث), GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, PC, (November 2, 1877 – July 11, 1957) was the 48th Imam of the Shia Ismaili Muslims. ... KarÄ«m al-HussaynÄ«, Ä€gā Khān IV KBE CC GCC (Arabic: سمو الأمیر شاہ کریم الحسیني آغا خان الرابع) -- (born December 13, 1936) is the current (49th) Imām of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Like its predecessors, the present constitution is founded on each Ismaili's spiritual allegiance to the Imam of the Time, which is separate from the secular allegiance that all Ismāʿīlīs owe as citizens to their national entities. The present Imam and his predecessor emphasized Ismaili's allegiance to his or her country as a fundamental obligation. These obligations discharged not by passive affirmation but through responsible engagement and active commitment to uphold national integrity and contribute to peaceful development.


The Nizari followers of the Aga Khan are found today in India, Pakistan, Syria, China and other countries. In countries such as Pakistan, they are well represented in government.


In view of the importance that Islām places on maintaining a balance between the spiritual well-being of the individual and the quality of his life, the Imam's guidance deals with both aspects of the life of his followers. The Aga Khan has encouraged Ismaili Muslims, settled in the industrialized world, to contribute towards the progress of communities in the developing world through various development programs. In recent years, Nizari Ismaili Muslims, who have come to the US, Canada and Europe, many as refugees from Asia and Africa, have readily settled into the social, educational and economic fabric of urban and rural centers across the two continents. As in the developing world, the Nizari Ismaili Muslim community's settlement in the industrial world has involved the establishment of community institutions characterized by an ethos of self-reliance, an emphasis on education, and a spirit of philanthropy.


Druze

Main article: Druze
Druze star
Druze star

During the reign of the 16th Imām, al-Ḥakīm bi-Amrillāh, a movement emerged known as the Darziyya or Druze (after one of their leaders, al-Darzi).[27] Led by al-Akhram, Hamza and al-Darzi, they believed in the divinity of al-Ḥakīm, and urged others to join them.[27] The Imam himself never claimed divinity, and the leadership of the daʿwa categorically opposed the movement, denouncing its doctrine.[27] The movement's adherents went on to establish a stronghold in Syria where they developed their body of doctrine and sacred scriptures. Today, the Druze community lives mainly in Lebanon, Syria and Israel.[27] Religions Druze Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic. ... Image File history File links Druze_star. ... Image File history File links Druze_star. ... Tāriqu l-ḤakÄ«m, called bi Amr al-Lāh (Arabic الحاكم بأمر الله Ruler by Gods Command), was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... Religions Druze Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic. ...


Large communities of expatriate Druze also live outside the Middle East, in the United States, Canada, Latin America, West Africa, Australia and Europe. They use the Arabic language and follow a social pattern very similar to the East Mediterraneans of the region. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ...


There are thought to be as many as 1 million Druze worldwide, the vast majority in the Levant or East Mediterranean.[28] However, some estimates of the total Druze population have been as low as 450,000.[29] The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Mustaali

Main article: Mustaali
Mohammed Burhanuddin, the 52nd Dai of the Dawoodi Bohra.

In time, the seat for one chain of the Dai was split between South Asia and Syria as the community split several times, each recognizing a different Dai. Today, the Dawoodi Bohras, which constitute the majority of the Mustaali Ismaili accept Mohammed Burhanuddin as the 52nd Da'i al-Mutlaq. The Dawoodi Bohras are based in India, along with the Alawi Bohra. The Sulaimani Bohra however still are in primarily Yemen and Saudi Arabia. This group is named Mustaali because they follow Imam Mustalli, after Imam Mustansir Billah, and not Nazaar whom the Aga Khan group consider as their Imam. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1466x1352, 659 KB) This is a photograph of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, the 52nd Dai al-Mutlaq of the Dawoodi Bohras. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1466x1352, 659 KB) This is a photograph of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, the 52nd Dai al-Mutlaq of the Dawoodi Bohras. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Dawoodi Bohras (Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ, Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रा) are the main branch of the Bohras, a Mustaˤlī subsect of Ismāīlī Shīˤa Islām, and are based in India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


There has been, in recent years, a rapprochement between the Sulaimani Mustaali and the Dawoodi Mustaali.


