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In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age).[1] It is also known as Arabic science due to most texts during this period being written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. Despite these names, not all scientists during this period were Muslim or Arab, as there were a number of notable non-Arab scientists, as well as some non-Muslim scientists, contributing to science in the Islamic civilization. Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x1508, 359 KB) Book cover Frontispiece of : Tabulae Rudolphinae : quibus astronomicae . ... The sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been preoccupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science works both in a philosophical and practical sense. ... The historiography of science is the historical study of the history of science (which often overlaps the history of technology, the history of medicine, and the history of mathematics). ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in an oral tradition. ... The Ptolemaic system of celestial motion, from Harmonia Macrocosmica, 1661. ... The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, an example of the blend of art and science during the Renaissance. ... The event which many historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, and astrological practices of pre-history: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a... The history of biology dates as far back as the rise of various civilization as classic philosophers did their own ways of biology as a system of understanding life. ... Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David The history of chemistry may be said to begin with the distinction of chemistry from alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist (1661). ... ÛEcology is generally spoken of as a new science, having only become prominent in the second half of the 20th Century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The history of paleontology has been an ongoing effort to understand the history of life on Earth by understanding the fossil record left behind by living organisms. ... Since antiquity, human beings have sought to understand the workings of nature: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, the character of the universe such as the form of the Earth and the behavior of celestial objects such as the Sun and the Moon... For more, see: Social science#History In ancient philosophy, there was no difference between the liberal arts of mathematics and the study of history, poetry or politics—only with the development of mathematical proof did there gradually arise a perceived difference between scientific disciplines and others, the humanities or liberal... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into History of economics. ... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... Antecedents of political science While the study of politics is first found in the Western tradition in Ancient Greece, political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline among other social sciences including economics, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ... Agronomy today is very different from what it was before about 1950. ... The history of computer science began long before the modern discipline of computer science that emerged in the twentieth century. ... The History of materials science is rooted in the history of the Earth and the culture of the peoples of the Earth. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chronologies or timelines are important in understanding history. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...


A number of modern scholars, notably Robert Briffault, Oliver Joseph Lodge, Will Durant, Fielding H. Garrison, Alexander von Humboldt, Muhammad Iqbal, and Abdus Salam, consider modern science to have begun in the Islamic civilization, in particular, due to the development of the scientific method by Muslim scientists. Robert Briffault (1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist, social anthropologist and surgeon. ... Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (June 12, 1851 - August 22, 1940), born at Penkhull in Stoke-on-Trent and educated at Adams Grammar School, was a physicist and writer involved in the development of the wireless telegraph. ... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Abdus Salam at Nobel Prize ceremony with the King of Sweden Dr. Abdus Salam (Urdu: عبد السلام) (January 29, 1926 at Santokdas, Sahiwal in Punjab – 21 November 1996 in Oxford, England) was a Pakistani theoretical physicist who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979 for his work in electroweak theory which... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Islamic science has been an important part of the history of science and the present day. ...

Contents

Overview

Rise

Further information: Islamic Golden Age

During the early Muslim conquests, the Muslim Arabs led by Khalid ibn al-Walid conquered the Sassanid Persian Empire and much of the Byzantine Roman Empire, establishing the Arab Empire across the Middle East, Central Asia, and North Africa, followed by further expansions across Pakistan, southern Italy and the Iberian Peninsula. As a result, the Islamic governments inherited "the knowledge and skills of the ancient Middle East, of Greece, of Persia and of India. They added new and important innovations from outside, such as positional numbering from Ancient India," as Bernard Lewis wrote in What Went Wrong? Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Khālid ibn al-WalÄ«d (592-642) (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد) also known as Sayf-Allah al-Maslul (the Drawn Sword of God or Sword of Allah), was one of the two famous Arab generals during the Muslim conquests of the 7th Century. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BC. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... Prof. ... What Went Wrong? : Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response is a book by Bernard Lewis released in January 2002. ...


Another innovation was paper - originally a secret tightly guarded by the Chinese. The art of papermaking was obtained from two prisoners at the Battle of Talas (751), resulting in paper mills being built in Samarkand and Baghdad. The Arabs improved upon the Chinese techniques using linen rags instead of mulberry bark. A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 AD. Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is ubiquitous today for writing and packaging. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... International Paper Companys Kraft paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... Species See text. ...


Much of this learning and development can be linked to geography. Even prior to Islam's presence, the city of Mecca served as a center of trade in Arabia and the Islamic prophet Muhammad was a merchant. The tradition of the pilgrimage to Mecca became a center for exchanging ideas and goods. The influence held by Muslim merchants over African-Arabian and Arabian-Asian trade routes was tremendous. As a result, Islamic civilization grew and expanded on the basis of its merchant economy, in contrast to their Christian, Indian and Chinese peers who built societies from an agricultural landholding nobility. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Hajj or Haj is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. ...


The number of important and original Arabic works written on the mathematical sciences is much larger than the combined total of Latin and Greek works on the mathematical sciences.[2] Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Scientific method

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) has been described as the "father of optics", the "pioneer of the modern scientific method", the "founder of psychophysics and experimental psychology", and the "first scientist". He was also the first to discover Fermat's principle of least time, Newton's first law of motion, and a general formula for integral calculus using an early inductive proof. He also laid the foundations for telescopic astronomy.

Muslim scientists placed far greater emphasis on experiment than had the Greeks. This led to the modern scientific method being developed in the Muslim world, where significant progress in methodology was made. In particular, the empirical experiments of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) on optics from circa 1000 is seen as the beginning of the modern scientific method.[3] Another leading exponent of the experimental method was Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī.[4] The most important development of the scientific method was the use of experiments to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation, which began among Muslim scientists. Image File history File linksMetadata Ibn_haithem_portrait. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ibn_haithem_portrait. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fermats principle assures that the angles given by Snells law always reflect lights quickest path between P and Q. Fermats principle in optics states: This principle was first stated by Pierre de Fermat. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... The integral of f(x) from a to b is the area above the x-axis and below the curve y = f(x), minus the area below the x-axis and above the curve, for x in the interval [a,b]. Integration is a core concept of advanced mathematics, specifically... Calculus (from Latin, pebble or little stone) is a branch of mathematics that includes the study of limits, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series, and constitutes a major part of modern university education. ... Mathematical induction is a method of mathematical proof typically used to establish that a given statement is true of all natural numbers. ... In mathematics, a proof is a demonstration that, assuming certain axioms, some statement is necessarily true. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian [1][2][3] polymath and scientist of the 11th Century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ...


Rosanna Gorini writes:

"According to the majority of the historians al-Haytham was the pioneer of the modern scientific method. With his book he changed the meaning of the term optics and established experiments as the norm of proof in the field. His investigations are based not on abstract theories, but on experimental evidences and his experiments were systematic and repeatable."[5] A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ...

Ibn al-Haytham, who is now known as the father of optics,[6] used the scientific method to obtain the results in his Book of Optics. In particular, he combined observations, experiments and rational arguments to show that his modern intromission theory of vision, where rays of light are emitted from objects rather than from the eyes, is scientifically correct, and that the ancient emission theory of vision supported by Ptolemy and Euclid (where the eyes emit rays of light), and the ancient intromission theory supported by Aristotle (where objects emit physical particles to the eyes), were both wrong.[7] It is known that Roger Bacon (who is sometimes erroneously given credit for the scientific method) was familiar with Ibn al-Haytham's work. For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... This does not cite any references or sources. ... In optics, a ray is an idealized narrow beam of light. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Emission theory has at least two meanings: First, it refers to Newtons proposal that light is emitted from luminous objects in the form of particles or corpuscles. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Euclid (Greek: ), also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Greek mathematician of the Hellenistic period who flourished in Alexandria, Egypt, almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323 BC-283 BC). ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ...


The development of the scientific method is considered to be so fundamental to modern science that some — especially philosophers of science and practicing scientists — consider earlier inquiries into nature to be pre-scientific. Some have described Ibn al-Haytham as the "first scientist" for this reason.[8] Robert Briffault wrote in The Making of Humanity: Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Briffault (1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist, social anthropologist and surgeon. ...

"The debt of our science to that of the Arabs does not consist in startling discoveries or revolutionary theories; science owes a great deal more to Arab culture, it owes its existence. The ancient world was, as we saw, pre- scientific. The astronomy and mathematics of the Greeks were a foreign importation never thoroughly acclimatized in Greek culture. The Greeks systematized, generalized and theorized, but the patient ways of investigation, the accumulation of positive knowledge, the minute methods of science, detailed and prolonged observation, experimental inquiry, were altogether alien to the Greek temperament. [...] What we call science arose in Europe as a result of a new spirit of inquiry, of new methods of investigation, of the method of experiment, observation, measurement, of the development of mathematics in a form unknown to the Greeks. That spirit and those methods were introduced into the European world by the Arabs."[9] Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...

Science is the most momentous contribution of Arab civilization to the modern world, but its fruits were slow in ripening. Not until long after Moorish culture had sunk back into darkness did the giant to which it had given birth, rise in his might. It was not science only which brought Europe back to life. Other and manifold influences from the civilization of Islam communicated its first glow to European life."[10] Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ... The term Modern Times is used by historians to loosely describe the period of time immediately following what is known as the Early Modern Times. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign...

Oliver Joseph Lodge wrote in the Pioneers of Science: Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (June 12, 1851 - August 22, 1940), born at Penkhull in Stoke-on-Trent and educated at Adams Grammar School, was a physicist and writer involved in the development of the wireless telegraph. ...

"The only effective link between the old and the new science is afforded by the Arabs. The dark ages come as an utter gap in the scientific history of Europe, and for more than a thousand years there was not a scientific man of note except in Arabia."[11] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258...

"It is clear from the large number of Qur’anic verses, a few of which have been quoted above, and from the writings of numerous eastern as well as western scholars, that modern science owes its very existence to Islam. The new spirit of enquiry and the new methods of experiment, observation, and measurement, on which modern science is based, are all contributions of those who followed the teaching of Islam."[12]

George Sarton, the father of the history of science, wrote: George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ...

"The main, as well as the least obvious, achievement of the Middle Ages was the creation of the experimental spirit and this was primarily due to the Muslims down to the 12th century."[13]

Muhammad Iqbal wrote in The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam: Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam is a book by Muhammad Iqbal on Islamic philosophy, which was published in 1930. ...

"Thus the experimental method, reason and observation introduced by the Arabs were responsible for the rapid advancement of science during the medieval times."[14]

Decline

Further information: Islamic Golden Age

From the 12th century onwards, Islamic science and the numbers of Islamic scientists began declining. After the 13th century, the Islamic civilization would still produce occasional scientists but they became the exception, rather than the rule (see List of Islamic scholars). Some historians have recently come to question the traditional picture of decline, pointing to continued astronomical activity as a sign of a continuing and creative scientific tradition through to the 15th century, of which the work of Ibn al-Shatir (1304–1375) in Damascus is considered the most noteworthy example.[15][16] Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Islamic scholars are Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. ... Ibn al-Shatir (or Ibn ash-Shatir) (1304–1375) was a Muslim astronomer of Damascus. ...


One reason for the scientific decline can be traced back to the 10th century when the orthodox school of Ash'ari challenged the more rational school of Mu'tazili theology, or even earlier when caliph Al-Mutawakkil (847-861) attempted to suppress the Mu'tazili theology. The orthodox Sunni Muslims fought the Shia Muslims and other Muslim branches, as well as several invaders, such as the Crusaders and Mongols, on Islamic lands between the 11th and 13th centuries. The Ashari (Arabic الأشعرية al-ash`aryah) is a school of early Muslim philosophy named after its founder, the theologian Abu lHasan al-Ashari (d. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... Al-Mutawakkil Ala Allah Jafar bin al-Mutasim (821–861) (Arabic: المتوكل على الله جعفر بن المعتصم) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned (in Samarra) from 847 until 861. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million...


