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Encyclopedia > Islamic religion

Islām is described as a dīn, meaning "way of life" and/or "guidance". Din (الدين) is an Arabic Islamic term referring to the way of life based on Islamic revelation; the sum total of a Muslims faith and practice. ...


Six articles of belief

There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims:


1. Belief in God, the one and only one worthy of all worship.


2. Belief in all the prophets (nabi) and messengers (rusul) sent by God. It is believed that there were around 124,000 prophets, of whom 313 are also messengers. Out of the 313 messengers, 25 are held to be of high esteem (ulul azmi) and are mentioned by name in the Quran. A prophet is a person who is believed to communicate with God, or with a deity. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ...


The difference between prophets and messengers is that although all received revelation (wahyu) from God, the messengers are required to spread their message to their people by preaching (da'wah).


3. Belief in the books (kutub) sent by God: Kutub is the plural form of the Arabic word Kitab (book). ...

The Scriptures to Abraham
The Torah sent to Moses
The Psalms sent to David
The Gospel sent to Jesus
The Qur'an sent to Muhammad

4. Belief in the Angels (mala'ika) of whom 10 are held in high esteem and are named in the Quran and the hadith. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


5. Belief in the Day of Judgement (qiyama) and in the life after death (heaven and hell). Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: Day of the Resurrection (Quran 71. ...


6. Belief in Fate (predestination) (qadar). Predestination is a religious idea, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... Qadar in Arabic means fate or divine destiny. ...


The Muslim creed in English: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

"I believe in God; and in His Angels; and in His Scriptures; and in His Messengers; and in The Final Day; and in Fate, that All things are from God, and Resurrection after death be Truth.
"I testify that there is no god but God Almighty; and I testify that Muhammad is His Messenger."

The tenets of Islam

The Pilgrimage (Hajj) to Kaaba, Masjid al Haram, Mecca, is one of the five pillars of Islam

The two largest subgroups of the Muslims are the Sunni and the Shi'a. Sunni Muslims make up a large percentage of the Muslim world although one can find large majorities of Shi'a Muslims making up the Middle Eastern countries such as Iran and Iraq. However, in Saudi Arabia, Sunni Muslim are the majority. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 258 KB) Description : Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 258 KB) Description : Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram. ... The Hajj or Haj (Arabic حَجّ Ḥaǧǧ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the ten Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ... The Kaaba (Kaabah), (Arabic: الكعبة) also Bait ul Ateeq (Arabic: البيت العتيق ) and Bait ul Haram (Arabic: البيت الحرام ), is a building located inside the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah). ... Masjid al Haram The Masjid al Haram (Arabic: ) is a mosque in the city of Mecca. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


Sunni Islam's most fundamental tenets are referred to as the Five Pillars of Islam2, while Shia Islam has a slightly different terminology, encompassing five core beliefs, the Roots of Religion and ten core practices, the Branches of Religion. All Muslims agree on the following statements, which Sunnis term the Five Pillars of Islam, and Shia would consider two of the Roots of Religion and four of the Branches of Religion. The religion is of Islam consists of faith and practice. ... In Shia Islam, the five Roots of Religion (Usūl al-Dīn) are the five beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ... In Shia Islam, the eleven Branches of Religion (Furū al-Dīn) are the eleven practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ... In Shia Islam, the five Roots of Religion (Usūl al-Dīn) are the five beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ... In Shia Islam, the eleven Branches of Religion (Furū al-Dīn) are the eleven practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ...

  • Shahadah: Testifying that there is none worthy of worship except God (Tawheed) and that Muhammad is his messenger (Nubuwwah).
  • Salah: Performing the five daily prayers (salah).
  • Zakat: Giving Zakaah (charity)
  • Sawm: Fasting from dawn to dusk in the month of Ramadan.
  • Hajj: The Pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca during the month of Dhul Hijjah, which is compulsory once in a lifetime for one who has the ability to do it.

Shi'a and Sunni also agree on the following beliefs, although they classify them differently: See Shahada (India) for the Indian town called Shahada (in Maharashtra state). ... Tawhid (توحيد), meaning declaring God one, is the Islamic concept of monotheism. ... Muhammad is a common Muslim male name. ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... Salah (also known as salat, solat, solah and several other spellings) (Arabic: صلاة, Quranic Arabic: صلوة) refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). ... Beliefs and practices Oneness of God Profession of Faith Prayer · Fasting Pilgrimage · Charity Major figures Muhammad Companions of Muhammad Household of Muhammad Prophets of Islam Texts & law Quran · Hadith · Sharia Jurisprudence Biographies of Muhammad Branches of Islam Sunni · Shia · Sufi Sociopolitical aspects Art · Architecture Cities · Calendar Science · Philosophy... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: رمضان ) is the ninth month of the Islamic year. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: رمضان) is the ninth month of the Islamic year and the holiest month in Islam, however, it is normal month for non-Muslims that live in the countries that use the Islamic calendar. ... The Hajj or Haj (Arabic حَجّ Ḥaǧǧ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the ten Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ... The Hajj or Haj (Arabic حَجّ Ḥaǧǧ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the ten Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ... This article is about the holy city in Saudi Arabia. ...

  • Adl: The justice of God.
  • Qiyamah: The Day of Resurrection.
  • Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf: Commanding what is good.
  • Nahi-Anil-Munkar: Forbidding what is evil.
  • Al Jihad fi sabil Allah: Striving to seek God's approval.
  • Khums: Paying the tax on profit.

Distinctive Shi'a beliefs, not held by the Sunni, include: Adl is an Arabic term roughly meaning Justice. It is used in the everyday sense of the word: for example, wizeer al-adl translates to The Minister of Justice. ... Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: Day of the Resurrection (Quran 71. ... Amr-Bil-MarÅ«f - Commanding the good, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necesary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbiding evil, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means for example to oppose injustice. ... Jihad (Arabic: jihād) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root jhd (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause. ... Khums (derived from the Arabic خمس or five) is a Shia article of faith that refers to a one-fifth tax, which all adult Muslims who are financially secure and have surplus in their income normally have to pay on annual savings, net commercial profits, and all moveable and...