The Bohra are noted to be the more traditional of the three main groups of Ismaili, maintaining rituals such as prayer and fasting more consistently with the practices of other Shīˤa sects. It is often said they resemble Sunni Islam even more than Twelvers do. Dawoodi Bohras are the main branch of the Bohras (a Mustali subsect of Ismaili Shia Muslims) based primarily in India and Pakistan. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ...


Dawoodi Bohra

Main article: Dawoodi Bohra

The Dawoodi Bohras are a very closely-knit community who seek advice from the Dai on spiritual and temporal matters. Dawoodi Bohras (Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ, Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रा) are the main branch of the Bohras, a Mustaˤlī subsect of Ismāīlī Shīˤa Islām, and are based in India. ...


While the majority of Dawoodi Bohras have traditionally been traders, it is becoming increasingly common for them to become professionals. Within South Asia many choose to become Doctors, and in the Far East and the West, a large number now work as consultants or analysts as well as a large contingent of medical professionals. Dawoodi Bohras are encouraged to educate themselves in both religious and secular knowledge, and as a result, the number of professionals in the community is rapidly increasing. Dawoodi Bohras believe that the education of women is equally important to that of men, and many Dawoodi Bohra women choose to enter the workforce. Al Jamea tus Saifiyah (The Arabic Academy) in Surat and Karachi is a sign to the educational importance in the Dawoodi community. The Academy has an advanced curriculum which encompasses religious and secular education for both men and women. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Occident redirects here. ... A consultant is a professional that provides expert advice in a particular domain or area of expertise such as accountancy, information technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance or more esoteric areas of knowledge, for example engineering and scientific specialties such as materials science, instrumentation, avionics, and stress analysis. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Al Jamea Tus Saifiyah is a Madrasah (Islamic religious school) situated in the heart of Surat city, India which is a leading theological school for Dawoodi Bohras. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...


Today there are approximately one million Dawoodi Bohras. The majority of these reside in India and Pakistan, but there is also a significant diaspora resident in the Middle East, East Africa, Europe, North America and the Far East. For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ...


The ordinary Bohra is highly conscious of his identity and this is especially demonstrated at religious and traditional occasions by the appearance and attire of the participants. Dawoodi Bohra men wear a traditional white three piece outfit, plus a white and gold cap (called a topi), and women wear the rida, a distinctive form of the commonly known burqa which is distinguished from other forms of the veil due to it often being in color and decorated with patterns and lace. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Veils as articles of clothing, worn almost exclusively by women, are intended to cover some part of the head or face. ...


Besides speaking the local languages, the Dawoodis have their own language called Lisānu l-Dāˤwat "Tongue of the Dāˤwat". This is written in Arabic script but is derived from Urdu, Gujarati and Arabic. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ...


Sulaimani Bohra

Main article: Sulaimani Bohra

Founded in 1592, they are mostly concentrated in Yemen, but are today also found in Pakistan and India. The denomination is named after its 27th Daˤī, (Sulayman ibn Hassan). Sulaimani Bohra are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The 27th Dai al-Mutlaq of the Sulaimani Bohra. ...


The total number of Sulaimanis currently are around 300,000, mainly living in the eastern district of Haraz in the North west of Yemen and in Najaran, Saudi Arabia, beside the Banu Yam of Najaran, the Sulaimanis are in Haraz, among the inhabitants of the Jabal Maghariba and in Hawzan, Lahab and Attara, as well as in the district of Hamdan and in the vicinity of Yarim. Banu Yam (Arabic: ) are a large tribe native to Najran Province in Saudi Arabia, and are the principle tribe of that area. ...