Another important reason for the rapid decline of Islamic science was the Mongol invasions of the 13th century. As they made their way across Central Asia, the Mongols destroyed Muslim libraries, observatories, hospitals, and universities, culminating in the sack of Baghdad, the Abbasid capital and intellectual centre, in 1258. The destruction of Baghdad marked the end of the Islamic Golden Age.[17] Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ...


In the end, the more strict Ash'ari school replaced Mu'tazili thoughts in the Islamic lands. That replacement and numerous wars and conflicts created a climate which made Islamic science less successful than before.


With the fall of Islamic Spain in 1492, scientific and technological initiative generally passed to Christian Europe and led to what we now call the Renaissance and the Age of Enlightenment. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ...


Influence on European science

Further information: Latin translations of the 12th century

Contributing to the growth of European science was the major search by European scholars for new learning which they could only find among Muslims, especially in Islamic Spain and Sicily. These scholars translated new scientific and philosophical texts from Arabic into Latin. The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details). ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


One of the most productive translators in Spain was Gerard of Cremona, who translated 87 books from Arabic to Latin,[18] including Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī's On Algebra and Almucabala, Jabir ibn Aflah's Elementa astronomica,[19] al-Kindi's On Optics, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī's On Elements of Astronomy on the Celestial Motions, al-Farabi's On the Classification of the Sciences,[20] the chemical and medical works of al-Razi,[21] the works of Thabit ibn Qurra and Hunayn ibn Ishaq,[22] and the works of Arzachel, Jabir ibn Aflah, the Banū Mūsā, Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam, Abu al-Qasim, and Ibn al-Haytham (including the Book of Optics).[18] Gerard of Cremona (Gherardo) (Cremona, Lombardy, c. ... (Arabic: ) was a Persian[1] mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. ... A page from the book (Arabic for The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing), also known under a shorter name spelled as Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala, Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala and other transliterations) is a mathematical book written approximately 820 AD by the Persian... Abu Muhammad Jabir ibn Aflah (Arabic: , born 1100 in Seville, Spain - died 1150) was an Arab Muslim astronomer and mathematician whose works, once translated into Latin, influenced later European mathematicians. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... also known as Alfraganus in the West was a Persian[1] [2][3] Muslim astronomer and one of the famous astronomers in 9th century. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Abul Hasan Thabit ibn Qurra ibn Marwan al-Sabi al-Harrani, (826 – February 18, 901) was an Arab astronomer and mathematician. ... Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (809—873) was Nestorian physician in the House of Wisdom. ... For other meanings, see Arzachel (disambiguation) Al-Zarqali (in full Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Yahya Al-Zarqali, Arzachel to Latin Europe), (1028–1087 CE), was a leading Arab mathematician and the foremost astronomer of his time. ... Abu Muhammad Jabir ibn Aflah (Arabic: , born 1100 in Seville, Spain - died 1150) was an Arab Muslim astronomer and mathematician whose works, once translated into Latin, influenced later European mathematicians. ... It has been suggested that Ahmad ibn MÅ«sā ibn Shākir be merged into this article or section. ... (c. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen...


Other Arabic works translated into Latin during the 12th century include the works of Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī and Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (including The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing),[19] the works of Abu al-Qasim (including the al-Tasrif),[23][18] Muhammad al-Fazari's Great Sindhind (based on the Surya Siddhanta and the works of Brahmagupta),[24] the works of al-Razi and Avicenna (including The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine),[25] the works of Averroes,[23] the works of Thabit ibn Qurra, al-Farabi, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī, Hunayn ibn Ishaq, and his nephew Hubaysh ibn al-Hasan,[26] the works of al-Kindi, Abraham bar Hiyya's Liber embadorum, Ibn Sarabi's (Serapion Junior) De Simplicibus,[23] the works of Qusta ibn Luqa,[27] the works of Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majriti, Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, and al-Ghazali,[18] the works of Nur Ed-Din Al Betrugi, including On the Motions of the Heavens,[28][21] Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi's medical encyclopedia, The Complete Book of the Medical Art,[21] Abu Mashar's Introduction to Astrology,[29] the works of Maimonides, Ibn Zezla (Byngezla), Masawaiyh, Serapion, al-Qifti, and Albe'thar.[30] Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam's Algebra,[19] the chemical works of Geber, and the De Proprietatibus Elementorum, an Arabic work on geology written by a pseudo-Aristotle.[21] At the close of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th centuries, Mark of Toledo translated the Qur'an and various medical works.[31] (c. ... (Arabic: ) was a Persian[1] mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. ... A page from the book (Arabic for The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing), also known under a shorter name spelled as Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala, Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala and other transliterations) is a mathematical book written approximately 820 AD by the Persian... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... Al-Tasrif was an influential medieval treatise on medicine. ... Abu abdallah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari was a Persian philosopher and mathematician. ... This article aims at providing a thorough (but not verse by verse) exposition of most important topics of and problems related to Surya Siddhanta and its comparison with ancient and modern astronomy, together with its use in astrology. ... Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त) (598-668) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Book of Healing is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Persian physician and philosopher Ibn Sina of Persia in the 10th century. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Abul Hasan Thabit ibn Qurra ibn Marwan al-Sabi al-Harrani, (826 – February 18, 901) was an Arab astronomer and mathematician. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... also known as Alfraganus in the West was a Persian[1] [2][3] Muslim astronomer and one of the famous astronomers in 9th century. ... Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (809—873) was Nestorian physician in the House of Wisdom. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... Abraham bar Hiyya Ha-Nasi (Hebrew: אברהם בר חייא הנשיא Abraham son of [Rabbi] Hiyya the Prince) (1070–1136?) was a Spanish Jewish mathematician and astronomer, also known as Savasorda (from the Arabic صاحب الشرطة Sâhib ash-Shurta Chief of the Guard). He lived in Barcelona during his life. ... Serapion, or Sarapion (Fl. ... Qusta ibn Luqa (820-912) (Costa ben Luca, Constabulus)[1]. was a Melkite physician, scientist and translator, of Greek extraction. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Jafar ibn Muhammad Abu Mashar al-Balkhi (787 - 886) was a Persian astronomer and mathematician from Balkh, in todays Afghanistan. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Nur Ed-Din Al Betrugi (also spelled Nur al-Din Ibn Ishaq Al-Bitruji and Abu Ishâk ibn al-Bitrogi; another spelling is al Bidrudschi) (known in the West by the Latinized name of Alpetragius) (died ca. ... Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi, also known as Masoudi, was a famous Persian physician. ... Jafar ibn Muhammad Abu Mashar al-Balkhi (787 - 886) was a Persian astronomer and mathematician from Balkh, in todays Afghanistan. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Yuhanna ibn Masawaih, also written Ibn Masawaih, Masawaiyh, and in latin Mesue, Masuya, Mesue Major, Msuya, and Mesue the Elder was an Assyrian physician [1] from the Academy of Gundishapur. ... Serapion, or Sarapion (Fl. ... (c. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Pseudo-Aristotle is a general cognomen for authors of philosophical or medical treatises who attributed their work to the Greek philosopher Aristotle, or whose work was later attributed to him by others. ... Mark of Toledo (fl. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Fibonacci presented the first complete European account of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system from Arabic sources in his Liber Abaci (1202).[21] The astronomical corrections to the Ptolemaic model made by al-Battani, Averroes, Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi (Urdi lemma), Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (Tusi-couple) and Ibn al-Shatir were later adapted into the Copernican heliocentric model. Al-Kindi's (Alkindus) law of terrestrial gravity influenced Robert Hooke's law of celestial gravity, which in turn inspired Newton's law of universal gravitation. Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī's Ta'rikh al-Hind and Kitab al-qanun al-Mas’udi were translated into Latin as Indica and Canon Mas’udicus respectively. Omar Khayyám's works on algebra and geometry were later influential in Europe from the 18th century.[32] Leonardo of Pisa (1170s or 1180s – 1250), also known as Leonardo Pisano, Leonardo Bonacci, Leonardo Fibonacci, or, most commonly, simply Fibonacci, was an Italian mathematician, considered by some the most talented mathematician of the Middle Ages. ... The Hindu-Arabic numeral system (also called Algorism) is a positional decimal numeral system documented from the 9th century. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... Liber Abaci (1202) is an historic book on arithmetic by Leonardo of Pisa, known later by his nickname Fibonacci. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... “Geocentric” redirects here. ... Al Battani (c. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Mu’ayyad al-Din al-’Urdi was one of the astronomers of the Maragha observatory in Persia. ... Tusi couple from Vat. ... The Tusi couple is a 2-cusped hypocycloid obtained by rolling a circle of radius inside a circle of radius . ... Ibn al-Shatir (or Ibn ash-Shatir) (1304–1375) was a Muslim astronomer of Damascus. ... Split from main article Nicolaus Copernicus in order to concentrate on his work: // Much has been written about earlier heliocentric theories. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... The inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, their sizes to scale. ... “Gravity” redirects here. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... The celestial spheres relate to Johannes Keplers work Harmonia Mundi in which he drew together theories from the world of music, architecture, planetary motion and astronomy and linked them together to form an idea of a harmony and cohesion underlying all world phenomena and ruled by a divine force. ... Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation (part of classical mechanics) states the following: Every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line combining the two. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian (TājÄ«k)[1][2][3] mathematician, physicist, scholar, encyclopedist, philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, traveller, historian, anthropologist, pharmacist, and teacher, who contributed greatly to the fields of mathematics, philosophy, history, anthropology, medicine, and science. ... Ghiyās ol-DÄ«n Abol-Fath Omār Ibn EbrāhÄ«m Khayyām NeyshābÅ«rÄ«, (Persian: غیاث الدین ابو الفتح عمر بن ابراهیم خیام نیشابوری, born: May 18, 1048 in Nishapur, Iran (Persia) – died: December 4, 1131), was a Persian poet, mathematician, philosopher and astronomer. ...


Fields

In the Middle Ages, especially during the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim scholars made significant advances in science, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, engineering, and many other fields. During this time, Islamic philosophy developed and was often pivotal in scientific debates — key figures were usually scientists and philosophers. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... medicines, see Medication. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ...

An Arabic manuscript from the 13th century depicting Socrates (Soqrāt) in discussion with his pupils.
An Arabic manuscript from the 13th century depicting Socrates (Soqrāt) in discussion with his pupils.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (561x664, 671 KB) Manuscript of Sughrat (Socrates) belongs to a 13th century Seljuk illustrator. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (561x664, 671 KB) Manuscript of Sughrat (Socrates) belongs to a 13th century Seljuk illustrator. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ...

Astrology

Main article: Islamic astrology

Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujumis the study of the heavens by early Muslims. In early Arabic sources, ilm al-nujum was used to refer to both astronomy and astrology. In medieval sources, however, a clear distinction was made between ilm al-nujum (science of the stars) or ilm al-falak (science of the celestial orbs), referring to astrology, and ilm al-haya (science of the figure of the heavens), referring to astronomy. Both fields were rooted in Greek, Persian, and Indian traditions. Despite consistent critiques of astrology by scientists and religious scholars, astrological prognostications required a fair amount of exact scientific knowledge and thus gave partial incentive for the study and development of astronomy. Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


Astronomy

Main article: Islamic astronomy

Islamic astronomy closely parallels the genesis of other Islamic sciences in its assimilation of foreign material and the amalgamation of the disparate elements of that material to create a science that was essentially Islamic. These include Indian and Sassanid works in particular. Some Hellenistic texts were also translated and built upon as well. This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ...

