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Encyclopedia > Islamic philosophy

Islam
Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah, sometimes spelt as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah. ...

Allah - Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Allah. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage Aqidah, sometimes spelt as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah. ... The shahadah (Arabic:  ) is the Islamic creed. ... For the Indian village, see Salat, Kulpahar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ...

History & Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shia Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ‎) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in both Sunni and Shia Islam to refer to the rightly guided Caliphs prophesised in the famous tradition, Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs (Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood). ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia · Kalam · Tasawwuf This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that is practised by some muslims and some non-muslims and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shia

Culture & Society
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Art · Science · Philosophy
Architecture · Mosques · Calendar
Festivals · Demographics · Politics
Women · Children · Animals Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... This is a subarticle to Islamic studies and science. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: گاه‌شماری هجري قمری ‎ Gāhshomāri-ye hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... Distribution of Islam per country. ... - - - Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muhammad said that If a house fly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease. ...

See also

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Ku Klux Klan Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

view

Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ...

Contents

Definition

The attempt to fuse religion and philosophy is difficult because there are no clear preconditions. Philosophers typically hold that one must accept the possibility of truth from any source and follow the argument wherever it leads. On the other hand, classical religious believers have a set of religious principles that they hold to be unchallengeable fact. Given these divergent goals and views, some hold[citation needed] that one cannot simultaneously be a philosopher and a true adherent of Islam, which is believed to be a revealed religion by its adherents. In this view, all attempts at synthesis ultimately fail. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown. ...


However, others believe that a synthesis between Islam and philosophy is possible. One way to find a synthesis is to use philosophical arguments to prove that one's preset religious principles are true. This is a common technique found in the writings of many religious traditions, including Judaism, Christianity and Islam, but this is not generally accepted as true philosophy by philosophers[citation needed]. Another way to find a synthesis is to abstain from holding as true any religious principles of one's faith at all, unless one independently comes to those conclusions from a philosophical analysis. However, this is not generally accepted as being faithful to one's religion by adherents of that religion. A third, rarer and more difficult path is to apply analytical philosophy to one's own religion. In this case a religious person would also be a philosopher, by asking questions such as: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...

  • What is the nature of God? How do we know that God exists?
  • What is the nature of revelation? How do we know that God reveals his will to mankind?
  • What is the nature of divinely guided Messengers vis à vis philosophers?
  • What is the nature of Imamat or vicegerency of humans on earth?
  • Which of our religious traditions must be interpreted literally?
  • Which of our religious traditions must be interpreted allegorically?
  • What must one actually believe to be considered a true adherent of our religion?
  • How can one reconcile the findings of philosophy with religion?
  • How can one reconcile the findings of science with religion?
  • How can one reconcile the findings of math with religion

This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown. ...

Introduction

Islamic philosophy may be defined in a number of different ways, but the perspective taken here is that it represents the style of philosophy produced within the framework of Islamic culture. This description does not suggest that it is necessarily concerned with religious issues, nor even that it is exclusively produced by Muslims. [Oliver Leaman, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Formative influences

Islamic philosophy as the name implies refers to philosophical activity within the Islamic milieu. The main sources of classical or early Islamic philosophy are the religion of Islam itself (especially ideas derived and interpreted from Quran), Greek philosophy which the early Muslims inherited as a result of conquests when Alexandria, Syria and Jundishapur came under Muslim rule, along with pre-Islamic Iranian and Indian philosophy. Many of the early philosophical debates centered around reconciling religion and reason, the latter exemplified by Greek philosophy. The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... The Academy of Gundishapur (in Persian: ‎) was a renowned center of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. ...


Early and Classical Islamic philosophy

In early Islamic thought two main currents may be distinguished. The first is Kalam, that mainly dealt with theological questions, and the other is Falsafa, that was founded on the reception of Greek thought. Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ...