  • Imamah: Leadership. The belief in the divinely appointed and guided imamate of Ali and some of his descendants.
  • Tawalla: To love the Ahl al-Bayt and their followers.
  • Tabarra: To disassociate from the enemies of the Ahl al-Bayt

Imāmah leadership is one of the five Roots of Religion (Usūl al-Dīn) in Shia Islam. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... Ahl al-Bayt,Ahl ul-Bayt, Ahlul Bayt or Ahl-e-Bayth is an Arabic phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Tabarra - disassociating from Ahl al-Bayt enemies , is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to disassociating from the enemies of God, Muhammad and the Ahl al-Bayt. ...

God

main articles: Allah / God

The fundamental concept in Islam is the oneness of God (tawhid). This monotheism is absolute, not relative or pluralistic in any sense of the word. God is described in Sura al-Ikhlas, (chapter 112) as follows: The word Allāh is the Arabic term for God. It is most commonly used in Islam and refers to the eternal monotheist Deity. ... God is the term used to denote the Supreme Being believed by monotheistic religions to exist and to be the creator and ruler of the Universe. ... God is the term used to denote the Supreme Being believed by monotheistic religions to exist and to be the creator and ruler of the Universe. ... Tawhid (توحيد), meaning declaring God one, is the Islamic concept of monotheism. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... Al-Ikhlas is the 112th Sura of the Quran, a short 4_verse declaration of Gods absolute unity (tawhid), rejecting the doctrines of polytheism and trinitarianism. ...

Say "He is God, the one and only. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute the Self-Sufficient master. He begetteth not, nor is he begotten. And there is none like unto Him." (Yusuf A. Ali).

In Arabic, God is called Allāh. The word is etymologically connected to ʾilah "deity", ultimately from Proto-Semitic *ʾilâh-, and indirectly related to Hebrew Ēl. Allāh is also the word used by Christian and Jewish Arabs, translating ho theos of the New Testament and LXX; it predates Muhammad and in its origin does not specify a "God" different from the one worshipped by Judaism and Christianity, the monotheistic religions to which Muhammad's teaching stood in contrast. A deity or a god, is a postulated preternatural being, usually, but not always, of significant power, worshipped, thought holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, or respected by human beings. ... Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical proto-language of the Semitic languages. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Ä’l is a northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... The Septuagint (LXX) is the name commonly given to the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) made in the first centuries BC. The Septuagint bible includes additional books beyond those used in todays Jewish Tanakh. ...


The name "Allah" shows no plural or gender, unlike the word "God" that may take plural sense "Gods" and feminine form "Goddesses". In Islam "Allah" Almighty as the Qur’an says:

"(He is) the Creator of the heavens and the earth: He has made for you pairs from among yourselves, and pairs among cattle: by this means does He multiply you: there is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the One that hears and sees (all things)" (42:11).

The implicit usage of the definite article in Allah linguistically indicates the divine unity. Muslims believe that the God they worship is the same as the Judeo-Christian God, i.e. the God of Abraham. However, Muslims reject the Christian theology concerning the trinity of God (the doctrine of the Trinity which regards Jesus as the eternal Son of God), seeing it as akin to polytheism. Quoting from the Qur'an, sura An-Nisa 171: Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ... The Christian doctrine of the Trinity states that God is a single being who exists, simultaneously and eternally, as a communion of three Persons: the Father, the Son (the eternal Logos, incarnate as Jesus of Nazareth), and the Holy Spirit. ... Son of God is a biblical phrase from the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and the New Testament. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... Surat An-Nisa (The Women) is the 4th sura of the Quran, with 176 ayat. ...

"O People of the Scripture! Do not transgress the limits of your religion, and do not say about GOD except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was only a messenger of GOD, and His word that He had sent to Mary, and a revelation from Him. Therefore, you shall believe in GOD and His messengers. You shall not say, "Trinity". You shall refrain from this for your own good. GOD is only one god. Be He glorified; He is much too glorious to have a son. To Him belongs everything in the heavens and everything on earth. God suffices as Lord and Master."

No Muslim visual images or depictions of God exist because such artistic depictions may lead to idolatry and are thus prohibited. A similar position in Christian theology is termed iconoclasm. Moreover, most Muslims believe that God is incorporeal, making any two- or three- dimensional depictions impossible. Instead, Muslims describe God by the many divine attributes mentioned in the Qur'an. All but one Sura (chapter) of the Qur'an begins with the phrase "In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful". These are consequently the most important divine attributes in the sense that Muslims repeat them most frequently during their ritual prayers (called salah in Arabic, and in India, Pakistan and Turkey called "namaaz" (a Persian word)). Idolatry is a term used by many religions to describe the worship of a false deity, which is an affront to their understanding of divinity. ... Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The 99 Names of God also known as The 99 attributes of Allah, according to Islamic tradition, are the names of God revealed to man in the Quran. ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān, literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al Karīm or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Salah (also known as salat, solat, solah and several other spellings) (Arabic: صلاة, Quranic Arabic: صلوة) refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ...