Nasir al-Din Tusi resolved significant problems in the Ptolemaic system with the Tusi-couple, which played an important role in Copernican heliocentrism.
Nasir al-Din Tusi resolved significant problems in the Ptolemaic system with the Tusi-couple, which played an important role in Copernican heliocentrism.

Islamic interest in astronomy ran parallel to the interest in mathematics. Noteworthy in this regard was the Almagest of Greek-speaking Egyptian scholar Ptolemy (c. 100-178). The Almagest was a landmark work in its field, assembling, as Euclid's Elements had previously done with geometrical works, all extant knowledge in the field of astromony that was known to the author. This work was originally known as The Mathematical Composition, but after it had come to be used as a text in astronomy, it was called The Great Astronomer. The Islamic world called it The Greatest prefixing the Greek work megiste (greatest) with the article al- and it has since been known to the world as Al-megiste or, after popular use in Western translation, Almagest. Ptolemy also produced other works, such as Optics, Harmonica, and some suggest he also wrote Tetrabiblon. Image File history File links Al-Tusi_Nasir. ... Image File history File links Al-Tusi_Nasir. ... Nasir Tusi Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) was a Persian scientist, of Shia Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iran. ... “Geocentric” redirects here. ... The Tusi couple is a 2-cusped hypocycloid obtained by rolling a circle of radius inside a circle of radius . ... Split from main article Nicolaus Copernicus in order to concentrate on his work: // Much has been written about earlier heliocentric theories. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... Almagest is the Latin form of the Arabic name (al-kitabu-l-mijisti, i. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Euclid (Greek: ), also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Greek mathematician of the Hellenistic period who flourished in Alexandria, Egypt, almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323 BC-283 BC). ... The frontispiece of Sir Henry Billingsleys first English version of Euclids Elements, 1570 Euclids Elements (Greek: ) is a mathematical and geometric treatise, consisting of 13 books, written by the Hellenistic mathematician Euclid in Alexandria circa 300 BC. It comprises a collection of definitions, postulates (axioms), propositions (theorems... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Almagest was a particularly unifying work for its exhaustive lists of sidereal phenomena. He drew up a list of chronological tables of Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman kings for use in reckoning the lapse of time between known astronomical events and fixed dates. In addition to its relevance to calculating accurate calendars, it linked far and foreign cultures together by a common interest in the stars and astrology. The work of Ptolemy was replicated and refined over the years under Arab, Persian and other Muslim astronomers and astrologers. The astronomical tables of Al-Khwarizmi and of Abu al-Qasim Maslama b. Ahmad (al-Majriti) served as important sources of information for Latinized European thinkers rediscovering the works of astronomy, where extensive interest in astrology was discouraged. The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... (Arabic: ) was a Persian[1] mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


From the 11th century, Muslim astronomers began questioning the Ptolemaic system, beginning with Ibn al-Haytham, and they were the first to conduct elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena, beginning with Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī.[33] Many of them made changes and corrections to the Ptolemaic model within a geocentric framework. In particular, the corrections of al-Battani, Ibn al-Haytham, Averroes, Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi (Urdi lemma), Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (Tusi-couple) and Ibn al-Shatir were later adapted into the Copernican heliocentric model.[34][35] Several Muslim astronomers also discussed the possibility of a heliocentric model with elliptical orbits, such as Ibn al-Haytham, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abu Said Sinjari, 'Umar al-Katibi al-Qazwini, and Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi.[36] Al-Biruni discovered the Milky Way galaxy to be a collection of numerous nebulous stars.[33] The optical writings of Ibn al-Haytham are reported to have laid the foundations for the later European development of telescopic astronomy.[37] Mediaeval drawing of the Ptolemaic system. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian (TājÄ«k)[1][2][3] mathematician, physicist, scholar, encyclopedist, philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, traveller, historian, anthropologist, pharmacist, and teacher, who contributed greatly to the fields of mathematics, philosophy, history, anthropology, medicine, and science. ... The geocentric model (in Greek: geo = earth and centron = centre) of the universe is a paradigm which places the Earth at its center. ... Al Battani (c. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Mu’ayyad al-Din al-’Urdi was one of the astronomers of the Maragha observatory in Persia. ... Tusi couple from Vat. ... The Tusi couple is a 2-cusped hypocycloid obtained by rolling a circle of radius inside a circle of radius . ... Ibn al-Shatir (or Ibn ash-Shatir) (1304–1375) was a Muslim astronomer of Damascus. ... Split from main article Nicolaus Copernicus in order to concentrate on his work: // Much has been written about earlier heliocentric theories. ... Heliocentric Solar System Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparison to the geocentric model (upper panel) In astronomy, heliocentrism is the idea that the sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... For other uses, see Ellipse (disambiguation). ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian (TājÄ«k)[1][2][3] mathematician, physicist, scholar, encyclopedist, philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, traveller, historian, anthropologist, pharmacist, and teacher, who contributed greatly to the fields of mathematics, philosophy, history, anthropology, medicine, and science. ... Qazwini, Qazvini, al-Quazvini, meaning (a person) from Qazvin, may refer to one of the following persons. ... Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311) was a 13th century Persian scientist and astronomer from Shiraz, Iran. ... The Milky Way as seen from Death Valley The Milky Way is the galaxy where the Solar System (and the Earth) is located. ... NGC 4414, a typical spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices, is about 17,000 parsecs in diameter and approximately 20 million parsecs distant. ... The Triangulum Emission Nebula NGC 604 The Pillars of Creation from the Eagle Nebula For other uses, see Nebula (disambiguation). ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Biology

In biology, as well as zoology, al-Jahiz considered the effects of the environment on the likelihood of an animal to survive, and first described the struggle for existence, an important precursor to evolution and natural selection.[38][39] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


Ibn al-Haytham went even further, writing a book in which he argued explicitly for evolutionism (although not natural selection), and numerous other Islamic scholars and scientists, such as Ibn Miskawayh, and the great polymaths Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Nasir al-Din Tusi, and Ibn Khaldun, discussed and developed these ideas. Significant advances were also made in the field of botany. Translated into Latin, these works began to appear in the West after the Renaissance and probably had a large (though subterranean) impact on Western science. (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Miskawayh, (ابن مسكوويه) also known as Ibn Miskawayh (932-1030) was a prominent Persian philosopher, scientist, poet and historian from Ray, Iran. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian [1][2][3] polymath and scientist of the 11th Century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Nasir Tusi Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) was a Persian scientist, of Shia Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iran. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


Chemistry

Main article: Alchemy (Islam)
Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) is regarded as the father of chemistry. He also established the perfume industry.
Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) is regarded as the father of chemistry. He also established the perfume industry.

An early scientific method for chemistry began emerging among early Muslim chemists. One of the most influential among them was the 9th century chemist Geber, who some consider to be the father of chemistry,[40][41][42] for introducing the experimental method, alembic, still, retort, liquefaction, crystallisation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation, and filtration.[42] Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Download high resolution version (575x707, 204 KB)alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, from a 15th c. ... Download high resolution version (575x707, 204 KB)alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, from a 15th c. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... Chemistry - the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy based on the structure of atoms, molecules and other kinds of aggregrates Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning earth[1]) is the science concerned with the reactions, transformations and aggregations of matter, as well as accompanying... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Chemistry - the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy based on the structure of atoms, molecules and other kinds of aggregrates Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning earth[1]) is the science concerned with the reactions, transformations and aggregations of matter, as well as accompanying... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... Chemistry - the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy based on the structure of atoms, molecules and other kinds of aggregrates Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning earth[1]) is the science concerned with the reactions, transformations and aggregations of matter, as well as accompanying... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... The term still is a contraction of the verb to distill. A still is an apparatus used to distill miscible or immiscible (eg. ... A beautiful retort. ... Liquefaction may refer to: Soil liquefaction, the process by which sediments are converted into suspension, as in earthquake liquefaction, quicksand, quick clay, and turbidity currents. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub | Chemistry ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In chemistry, alchemy and water treatment, filtration is the process of using a filter to mechanically separate a mixture. ...


Al-Kindi was the first to debunk the theory of the transmutation of metals,[43] while Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī[44] and Avicenna[45] were also opponents of this theory. Avicenna also invented steam distillation and produced the first essential oils, which led to aromatherapy. Another influential Muslim chemist was al-Razi, who first distilled petroleum, invented kerosene and kerosene lamps, soap bars and modern recipes for soap, and antiseptics. Alexander von Humboldt regarded the Muslim chemists as the founders of chemistry.[46] Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... The philosophers stone, in Latin lapis philosophi, is a legendary substance that supposedly could turn inexpensive metals such as lead into gold (chrysopoeia in the Greek language) and/or create an elixir that would make humans younger, thus delaying death. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian [1][2][3] polymath and scientist of the 11th Century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Laboratory set-up for steam distillation Steam distillation is a special type of distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... It has been suggested that Aromatherapy Candles be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... It has been suggested that Petromax be merged into this article or section. ... Soap bar or Soapbar may refer to: A bar of soap, surfactant used in conjunction with water for washing and cleaning. ... SOAP (see below for name and origins) is a protocol for exchanging XML-based messages over computer networks, normally using HTTP/HTTPS. SOAP forms the foundation layer of the Web services stack, providing a basic messaging framework that more abstract layers can build on. ... An antiseptic solution of iodine applied to a cut Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ...


Will Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization IV: The Age of Faith: Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... The Story of Civilization by Will and Ariel Durant (ISBN 0-671-21988-X) is an eleven-volume set of books. ...

"Chemistry as a science was almost created by the Moslems; for in this field, where the Greeks (so far as we know) were confined to industrial experience and vague hypothesis, the Saracens introduced precise observation, controlled experiment, and careful records. They invented and named the alembic (al-anbiq), chemically analyzed innumerable substances, composed lapidaries, distinguished alkalis and acids, investigated their affinities, studied and manufactured hundreds of drugs. Alchemy, which the Moslems inherited from Egypt, contributed to chemistry by a thousand incidental discoveries, and by its method, which was the most scientific of all medieval operations."[47] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... Observation is an activity of a sapient or sentient living being (e. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... Look up substance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A lapidary (the word means concerned with stones) is an artisan who practices the craft of working, forming and finishing stone, mineral, gemstones, and other suitably durable materials (amber, shell, jet, pearl, copal, coral, horn and bone, glass and other synthetics) into functional and/or decorative, even wearable, items (e. ... In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... Acidity redirects here. ... For other meanings, see Drug (disambiguation). ...

George Sarton, the father of the history of science, wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science: George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ...

"We find in his (Jabir, Geber) writings remarkably sound views on methods of chemical research, a theory on the geologic formation of metals (the six metals differ essentially because of different proportions of sulphur and mercury in them); preparation of various substances (e.g., basic lead carbonatic, arsenic and antimony from their sulphides)."[33] This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... It has been suggested that Properties and uses of metals be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... Sample of cerussite-bearing quartzite Cerussite (also known as lead carbonate or white lead ore) is a mineral consisting of lead carbonate (PbCO3), and an important ore of lead. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Standard atomic weight 121. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ...

Geber's writings became more widely known in Europe through the Latin writings of a pseudo-Geber, an anonymous alchemist born in 14th century Spain, who translated Geber's books into Latin and wrote some of his own books under the pen name of "Geber". Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Pseudo-Geber (false Geber) is the name assigned by modern scholars to an anonymous alchemist born in the 14th century, probably in Spain. ...