Kalam

Independent minds exploiting the methods of ijtihad sought to investigate the doctrines of the Qur'an, which until then had been accepted in faith on the authority of divine revelation. One of first debates was that between partisan of the Qadar (Arabic: qadara, to have power), who affirmed free will, and the Jabarites (jabar, force, constraint), who maintained the belief in fatalism. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... It has been suggested that Theological fatalism be merged into this article or section. ...


At the second century of the Hegira, a new movement arose in the theological school of Basra, Iraq. A pupil, Wasil ibn Ata, who was expelled from the school because his answers were contrary to then orthodox Islamic tradition and became leader of a new school, and systematized the radical opinions of preceding sects, particularly those of the Qadarites. This new school was called Mutazilite (from i'tazala, to separate oneself, to dissent). Its principal dogmas were three: This article is about Islamic Calendar and how it was formed, for the event of hijra see Migration to Medina. ... Location of Basra Basra (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Al BaÅŸrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of 2,600,000 (2003). ... Wasil ibn Ata (700–748) (Arabic: ‎) was a Muslim theologian, and by some accounts is considered the founder of the Mutazilite school of Islamic thought. ... Mutazili (Arabic المعتزلة) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. ...

  1. God is an absolute unity, and no attribute can be ascribed to Him.
  2. Man is a free agent. It is on account of these two principles that the Mu'tazilites designate themselves the "Partisans of Justice and Unity".
  3. All knowledge necessary for the salvation of man emanates from his reason; humans could acquire knowledge before, as well as after, Revelation, by the sole light of reason. This fact makes knowledge obligatory upon all men, at all times, and in all places.

The Mutazilites, compelled to defend their principles against the orthodox Islam of their day, looked for support in philosophy, and are one of the first to pursue a rational theology called Ilm-al-Kalam (Scholastic theology); those professing it were called Mutakallamin. This appellation became the common name for all seeking philosophical demonstration in confirmation of religious principles. The first Mutakallamin had to debate both the orthodox and the non-Muslims, and they may be described as occupying the middle ground between those two parties. But subsequent generations were to large extent critical towards the Mutazilite school, especially after formation of the Asharite concepts. In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Natural theology is the attempt to find evidence of a God or intelligent designer without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Asharite (Arabic الأشعرية al-ash`aryah) is a school of early Muslim philosophy that wasinstrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic philosophy, separating its development radically from that of philosophy in the Christian world. ...


Falsafa

From the ninth century onward, owing to Caliph al-Ma'mun and his successor, Greek philosophy was introduced among the Persians and Arabs, and the Peripatetic school began to find able representatives among them; such were Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), and Ibn Rushd (Averroës), all of whose fundamental principles were considered as criticized by the Mutakallamin. (8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars south... For main article see: Caliphate Khalif is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... Peripatetic means wandering. The Peripatetics were a school of philosophy in ancient Greece. ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ...


During the Abbasid caliphate a number of thinkers and scientists, many of them non-Muslims or heretical Muslims, played a role in transmitting Greek, Hindu, and other pre-Islamic knowledge to the Christian West. They contributed to making Aristotle known in Christian Europe. Three speculative thinkers, the two Persians al-Farabi and Avicenna and the Arab al-Kindi, combined Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. They were considered by many as highly unorthodox and by some were even described as non-Islamic philosophers. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Western world or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ...


From Spain Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Hebrew and Latin, contributing to the development of modern European philosophy. The philosophers Moses Maimonides (a Jew born in Muslim Spain) and precursor of sociology and historiography Ibn Khaldun (born in modern-day Tunisia) were also important. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس al-andalus) was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims at various times in the period between 711 and 1492. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... [<br /> ---- Julius Caesar was born in the year 100 BC] Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Muslim historian, historiographer, sociologist and economist born in present-day Tunisia. ...