The Qur'an

 The first surah in a handwritten copy of the Qur'an.
The first surah in a handwritten copy of the Qur'an.
Main article: Qur'an

The Qur'an is the sacred book of Islam. It has also been called, in English, "the Koran". Qur'an is the currently preferred English transliteration of the Arabic original (قرآن); it means “recitation”. Although it is referred to as a "book", when a Muslim refers to the Qur'an, they are referring to the actual text, the words, rather than the printed work itself. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (801x1343, 225 KB) I found this picture at the German Wikipedia (de:Bild:Quranfatihaazizefendi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (801x1343, 225 KB) I found this picture at the German Wikipedia (de:Bild:Quranfatihaazizefendi. ... Surat Al-Fatiha (The Opening or The Exordium) is the opening chapter of the Quran; it consists of a short 7-verse prayer which Muslims repeat at the beginning of every rakah of salat. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān, literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Muslims believe that the Qur'an was revealed to Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel on numerous occasions between the years 610 and the prophet's death in 632. In addition to memorizing his revelations, his followers are said to have written them down on parchments, stones, and leaves. 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ...


Muslims hold that the Qur'an available today is the same as that revealed to Prophet Muhammad and by him to his followers, who memorized his words. Scholars generally accept that the version of the Qur'an used today was first compiled in writing by the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, sometime between 650 and 656. He sent copies of his version to the various provinces of the new Muslim empire, and directed that all variant copies be destroyed. However, some skeptics doubt the recorded oral traditions (hadith) on which the account is based and will say only that the Qur'an must have been compiled before 750. Muhammad is a common Muslim male name. ... This article is on the highest religious and/or temporal title, aspiring universal authority, in Islam; for lower, notably gubernatorial, uses of the Arabic title khalifa, see that article Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Leave this page if youre under 18!! - Page contains huge lies and hardly has any facts > it will surely misguide you! Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. ... Events Arab conquest of Persia, establishment of Islam as state religion Hindu empire in Sumatra Croats and Serbs occupy Bosnia Khazars conquer Great Bulgarian Empire in southern Russia building of St. ... Events Ali succeeds Uthman as Caliph Battle of Basrah (also known as Battle of the Camel) Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia Births Deaths Uthman ibn Affan, Caliph (murdered) Peada, king of Mercia (murdered) Categories: 656 ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM...


There are also numerous traditions, and many conflicting academic theories, as to the provenance of the verses later assembled into the Qur'an (This is covered in greater detail in the article on the Qur'an). Most Muslims accept the account recorded in several hadith, which state that Abu Bakr, the first caliph, ordered Zayd ibn Thabit to collect and record all the authentic verses of the Qur'an, as preserved in written form or oral tradition. Zayd's written collection, privately treasured by Muhammad's widow Hafsa bint Umar, was used by Uthman and is the basis of today's Qur'an. Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Hafsa bint Umar was the daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and wife of Muhammad. ...


Uthman's version organized the suras roughly in order of length, with the longest suras at the start of the Qur'an and the shortest ones at the end. More conservative views state that the order of most suras was divinely set. Later scholars have struggled to put the suras in chronological order, and among Muslim commentators, at least there is a rough consensus as to which suras were revealed in Mecca and which at Medina. Some suras (e.g. surat Iqra) are thought to have been revealed in parts at separate times. The Makkan suras are the chronologically earlier suras of the Quran that were revealed at Makka. ... The Madinan suras of the Quran are those suras which were revealed at Madina, after Muhammads hijra from Makka, when the Muslims were establishing a state rather than being, as at Makka, an oppressed minority. ... Surat al-Alaq, Iqra, or al-Qalam (The Clot, Read, or The Pen) is the 96th sura of the Quran. ...


Because the Qur'an was first written (date uncertain) in the Hijazi, Mashq, Ma'il, and Kufic scripts, which write consonants only and do not supply the vowels, and because there were differing oral traditions of recitation, as non-native Arabic speakers converted to Islam, there was some disagreement as to the exact reading of many verses. Eventually, scripts were developed that used diacritical markings (known as points) to indicate vowels. For hundreds of years after Uthman's recension, Muslim scholars argued as to the correct pointing and reading of Uthman's unpointed official text, (the rasm). Eventually, most commentators accepted seven variant readings (qira'at) of the Qur'an as canonical, while agreeing that the differences are minor and do not affect the meaning of the text. Kufic is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts and consists of a modified of the old Syrian script. ...


The form of the Qur'an most used today is the Al-Azhar text of 1923, prepared by a committee at the prestigious Cairo university of Al-Azhar. Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University is connected to the mosque in Cairo named to honor Fatima Az-Zahraa, the daughter of Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid Dynasty claimed descent. ... Although technically in Giza, The Great Pyramids have become a symbol of Cairo internationally Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة; transliterated: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ...


The Qur'an early became a focus of Muslim devotion and eventually a subject of theological controversy among skeptics. In the 8th century, the Mu'tazilis claimed that the Qur'an was created in time and was not eternal. Their opponents, of various schools, claimed that the Qur'an was eternal and perfect, existing in heaven before it was revealed to Muhammad. The Ashari theology (which ultimately became predominant) held that the Qur'an was uncreated. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... The Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy were instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic philosophy, separating its development drastically from that of philosophy in the Christian world. ...


Most Muslims regard paper copies of the Qur'an with extreme veneration, wrapping them in a clean cloth, keeping them on a high shelf, and washing as for prayers before reading the Qur'an. Old Qur'ans are not destroyed as wastepaper, but burned or deposited in Qur'an graveyards.


Most Muslims memorize at least some portion of the Qur'an in the original language. Those who have memorized the entire Qur'an are known as hafiz. This is not a rare achievement; it is believed that there are millions of hafiz alive today. Hafiz or Hafez (Arabic:حافظ), literally meaning guardian, is a term used by Muslims for people who have completely memorized the Quran. ...


From the beginning of the faith, most Muslims believed that the Qur'an was perfect only as revealed in Arabic. Translations were the result of human effort and human fallibility, as well as lacking the inspired poetry believers find in the Qur'an. Translations are therefore only commentaries on the Qur'an, or "translations of its meaning", not the Qur'an itself. Many modern, printed versions of the Qur'an feature the Arabic text on one page, and a vernacular translation on the facing page.