Earth sciences

Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī is regarded as the father of Indology, the father of geodesy, "the first anthropologist" and one of the first geologists. He also made important contributions to astronomy, geography, and physics.
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī is regarded as the father of Indology, the father of geodesy, "the first anthropologist" and one of the first geologists. He also made important contributions to astronomy, geography, and physics.

Muslim scientists, notably Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, made a number of contributions to the Earth sciences. In particular, Biruni is regarded as the father of geodesy for his important contributions to the field,[48][49] along with his significant contributions to geography and geology. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (485 × 650 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Abu-Rayhan Biruni 1973 Afghanistan post stamp File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (485 × 650 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Abu-Rayhan Biruni 1973 Afghanistan post stamp File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian [1][2][3] polymath and scientist of the 11th Century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... It has been suggested that geodetic system be merged into this article or section. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian [1][2][3] polymath and scientist of the 11th Century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... It has been suggested that geodetic system be merged into this article or section. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Among his writings on geology, Biruni wrote the following on the geology of India: This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

"But if you see the soil of India with your own eyes and meditate on its nature, if you consider the rounded stones found in earth however deeply you dig, stones that are huge near the mountains and where the rivers have a violent current: stones that are of smaller size at a greater distance from the mountains and where the streams flow more slowly: stones that appear pulverised in the shape of sand where the streams begin to stagnate near their mouths and near the sea - if you consider all this you can scarcely help thinking that India was once a sea, which by degrees has been filled up by the alluvium of the streams."[50]

John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson write in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive: The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ...

"Important contributions to geodesy and geography were also made by al-Biruni. He introduced techniques to measure the earth and distances on it using triangulation. He found the radius of the earth to be 6339.6 km, a value not obtained in the West until the 16th century. His Masudic canon contains a table giving the coordinates of six hundred places, almost all of which he had direct knowledge."[4] Triangulation can be used to find the distance from the shore to the ship. ... Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is an AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP mobility. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ...

Fielding H. Garrison wrote in the History of Medicine: Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

"The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization..." In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... Algebra is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation and quantity. ... Chemistry - the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy based on the structure of atoms, molecules and other kinds of aggregrates Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning earth[1]) is the science concerned with the reactions, transformations and aggregations of matter, as well as accompanying... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

George Sarton, the father of the history of science, wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science: George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ...

"We find in his (Jabir, Geber) writings remarkably sound views on methods of chemical research, a theory on the geologic formation of metals (the six metals differ essentially because of different proportions of sulphur and mercury in them)..."[33] This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... It has been suggested that Properties and uses of metals be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ...

In cartography, the Piri Reis map drawn by the Ottoman cartographer Piri Reis in 1513, was one of the earliest world maps to include the Americas, and perhaps the first to include Antarctica. His map of the world was considered the most accurate in the 16th century. Mapmaker redirects here. ... The Piri Reis map The Piri Reis map is a famous premodern world map created by 16th century Ottoman-Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Piri Reis (originally Hadji Muhammad) was an Ottoman admiral born around 1465, in Gallipoli on the Dardanelles. ... Physical world map (2004) with country borders and capitals—click for large, 1. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Mathematics

Main article: Islamic mathematics
Al-Khwarizmi, the father of algebra and father of algorithms.

In the history of mathematics, "Islamic mathematics" refers to the mathematics developed by mathematicians of the Islamic culture, from the beginning of Islam until the 17th century — mostly including Arab and Persian mathematicians, as well as other Muslims and non-Muslims that were a part of the Islamic culture. Islamic mathematics is also known as Arabic mathematics due to most of the texts on Islamic mathematics being written in Arabic. Islamic mathematics is one of the main aspects of the greater history of Islamic science, and also an important part of the history of mathematics.[51] Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (735 × 985 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (735 × 985 pixel, file size: 1. ... (Arabic: ) was a Persian[1] mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. ... Algebra is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation and quantity. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... For a list of biographies of mathematicians, see list of mathematicians. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... A Muslim mathematicians is a person that professes Islam and engaged in the mathematicians aspect of Islamic science. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For a list of biographies of mathematicians, see list of mathematicians. ...


Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic Caliphate (also known as the Arab Empire or Islamic Empire) established across the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, Sicily, the Iberian Peninsula, and in parts of France and Pakistan (known as India at the time) in the 8th century. Although most Islamic texts on mathematics were written in Arabic, they were not all written by Arabs, since — much like the status of Greek in the Hellenistic world — Arabic was used as the written language of non-Arab scholars throughout the Islamic world at the time. Many of the most important Islamic mathematicians were Persians. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... Template:Islamic Empire infobox The Ottoman Empire (1299 - 29 October 1923) (Ottoman Turkish: Devlet-i Aliye-yi Osmaniyye; literally, The Sublime Ottoman State, modern Turkish: Osmanlı Ä°mparatorluÄŸu), is also known in the West as the Turkish Empire. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson wrote in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive: The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ...

"Recent research paints a new picture of the debt that we owe to Islamic mathematics. Certainly many of the ideas which were previously thought to have been brilliant new conceptions due to European mathematicians of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are now known to have been developed by Arabic/Islamic mathematicians around four centuries earlier."[52]

In the 9th century, the mathematician Al-Khwarizmi, from whose name the word algorithm derives, contributed significantly to algebra, which is named after his book, Kitab al-Jabr, the first book on elementary algebra.[53] He also introduced what is now known as Arabic numerals, which originally came from India, though Muslim mathematicians did make several refinements to the number system, such as the introduction of decimal point notation. His contemporary, al-Kindi, was a pioneer in cryptanalysis and cryptology. He gave the first known recorded explanations of cryptanalysis and frequency analysis in A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages.[54][55] (Arabic: ) was a Persian[1] mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... Algebra is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation and quantity. ... A page from the book (Arabic for The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing), also known under a shorter name spelled as Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala, Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala and other transliterations) is a mathematical book written approximately 820 AD by the Persian... Elementary algebra is a fundamental and relatively basic form of algebra taught to students who are presumed to have little or no formal knowledge of mathematics beyond arithmetic. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... Cryptology is an umbrella term for cryptography and cryptanalysis. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... A typical distribution of letters in English language text. ...


The first known proof by mathematical induction appears in a book written by Al-Karaji around 1000 AD, who used it to prove the binomial theorem, Pascal's triangle, and the sum of integral cubes.[56] The historian of mathematics, F. Woepcke,[57] praised Al-Karaji for being "the first who introduced the theory of algebraic calculus." Ibn al-Haytham was the first mathematician to derive the formula for the sum of the fourth powers, and using the method of induction, he developed a method for determining the general formula for the sum of any integral powers, which was fundamental to the development of integral calculus.[58] In the 11th century, the poet-mathematician Omar Khayyám was the first to find general geometric solutions of cubic equations and laid the foundations for the development of analytic geometry and non-Euclidean geometry. In the 12th century, Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi found algebraic and numerical solutions to cubic equations and was the first to discover the derivative of cubic polynomials, an important result in differential calculus.[59] In mathematics, a proof is a demonstration that, assuming certain axioms, some statement is necessarily true. ... Mathematical induction is a method of mathematical proof typically used to establish that a given statement is true of all natural numbers. ... Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Husayn Al-Karaji (953 - 1029), also known as Al-karkhi was a Persian mathematician and engineer. ... In mathematics, the binomial theorem is an important formula giving the expansion of powers of sums. ... The first five rows of Pascals triangle In mathematics, Pascals triangle is a geometric arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. ... The integral of f(x) from a to b is the area above the x-axis and below the curve y = f(x), minus the area below the x-axis and above the curve, for x in the interval [a,b]. Integration is a core concept of advanced mathematics, specifically... y=x³, for integer values of 1≤x≤25. ... A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... Algebra is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation and quantity. ... Calculus (from Latin, pebble or little stone) is a branch of mathematics that includes the study of limits, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series, and constitutes a major part of modern university education. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... In mathematics, the fourth powers are given by the expression a4 = a × a × a × a The sequence of fourth powers of integers goes: 1, 16, 81, 256, 625, 1296, 2401, 4096, 6561, 10000, ... They are also formed by multiplying a number by its cube. ... Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written an, involving two numbers, the base a and the exponent n. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Ghiyās ol-DÄ«n Abol-Fath Omār Ibn EbrāhÄ«m Khayyām NeyshābÅ«rÄ«, (Persian: غیاث الدین ابو الفتح عمر بن ابراهیم خیام نیشابوری, born: May 18, 1048 in Nishapur, Iran (Persia) – died: December 4, 1131), was a Persian poet, mathematician, philosopher and astronomer. ... Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... Graph of a cubic polynomial: y = x3/4 + 3x2/4 âˆ’ 3x/2 âˆ’ 2 = (1/4)(x + 4)(x + 1)(x âˆ’ 2) In mathematics, a cubic equation is a polynomial equation in which the highest occurring power of the unknown is the third power. ... Analytic geometry, also called coordinate geometry and earlier referred to as Cartesian geometry or analytical geometry, is the study of geometry using the principles of algebra. ... Behavior of lines with a common perpendicular in each of the three types of geometry The term non-Euclidean geometry describes hyperbolic, elliptic and absolute geometry, which are contrasted with Euclidean geometry. ... Sharafeddin Muzzafar-i Tusi (1135 - 1213) was a Persian mathematician of the Middle Ages. ... Numerical analysis is the study of approximate methods for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). ... For a non-technical overview of the subject, see Calculus. ... Polynomial of degree 3 In mathematics, a cubic function is a function of the form where b is nonzero; or in other words, a polynomial of degree three. ...


Mechanics

Avicenna is considered the father of modern medicine and the father of momentum, and regarded as one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history.
Avicenna is considered the father of modern medicine and the father of momentum, and regarded as one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history.

In the mechanics field of physics, the eldest Banū Mūsā brother, Muhammad ibn Musa, in his Astral Motion and The Force of Attraction, discovered that there was a force of attraction between heavenly bodies in the 9th century,[60] foreshadowing Newton's law of universal gravitation.[61] His contemporary, Thābit ibn Qurra, rejected the Peripatetic and Aristotelian notions of a "natural place" for each element. He instead proposed a theory of motion in which both the upward and downward motions are caused by weight, and that the order of the universe is a result of two competing attractions (jadhb): one of these being "between the sublunar and celestial elements", and the other being "between all parts of each element separately".[62] Another contemporary, al-Kindi, described an early concept of relativity, which some see as a precursor to the later theory of relativity developed by Albert Einstein in the 20th century. Like Einstein, al-Kindi held that the physical world and physical phenomena are relative, that time, space, motion and bodies are all relative to each other and not independant or absolute, and that they are relative to other objects and to the observer.[63] Image File history File links Avicenna_Persian_Physician. ... Image File history File links Avicenna_Persian_Physician. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... medicines, see Medication. ... In classical mechanics, momentum (pl. ... Mechanics (Greek ) is the branch of physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effect of the bodies on their environment. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... It has been suggested that Ahmad ibn MÅ«sā ibn Shākir be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into BanÅ« MÅ«sā. (Discuss) Ja‘far Muḥammad ibn MÅ«sā ibn Shākir (800 - 873) (Arabic: ) was a 9th century Persian astronomer, engineer, mathematician and physicist from Baghdad, the eldest of the BanÅ« MÅ«sā brothers. ... In physics, force is an influence that may cause an object to accelerate. ... “Gravity” redirects here. ... Astronomical objects are significant physical entities, associations or structures which current science has confirmed to exist in space. ... Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation (part of classical mechanics) states the following: Every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line combining the two. ... Abul Hasan Thabit ibn Qurra ibn Marwan al-Sabi al-Harrani (836 Harran, Mesopotamia – February 18, 901 Baghdad) (Arabic: ثابت بن قرة بن مروان) was an Arab astronomer and mathematician, who was known as Thebit in Latin. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand “The Four Elements” redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A spring scale measures the weight of an object In the physical sciences, weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object. ... “Gravity” redirects here. ... The term celestial refers to the sky and/or Heaven. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... In physics, the term relativity is used in several, related contexts: Galileo first developed the principle of relativity, which is the postulate that the laws of physics are the same for all observers. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ... A physical body is an object which can be described by the theories of classical mechanics, or quantum mechanics, and experimented upon by physical instruments. ... The Absolute is the totality of things; all that is, whether it has been discovered or not. ...