Some differences between Kalam and Falsafa

Aristotle attempted to demonstrate the unity of God; but from the view which he maintained, that matter was eternal, it followed that God could not be the Creator of the world. To assert that God's knowledge extends only to the general laws of the universe, and not to individual and accidental things, is tantamount to denying prophecy. One other point shocked the faith of the Mutakallamin — the theory of intellect. The Peripatetics taught that the human soul was only an aptitude — a faculty capable of attaining every variety of passive perfection — and that through information and virtue it became qualified for union with the active intellect, which latter emanates from God. To admit this theory would be to deny the immortality of the soul. God is the divine being that created the omniverse. ... This article or section seems to describe future events as if they have already occurred. ... Peripatetic (περιπατητικός) is the name given to followers of Aristotle, the Greek philosopher. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is the self-aware essence unique to a particular living being. ... This article is about living for infinite period of time. ...


Wherefore the Mutakallamin had, before anything else, to establish a system of philosophy to demonstrate the creation of matter, and they adopted to that end the theory of atoms as enunciated by Democritus. They taught that atoms possess neither quantity nor extension. Originally atoms were created by God, and are created now as occasion seems to require. Bodies come into existence or die, through the aggregation or the sunderance of these atoms. But this theory did not remove the objections of philosophy to a creation of matter.


For, indeed, if it be supposed that God commenced His work at a certain definite time by His "will," and for a certain definite object, it must be admitted that He was imperfect before accomplishing His will, or before attaining His object. In order to obviate this difficulty, the Motekallamin extended their theory of the atoms to Time, and claimed that just as Space is constituted of atoms and vacuum, Time, likewise, is constituted of small indivisible moments. The creation of the world once established, it was an easy matter for them to demonstrate the existence of a Creator, and that God is unique, omnipotent, and omniscient. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is power with no limits or inexhaustible, in other words, unlimited power. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything infinitely, or at least everything that can be known about a character including thoughts, feelings, life and the universe, etc. ...


Jewish philosophy in the Arab world in the classical period

The oldest Jewish religio-philosophical work preserved is that of Saadia Gaon (892-942), Emunot ve-Deot, "The Book of Beliefs and Opinions". In this work Saadia treats the questions that interested the Mutakallamin, such as the creation of matter, the unity of God, the divine attributes, the soul, etc. Saadia criticizes other philosophers severely. For Saadia there was no problem as to creation: God created the world ex nihilo, just as the Bible attests; and he contests the theory of the Mutakallamin in reference to atoms, which theory, he declares, is just as contrary to reason and religion as the theory of the philosophers professing the eternity of matter. This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Arabic philosophy dates from the appearance of dissenting sects in Islam. ... Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon (892-942), the Hebrew name of Said al-Fayyumi, was a rabbi who was also a prominent Jewish exilarch, philosopher, and exegete. ... Events Poppo of Thuringia, count of the march in Thuringia,is deposed by the German Carolingian king Arnulf of Carinthia Arnulf of Carinthia invades Great Moravia Duke Guido of Spoleto crowned Roman Emperor in April The former Silla general Gyeonhwon attacks the city of Gwangju and declares himself king. ... Events Kaminarimon, the eight-pillared gate to Japans Kinryuzan Sensouji Temple is erected. ... Emunoth ve-Deoth (אמונות ודעות; Hebrew: Beliefs and Opinions) written by Rabbi Saadia Gaon - originally Kitab al-Amanat wal-ltikadat (Book of the Articles of Faith and Doctrines of Dogma) - was the first systematic presentation and philosophic foundation of the dogmas of Judaism. ... Ex nihilo is a Latin term meaning out of nothing. It is often used in conjunction with the term creation, as in creatio ex nihilo, meaning creation out of nothing. Due to the nature of this, the term is often used in philosophical or creationistic arguments, as a number of... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...