Islamic eschatology

Main article: Islamic eschatology

Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world) and the final judgment of humanity. Like Christianity and some sects of modern Judaism, Islam teaches the bodily resurrection of the dead, the fulfilment of a divine plan for creation, and the immortality of the human soul. In Islamic belief, the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah (Paradise), while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam (a fiery Hell, from the Hebrew ge-hinnom or "valley of Hinnom"; usually rendered in English as Gehenna). A significant portion of the Qur'an deals with these beliefs, with many hadith elaborating on the themes and details. Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Albrecht Dürer - Four horsemen of the Apocalypse Look up eschatology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yaum al-Qiyâmah (يوم القيامة; literally: Day of the Resurrection (Quran 71. ... Many religious faiths teach that the end of the world will occur at some point in the future. ... Christianity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... // Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... It has been suggested that Resurrection of the dead be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Paradise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Paradise is also a title of a tv-series The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word of pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make). ... Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) Hell is, according to many religious beliefs, a place or a state of painful suffering. ... Note: Tanach quotes are from the Judaica press Tanach. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ...


Other beliefs

Other beliefs include the existence of Angels, the Jinns (a species of beings not composed of solid matter, but "fire") and the existence of magic or sihr (the practice of which is strictly forbidden). Angels in Islam are light-based creatures, created by Allah to serve and worship him. ... The Seal of Solomon is said to have given Sulayman power over the jinn. ... The ancient symbol of the pentagram is often used as a symbol for magic. ...


Organization

Religious authority

There is no official authority who decides whether a person is accepted into, or dismissed from, the community of believers, known as the Ummah ("family" or "nation"). Islam is open to all, regardless of race, age, gender, or previous beliefs. It is enough to believe in the central beliefs of Islam. This is formally done by reciting the shahada, which should be made sincerely from the heart, the statement of belief of Islam, without which a person cannot be classed a Muslim. It is enough to believe and say that one is a Muslim, and behave in a manner befitting a Muslim to be accepted into the community of Islam. Ummah (أمة) is an Arabic word that means community or nation. ... There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ...


Islamic law

Main article: Sharia

The Sharia is Islamic law, as elaborated by Islamic scholarship. The Qur'an is the foremost source of Islamic jurisprudence. The second is the Sunnah (the practices of Muhammad and the early Muslim community). The Sunnah is not itself a text like the Qur'an, but is extracted by analysis of the hadith (Arabic for "report"), or recorded oral traditions, which contain narrations of the Muhammad's sayings, deeds, and actions. Sharia (Arabic: ; also Sharīah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is the Arabic word for Islamic law, also known as the Law of Allah. ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān, literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al Karīm or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Sunna redirects to here, which can also refer to Sunne or Frau Sonne, a Scandinavian sun goddess, also known as Sol. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ...


Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from the broad topics of governance and foreign relations all the way down to issues of daily living. Islamic laws which were covered expressly in the Quran were referred to as hudud laws. This covered the prohibition of murder, extra-marital sex, drinking of alcohol and gambling. The Quran also details laws of inheritance, marriage, restitution for injuries and murder, as wells as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, the prescriptions and prohibitions maybe broad, so how they are applied in practice varies. Islamic scholars, the ulema, have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these broad rules, supplemented by the hadith reports of how Muhammad and his companions interpreted them.


Other legal aspects were presided by judges (takzir) who are given power to make sentencing decisions and were supposed to closely adhere to the principles of the Qur'an and Sunnah. Islamic law at the level of governance and social justice only applies where the government is Islamic.


According to Islam, the Sharia is divinely revealed. It is understood as protecting five things: faith, life, knowledge, lineage, and wealth. However, it is by no means a rigid system of laws as there are different schools of thoughts and movements within Islam that allow for flexibility. Moreover, Islam is a diverse religion as many cultures have embraced it so interpretation varies.


Apostasy and blasphemy

Main article: Apostasy in Islam

Orthodox Islamic communities, like other religious communities, often exclude those they regard as apostates and blasphemers from their community of believers. In a few Muslim-majority states, apostasy and blasphemy are considered crimes against the state and punished as such. Apostasy in Islam (Irtidād) is a Muslims rejection of Islam by some means. ... Apostasy (αποστασις, in classical Greek a defection or revolt from a military commander, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if... Blasphemy is the defamation of the name of God. ...


Islamic calendar

Main article: Islamic calendar

Islam dates from the Hijra, or migration from Mecca to Medina. This is year 1, AH (Anno Hegira)—which corresponds to AD 622 or 622 CE, depending on the notation preferred (see Common era). It is a lunar calendar, but differs from other such calendars (e.g. the Celtic calendar) in that it omits intercalary months, being synchronized only with lunation s, but not with the solar year, resulting in years of either 354 or 355 days. This omission was introduced by Muhammad because the right to announce intercalary months had led to political power struggles. Therefore, Islamic dates cannot be converted to the usual CE/AD dates simply by adding 622 years. Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period beginning with the year 1 onwards. ... A lunar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates the moon phase. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... Intercalation is the insertion of an extra day or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ... Lunation is the mean time for one lunar phase cycle (i. ... A tropical year is the length of time that the Sun, as viewed from the Earth, takes to return to the same position along the ecliptic (its path among the stars on the celestial sphere). ... The Gregorian calendar is the calendar that is used nearly everywhere in the world. ...


Schools (denominations)

There are a number of Islamic religious denominations, each of which has significant theological and legal differences from each other but possess identical essential belief. The major schools of thought are Sunni and Shi'a, with Sufism considered as a mystical inflection of Islam. There are several branches of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ...


The Sunni are the largest group in Islam (80%– 85% of all Muslims are Sunni). In Arabic, as-Sunnah literally means principle or path, while in terminology, Sunnah is the set of sayings or practice by Prophet Muhammad. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Muhammad is a common Muslim male name. ...