In the 11th century, Ibn al-Haytham discussed the theory of attraction between masses, and it seems that he was aware of the magnitude of acceleration due to gravity. Ibn al-Haytham also discovered the law of inertia, known as Newton's first law of motion, when he stated that a body moves perpetually unless an external force stops it or changes its direction of motion.[64] He also insisted that the heavenly bodies "were accountable to the laws of physics".[65] (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... “Gravity” redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The magnitude of a mathematical object is its size: a property by which it can be larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind; in technical terms, an ordering of the class of objects to which it belongs. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to that point basicly. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Inertia is the property of an object to remain at constant velocity unless acted upon by an outside force. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... This article or section should include material from Parallel Path See also Perpetuum mobile as a musical term Perpetual motion machines (the Latin term perpetuum mobile is not uncommon) are a class of hypothetical machines which would produce useful energy in a way science cannot explain (yet). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Nobel Prize winning physicist Abdus Salam wrote the following on Ibn al-Haytham: Nobel Prize medal. ... Abdus Salam at Nobel Prize ceremony with the King of Sweden Dr. Abdus Salam (Urdu: عبد السلام) (January 29, 1926 at Santokdas, Sahiwal in Punjab – 21 November 1996 in Oxford, England) was a Pakistani theoretical physicist who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979 for his work in electroweak theory which... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception...

"Ibn-al-Haitham (Alhazen, 965-1039 CE) was one of the greatest physicists of all time. He made experimental contributions of the highest order in optics. He enunciated that a ray of light, in passing through a medium, takes the path which is the easier and 'quicker'. In this he was anticipating Fermat's Principle of Least Time by many centuries. He enunciated the law of inertia, later to become Newton's first law of motion. Part V of Roger Bacon's "Opus Majus" is practically an annotation to Ibn al Haitham's Optics."[13] Fermats principle assures that the angles given by Snells law always reflect lights quickest path between P and Q. Fermats principle in optics states: This principle was first stated by Pierre de Fermat. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ...

Ibn al-Haytham's contemporary, Avicenna, discovered the concept of momentum, when he referred to impetus as being proportional to weight times velocity, a precursor to the concept of momentum in Newton's second law of motion.[66] He is thus considered the father of the fundamental concept of momentum in physics.[67] His theory of motion was also consistent with the concept of inertia in Newton's first law of motion.[66] Another contemporary, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, was the first to realize that acceleration is connected with non-uniform motion.[4] This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... In classical mechanics, momentum (pl. ... Impetus is an obsolete scientific theory of motion, largely developed by Jean Buridan in the 14th century. ... A spring scale measures the weight of an object In the physical sciences, weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object. ... In physics, velocity is defined as the rate of change of displacement or the rate of displacement. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... In classical mechanics, momentum (pl. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Inertia is the property of an object to remain at constant velocity unless acted upon by an outside force. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian [1][2][3] polymath and scientist of the 11th Century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to that point basicly. ...


In 1121, al-Khazini, in The Book of the Balance of Wisdom, was the first to propose that the gravity and gravitational potential energy of a body varies depending on its distance from the centre of the Earth. This phenomenon was not proven until Newton's law of universal gravitation centuries later. Al-Khazini was also one of the first to clearly differentiate between force, mass, and weight, and he showed awareness of the weight of the air and of its decrease in density with altitude, and discovered that there was greater density of water when nearer to the Earth's centre.[68] This article is about a 12th century scientist. ... “Gravity” redirects here. ... {{Portal|Energy}Potential energy is the energy available within a physical system due to an objects position in conjunction with a conservative force which acts upon it (such as the gravitational force or Coulomb force). ... Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation (part of classical mechanics) states the following: Every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line combining the two. ... In physics, force is an influence that may cause an object to accelerate. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A spring scale measures the weight of an object In the physical sciences, weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ...


In the 12th century, Ibn Bajjah (Avempace) was the first to state that there is always a reaction force for every force exerted, a precursor to Gottfried Leibniz's idea of force which underlies Newton's third law of motion.[69] His theory of motion had an important influence on later physicists like Galileo Galilei.[70] Avempace's contemporary, Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi, was the first to negate Aristotle's idea that a constant force produces uniform motion, as he realized that a force applied continuously produces acceleration, a fundamental law of classical mechanics and a early foreshadowing of Newton's second law of motion.[71] Like Newton, he described acceleration as the rate of change of velocity.[72] Another contemporary, Averroes, was the first to define and measure force as "the rate at which work is done in changing the kinetic condition of a material body"[73] and the first to correctly argue "that the effect and measure of force is change in the kinetic condition of a materially resistant mass."[74] Ibn Bajjah ابن باجة Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Sayegh أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصايغ was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and physician who was known in the West using his latinized name, Avempace. ... In classical mechanics, Newtons third law states that forces occur in pairs, one called the action and the other the reaction. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Hibat Allah Abul-Barakat al-Baghdaadi (1080? - 1165?) was an Arab philosopher and physicist. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... In physics, force is an influence that may cause an object to accelerate. ... Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a velocity-time graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to that point basicly. ... Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... In physics, velocity is defined as the rate of change of displacement or the rate of displacement. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... In physics, force is an influence that may cause an object to accelerate. ... In physics, mechanical work is the amount of energy transferred by a force. ... The kinetic energy of an object is the extra energy which it possesses due to its motion. ... A physical body is an object which can be described by the theories of classical mechanics, or quantum mechanics, and experimented upon by physical instruments. ... friction is the force that opposes the relative motion or tendency toward such motion of two surfaces in contact. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Medicine

Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), the father of modern surgery.
Main article: Islamic medicine
Further information: Ophthalmology in medieval Islam

Islamic medicine (al-tibb) was a genre of medical writing intended as an alternative to the Greek medical system of Galen. Although Islamic medicine initially encouraged traditional medical practices of Muhammad's time, Muslim physicians later made many of their own significant advances and contributions to the field of medicine, including the subjects of anatomy, ophthalmology, pharmacology, pharmacy, physiology, and surgery. Image File history File links Albucasis. ... Image File history File links Albucasis. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ... medicines, see Medication. ... Galen. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


Muslim physicians set up some of the earliest dedicated hospitals. Hospitals later spread to Europe during the Crusades, inspired by the hospitals in the Middle East. The first hospital in Paris, Les Quinze-vingt, was founded by Louis IX after his return from the Crusade between 1254-1260.[75] For the record label, see Hospital Records. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Louis IX of France, as painted by El Greco in the 16th Century. ...


Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), regarded as the father of modern surgery,[76] contributed greatly to the discipline of medical surgery with his Kitab al-Tasrif (Book of Concessions) in 1000, a 30-volume medical encyclopedia which was later translated to Latin and used in both Muslim and European medical schools for centuries. Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Al-Tasrif was an influential medieval treatise on medicine. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia, encyclopaedia or (traditionally) encyclopædia[1] is a comprehensive written compendium that contains information on all branches of knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ...


Avicenna, who is considered the father of modern medicine and one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history,[75] wrote The Canon of Medicine and The Book of Healing in the early 11th century, which remained standard textbooks in both Muslim and European universities for centuries. Avicenna's contributions to medicine include his introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology,[77] the discovery of contagious diseases, the distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy, the contagious nature of phthisis, the distribution of diseases by water and soil, and the first careful descriptions of skin troubles, sexually transmitted diseases, perversions, and nervous ailments.[75] This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... The Book of Healing is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Persian physician and philosopher Ibn Sina of Persia in the 10th century. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum. ... Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration and other symptoms. ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... Perversion is a term and concept describing those types of people like renee kellerhuman behavior that are perceived to be a deviation from what is considered to be orthodox or normal. ... The Human Nervous System A human being coordinates its nervous system, the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ...


The Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis was the first to describe human blood circulation and pulmonary circulation. In the 15th century, the Persian work by Mansur ibn Muhammad ibn al-Faqih Ilyas entitled Tashrih al-badan ("Anatomy of the body") contained comprehensive diagrams of the body's structural, nervous and circulatory systems. Other medical advancements came in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacy.[78] Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... Diagram of the human circulatory system. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadhani was a 10th century Islamic historian and geographer, famous for his Mukhtasar Kitab al-Buldan (Concise Book of Lands). See also Manuscript 5229. ... The Human Nervous System A human being coordinates its nervous system, the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Diagram of the human circulatory system. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ...


Optics

Further information: Book of Optics
A page of Ibn Sahl's manuscript showing his discovery of the law of refraction (Snell's law).
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) invented the camera obscura and pinhole camera for his experiments on light and optics.
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) invented the camera obscura and pinhole camera for his experiments on light and optics.

In the optics field of physics, Ibn Sahl (c. 940-1000), a mathematician and physicist connected with the court of Baghdad, wrote a treatise On Burning Mirrors and Lenses in 984 in which he set out his understanding of how curved mirrors and lenses bend and focus light. Ibn Sahl is now credited with first discovering the law of refraction, usually called Snell's law.[79][80] He used this law to work out the shapes of lenses that focus light with no geometric aberrations, known as anaclastic lenses. The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 464 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1139 × 1471 pixel, file size: 168 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Reproduction of a page of Ibn Sahls manuscript showing his discovery of the law of refraction (from Rashed, 1990). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 464 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1139 × 1471 pixel, file size: 168 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Reproduction of a page of Ibn Sahls manuscript showing his discovery of the law of refraction (from Rashed, 1990). ... Ibn Sahl - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ... Refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, with n2 > n1. ... Image File history File links drawing by Meggar File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links drawing by Meggar File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... The camera obscura (Lat. ... Principle of a pinhole camera. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Ibn Sahl - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Reflections in a spherical convex mirror. ... A lens. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ... Refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, with n2 > n1. ... An aspheric lens or asphere is a lens whose surfaces have a profile that is neither a portion of a sphere nor of a circular cylinder. ...


Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) (965-1039), the father of optics and the pioneer of the scientific method, in his Book of Optics, developed a broad theory of light and optics that explained vision, using geometry and anatomy, which stated that each point on an illuminated area or object radiates light rays in every direction, but that only one ray from each point, which strikes the eye perpendicularly, can be seen. The other rays strike at different angles and are not seen. He used the example of the camera obscura and pinhole camera, which produces an inverted image, to support his argument. This contradicted Ptolemy's theory of vision that objects are seen by rays of light emanating from the eyes. Alhazen held light rays to be streams of minute particles that travelled at a finite speed. He improved accurately described the refraction of light, and discovered the laws of refraction. (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Look up vision in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... Principle of a pinhole camera. ... A line showing the speed of light on a scale model of Earth and the Moon The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic... // The Beginnings of Geometrical Optics The Greek term τα όπτικά referred specifically to matters of vision[1], and hence early optics was concerned with the problem of how we see. ... The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ...