To prove the unity of God, Saadia uses the demonstrations of the Mutakallamin. Only the attributes of essence (sifat al-dhatia) can be ascribed to God, but not the attributes of action (sifat-al-fi'aliya). The soul is a substance more delicate even than that of the celestial spheres. Here Saadia controverts the Mutakallamin, who considered the soul an "accident" 'arad (compare Guide for the Perplexed i. 74), and employs the following one of their premises to justify his position: "Only a substance can be the substratum of an accident" (that is, of a non-essential property of things). Saadia argues: "If the soul be an accident only, it can itself have no such accidents as wisdom, joy, love," etc. Saadia was thus in every way a supporter of the Kalam; and if at times he deviated from its doctrines, it was owing to his religious views; just as the Jewish and Muslim Peripatetics stopped short in their respective Aristotelianism whenever there was danger of wounding orthodox religion. The Guide for the Perplexed (Hebrew:מורה נבוכים, translit. ...


Main protagonists of falsafa and their critics

The twelfth century saw the apotheosis of pure philosophy and the decline of the Kalam, which latter, being attacked by both the philosophers and the orthodox, perished for lack of champions. This supreme exaltation of philosophy may be attributed, in great measure, to Al-Ghazali (1005-1111) among the Persians, and to Judah ha-Levi (1140) among the Jews. It can be argued that the attacks directed against the philosophers by Ghazali in his work, "Tahafut al-Falasifa" (The Destruction of the Philosophers), not only produced, by reaction, a current favorable to philosophy, but induced the philosophers themselves to profit by his criticism. They thereafter made their theories clearer and their logic closer. The influence of this reaction brought forth the two greatest philosophers that the Islamic Peripatetic school ever produced, namely, Ibn Bajjah (Avempace) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes), both of whom undertook the defense of philosophy. Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... Judah Ha-Levi, also Yehudah Halevi, was a Jewish Spanish philosopher and poet. ... Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... Ibn Bajjah ابن باجة Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Sayegh أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصايغ was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and physician who was known in the West using his latinized name, Avempace. ... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ...


Since no idea and no literary or philosophical movement ever germinated on Persian or Arabian soil without leaving its impress on the Jews, the Persian Ghazali found an imitator in the person of Judah ha-Levi. This poet also took upon himself to free his religion from what he saw as the shackles of speculative philosophy, and to this end wrote the "Kuzari," in which he sought to discredit all schools of philosophy alike. He passes severe censure upon the Mutakallamin for seeking to support religion by philosophy. He says, "I consider him to have attained the highest degree of perfection who is convinced of religious truths without having scrutinized them and reasoned over them" ("Kuzari," v.). Then he reduced the chief propositions of the Mutakallamin, to prove the unity of God, to ten in number, describing them at length, and concluding in these terms: "Does the Kalam give us more information concerning God and His attributes than the prophet did?" (Ib. iii. and iv.) Aristotelianism finds no favor in Judah ha-Levi's eyes, for it is no less given to details and criticism; Neoplatonism alone suited him somewhat, owing to its appeal to his poetic temperament. The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... Kalam in Arabic means speech or discourse and refers to the Islamic tradition of seeking theological principles through dialectic. ... Judah Ha-Levi, also Yehudah Halevi, was a Jewish Spanish philosopher and poet. ...


Ibn Rushd (or Ibn Roshd or Averroës), the contemporary of Maimonides, closed the first great philosophical era of the Muslims. The boldness of this great commentator of Aristotle aroused the full fury of the orthodox, who, in their zeal, attacked all philosophers indiscriminately, and had all philosophical writings committed to the flames. The theories of Ibn Rushd do not differ fundamentally from those of Ibn Bajjah and Ibn Tufail, who only follow the teachings of Ibn Sina and Al-Farabi. Like all Islamic Peripatetics, Ibn Rushd admits the hypothesis of the intelligence of the spheres and the hypothesis of universal emanation, through which motion is communicated from place to place to all parts of the universe as far as the supreme world—hypotheses which, in the mind of the Arabic philosophers, did away with the dualism involved in Aristotle's doctrine of pure energy and eternal matter. Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Ibn Bajjah ابن باجة Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Sayegh أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصايغ was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and physician who was known in the West using his latinized name, Avempace. ... Ibn Tufail (c. ...