Sunnis believe that Muhammad was as a prophet, a perfect human being, and that they must imitate the words and acts of Muhammad as accurately as possible. In fact, the Quran states that the character of the Prophet Muhammad was a good example to follow. Because of this reason, the Hadith in which those words and acts are described are the main pillar of Sunni doctrine. Sunnis believe that ijtihad, or interpretation of Qur'an and Hadith is closed since 800 years. Sunnis recognize four legal traditions (madhhabs): Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanafi, and Hanbali. All four accept the validity of the others and Muslims choose any one that he/she finds agreeable to his/her ideas. There are also several orthodox theological or philosophical traditions (kalam). Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد) is a technical term of the Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunnah. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... The Maliki madhab (Arabic مالكي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... The Shafi`i madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... This article appears to contradict itself. ... Hambali is the nom de guerre of Indonesian terrorist Riduan Isamuddin. ... Kalam (علم الكلم) in Arabic means speech or discourse, and refers to the Islamic tradition of seeking theological principles through dialectic. ...


Shi'a Muslims, the second-largest sect, differ from the Sunni in rejecting the authority of the first three caliphs. They honor different traditions (hadith) and have their own legal traditions. Shi'a scholars have a larger authority than Sunni scholars and have room for ijtihad or interpretation. The Imams play a central role in Shi'a doctrine. The Shi'a consist of one major school of thought known as the Ithna Ashariyya or the "Twelvers", and a few minor schools of thought, as the "Seveners" or the "Fivers" referring to the number of infallible leaders they recognize after the death of Muhammad. The term Shi'a is usually taken to be synonymous with the Ithna Ashariyya/Twelvers. Most Shi'a live in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain and Lebanon. A minority group (about 15 million) of Shi'a known as Ismaili are led by the Aga Khan and are found mainly on the Indian subcontinent. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Imam is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia (Arabic اثنا عشرية) are members of the group of Shia Islam who believe in twelve Imams. ... The Ismaili (Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmâiliyân) branch of Islam is the second largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ... Aga Khan is a title of the spiritual leader, Imam, of the Nizari sect within the Ismaili branch of Islam (Nizari Ismaili). ...


Wahhabis, as they are known by non-Wahhabis, are a smaller, more recent Sunni group. They prefer to be called Salafis. Wahhabism is a movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab in the 18th century in what is present-day Saudi Arabia. They classify themselves as Sunni and some claim to follow the Hanbali legal tradition. The major trend, however, is the abolition of these "schools of thoughts" (legal traditions), and the following of a more literalist interpretation. Some even regard other Sunni as heretics. Wahabbism is recognized as the official religion of Saudi Arabia and they have had a great deal of influence on the Islamic world because of Saudi control of Mecca and Medina, the Islamic holy places, and because of Saudi funding for mosques and schools in other countries. Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... A Salafi (Arabic سلفي referring to early Muslim), from the Arabic word Salafسلف (literally meaning predecessors or early generations), is an adherent of a contemporary movement in Sunni Islam that is sometimes called Salafism or Wahhabism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ibn Baz. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Hambali is the nom de guerre of Indonesian terrorist Riduan Isamuddin. ... This article is about the holy city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city of Medina in Saudi Arabia. ...


Sunni and Shi'a have often clashed. Some Sunni believe that Shi'a are heretics while other Sunni recognize Shi'a as fellow Muslims. According to Shaikh Mahmood Shaltoot, head of the al-Azhar University in the middle part of the 20th century, "the Ja'fari school of thought, which is also known as "al-Shi'a al- Imamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah" (i.e. The Twelver Imami Shi'ites) is a school of thought that is religiously correct to follow in worship as are other Sunni schools of thought". Al-Azhar later distanced itself from this position. Al-Azhar University in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University, or Al-Azhar Al-Shareef (الأزهر الشريف; literally, The Noble Al-Azhar), is connected to the mosque in Cairo named to honor Fatima Az-Zahraa, the daughter of Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid Dynasty claimed descent. ...


Another sect which dates back to the early days of Islam is that of the Kharijites. The only surviving branch of the Kharijites are the Ibadhi Muslims. Ibadhism, like the extinct Mu'tazila school of thought, emphasizes rationality and tolerance. Ibadi's are the least sectarian of all Muslims. Most Ibadhi Muslims live in Oman. Kharijites (Arabic خوارج Khawarij) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which reject the caliphate of Ali as invalid. ... Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. ...


Another trend in modern Islam is that which is sometimes called progressive. Followers may be called Ijtihadists. They may be either Sunni or Shi'ite, and generally favor the development of personal interpretations of Qur'an and Hadith. See: Liberal Islam In modern times there have been a number of liberal movements within Islam (sometimes called in Arabic: الإسلام الإجتهادية or interpretation-based Islam, also الإسلام المتقدمة or Progressive Islam). These generally denote religious outlooks which depend mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... In modern times there have been a number of liberal movements within Islam (sometimes called in Arabic: الإسلام الإجتهادية or interpretation-based Islam, also الإسلام المتقدمة or Progressive Islam). These generally denote religious outlooks which depend mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ...


One very small Muslim group, based primarily in the United States, follows the teachings of Rashad Khalifa and calls itself the "Submitters". They reject hadith and fiqh, and say that they follow the Qur'an alone. An even smaller group of Qur’an- alone Muslims has split from the Submitters, claiming to represent the authentic teachings of Rashad Khalifa. Most Muslims of both the Sunni and the Shia sects consider this group to be heretical. Rashad Khalifa, 1989. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


Sufism is a spiritual practice followed by both Sunni and Shi'a. Sufis generally feel that following Islamic law or jurisprudence (or fiqh) is only the first step on the path to perfect submission; they focus on the internal or more spiritual aspects of Islam, such as perfecting one's faith and fighting one's own ego (nafs). Most Sufi orders, or tariqa, can be classified as either Sunni or Shi'a. There are also some very large groups or sects of Sufism that are not easily categorized as either Sunni or Shi'a, such as the Bektashi. Sufis are found throughout the Islamic world, from Senegal to Indonesia. Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a mystic tradition of Islam based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as it is gradually revealed to the heart and mind of the Sufi (one who practices Sufism). ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Bektashi order is a heretical cult (Tarika). ...