He also carried out the first experiments on the dispersion of light into its constituent colours. His major work Kitab al-Manazir was translated into Latin in the Middle Ages, as well as his book dealing with the colors of sunset. He dealt at length with the theory of various physical phenomena like shadows, eclipses, and the rainbow. He also attempted to explain binocular vision and the moon illusion. Through these extensive researches on optics, he is considered the father of modern optics. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Shadows on pavement A shadow is a region of darkness where light is blocked. ... “Total eclipse” redirects here. ... Full featured double rainbow in Wrangell-St. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... The Moon illusion is an optical illusion in which the Moon appears larger near the horizon than it does while higher up in the sky. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ...


Ibn al-Haytham also correctly argued that we see objects because the sun's rays of light, which he believed to be streams of tiny particles traveling in straight lines, are reflected from objects into our eyes. He understood that light must travel at a large but finite velocity, and that refraction is caused by the velocity being different in different substances. He also studied spherical and parabolic mirrors, and understood how refraction by a lens will allow images to be focused and magnification to take place. He understood mathematically why a spherical mirror produces aberration.


Robert S. Elliot wrote the following on Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen): (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception...

"Alhazen was one of the ablest students of optics of all times and published a seven-volume treatise on this subject which had great celebrity throughout the medieval period and strongly influenced Western thought, notably that of Roger Bacon and Kepler. This treatise discussed concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical geometries, anticipated Fermat's law of least time, and considered refraction and the magnifying power of lenses. It contained a remarkably lucid description of the optical system of the eye, which study led Alhazen to the belief that light consists of rays which originate in the object seen, and not in the eye, a view contrary to that of Euclid and Ptolemy."[81] The term Western thought is usually associated with the cultural tradition that traces its origins to Greek thought and Jewish and Christian religion (See also Western culture). ... Look up Concave in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up convex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... A sphere is a perfectly symmetrical geometrical object. ... Fermats principle assures that the angles given by Snells law always reflect lights quickest path between P and Q. Fermats principle in optics states: This principle was first stated by Pierre de Fermat. ...

Ibn al-Haytham's contemporary, Avicenna, agreed that the speed of light is finite, as he "observed that if the perception of light is due to the emission of some sort of particles by a luminous source, the speed of light must be finite."[82] Another contemporary, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, also agreed that light has a finite speed, and he was the first to discover that the speed of light is much faster than the speed of sound.[4] In the 14th century, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi and Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī gave the first correct explanations for the rainbow phenomenon.[83] This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A line showing the speed of light on a scale model of Earth and the Moon The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian [1][2][3] polymath and scientist of the 11th Century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Sound is a vibration that travels through an elastic medium as a wave. ... Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311) was a 13th century Persian scientist and astronomer from Shiraz, Iran. ... Kamal al-Din Abul-Hasan Muhammad Al-Farisi (1260-1320) (Arabic: ) (Tabriz, Iran) was a prominent Persian Muslim mathematician and physicist. ... Full featured double rainbow in Wrangell-St. ...


Psychology

Al-Razi (Rhazes) made significant advances in psychiatry and wrote the earliest texts on psychotherapy, presenting definitions, symptoms, and treatments for problems related to mental health and mental illness.
Further information: Islamic medicine and Book of Optics

In psychology, the Arab physician Al-Razi (Rhazes) was the first to study psychotherapy and made significant advances in psychiatry in his landmark texts El-Mansuri and Al-Hawi in the 10th century, which presented definitions, symptoms, and treatments for problems related to mental health and mental illness. He also ran the psychiatric ward of a Baghdad hospital. Such institutions could not exist in Europe at the time because of fear of demonic possessions. no copyright File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... no copyright File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Demonic possession, in supernatural belief systems, is a form of spiritual possession whereby certain malevolent extra-dimensional entities, demons, gain control over a mortal persons body, which is then used for an evil or destructive purpose. ...


Ibn al-Haytham is considered the founder of psychophysics and experimental psychology,[84] for his pioneering work on the on the psychology of visual perception in the Book of Optics.[85] In Book III of the Book of Optics, Ibn al-Haytham was the first scientist to argue that vision occurs in the brain, rather than the eyes. He pointed out that personal experience has an affect on what people see and how they see, and that vision and perception are subjective. He explained possible errors in vision in detail, and as an example, describes how a small child with less experience may have more difficulty interpreting what he/she sees. He also gives an example of an adult that can make mistakes in vision because of how one's experience suggests that he/she is seeing one thing, when he/she is really seeing something else.[86] (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was a Muslim polymath, anatomist, astronomer, engineer, mathematician, mechanician, ophthalmologist, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, and scientist, who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as astronomy, analytic geometry, infinitesimal and integral calculus, mechanics, motion, number theory, and visual perception... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Ibn al-Haytham was also the first to combine physics and psychology to form psychophysics, and his investigations and experiments on psychology and visual perception included sensation, variations in sensitivity, sensation of touch, perception of colours, perception of darkness, the psychological explanation of the moon illusion, and binocular vision.[84] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ... See: Sensitivity (electronics) Sensitivity (human) Sensitivity (tests) For sensitivity in finance, see beta coefficient This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Darkness is the absence of light. ... The Moon illusion is an optical illusion in which the Moon appears larger near the horizon than it does while higher up in the sky. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ...


Social sciences

Further information: Islamic sociologyEarly Muslim sociology, and Historiography of early Islam

Significant contributions were made to the social sciences in the Islamic civilization. Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ...


Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973-1048) has been described as "the first anthropologist".[48] He wrote detailed comparative studies on the anthropology of peoples, religions and cultures in the Middle East, Mediterranean and South Asia. Biruni's anthropology of religion was only possible for a scholar deeply immersed in the lore of other nations.[87] Biruni has also been praised by several scholars for his Islamic anthropology.[88] Biruni is also regarded as the father of Indology.[89] His contemporary, al-Muqaddasi, also made contributions to the social sciences. Another contemporary, al-Saghani, wrote some of the earliest comments on the history of science, which included a comparison between the "ancients" (including the ancient Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks and Indians) and the "modern scholars" (the Muslim scientists of his time).[90] (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian (TājÄ«k)[1][2][3] mathematician, physicist, scholar, encyclopedist, philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, traveller, historian, anthropologist, pharmacist, and teacher, who contributed greatly to the fields of mathematics, philosophy, history, anthropology, medicine, and science. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shams al-Din Al-Muqaddasi (Arabic: محمد بن امحد شمس الدين المقدسي) (also known as Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... Abu Hamid Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Saghani al-Asturlabi, i. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... Babylonia was a state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) is regarded as the father of demography,[91] cultural history,[92] historiography,[93] the philosophy of history,[94] sociology,[91][94] and the social sciences,[95] and is viewed as one of the forerunners of modern economics. He is best known for his Muqaddimah (Latinized as Prolegomenon). Some of the ideas he introduced in the Muqaddimah include social philosophy, social conflict theories, social cohesion, social capital, social networks, dialectics, the Laffer curve, the historical method, systemic bias, and the rise and fall of civilizations. Other ideas introduced in early Muslim sociology include feedback loops, systems theory, and corporate social responsibility. Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ... Cultural history (from the German term Kulturgeschichte), at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. ... Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ... Philosophy of History is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ... Social conflict is a conflict or confrontation of social powers. ... Social Cohesion is a state in society where the vast majority of citizens respect the law and one anothers human rights. ... Social capital is a core concept in business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, and sociology, defined as the advantage created by a persons location in a structure of relationships. ... A social network is a social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations) that are tied by one or more specific types of relations, such as values, visions, idea, financial exchange, friends, kinship, dislike, trade, web links, sexual relations, disease transmission (epidemiology), or airline routes. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into systematic bias. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Feedback loop. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Franz Rosenthal wrote in the History of Muslim Historiography: Franz Rosenthal, the Sterling Professor Emeritus of Arabic, scholar of Arabic literature and Islam (1914-2003). ...

"Muslim historiography has at all times been united by the closest ties with the general development of scholarship in Islam, and the position of historical knowledge in MusIim education has exercised a decisive influence upon the intellectual level of historicai writing....The Muslims achieved a definite advance beyond previous historical writing in the sociological understanding of history and the systematisation of historiography. The development of modern historical writing seems to have gained considerably in speed and substance through the utilization of a Muslim Literature which enabled western historians, from the seventeenth century on, to see a large section of the world through foreign eyes. The Muslim historiography helped indirectly and modestly to shape present day historical thinking."[96] Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The title page to The Historians History of the World. ...

Technology

The programmable humanoid robots of al-Jazari, the "father of robotics".
The programmable humanoid robots of al-Jazari, the "father of robotics".
The valve-operated reciprocating suction piston pump of al-Jazari, the "father of modern day engineering".
The valve-operated reciprocating suction piston pump of al-Jazari, the "father of modern day engineering".
Main article: Inventions in the Muslim world
Further information: Timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world

A significant number of inventions and technological advances were made in the Muslim world, as well as adopting and improving technologies centuries before they were used in the West. For example, papermaking was adopted from China many centuries before it was known in the West.[97] Iron was a vital industry in Muslim lands and was given importance in the Qur'an.[98][99] The knowledge of gunpowder was also transmitted from China to Islamic countries, through which it was later passed to Europe.[100] Knowledge of chemical processes (alchemy and chemistry) and distillation (alcohol) also spread to Europe from the Muslim world. Numerous contributions were made in laboratory practices such as "refined techniques of distillation, the preparation of medicines, and the production of salts."[101] Advances were made in irrigation and farming, using technology such as the windmill. Crops such as almonds and citrus fruit were brought to Europe through al-Andalus, and sugar cultivation was gradually adopted by the Europeans.[102] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Computer programming (often shortened to programming or coding) is the process of writing, testing, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. ... Hondas ASIMO, an example of a humanoid robot A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance based on that of the human body. ... Ibn Ismail Ibn al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (1206 AD) wrote notable books about engineering that are consulted in the history of engineering even today. ... Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... These water valves are regulated by handles. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Suction is the creation of a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. ... For the use of the term in optics, see piston (optics). ... An electrically driven pump (electropump) for waterworks near the Hengsteysee, Germany. ... Ibn Ismail Ibn al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (1206 AD) wrote notable books about engineering that are consulted in the history of engineering even today. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ... The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 AD. Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is ubiquitous today for writing and packaging. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Islamic countries may be defined as either the countries which have Muslims making up more than half of their population, or as countries which have Islam as an official religion or countries where the most popular religion is Islam. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Chemistry - the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy based on the structure of atoms, molecules and other kinds of aggregrates Chemistry (from Egyptian kÄ“me (chem), meaning earth[1]) is the science concerned with the reactions, transformations and aggregations of matter, as well as accompanying... Laboratory distillation set-up using, without a fractionating column 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... A Dutch tower windmill, sporting sails, surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ... Binomial name (Mill. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ...


Fielding H. Garrison wrote in the History of Medicine: Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

"The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, stringed instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc..." In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... Algebra is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation and quantity. ... Chemistry - the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy based on the structure of atoms, molecules and other kinds of aggregrates Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning earth[1]) is the science concerned with the reactions, transformations and aggregations of matter, as well as accompanying... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A roadway light in front of a red sky at night A street light, street lamp, light standard or lamp standard, is a raised source of light on the edge of a road, turned on or lit at a certain time every night. ... It has been suggested that window frames be merged into this article or section. ... A paned window is a window that is divided into sections known as panes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fireworks. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ...