But while Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, and other Persian and Muslim philosophers hurried, so to speak, over subjects that trenched on religious dogmas, Ibn Rushd delighted in dwelling upon them with full particularity and stress. Thus he says, "Not only is matter eternal, but form is potentially inherent in matter; otherwise, it were a creation ex nihilo" (Munk, "Mélanges," p. 444). According to this theory, therefore, the existence of this world is not only a possibility, as Ibn Sina declared—in order to make concessions to the orthodox— but also a necessity. Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Driven from the Islamic schools, Islamic philosophy found a refuge with the Jews, to whom belongs the honor of having transmitted it to the Christian world. A series of eminent men—such as the Ibn Tibbons, Narboni, Gersonides—joined in translating the Arabic philosophical works into Hebrew and commenting upon them. The works of Ibn Rushd especially became the subject of their study, due in great measure to Maimonides, who, in a letter addressed to his pupil Joseph ibn Aknin, spoke in the highest terms of Ibn Rushd's commentary. Ibn Tibbon (or ibn Tibbon), is a family of Jewish rabbis and translators that lived principally in southern France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. ... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ...


It should be mentioned that this depiction of intellectual tradition in Islamic Lands is mainly dependent upon what West could understand (or was willing to understand) from this long era. In contrast, there are some historians and philosophers who do not agree with this account and describe this era in a completely different way. Their main point of dispute is on the influence of different philosophers on Islamic Philosophy, especially the comparative importance of eastern intellectuals such as Ibn Sina and of western thinkers such as Ibn Rushd. (For more discussion, refer to the History of Islamic Philosophy by Henry Corbin.) Henry Corbin (April , 1903 - October 7, 1978) was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris. ...


Later Islamic philosophy

The death of Ibn Rushd effectively marks the end of a particular discipline of Islamic philosophy usually called the Peripatetic Arabic School, and philosophical activity declined significantly in western Islamic countries, namely in Spain and North Africa, though it persisted for much longer in the Eastern countries, in particular Iran and India. Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ...


Since the political power shift in Western Europe (Spain and Portugal) from Muslim to Christian control, the Muslims naturally did not practice philosophy in Western Europe. This also led to some loss of contact between the 'west' and the 'east' of the Islamic world. Muslims in the 'east' continued to do philosophy, as is evident from the works of Ottoman scholars and especially those living in Muslim kingdoms within the territories of present day Iran and India, such as Shah Waliullah and Ahmad Sirhindi. This fact has escaped most pre-modern historians of Islamic (or Arabic) philosophy. In addition, logic has continued to be taught in religious seminaries up to modern times. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... It has been suggested that Wali Allah Dahlawi be merged into this article or section. ... Ahmad Sirhindi was an Islamic scholar and prominent member of the Naqshbandi Sufi order. ...


After Ibn Rushd, there arose many later schools of Islamic Philosophy. We can mention just a few, such as the those founded by Ibn Arabi, Suhrawardi and Mulla Sadra. These new schools are of particular importance, as they are still active in the Islamic world. For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ...


Post-classical Iranian Muslim philosophy

Post-classical Islamic philosophers are usually divided into two main categories according to their affiliation with the Sunni and Shia denominations. Of course, there are many contemporary philosophers and thinkers such as Professor Nasr and Imam Musa Sadr who do not accept the importance of this classification. But there is a consensus that we can categorize this era according to the two main approaches: thinkers who mainly worked within the Shi’a tradition and thinkers who did not. If we accept this division then we can summarize each category as follows (it should be mentioned that this classification has many overlaps, is not very clear and precise). Sunni Islam (Arabic &#1587;&#1606;&#1617;&#1577;) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shi&#699;a Islam (Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%&#8211;35% of all Muslim. ... Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr, who recently won the Templeton Award for teaching the best course in Islam in America. ... Musa al-Sadr (Arabic امام موسى صدر) also transliterated Moussa Sader, and many other variants, was a prominent Shiite religious leader who spent many years of his life in Lebanon as a religous and political leader. ...