Religions based on Islam

The following groups consider themselves Muslims, but are not considered Islamic by the majority of Muslims or Muslim authorities:

The following consider themselves Muslims but acceptance by the larger Muslim community varies: The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and socio-political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with a declared aim of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social and economic condition of the black man and woman of America and the world. ... Zikri is a small Islamic sect that is concentrated in Balochistan. ...

The following religions are said by some to have evolved or borrowed from Islam, in almost all cases influenced by traditional beliefs in the regions where they emerged, but consider themselves independent religions with distinct laws and institutions: This article appears to contradict itself. ... Alawite is a Middle Eastern Syria. ... Ahmadi Muslims are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ...

The claim of the adherents of the Bahá'í Faith that it represents an independent religion was upheld by the Muslim ecclesiastical courts in Egypt during the 1920s. As of January 1926, their final ruling on the matter of the origins of the Bahá'í Faith and its relationship to Islam was that the Bahá'í Faith was neither a sect of Islam, nor a religion based on Islam, but a clearly defined, independently founded faith. This was seen as a considerate act on the part of the ecclesiastical court and in favor of followers of Bahá'í Faith since the majority of Muslims regard a religion based on Islam as a heresy. Malak Ta’us The Yazidi or Yezidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... The room where The Báb declared His mission on May 23, 1844 in His house in Shiraz. ... Baháí Faith - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Some see Sikhism as a syncretic mix of Islam and Hinduism, although it is often considered a Dharmic faith than an Islamic or Abrahamic one. It arose in the context of the interaction between Hindu and Muslim communities in North India. The Golden Temple is a sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism (Punjabi: ) is a religion based on the teachings of ten Gurus who lived primarily in 16th and 17th century India. ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... An Abrahamic religion (also referred to as desert monotheism) is any religion derived from an ancient Semitic tradition attributed to Abraham, a great patriarch described in the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ...


The following religions might have been said to have evolved from Islam, but are not considered part of Islam, and no longer exist:

The Berghouata were a medieval Berber tribe of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda group of tribes. ... Ha-Mim, after the beginning of a Quranic surah, or chapter, is the short form of the name Ha-Mim ibn Mann-Allah ibn Harir ibn Umar ibn Rahfu ibn Azerwal ibn Majkasa, also known as Abu Muhammad; he was a member of the Majkasa sub-tribe of the Ghomara...

Islam and other religions

Main article: Islam and other religions

The Qur'an contains both injunctions to respect other religions, and to fight and subdue unbelievers. Some Muslims have respected Jews and Christians as fellow "peoples of the book" (monotheists following Abrahamic religions), while others have reviled them as having abandoned monotheism and corrupted their scriptures. At different times and places, Islamic communities have been both intolerant and tolerant. Support can be found in the Qur'an for both attitudes. Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many attitudes towards other religions, ranging from intolerant to tolerant attitudes. ... An Abrahamic religion (also referred to as desert monotheism) is any religion derived from an ancient Semitic tradition attributed to Abraham, a great patriarch described in the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. ...


The classical Islamic solution was a limited tolerance — Jews and Christians were to be allowed to privately practice their faith and follow their own family law. They were called Dhimmis, and they had fewer legal rights and obligations than Muslims. A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمّي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Muslim religion. ...


The classic Islamic state was often more tolerant than many other states of the time, which insisted on complete conformity to a state religion. The record of contemporary Muslim-majority states is mixed. Some are generally regarded as tolerant, while others have been accused of intolerance and human rights violations. See the main article, Islam and other religions, for further discussion. Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many attitudes towards other religions, ranging from intolerant to tolerant attitudes. ...


History

Main article: History of Islam

Islamic history begins in Arabia in the 7th century with the emergence of the prophet Muhammad. Within a century of his death, an Islamic state stretched from the Atlantic ocean in the west to central Asia in the east, which, however, was soon torn by civil wars (fitnas). After this, there would always be rival dynasties claiming the caliphate, or leadership of the Muslim world, and many Islamic states or empires offering only token obedience to an increasingly powerless caliph. The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... // Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Syria, Iraq, Persia, North Africa and Central Asia convert to Islam. ... Muhammad is a common Muslim male name. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Fitna is an Arabic word for civil war, disagreement, division within Islam. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... This article is on the highest religious and/or temporal title, aspiring universal authority, in Islam; for lower, notably gubernatorial, uses of the Arabic title khalifa, see that article Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Nonetheless, the later empires of the Abbasid caliphs and the Seljuk Turk were among the largest and most powerful in the world. After the disastrous defeat of the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, Christian Europe launched a series of Crusades and for a time captured Jerusalem. Saladin, however, restored unity and defeated the Shiite Fatimids. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسدين ) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ... For the dynasty and empire founded by Seljuk, see Seljuk Turks. ... The Battle of Manzikert (Turkish Malazgirt Savaşı) occurred on August 26, 1071 between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkish forces led by Alp Arslan, resulting in the defeat of the Byzantine Empire and the capture of Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Saladin, from a 12th-century Arab codex Saladin (1137 or 1138–1193; Kurdish: Selahaddin Eyyübi; Arabic: Salah ad-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub; صلاح الدين يوسف ابن ايوب; Salah ad-Din is an honorific that means The Righteousness of the Faith in Arabic) was a 12th century Kurdish Muslim military general who founded the Ayyubid... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ...