A significant number of other inventions were also produced by medieval Muslim scientists and engineers, including inventors such as Abbas Ibn Firnas, Taqi al-Din, and especially al-Jazari, who is considered the "father of robotics"[42] and "father of modern day engineering".[103] Some of the inventions produced by medieval Muslim scientists and engineers include the camera obscura, coffee, hang glider, hard soap, shampoo, distilled alcohol, liquefaction, crystallisation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation, filtration, uric acid, nitric acid, alembic, crankshaft, valve, suction piston pump, mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, programmable humanoid robot, combination lock, quilting, pointed arch, scalpel, bone saw, forceps, surgical catgut, windmill, inoculation, smallpox vaccine, fountain pen, frequency analysis, cryptanalysis, three-course meal, glasses, Persian carpet, modern cheque, celestial globe, incendiary devices, rocket, torpedo, and royal pleasure gardens.[42] Abbas Ibn Firnas, or Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas (Unknown- 887 A.D.) was a Spanish-Arab humanitarian, technologist, and chemist. ... Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Maruf al-Shami al-Asadi (Arabic: تقي الدين محمد بن معروف الشامي السعدي) (c. ... Ibn Ismail Ibn al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (1206 AD) wrote notable books about engineering that are consulted in the history of engineering even today. ... The camera obscura (Lat. ... A cup of coffee. ... Hang gliding is one of the windsports. ... Soap bar or Soapbar may refer to: A bar of soap, surfactant used in conjunction with water for washing and cleaning. ... Shampoo is a common hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. ... Various distilled beverages in a Spanish bar A distilled beverage is a liquid preparation meant for consumption containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Liquefaction may refer to: Soil liquefaction, the process by which sediments are converted into suspension, as in earthquake liquefaction, quicksand, quick clay, and turbidity currents. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub | Chemistry ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In chemistry, alchemy and water treatment, filtration is the process of using a filter to mechanically separate a mixture. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... These water valves are regulated by handles. ... Suction is the creation of a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. ... For the use of the term in optics, see piston (optics). ... An electrically driven pump (electropump) for waterworks near the Hengsteysee, Germany. ... The massive clock on the Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster, London (commonly known as Big Ben, although Big Ben is the bell inside - the picture is St Stephens Tower). ... Computer programming (often shortened to programming or coding) is the process of writing, testing, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. ... Hondas ASIMO, an example of a humanoid robot A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance based on that of the human body. ... A letter combination lock. ... Quilting is a sewing method done either by hand, sewing machine or Longarm quilting system. ... A masonry arch 1. ... A scalpel is a very sharp knife used for surgery, anatomical dissection, and various arts and crafts. ... Portable saw A saw is a tool for cutting wood or other material, consisting of a serrated blade (a blade with the cutting edge dentated or toothed) and worked either by hand or by steam, water, electric or other power. ... Plastic forceps are intended to be disposable Forceps are a handheld, hinged instrument used for grasping and holding objects. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... A Dutch tower windmill, sporting sails, surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... The smallpox vaccine is the only effective preventive treatment for the deadly smallpox disease. ... A fountain pen is a writing instrument, more specifically a pen, that contains a reservoir of water-based ink that is fed to a nib through a feed via a combination of gravity and capillary action. ... A typical distribution of letters in English language text. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... For the coarsely ground flour, see flour. ... A pair of modern glasses Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles, are frames, bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes normally for vision correction, eye protection, or for protection from UV rays. ... The Persian carpet (Pahlavi bōb[1] Persian farÅ¡ فرش, meaning to spread and Arabic qāli, Turkish hali)[2] is an essential part of Persian art and culture. ... Example of a Canadian cheque. ... Chinese history, astronomers have created celestial globes to assist the observation of the stars. ... For the 2008 film of the same name, see Incendiary (film). ... A Soyuz rocket, at Baikonur launch pad. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... An 18th century print showing the exterior of the Rotunda at Ranelagh Gardens and part of the grounds. ...


Historiography

Further information: Historiography of early Islam

The history of science in the Islamic world, like all history, is filled with questions of interpretation. Historians of science generally consider that the study of Islamic science, like all history, must be seen within the particular circumstances of time and place. A. I. Sabra opened a recent overview of Arabic science by noting, "I trust no one would wish to contest the proposition that all of history is local history ... and the history of science is no exception."[104] The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ...


Some scholars avoid such local historical approaches and seek to identify essential relations between Islam and science that apply at all times and places. The Pakistani physicist, Pervhez Hoodbhoy, portrayed "religious fanaticism to be the dominant relation of religion and science in Islam". Sociologist Toby Huff maintained that Islam lacked the "rationalist view of man and nature" that became dominant in Europe. The Persian philosopher and historian of science, Seyyed Hossein Nasr saw a more positive connection in "an Islamic science that was spiritual and antisecular" which "point[ed] the way to a new 'Islamic science' that would avoid the dehumanizing and despiritualizing mistakes of Western science."[105] Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ...


Nasr identified a distinctly Muslim approach to science, flowing from Islamic monotheism and the related theological prohibition against portraying graven images. In science, this is reflected in a philosophical disinterest in describing individual material objects, their properties and characteristics and instead a concern with the ideal, the Platonic form, which exists in matter as an expression of the will of the Creator. Thus one can "see why mathematics was to make such a strong appeal to the Muslim: its abstract nature furnished the bridge that Muslims were seeking between multiplicity and unity."[106]


Rather than identifying such essential relations between Islam and science, some historians of science question the value of drawing boundaries that label the sciences, and the scientists who practice them, in specific cultural, civilizational, or linguistic terms. Consider the case of Nasir al-Din Tusi (1201–1274), who invented his mathematical theorem, the Tusi Couple, while he was director of Maragheh observatory. Tusi's patron and founder of the observatory was the non-Muslim Mongol conqueror of Baghdad, Hulagu Khan. The Tusi-couple "was first encountered in an Arabic text, written by a man who spoke Persian at home, and used that theorem, like many other astronomers who followed him and were all working in the "Arabic/Islamic" world, in order to reform classical Greek astronomy, and then have his theorem in turn be translated into Byzantine Greek towards the beginning of the fourteenth century, only to be used later by Copernicus and others in Latin texts of Renaissance Europe."[107] Nasir Tusi Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) was a Persian scientist, of Shia Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iran. ... The Tusi couple is a 2-cusped hypocycloid obtained by rolling a circle of radius inside a circle of radius . ... Maragheh or Maraghah is a town in the East Azarbaijan Province of Iran, on the Safi River. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, , Hulegu and Halaku) (1217 – 8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ...


See also

// All year dates are given in the Gregorian calendar except where noted. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Islamic science has been an important part of the history of science and the present day. ... A 9th century picture of Arab scientists working in Baghdad, Iraq. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, also known as the Golden Age of Arab Rule in Spain, refers to a period of history during the Muslim occupation of Spain in which Jews were generally accepted in Spanish society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed. ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Sabra, A. I. (1996). "Situating Arabic Science: Locality versus Essence". Isis 87: 654-670. 

    "Let us begin with a neutral and innocent definition of Arabic, or what also may be called Islamic, science in terms of time and space: the term Arabic (or Islamic) science the scientific activities of individuals who lived in a region that might extended chronologically from the eighth century A.D. to the beginning of the modern era, and geographically from the Iberian Peninsula and north Africa to the Indus valley and from the Southern Arabia to the Caspian Sea—that is, the region covered for most of that period by what we call Islamic Civilization, and in which the results of the activities referred to were for the most part expressed in the Arabic Language. We need not be concerned over the refinements that obviously need to be introduced over this seemingly neutral definition." Abdelhamid I. Sabra is a retired professor of the history of science specializing in the history of science in the Islamic World and the history of optics. ...

  2. ^ N. M. Swerdlow (1993). "Montucla's Legacy: The History of the Exact Sciences", Journal of the History of Ideas 54 (2), p. 299-328 [320].
  3. ^ David Agar (2001). Arabic Studies in Physics and Astronomy During 800 - 1400 AD. University of Jyväskylä.
  4. ^ a b c d O'Connor, John J; Edmund F. Robertson "Al-Biruni". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.  
  5. ^ Rosanna Gorini (2003). "Al-Haytham the Man of Experience. First Steps in the Science of Vision", International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine. Institute of Neurosciences, Laboratory of Psychobiology and Psychopharmacology, Rome, Italy.
  6. ^ R. L. Verma "Al-Hazen: father of modern optics", Al-Arabi, 8 (1969): 12-13.
  7. ^ D. C. Lindberg, Theories of Vision from al-Kindi to Kepler, (Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1976), pp. 60-7.
  8. ^ Bradley Steffens (2006). Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, Morgan Reynolds Publishing, ISBN 1599350246.
  9. ^ Robert Briffault (1928). The Making of Humanity, p. 191. G. Allen & Unwin Ltd.
  10. ^ Robert Briffault (1928). The Making of Humanity, p. 202. G. Allen & Unwin Ltd.
  11. ^ Oliver Joseph Lodge, Pioneers of Science, p. 9.
  12. ^ Oliver Joseph Lodge, Pioneers of Science, p. 109.
  13. ^ a b Abdus Salam (1984), "Islam and Science". In C. H. Lai (1987), Ideals and Realities: Selected Essays of Abdus Salam, 2nd ed., World Scientific, Singapore, p. 179-213.
  14. ^ Muhammad Iqbal (1934, 1999). The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. Kazi Publications. ISBN 0686184823.
  15. ^ George Saliba, A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, {New York: New York University, 1994), p.vii: "The main thesis, for which this collection of articles cam be used as evidence, is the one claiming that the period often called a period of decline in Islamic intellectual history was, scientifically speaking from the point of view of astronomy, a very productive period in which astronomical thories of the highest order were produced."
  16. ^ David A. King, "The Astronomy of the Mamluks", Isis, 74 (1983):531-555
  17. ^ Erica Fraser. The Islamic World to 1600, University of Calgary.
  18. ^ a b c d Salah Zaimeche (2003). Aspects of the Islamic Influence on Science and Learning in the Christian West, p. 10. Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.
  19. ^ a b c V. J. Katz, A History of Mathematics: An Introduction, p. 291.
  20. ^ For a list of Gerard of Cremona's translations see: Edward Grant (1974) A Source Book in Medieval Science, (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Pr.), pp. 35-8 or Charles Burnett, "The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Program in Toledo in the Twelfth Century," Science in Context, 14 (2001): at 249-288, at pp. 275-281.
  21. ^ a b c d e Jerome B. Bieber. Medieval Translation Table 2: Arabic Sources, Santa Fe Community College.
  22. ^ D. Campbell, Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages, p. 6.
  23. ^ a b c D. Campbell, Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages, p. 3.
  24. ^ G. G. Joseph, The Crest of the Peacock, p. 306.
  25. ^ M.-T. d'Alverny, "Translations and Translators," pp. 444-6, 451
  26. ^ D. Campbell, Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages, p. 4-5.
  27. ^ D. Campbell, Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages, p. 5.
  28. ^ Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexicon
  29. ^ Charles Burnett, ed. Adelard of Bath, Conversations with His Nephew, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. xi.
  30. ^ D. Campbell, Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages, p. 4.
  31. ^ M.-T. d'Alverny, "Translations and Translators," pp. 429, 455
  32. ^ D. S. Kasir (1931). The Algebra of Omar Khayyam, p. 6-7. Teacher's College Press, Columbia University, New York.
  33. ^ a b c d Dr. A. Zahoor (1997), Abu Raihan Muhammad al-Biruni, Hasanuddin University.
  34. ^ M. Gill (2005). Was Muslim Astronomy the Harbinger of Copernicanism?
  35. ^ Richard Covington (May-June 2007). "Rediscovering Arabic science", Saudi Aramco World, p. 2-16.
  36. ^ A. Baker and L. Chapter (2002), "Part 4: The Sciences". In M. M. Sharif, "A History of Muslim Philosophy", Philosophia Islamica.
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  38. ^ Conway Zirkle (1941). Natural Selection before the "Origin of Species", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 84 (1), p. 71-123.
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  44. ^ Michael E. Marmura (1965). "An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Conceptions of Nature and Methods Used for Its Study by the Ikhwan Al-Safa'an, Al-Biruni, and Ibn Sina by Seyyed Hossein Nasr", Speculum 40 (4), p. 744-746.
  45. ^ Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 196-197.
  46. ^ Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434.
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  51. ^ J. P. Hogendijk. Bibliography of Mathematics in Medieval Islamic Civilization. January 1999.
  52. ^ John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson (1999). Arabic mathematics: forgotten brilliance? MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
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  54. ^ Simon Singh, The Code Book, p. 14-20.
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  61. ^ Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 191.
  62. ^ Mohammed Abattouy (2001). "Greek Mechanics in Arabic Context: Thabit ibn Qurra, al-Isfizarı and the Arabic Traditions of Aristotelian and Euclidean Mechanics", Science in Context 14, p. 205-206. Cambridge University Press.
  63. ^ The Theory of Relativity, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation, 2003.
  64. ^ Dr. Nader El-Bizri, "Ibn al-Haytham or Alhazen", in Josef W. Meri (2006), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopaedia, Vol. II, p. 343-345, Routledge, New York, London.
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    "Thus he considered impetus as proportional to weight times velocity. In other words, his conception of impetus comes very close to the concept of momentum of Newtonian mechanics." The University of Jyväskylä is a university in Jyväskylä, Finland. ... The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ... Robert Briffault (1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist, social anthropologist and surgeon. ... Robert Briffault (1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist, social anthropologist and surgeon. ... Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (June 12, 1851 - August 22, 1940), born at Penkhull in Stoke-on-Trent and educated at Adams Grammar School, was a physicist and writer involved in the development of the wireless telegraph. ... Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (June 12, 1851 - August 22, 1940), born at Penkhull in Stoke-on-Trent and educated at Adams Grammar School, was a physicist and writer involved in the development of the wireless telegraph. ... Abdus Salam at Nobel Prize ceremony with the King of Sweden Dr. Abdus Salam (Urdu: عبد السلام) (January 29, 1926 at Santokdas, Sahiwal in Punjab – 21 November 1996 in Oxford, England) was a Pakistani theoretical physicist who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979 for his work in electroweak theory which... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam is a book by Muhammad Iqbal on Islamic philosophy, which was published in 1930. ... George Saliba has been Professor of Arabic and Islamic Science of the Department of Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures, Columbia University, New York, USA since 1979. ... Arch marking entrance to campus The University of Calgary is a public university located in the north-western quadrant of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Santa Fe Community College is a state college that is part of Floridas system of higher education. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States and a member of the prestigious Ivy League. ... NY redirects here. ... Hasanuddin University (Indonesian: Universitas Hasanuddin) is a public university in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. ... Saudi Aramco World is a bi-motnhly magazine published by Saudi Aramco, the national oil company of Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Indonesia University (in Indonesian: Universitas Indonesia), abbreviated as UI, has its roots in the oldest tertiary-level education facilities in Indonesia (then the Dutch East Indies). ... The Independent is a British compact newspaper published by Tony OReillys Independent News & Media. ... Oliver Leaman is a Professor of Philosophy and Zantker Professor of Judaic Studies. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ... Robert Briffault (1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist, social anthropologist and surgeon. ... Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... The Story of Civilization by Will and Ariel Durant (ISBN 0-671-21988-X) is an eleven-volume set of books. ... Abdus Salam at Nobel Prize ceremony with the King of Sweden Dr. Abdus Salam (Urdu: عبد السلام) (January 29, 1926 at Santokdas, Sahiwal in Punjab – 21 November 1996 in Oxford, England) was a Pakistani theoretical physicist who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979 for his work in electroweak theory which... The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Robert Briffault (1876 - 11 December 1948) was a French novelist, social anthropologist and surgeon. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ...