Thinkers not primarily concerned with Shi’a beliefs:

Islam, Liberty and Development by Islamic philosopher Mohammad Khatami
  • Philosophers:
  1. Abhari ابحرى
  2. Ibn Sab’in (d. 1268) ابن سبعين
  3. Kateb-e-Qazwini كاتب قزوينى
  4. Rashid-al-Din Fazlollah رشيدالدين فضل الله
  5. Qutb-al-din Razi قطب الدين رازى
  • Theosophers:
  1. Fakhr al-Din Razi (d. 1209 ) فخرالدين رازى
  2. Iji ايجى
  3. Taftazani تفتازانى
  4. Jorjani جرجانى
  • Opponents of Philosophy
  1. Ibn Taymiya (d. 1328) and his students ابن تيميه
  • History of Philosophy
  1. Zakariya Qazwini زكرياى قزوينى
  2. Shams al-Din Mohamamd Amuli شمس الدين محمد آملى
  3. Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406) ابن خلدون
  • Gnostic and Sufi thinkers
  1. Roz bahan Balqi Shirazi روزبهان بلقى شيرازى
  2. Attar Neyshaburi عطار نيشابورى
  3. Umar Suhrawardi عمر سهروردى
  4. Ibn Arabi (d. 1240) & his School ابن عربى
  5. Najmeddin Kubra نجم الدين كبرى
  6. Simnani سمنانى
  7. Ali Hamedani على همدانى
  8. Mawlana Jalal al-Din Rumi مولانا
  9. Mahmud Shabestari & Shams al-Din Lahiji محمود شبسترى و شمس الدين لاهيجى
  10. Abd-al-karim Jili عبدالكريم جيلى
  11. Ne’mat-o-allah vali kermani نعمت الله ولى كرمانى
  12. Huroofi & Baktashi حروفى و بكتاشى
  13. Jami جامى
  14. Hossein Kashefi حسين كاشفى
  15. abd al-Qani Nablosi عبدالغنى نابلسى
  16. Noor ali Shah نورعلى شاه
  17. Zahbiyye ذهبيه

Thinkers primarily concerned with Shi’a beliefs: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Haq Ibn Sab’in (محمدبن عبدالحق بن سبعين) is the last philosopher of the Andalous in the west land of Islamic world and his school is a combination of philosophical and Gnostic thoughts. ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician[1], writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi. ... Abu `Abdallah Muhammad bin `Umar al-Razi, known as Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, (1149–1209) is a famous and well known Muslim theologian and philosopher from Ray, Iran, Persia. ... Taqi Ad-din Abu Al-abbas Ahmad Ibn abd As-salam Ibn abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Taymiya (Arabic: أبو عباس تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني) (January 22, 1263 - 1328), was an Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Tile illustrating Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing, Iran, 19th century Abu Yahya Zakariya ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini ( died 1283 CE), was a Persian physician. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Muslim historian, historiographer, sociologist and economist born in present-day Tunisia. ... The Conference of the Birds painted by Habib Allah. ... Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi (Persian:عمر سهروردى) fixme (1144 - 1234) was an Iranian Sufi. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ... Sheikh Najmeddin Kubra was a 13th century famous Persian Sufi from Khwarezmia and was the founder of the Kubrawiya Sufi order. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Sheikh MahmÅ«d Shabestari (687AH.- 720AH.) (Persian: ) was a Sufi Muslim. ... عبدالكريم جيلى Abd-al-karim Jili (* 1365; † 1424[1]), was the Sufi author of Al-Insan-ul-Kamil (The Perfect Man). ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ...