From the 14th to the 17th centuries, one of the most important Muslim territories was the Mali Empire, whose capital was Timbuktu. The Mali Empire was an Islamic Empire of the Mandinka people in West Africa from the 14th to 17th centuries. ... Timbuktu or Timbuctu (Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu, French: Tombouctou) is a city populated by the Songhay, Tuareg, Fulani, and Moorish people in the West African country of Mali. ...


In the 18th century, there were three great Muslim empires: the Ottoman in Turkey, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean; the Safavid in Iran; and the Mogul in India. By the 19th century, these realms had fallen under the sway of European political and economic power. Following WWI, the remnants of the Ottoman empire were parceled out as European protectorates or spheres of influence. Islam and Islamic political power have revived in the 20th century. However, the relationship between the West and the Islamic world remains uneasy. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Mogul may mean: a bump in the snow in alpine skiing, a Mongolian the Mughal empire, or any member of its ruling dynasty by extension, any ruler or powerful person, such as a industrial mogul or media mogul a railroad steam locomotive type called the Mogul the largest size light... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... WWI may be an acronym for: World War I World Wrestling Industry This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the rule of Oliver Cromwell, see The Protectorate. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country or a region of economic influence around an urban area. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Contemporary Islam

Countries with Muslim populations over 10% of total (source - CIA World Factbook, 2004). The darker green represents a Sunni majority and the light green represents a Shia majority.
Countries with Muslim populations over 10% of total (source - CIA World Factbook, 2004). The darker green represents a Sunni majority and the light green represents a Shia majority.

Although the most prominent movement in Islam in recent times has been fundamentalist Islamism, there are a number of liberal movements within Islam, which seek alternative ways to align the Islamic faith with contemporary questions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (839x370, 10 KB) M LKNLN+ File links The following pages link to this file: Islam ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (839x370, 10 KB) M LKNLN+ File links The following pages link to this file: Islam ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... In comparative religion, fundamentalism has come to refer to several different understandings of religious thought and practice, including literal interpretation of sacred texts such as the Bible or the Quran and sometimes also anti-modernist movements in various religions. ... Islamism refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various religious views of Muslim fundamentalists, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but also a political system that governs the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. ... Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الإجتهادية or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام المتقدمة or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ...


Early Sharia had a much more flexible character than is currently associated with Islamic jurisprudence, and many modern Muslim scholars believe that it should be renewed, and the classical jurists should lose their special status. This would require formulating a new fiqh suitable for the modern world, e.g. as proposed by advocates of the Islamization of knowledge, and would deal with the modern context. One vehicle proposed for such a change has been the revival of the principle of ijtihad, or independent reasoning by a qualified Islamic scholar, which has lain dormant for centuries. Sharia (Arabic: ; also SharÄ«ah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is the Arabic word for Islamic law, also known as the Law of Allah. ... Islamic jurisprudence, Fiqh (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings of Islamic scholars to direct the lives of the Muslim faithful. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... The Islamization of knowledge is a term which describes a variety of attempts and approaches to synthesize the ethics of Islam with various fields of modern thought. ... Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد) is a technical term of the Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunnah. ...


This movement does not aim to challenge the fundamentals of Islam; rather, it seeks to clear away misinterpretations and to free the way for the renewal of the previous status of the Islamic world as a centre of modern thought and freedom. (See Modern Islamic philosophy for more on this subject.) There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ...


Many Muslims counter the claim that only "liberalization" of the Islamic Sharia law can lead to distinguishing between tradition and true Islam by saying that meaningful "fundamentalism", by definition, will eject non-Islamic cultural inventions — for instance, acknowledging and implementing Muhammad's insistence that women have God-given rights that no human being may legally infringe upon. Proponents of modern Islamic philosophy sometimes respond to this by arguing that, as a practical matter, "fundamentalism" in popular discourse about Islam may actually refer, not to core precepts of the faith, but to various systems of cultural traditionalism. The word tradition, comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ...


The demographics of Islam today

Main articles: Islam by country, Demographics of Islam

Based on the percentages published in the 2005 CIA World Factbook ("World"), Islam is the second-largest religion in the world. According to the World Network of Religious Futurists, the U.S. Center for World Mission, and the Samuel Huntington, Islam is growing faster numerically than any of the other major world religions. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance estimates that it is growing at about 2.9% annually, as opposed to 2.3% per year global population growth. This is attributed either to the higher birth rates in many Islamic countries (six out of the top-ten countries in the world with the highest birth rates have a Muslim majority [1]) and/or high rates of conversion to Islam. Distribution of Islam Important note: There is currently no exact mechanism in place anywhere around the world for counting religious denomination membership with precision. ... The following table analyzes the demographics of Islam as of September 2005. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Samuel Phillips Huntington (born April 18, 1927) is a political scientist known for his analysis of the relationship between the military and the civil government, his investigation of coup detats, and his thesis that the central political actors of the 21st century will be civilizations rather than nation-states. ... For a list of all religions, please see the article list of religions. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ...


Commonly cited estimates of the Muslim population today range between 900 million and 1.4 billion people (cf. Adherents.com); estimates of Islam by country based on U.S. State Department figures yield a total of 1.48 billion, while the Muslim delegation at the United Nations quoted 1.2 billion as the global Muslim population in Sept 2005. Distribution of Islam Important note: There is currently no exact mechanism in place anywhere around the world for counting religious denomination membership with precision. ...