In India there are between three to four thousand Sulaimanis living mainly in Baroda, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Surat. In Pakistan there is a well established Sulaimani community in Sind, some five to six thousand Sulaimanis live in rural areas of Sind, these Ismaili Sulaimani communities are in Sind from the time of Fatimid Imam Muizz li din Allah when he sent his Dais to Sind.


There are also some 900-1000 Sulaimanis mainly from Indian Sub-continent scattered around the World, in the Persian Gulf States, USA, Canada, Thailand, Australia, Japan and UK.


Alavi Bohra

Main article: Alavi Bohra

While lesser known and smallest in number, Alavi Bohras accept as the 44th Dāʿī al-Mutlaq, H.H. Saiyedna Abu Haatim Taiyeb Ziyauddin Saheb. They are mostly concentrated in India. Alavi Bohra (Arabic: علوی بوہرہ) are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ... Alavi Bohra (Arabic: علوی بوہرہ) are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ... The term Dāˤī al-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق) literally means the absolute or unrestricted missionary. In IsmāīlÄ« Islām, the term dāˤī has been used to refer to important religious leaders other than the hereditary Imāms and the Daˤwa or Mission is a clerical-style organisation. ... Saiyedna Abu Haatim Taiyeb Ziyauddin Saheb (born August 6, 1932) is the 44th and current Dai-e-Mutlaq (Spiritual & Temporal Head) of the Taiyebi Alavi Dawat community, in succession from the first Dai-e-Mutlaq, Saiyedna Zoeb bin Moosa. ...


The Alavi Bohra community has its headquarters at Baroda City, Gujarat, India. The 44th Dāˤī al-Mutlaq, Saiyedna Taiyeb Ziyauddin Saheb, is the head of the community. The religious hierarchy of the Alavi Bohras is essentially and traditionally Fatimid and is headed by the Dāˤī al-Mutlaq, who is appointed by his predecessor in office. The Dāˤī al-Mutlaq appoints two others to the subsidiary ranks of māzūn (Arabic Ma'ðūn مأذون)"licentiate" and Mukāsir (Arabic مكاسر). These positions are followed by the rank of ra'sul hudood, bhaisaheb, miya-saheb, shaikh-saheb and mulla-saheb, which are held by several of Bohras. The 'Aamil or Saheb-e Raza who is granted the permission to perform the religious ceremonies of the believers by the Dāˤī al-Mutlaq and also leads the local congregation in religious, social and community affairs, is sent to each town where a sizable population of believers exists. Such towns normally have a mosque and an adjoining jamaa'at-khaana (assembly hall) where socio-religious functions are held. The local organizations which manage these properties and administer the social and religious activities of the local Bohras report directly to the central administration of the Dāˤī al-Mutlaq. The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Dawoodi Bohras are the main branch of the Bohras (a Mustali subsect of Ismaili Shia Muslims) based primarily in India and Pakistan. ...


Hafizi

Main article: Hafizi

This branch held that whoever the political ruler of the Fatimid Empire was, was also the Imam of the faith. This branch died with the Fatimid Empire. The Mustaˤlī (Arabic: مستعلي) group of Ismāīlī Muslims are so named because they accepted al-Mustaˤlī as the ninth Fatimid caliph and the legitimate successor to his father, al-Mustansir. ...


Seveners

Main article: Seveners

A branch of the Ismaili known as the Sabaʿiyyīn "Seveners" hold that Ismāʿīl's son, Muhammad, was the seventh Imam and, after Muhammad ibn Ismail, the spiritual authority of Imams continues until the present day.[14]. However, most scholars believe this group is either extremely small or totally non-existent today. Seveners (Arabic سبعية) are a branch of Ismaili Shiism. ... Seveners are a branch of Ismaili Shiism. ...


Statistics

Unreliable statistics have resulted in there being only an estimate as to the number of Ismai'lis in the world. Estimates range from 15-30 million. [30] It is accepted that Ismai'lis constitute the second-largest Shi'a Muslim population. Within the Ismai'li sub-sect, the largest branch is Nizari. Because of unreliable statistics, it is difficult to affirm whether the Druze or the Mustaali branch is second largest.


