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Encyclopedia > Island of stability
3-dimensional rendering of the theoretical Island of Stability.
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3-dimensional rendering of the theoretical Island of Stability.

The island of stability is a term from nuclear physics that describes the possibility of elements with particularly stable "magic numbers" of protons and neutrons. This would allow certain isotopes of some transuranic elements to be far more stable than others, and thus decay much more slowly. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (838x382, 27 KB) [edit] Summary A 3-dimensional representation of the theoretical Island of stability in nuclear physics. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (838x382, 27 KB) [edit] Summary A 3-dimensional representation of the theoretical Island of stability in nuclear physics. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, often called simply an element, is a substance that cannot be decomposed or transformed into other chemical substances by ordinary chemical processes. ... In nuclear physics, a magic number is a number of nucleons such that they are arranged into complete shells within the atomic nucleus. ... For alternative meanings see proton (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Isotopes are atoms of a chemical element whose nuclei have the same atomic number, Z, but different atomic weights, A. The word isotope, meaning at the same place, comes from the fact that isotopes are located at the same place on the periodic table. ... In chemistry, transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92, the atomic number of Uranium. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei emit subatomic particles (radiation). ...


The idea of the island of stability was first proposed by Glenn T. Seaborg. The hypothesis is that the atomic nucleus is built up in "shells" in a manner similar to the electron shells in atoms. In both cases shells are just groups of quantum energy levels that are relatively close to each other. Energy levels from quantum states in two different shells will be separated by a relatively large energy gap. So when the numbers of neutrons and protons completely fill the energy levels of a given shell in the nucleus, then the binding energy per nucleon will reach a local minimum and thus that particular configuration will have a longer lifetime than nearby isotopes that do not have filled shells. Glenn T. Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist prominent in the discovery and isolation of ten transuranic elements including plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium, which was named in his honor. ... A hypothesis (from Greek ) is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon or reasoned proposal suggesting a possible correlation between multiple phenomena. ... A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. ... A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... For alternative meanings see proton (disambiguation). ... A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ... Binding energy is the energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts. ...


A filled shell would have "magic numbers" of neutrons and protons. One possible magic number of neutrons is 184, and some possible matching proton numbers are 114, 120 and 126 — which would mean that the most stable possible isotopes would be ununquadium-298, unbinilium-304 and unbihexium-310. Of particular note is Ubh-310, which would be "doubly magic" (both its proton number of 126 and neutron number of 184 are thought to be magic) and thus the most likely to have a very long half-life. (The next lighter doubly-magic nucleus is Lead-208, the heaviest stable nucleus and most stable heavy metal.) None of these transuranic isotopes has yet been produced, but isotopes of elements 110 through 114 have been produced, and these isotopes are significantly slower to decay than isotopes of nearby nuclei on the periodic table. In nuclear physics, a magic number is a number of nucleons such that they are arranged into complete shells within the atomic nucleus. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (298) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number unbinilium, Ubn, 120 Chemical series Presumably Alkali earths Group, Period, Block 2, 8, s Appearance unknown, probably metallic and silvery white or grey colour Image:.jpg Atomic mass [318] amu (a guess) g/mol Electron configuration Uuo 8s2 (a guess based upon barium and radium) Electrons... General Name, Symbol, Number unbihexium, Ubh, 126 Chemical series Group, Period, Block 6, 8, g Appearance unknown - silvery or grey in color Image:.jpg Atomic mass [~334] g/mol Electron configuration Electrons per shell Physical properties Phase presumably solid Atomic properties Oxidation states presumably 3, 4, 6, 8 Miscellaneous Selected... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. ...


The following table shows information about the half-lives of isotopes of elements 110 through 120.

Isotopes of elements 110 through 120
Number Name # isotopes (known) # isotopes observed Longest half-life observed Link
110 darmstadtium 15 10 210 ms Isotopes of darmstadtium
111 roentgenium 12 4 3.6 s Isotopes of roentgenium
112 ununbium 9 1 1.1 ms Isotopes of ununbium
113 ununtrium 6 2 480 ms Isotopes of ununtrium
114 ununquadium 5 4 2.6 s Isotopes of ununquadium
115 ununpentium 5 2 87 ms Isotopes of ununpentium
116 ununhexium 5 4 61 ms Isotopes of ununhexium
117 ununseptium 2 0 N/A Isotopes of ununseptium
118 ununoctium 1 1 0.89 ms Isotopes of ununoctium
119 ununennium 0 0 N/A Isotopes of ununennium
120 unbinilium 0 0 N/A Isotopes of unbinilium