Only 18% of Muslims live in the Arab world; 20% are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, about 30% in the Indian subcontinental region of Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, and the world's largest single Muslim community (within the bounds of one nation) is in Indonesia. There are also significant Muslim populations in China, Europe, Central Asia, and Russia. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also pronounced Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Arabs ((Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large ethnic group widespread in the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Composite satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia. ... Europe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Austria was the first European country to recognize Islam as an official religion, while France has the highest Muslim population of any nation in Western Europe, with up to 6 million Muslims (10% of the population [2]). Albania is said to have the highest proportion of Muslims as part of its population in Europe (70%), although this figure is only an estimate (see Islam in Albania). The number of Muslims in North America is variously estimated as anywhere from 1.8 to 7 million. The eighteenth-century Ethem Bey Mosque on Skanderbeg Square in the heart of Tirana The majority of citizens of Albania are secular in orientation after decades of rigidly enforced atheism under the Communist regime, which ended in 1990. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the...


Symbols of Islam

Main article: Islamic symbols
 This green star and crescent are composed of Arabic calligraphy representing the Basmala, the first verse of the Qur'an, and the Shahādah, the Muslim confession of faith .
This green star and crescent are composed of Arabic calligraphy representing the Basmala, the first verse of the Qur'an, and the Shahādah, the Muslim confession of faith .

Muslims do not accept any icon, or color as sacred to Islam, as worshipping symbolic or material things is against the spirit of monotheism. Many people assume that the star and crescent symbolize Islam, but these were actually the insignia of the Ottoman empire, not of Islam as a whole. The color green is often associated with Islam as well; this is mere custom, not anything prescribed by religious scholars. However, Muslims will often use elaborately calligraphed verses from the Qur'an as decorations in mosque, home, and public places. The Quranic verses are believed to be sacred. There are no art works prescribed by the Quran or Hadith as the symbols of Islam; however there are some Shaair or signs (of memory) initiated by the Quran. ... Image File history File links Green_Shahada_crescent. ... Image File history File links Green_Shahada_crescent. ... Calligraphy (from Greek καλλι calli beauty + γραφος graphos writing) is the art of decorative writing. ... Image:Basmala. ... See Shahada (India) for the Indian town called Shahada (in Maharashtra state). ... Monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... A crescent is the shape produced when from a circular disk the disk of a circle which is a little smaller and tangent on the inside to the larger circle, is cut. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... Look up green in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān, literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


See also

List of Islamic and Muslim-related topics

Adhan ([]) is the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin. ... Christo-Islamic is a term of comparative religion to connect fundamental ideas in Christianity with similar ones in Islam. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Dawah (دعوة) is an Arabic term meaning invite or invitation, and is used in Islam to refer to the activity of proselytizing. ... Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... Islamic feminism is a movement that began in the 1990s in response to the growth of Islamism throughout the Islamic world. ... Islamophobia is a neologism used to refer to an irrational fear or prejudice towards Muslims and the religion of Islam. ... Islamism refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various religious views of Muslim fundamentalists, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but also a political system that governs the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. ... Islamic science is science in the context of traditional religious ideas of Islam, including its ethics and philosophy. ... Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many attitudes towards other religions, ranging from intolerant to tolerant attitudes. ... Jihad (Arabic: jihād) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root jhd (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause. ... Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الإجتهادية or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام المتقدمة or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... This list is poorly defined, permanently incomplete, or has become unverifiable or an indiscriminate list or repository of loosely associated topics. ... As with any religion, Islam has been a subject of criticism since its formative stages. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ...

Notes

  1. Shi'a Muslims do not believe in absolute predestination (Qadar), since they consider it incompatible with Divine Justice. Neither do they believe in absolute free will since that contradicts God's Omniscience and Omnipotence. Rather they believe in "a way between the two ways" (amr bayn al‑'amrayn) believing in free will, but within the boundaries set for it by God and exercised with His permission.
  2. The Egyptian Islamic Jihad group claims, as did a few long- extinct early medieval Kharijite sects, that Jihad is the "sixth pillar of Islam". Some Ismaili groups consider "Allegiance to the Imam" to be the so-called sixth pillar of Islam. For more information, see the article entitled Sixth pillar of Islam.

Qadar in Arabic means fate or divine destiny. ... The term Sixth pillar of Islam refers to an addition to the Five Pillars of Islam; the five pillars of Islam explain the basic tenets of the Muslim faith. ...

References

  • Encyclopedia of Islam
  • Arberyy, A. J. The Koran Interpreted: a translation by A. J. Arberry. Touchstone, ISBN 0684825074
  • Fons Vitae Islam: A Pictorial Essay in Four Parts (video) Fons Vitae Books
  • Kramer, Martin. The Islamism Debate. University Press, (1997) ISBN 9652240249
  • Kurzman, Charles. Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press, (1998) ISBN 0195116224
  • Rahman, Fazlur. Islam. University of Chicago Press; 2nd edition, (1979) ISBN 0226702812
  • Safi, Omid. Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender and Pluralism. Oneworld Publications, (2003) ISBN 1-85168-316-X
  • Tibi, Bassam. The Challenge of Fundamentalism: Political Islam and the New World Disorder. Univ. of California Press, (1998) ISBN 0520088689
  • Winter, T.J. and Williams, J.A. Understanding Islam and the Muslims Fons Vitae Books

The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ...

External links

The National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education (NITLE) was established in September, 2001, through a grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, to serve as a catalyst for innovation and collaboration for national liberal arts colleges as they seek to make effective use of technology. ...

Directories

Islam and the arts, sciences, & philosophy

  • Islamic Architecture
  • Resources on Islam and Islamic Art and symbolism
  • Islamic Art (Los Angeles County Museum of Art)
  • Muslim Heritage (Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation, UK)
  • Islamic Architecture (IAORG) illustrated descriptions and reviews of a large number of mosques, palaces, and monuments.
  • The International Museum of Muslim Cultures, Jackson, MS. Features exhibits on Islamic Moorish Spain and the Timbuktu Manuscripts.
  • Islamic Philosophy (Journal of Islamic Philosophy, University of Michigan)




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