Notes

  1. ^ Religion of My Ancestors. Retrieved on 2007-04-25.
  2. ^ Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i. Retrieved on 2007-04-25.
  3. ^ Congressional Human Rights Caucus Testimony - NAJRAN, The Untold Story. Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
  4. ^ News Summary: China; Latvia. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
  5. ^ Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 1-4. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4. 
  6. ^ ibn Abu talib, Ali. Najul'Balagha. 
  7. ^ Imam Ali. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  8. ^ Imam Ali. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  9. ^ The Kharijites and their impact on Contemporary Islam. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  10. ^ Ali bin Abu Talib. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  11. ^ Hussain bin Ali. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  12. ^ Imam Baqir. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  13. ^ Imam Ja'far b. Muhammad al Sadi'q. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  14. ^ a b c d Daftary, Farhad (1990). The Ismāʿīlīs: Their history and doctrines. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 104. ISBN 0-521-42974-9. 
  15. ^ Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 36-50. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4. 
  16. ^ Qarmatiyyah. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  17. ^ AL-HAKIM (386-411/996-1021). Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  18. ^ al-Hakim bi Amr Allah: Fatimid Caliph of Egypt. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  19. ^ Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 106-108. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4. 
  20. ^ a b c d e Campbell, Anthony (2004). The Assassins of Alamut, 84. 
  21. ^ Maalouf, Amin (1998). Samarkand. 
  22. ^ Isma'ilism. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  23. ^ Halm, Heinz (1988). Die Schia. Darmstadt, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 202-204. ISBN 3-534-03136-9. 
  24. ^ Kitab al-Kafi. 
  25. ^ Isma'ilism. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  26. ^ a b Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 196-199. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4. 
  27. ^ a b c d Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 100-101. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4. 
  28. ^ Druze set to visit Syria BBC News Online, 30 August 2004. Retrieved 8 September 2006.
  29. ^ Major Branches of Religions Ranked by Number of Adherents Adherents.com. Last updated 28 October 2005. Retrieved 8 September 2006.
  30. ^ Religion of My Ancestors. Retrieved on 2007-04-25.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Main article: Ismaili The Nizārīyya (Arabic النزاريون Al-Nizarin) are the largest branch of the Ismāīlī (in Persian: اسماعیلیه) and make up over two thirds of Ismāīlī Muslims. ... The Ainsarii were a sect of the Ismaili Assassins who survived the destruction of the stronghold of Alamut. ... The Batiniyya (or Batini) was an esoteric sect of Shii Islam. ... The Khwajahs or officially Khojas (Urdu: خوجہ) are a (mostly Muslim) community that are mainly concentrated in South Asia, but due to migrations over the centuries have spread to many parts of the globe. ... Banu Yam (Arabic: ) are a large tribe native to Najran Province in Saudi Arabia, and are the principle tribe of that area. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ismailis - Encyclopedia.com (1281 words)
Ismailis, Muslim Shiite sect that holds Ismail, the son of Jafar as-Sadiq, as its imam.
Ismaili missionaries and its political organization also mobilized a network of N African tribes to support the Fatimid claim to the caliphate in Egypt and several regions of the Mediterranean.
The Ismailis are one of the minor sects of the Shi...
Ismailis - MSN Encarta (892 words)
The Ismailis emerged from a dispute in 765 over the succession to Jafar al-Sadiq, whom Shia Muslims acknowledged as the sixth imam (spiritual successor to Muhammad, the prophet of Islam).
The religious worldview of Ismailis developed in the 9th and 10th centuries under the influence of Gnosticism and Neoplatonism, two esoteric movements that flourished in the Middle East.
The Qarmatians are most famous for attacking Mecca, the holiest city of Islam, in 930 and keeping the sacred Black Stone (given by the angel Gabriel to Abraham, according to Islam) from the sacred shrine, or Kaaba, in their possession until 951.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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