  1. Nasir al-Din Tusi (d.1274) خواجه نصيرالدين توسي
  2. Isa’ili اسماعيليان
  3. Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (d. 1191) and the Illumination School شهاب الدين سهروردى و مكتب اشراق
  4. Jaldaki جلدكى
  5. Sadr al-Din Dashtaki and the Shiraz School صدرالدين دشتكى و مكتب شيراز
  6. Mir Damad (d. 1631) and the Isfahan School ميرداماد و مكتب اصفهان
  7. Mir Fendereski and his students ميرفندرسكى
  8. Mulla Sadra (d. 1640) and the Transcendent Philosophy ملاصدرا و حكمت متعاليه
  9. Rajab Ali Tabrizi and his students رجب على تبريزى
  10. Qazi Sa’id Qumi قاضى سعيد قمى
  11. Tehran and Qom School مكتب تهران و قم
  12. Khorasan School مكتب خراسان
  13. Mulla Hadi Sabzevari and the Neyshabor School ملاهادى سبزوارى و مكتب نيشابور

Nasir Tusi Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) was a Persian scientist, of Shia Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iran. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... A very live and active discipline in Islamic Philosophy, Illuminationism Philosophy or hikmat-al-Ishraq (Persian حكمت اشراق ) was developed and perfected by Shahab-al-Din-Suhrawardi, famous Persian Philosopher. ... Mir Damad (Persian: ميرداماد) was a philosopher, teacher, & leader in the cultural renaissance of Iran during Safavid dynasty and the main founder of the Isfahan School. ... The Isfahan School (Persian: مكتب اصفهان ) is a well known discipline in Islamic philosophy and is usually called a Renaissance in Islamic Philosophy. ... Mir Fendereski (1562-1640), was a renowned Iranian philosopher, poet and mystic of the Safavid era. ... ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ... حكمت متعاليه Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’liyah, the doctrine and philosophy that has been developed and perfected by Persian Philosopher Mulla Sadra, is one of tow main disciplines of Islamic Philosophy which is very live & active even today. ... Mulla Hadi Sabzevari or Hajj Molla Hadi Sabzevari was an Iranian philosopher and poet. ...

Modern Islamic philosophy

Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), a notable Muslim philosopher, poet and scholar from modern day Pakistan (then British India)
Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), a notable Muslim philosopher, poet and scholar from modern day Pakistan (then British India)

The tradition of Islamic Philosophy is still very much alive today despite the belief in many Western circles that this tradition ceased after the golden ages of Suhrawardi’s Hikmat al-Ishraq (Illumination Philosophy) or, at the latest, Mulla Sadra’s Hikmat-e-Mota’aliye or Transcendent (Exalted) Philosophy. Another unavoidable name is Allama Muhammad Iqbal who reshaped and revitalized Islamic philosophy amongst the Muslims of the Indian sub-continent in the early 20th century[1]. Beside his Urdu and Persian poetical work, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam [2] is a milestone in the modern political philosophy of Islam. There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ... Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal Allama Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) was an important Indian Muslim poet from the colonial era, a philosopher and thinker of Kashmiri origin. ... (, historically spelled Ordu), is an Middle Eastern-Aryan language. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam is a book by Muhammad Iqbal on Islamic philosophy, which was published in 1930. ...


In contemporary Islamic Lands, the teaching of hikmat or hikmah has continued and flourished. Hikmah is a word important to Islamic philosophy that entered Arabic through Greek in the 8th and 9th centuries. ...


Among the traditional masters of Islamic philosophy most active during the past two decades may be mentioned

  • the Iranian علامه طباطبائى or Allameh Tabatabaei, the author of numerous works including the twenty seven-volume Quranic commentary al-Mizan (الميزان),
  • Sayyid Abul-Hasan Rafi’i Qazwini (سيد ابوالحسن رفيعى قزوينى) the great master of Mulla Sadra's school who has written a few treasured works but has trained many outstanding students such as Sayyid Jalal-al-Din Ashtiyani (جلال الدين آشتيانى), who has studied with both him and Allamah Tabatabai, and
  • Allamah Muhammad Salih Ha’iri Simnanin, the most loyal follower of Peripatetic philosophy and opposed to Mulla Sadra's school.

The younger traditional scholars who have been most active recently in Islamic Philosophy include Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ...