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  93. ^ Salahuddin Ahmed (1999). A Dictionary of Muslim Names. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1850653569.
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  95. ^ Akbar Ahmed (2002). "Ibn Khaldun’s Understanding of Civilizations and the Dilemmas of Islam and the West Today", Middle East Journal 56 (1), p. 25.
  96. ^ Historiography. The Islamic Scholar.
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  98. ^ Qur'an 57:25
  99. ^ Hobson (2004), p.130
  100. ^ Phillips (1992), p.76
  101. ^ Levere (2001), p.6
  102. ^ Mintz (1986), pp.23-29
  103. ^ 1000 Years of Knowledge Rediscovered at Ibn Battuta Mall, MTE Studios.
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  107. ^ George Saliba (1999). Whose Science is Arabic Science in Renaissance Europe?

Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ... Cover of Maimonides The Guide of the Perplexed, translated by Shlomo Pines (University of Chicago Press, 1963). ... Look up Cf. ... Cover of Maimonides The Guide of the Perplexed, translated by Shlomo Pines (University of Chicago Press, 1963). ... The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a reference work consisting of extensive biographies of scientists from antiquity to modern times, excluding scientists who were alive when the Dictionary was first put out. ... Look up Cf. ... George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... Look up Cf. ... Isis is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago devoted to the history of science, history of medicine, and the history of technology, as well as their cultural influences, featuring both original research articles as well as extensive book reviews and review essays. ... The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ... George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... The MacTutor history of mathematics archive is a website hosted by University of St Andrews in Scotland. ... Franz Rosenthal, the Sterling Professor Emeritus of Arabic, scholar of Arabic literature and Islam (1914-2003). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

References

  • Campbell, Donald (2001). Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages. Routledge. (Reprint of the London, 1926 edition). ISBN 0415231884.
  • d'Alverny, Marie-Thérèse. "Translations and Translators", in Robert L. Benson and Giles Constable, eds., Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century, p. 421-462. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1982.
  • Eglash, Ron (1999). African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2614-0. 
  • Hobson, John M. (2004). The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521547245. 
  • Huff, Toby E. (2003). The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521529948. 
  • Joseph, George G. (2000). The Crest of the Peacock. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691006598.
  • Katz, Victor J. (1998). A History of Mathematics: An Introduction. Addison Wesley. ISBN 0321016181.
  • Levere, Trevor Harvey (2001). Transforming Matter: A History of Chemistry from Alchemy to the Buckyball. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6610-3. 
  • Mintz, Sidney W. (1986). Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History, Reprint, Penguin (Non-Classics). ISBN 978-0140092332. 
  • Phillips, William D.; Carla Rahn Phillips, Jr. Phillips (1992). The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052144652X. 
  • Turner, Howard R. (1997). Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292781490. 

Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... John Atkinson Hobson (July 6, 1858 – April 1, 1940) was an English economist and imperial critic, widely popular as a lecturer and writer. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... Categories: Stub | 1948 births | Nobel Prize in Physics winners ...

Further reading

  • Daffa, Ali Abdullah al- (1984). Studies in the exact sciences in medieval Islam. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0471903205. 
  • Hogendijk, Jan P.; Abdelhamid I. Sabra (2003). The Enterprise of Science in Islam: New Perspectives. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19482-1.  Reviewed by Robert G. Morrison at [1]
  • Hill, Donald Routledge, Islamic Science And Engineering, Edinburgh University Press (1993), ISBN 0-7486-0455-3
  • Toby E. Huff, The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993, 2nd edition 2003. ISBN 0-521-52994-8. Reviewed by George Saliba at [2]
  • Toby E. Huff, "Science and Metaphysics in the Three Religions of the Books", Intellectual Discourse, 8, #2 (2000): 173-198.
  • Kennedy, Edward S. (1970). "The Arabic Heritage in the Exact Sciences". Al-Abhath 23: 327-344. 
  • Kennedy, Edward S. (1983). Studies in the Islamic Exact Sciences. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815660677. 
  • Rashed, Roshdi (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. ISBN 0415020638. 
  • Saliba, George (2007). Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance. The MIT Press. ISBN 0262195577. 
  • Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1976). Islamic Science : An Illustrated Study. Kazi Publications. ISBN 1567443125. 
  • Seyyed Hossein Nasr (2003). Science & Civilization in Islam, 2nd, Islamic Texts Society. ISBN 1903682401. 
  • Sezgin, Fuat (1997). Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums 1: Quranwissenschaften, Hadit, Geschichte, Fiqh, Dogmatik, Mystik (in German). Brill. ISBN 9004041532. 
  • Sezgin, Fuat (1997). Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums 2: Poesie. Bis CA. 430 H (in German). Brill. ISBN 9004031316. 
  • Sezgin, Fuat (1997). Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums 3: Medizin-Pharmazie Zoologie-Tierheilkunde (in German). Brill. ISBN 9004031316. 
  • Sezgin, Fuat (1997). Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums 4: Alchimie-Chemie Botanik-Agrikultur (in German). Brill. ISBN 9004020098. 
  • Sezgin, Fuat (1997). Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums 5: Mathematik (in German). Brill. ISBN 9004041532. 
  • Sezgin, Fuat (1997). Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums 6: Astronomie (in German). Brill. ISBN 9004058788. 
  • Sezgin, Fuat (1997). Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums 7: Astrologie-Meteorologie Und Verwandtes (in German). Brill. ISBN 9004061592. 
  • Sezgin, Fuat (1997). Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums 8: Lexikographie. Bis CA. 430 H (in German). Brill. ISBN 9004068678. 
  • Sezgin, Fuat (1997). Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums 9: Grammatik. Bis CA. 430 H (in German). Brill. ISBN 9004072616. 
  • Suter, Heinrich (1900). Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre Werke, Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Mathematischen Wissenschaften Mit Einschluss Ihrer Anwendungen, X Heft. 

Donald Routledge Hill (1922–1994) was an engineer and historian of science. ... The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science is a three-volume encyclopedia covering the history of Arabic contributions to science, mathematics and technology which had a tremendous influence on the rise of the European Renaissance. ... George Saliba has been Professor of Arabic and Islamic Science of the Department of Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures, Columbia University, New York, USA since 1979. ...

External links

  • Saliba, George. Whose Science is Arabic Science in Renaissance Europe?.
  • Habibi, Golareh. Review article, Science Creative Quarterly.
  • An interactive guide to Muslim scientists whose multi-disciplinary contributions sparked the flame of learning and productivity
  • Islam, Knowledge, and Science
  • History of Science and Technology in Islam
  • Islamic Civilization
  • The Islamization of science or the marginalization of Islam
  • Muslimheritage
  • 1001inventions
  • Science and religion in Islam

  Results from FactBites:
 
Science (1583 words)
Islamic science was originally meant to unleash creativity, to recover the traditional categories of tawheed (unity), ilm (knowledge) and khalifa (humans as trustees) of a science based on an alternative worldview, one that was not modernist in orientation, ie., framed around the values of the nation-state, reductionism, methodological individualism, materialism, and military expansionism.
However, Islamic science in Pakistan during the political terror of the 1980s came to mean science focused on legitimating itself through the categories of the Islamic ontological position.
Islamic science and other non-Western projects lay claim to this future, arguing that colonisation has allowed them to creatively internalize the West and thus create a critical traditionalism that can move the planet forward.
Islamic science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1586 words)
Islamic science is science in the context of traditional religious ideas of Islam, including its ethics and philosophy.
This is not the same as science as conducted by Muslims in the secular context.
Science was encouraged by the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad and they established the "House of Wisdom", an academy of science where they gathered important Sanskrit and Greek manuscripts and paid scholars to study and translate them.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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