The half lives of elements in the island are uncertain. Many physicists think they are relatively short, on the order of minutes, hours, or perhaps days. However, some theoretical calculations indicate that their half lives may be long (some calculations put it on the order of 109 years)[1]. It is possible that these elements could have unusual chemical properties, and, if long lived enough, various applications (such as targets in nuclear physics and neutron sources). However, the isotopes of several of these elements still have too few neutrons to be stable. The island of stability still hasn't been reached, since the island's shores have neutron richer nuclides than those produced. General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... Darmstadtium (Ds) has no stable isotopes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (272) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... Roentgenium (Rg) has no stable isotopes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... Ununbium (Uub) has no stable isotopes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... Ununtrium (Uut) has no stable isotopes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (298) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... Ununquadium (Uuq) has no stable isotopes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (288) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... Ununpentium (Uup) has no stable isotopes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... Ununhexium (Uuh) has no stable isotopes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Atomic mass predicted, (310) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 7... Ununseptium (Uus) has not yet been synthesized, all data is theoretical. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... Ununoctium (Uuo) has not yet been synthesized, all data is theoretical. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununennium, Uue, 119 Chemical series Presumably Alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 8, s Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (316) g/mol Electron configuration [Uuo] 8s1 (a guess based upon cesium and francium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number unbinilium, Ubn, 120 Chemical series Presumably Alkali earths Group, Period, Block 2, 8, s Appearance unknown, probably metallic and silvery white or grey colour Image:.jpg Atomic mass [318] amu (a guess) g/mol Electron configuration Uuo 8s2 (a guess based upon barium and radium) Electrons... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... A neutron source is a device, used in solid state physics (see neutron diffraction), particle physics and to start nuclear chain reactions, that emits neutrons. ...

Contents

Island of relative stability

232Th (thorium), 235U and 238U (uranium) are the only naturally occurring isotopes beyond bismuth that are relatively stable over the current lifespan of the universe. Bismuth was found to be hypothetically unstable in 2003, with an α-emission half-life of 1.9 × 1019 years for Bi-209. All other isotopes beyond bismuth are relatively or very unstable. So the main periodic table ends at bismuth, with an island at thorium and uranium. Between bismuth and thorium there is a sea trough of severe instability, which renders such elements as astatine, radon, and francium extremely short-lived relative to all but the heaviest elements found so far. General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles (named after the first letter in the Greek alphabet, α) are a highly ionizing form of particle radiation which have low penetration. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Atomic mass (210) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K (302 Â°C... General Name, Symbol, Number radon, Rn, 86 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 6, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass (222) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Atomic mass (223) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


Another island


The relatively unstable elements reach up to 257Fm (fermium), after which they get very unstable due to spontaneous fission until somewhat more stable, spherical nuclei are obtained at the island of stability, set in the ocean of instability. The center of this hypothetical island occurs at an atomic number of 114 and a neutron number of 184. General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay characteristic of very heavy isotopes, and is theoretically possible for any atomic nucleus whose mass is greater than or equal to 100 amu (elements near ruthenium). ...


Neutron stars?


Astrophysicists often describe a neutron star as a gigantic atomic nucleus, since it has the same composition and approximate density, although it is held together by gravity rather than by atomic forces. However, since neutron stars are believed to have an "atmosphere" of electrons, it may be hypothetically proper to think of the neutron star as a complete atom with an enormously large atomic number. However, the properties are quite different, due to the much larger scale. For example, the nucleus of an atom is miniscule compared to the surrounding electron cloud, since quantum mechanics prevents the cloud from collapsing further. Electrons near a neutron star are much closer, and strongly affected by the neutron star's immense magnetic field. A neutron star is one of the few possible endpoints of stellar evolution. ... A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...


Synthesis problems

Manufacturing of nuclei in the island of stability may be very difficult, because the nuclei available would not deliver the necessary sum of nuclei. So for the synthesis of isotope 298 of Element 114 by using Plutonium and Calcium one would require an isotope of Plutonium and one of Calcium, which have together a sum of at least 298 nucleons ( more is better, because at the nuclei reaction some neutrons are emitted). This would require for example in the case of synthesis of element 114 the usage of Calcium 50 and Plutonium 248. However these isotopes (and heavier Calcium and Plutonium isotopes) are not available in weighable quantities. This is also the fact for other target/projectile-combinations. General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (298) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32...


However it may be possible to generate the isotope 298 of Element 114, if nuclear transfer reactions would work. One of these reactions may be: 204Hg + 136Xe ---> 298Unq + 40Ca + 2n


References

  1. ^ Moller Theoretical Nuclear Chart 1997

External links

See also

http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/elements-116-118.html General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (298) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number unbinilium, Ubn, 120 Chemical series Presumably Alkali earths Group, Period, Block 2, 8, s Appearance unknown, probably metallic and silvery white or grey colour Image:.jpg Atomic mass [318] amu (a guess) g/mol Electron configuration Uuo 8s2 (a guess based upon barium and radium) Electrons... General Name, Symbol, Number unbihexium, Ubh, 126 Chemical series Group, Period, Block 6, 8, g Appearance unknown - silvery or grey in color Image:.jpg Atomic mass [~334] g/mol Electron configuration Electrons per shell Physical properties Phase presumably solid Atomic properties Oxidation states presumably 3, 4, 6, 8 Miscellaneous Selected... This isotope table shows all of the known isotopes of the chemical elements, arranged with increasing atomic numbers (proton numbers) from left to right and increasing neutron numbers from top to bottom. ... These tables show all of the known isotopes of the chemical elements, arranged with increasing atomic number from left to right and increasing neutron number from top to bottom. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. ... This extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Island of stability - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (772 words)
3-dimensional rendering of the theoretical Island of Stability.
The island of stability is a term from nuclear physics, which describes the possibility of elements which have particularly stable "magic numbers" of protons and neutrons.
The idea of the island of stability was first proposed by Glenn T. Seaborg.
island: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1905 words)
Although the territorial sea of an island is usually determined by reference to its coastal baseline, some adjustments have been recognized in the cases of archipelagoes and islands located close to the mainland.
Continental islands are bodies of land that lie upon the continental shelf of a continent.
The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu.
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