  • Mirza Mahdi Ha‘iri, the only one of the traditional class of hakims with an extensive experience of the West and author of Ilm-I Kulli and Kavoshha-ye Aqli-Nazari;
  • Murtaza Motahhari, the best student of Allamah Tabatabai, a martyr of the Iran Islamic Revolution; and
  • Seyyed Hossein Nasr.

In Malaysia, Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas is a prominent metaphysical thinker. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas Syed Muhammad al Naquib bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Muhsin al Attas (born September 5, 1931) is a prominent contemporary Muslim philosopher and thinker from Malaysia. ...


Sub articles

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Arabic philosophy dates from the appearance of dissenting sects in Islam. ...

See also

Islamic studies
v  d  e
Islamic Science

Islamic ScienceTimeline of Islamic ScienceIslamic Golden Age
Alchemy and ChemistryAstronomyInventionsMathematicsMedicineOphthalmology
Islamic scholars are Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... This is a subarticle to Islamic studies and science. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the general history of science in the Muslim World. ... This article is about the general history of science in the Muslim World. ... // All year dates are given in the Gregorian calendar except where noted. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ...

Islamic Art

ArtArchitectureCalligraphyLiteratureMusicPoetryPottery The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ...

Other Fields

HistoryEconomicsJurisprudenceMysticismPhilosophySufi StudiesTheology The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. ... Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that is practised by some muslims and some non-muslims and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Sufi studies: a particular branch of comparative studies that uses a. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ...

Further reading

  • Islamic Ethics and Philosophy Dictionary
  • History of Islamic Philosophy - The Parables of Sophism - Abd'allah ibn Zubair

Other Resources

  1. Corbin, Henry (April 1993). History of Islamic Philosophy, Liadain Sherrard (trans), London and New York: Kegan Paul International. ISBN 0-710-30416-1. 
  2. History of Islamic Philosophy (Routledge History of World Philosophies) by Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman [ed.]
  3. History of Muslim Philosophy: With Short Accounts of Other Disciplines and the Modern Renaissance in Muslim Lands by M. M. Sharif http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hmp/default.htm
  4. History of Islamic Philosophy by Majid Fahkry
  5. Islamic Philosophy by Oliver Leaman http://www.rep.routledge.com/article/H057
  6. Modern Islamic Philosophy by Oliver Leaman http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/rep/h008.htm
  7. The Study of Islamic Philosophy by Ibrahim Bayyumi Madkour
  8. Falsafatuna (Our Philosophy) by Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr

Henry Corbin (April , 1903 - October 7, 1978) was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Oliver Leaman is a Professor of Philosophy and Zantker Professor of Judaic Studies. ... Oliver Leaman is a Professor of Philosophy and Zantker Professor of Judaic Studies. ... Falsafatuna is a book by Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr which has been translated into English as Our Philosophy. ... Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr (Arabic: آية الله العظمى السيد محمد باقر الصدر ) (March 1, 1935 - April 8, 1980) was an Iraqi Shia cleric born in al-Kadhimya, Iraq. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Islamic philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2959 words)
Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a part of the Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between faith, reason or philosophy, and the religious teachings of Islam.
Islamic philosophy may be defined in a number of different ways, but the perspective taken here is that it represents the style of philosophy produced within the framework of Islamic culture.
1640) and Transcendent Philosophy ملاصدرا و حكمت متعاليه
Modern Islamic philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1102 words)
He argued that the basis of Islamic revival was the return to the intellectual dynamism that was the hallmark of the Islamic scholarly tradition (these ideas are outlined in Revival and Reform in Islam: A Study of Islamic Fundamentalism and his magnum opus, Islam).
He sought to give philosophy a free-reign, and was keen on Muslims appreciating how the modern nation-state understood law, as opposed ethics; his view being that the shari'ah was a mixture of both ethics and law.
He was critical of historical Muslim theologies and philosophies for failing to create a moral and ethical worldview based on the values derived from the Qur'an: 'moral values', unlike socioeconomic values, 'are not exhausted at any point in history' but require constant interpretation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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