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Encyclopedia > Islamic medicine

In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. Despite these names, a significant number of scientists during this period were not Arab. Lumping these scientists into narrow label of "Arab-Islamic" is historically inaccurate. This label does not appreciate the rich diversity of eastern scholars who have contributed to science in an era.[1] This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Arabic redirects here. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Overview

Islamic medicine was a genre of medical writing that was influenced by several different medical systems, including the traditional Arabian medicine of Muhammad's time, ancient Hellenistic medicine such as Unani, ancient Indian medicine such as Ayurveda, and the Sassanid medicine of the Academy of Gundishapur. Many early authors of Islamic medicine were usually clerics rather than physicians, and were known to have advocated the traditional medical practices of prophet Muhammad's time, such as those mentioned in the Qur'an and Hadith. For instance, therapy did not require a patient to undergo any surgical procedures at the time. From the 9th century, Hunayn ibn Ishaq translated a number of Galen's works into the Arabic language, followed by translations of the Sushruta and Charaka Samhitas and Pahlavi works from Gundishapur. Muslim physicians soon began making many of their own significant advances and contributions to the field of medicine, including the subjects of anatomy, bacteriology, microbiology, ophthalmology, pathology, pharmacology, pharmacy, physiology, surgery, and the pharmaceutical sciences. Arabia redirects here. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The ancient Greeks admired ancient Egyptian medicine. ... Unaani (in Arabic, Hindustani, Persian, Pashtu, Urdu etc) means Greek. ... Ancient India may refer to: The ancient History of India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent (South Asia) Indus Valley Civilization — during the Bronze Age Vedic period — the period of Vedic Sanskrit, spanning the late Bronze Age and the earlier Iron Age Mahajanapadas — during the... Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Academy of Gundishapur (in Persian: ‎) was a renowned center of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. ... A cleric is a member of the clergy of a religion, especially one that has trained or ordained priests, preachers, or other religious professionals. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Look up Therapy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (809—873) was Nestorian physician in the House of Wisdom. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... The Charaka Samhita is an ancient Indian manuscript, originating partly from early as 1000 BCE, on Ayurvedic internal medicine. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... The pharmaceutical sciences are a group of interdisciplinary areas of study involved with the design, action, delivery, disposition, and use of drugs. ...


Medicine was a central part of medieval Islamic culture. Responding to circumstances of time and place, Islamic physicians and scholars developed a large and complex medical literature exploring and synthesizing the theory and practice of medicine.[2] Islamic medicine was initially built on tradition, chiefly the theoretical and practical knowledge developed in Persia, Greece, Rome, and India. Galen and Hippocrates were pre-eminent authorities, as well as the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka, and the Hellenistic scholars in Alexandria. Islamic scholars translated their voluminous writings from Greek and Sanskrit into Arabic and then produced new medical knowledge based on those texts.[3] In order to make the Greek and Indian traditions more accessible, understandable, and teachable, Islamic scholars ordered and made more systematic the vast and sometimes inconsistent Greco-Roman and Indian medical knowledge by writing encyclopedias and summaries.[2] It was through Arabic translations that the West learned of Hellenic medicine, including the works of Galen and Hippocrates. Of equal if not of greater influence in Western Europe were systematic and comprehensive works such as Abū Alī ibn Sīnā's The Canon of Medicine, which were translated into Latin and then disseminated in manuscript and printed form throughout Europe. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries alone, The Canon of Medicine was published more than thirty-five times.[2] For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... For a village in Greece, see Charaka (Laconia), Greece Charaka, sometimes spelled Caraka, (perhaps 1st or 2nd century) is one of the founders of Ayurveda. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... (c. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ...


Hospitals

Main article: Bimaristan

Muslim physicians set up some of the earliest dedicated hospitals. In the medieval Islamic world, hospitals were built in all major cities; in Cairo for example, the Qalawun Hospital could care for 8,000 patients, and a staff that included physicians, pharmacists, and nurses. One could also access a dispensary, and research facility that led to advances, which included the discovery of the contagious nature of diseases, and research into optics and the mechanisms of the eye. Muslim doctors were removing cataracts with hollow needles over 1000 years before Western physicians dared attempt such a task. Hospitals were built not only for the physically sick, but for the mentally sick also. One of the first ever psychiatric hospitals that cared for the mentally ill was built in Cairo. Hospitals later spread to Europe during the Crusades, inspired by the hospitals in the Middle East. The first hospital in Paris, Les Quinze-vingts, was founded by Louis IX after his return from the Crusade between 1254-1260.[4] Bimaristan is a Middle and New Persian (بیمارستان bīmārestān) word meaning hospital, with Bimar- meaning sick and -stan as location and place. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This article is about the medical term. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... Different bevels on hypodermic needles. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ...


Hospitals in the Islamic world featured competency tests for doctors, drug purity regulations, nurses and interns, and advanced surgical procedures.[5] Hospitals were also created with separate wards for specific illnesses, so that people with contagious diseases could be kept away from other patients.[6] In education, certification, counseling, the military, and many other fields, a test or an exam (short for examination) is a tool or technique intended to measure students expression of knowledge, skills and/or abilities. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... This article is about the occupation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ...


Medical encyclopedias

The first encyclopedia of medicine in Arabic was Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari's Firdous al-Hikmah ("Paradise of Wisdom"), written in seven parts, c. 860. Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari (ca 838 - ca 870) was a scholar physician in who produced the first encyclopedia of medicine. ... Events First attack on Constantinople by Swedish Vikings (the Rus, see Varangians). ...


Razi (Rhazes) wrote the Comprehensive Book of Medicine in the 9th century. The Large Comprehensive was the most sought after of all his compositions, in which Rhazes recorded clinical cases of his own experience and provided very useful recordings of various diseases. The Comprehensive Book of Medicine, with its introduction of measles and smallpox, was very influential in Europe. Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ...


Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi (Haly Abbas)'s Kitab Kamil as-sina'a at-tibbiyya ("Complete Book of the Medical Art"), c. 980, became better known as the Kitab al-Maliki ("Royal Book", Latin: Liber regalis) in honour of its royal patron 'Adud al-Dawla. In twenty sections, ten of theory and ten of practice, it was more systematic and concise than Razi's Hawi, but more practical than Avicenna's Canon, by which it was superseded. With many interpolations and substitutions, it served as the basis for the Pantegni (c. 1087) of Constantinus Africanus, the founding text of the Schola Medica Salernitana in Salerno.[7] Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi, also known as Masoudi, was a famous Persian physician. ... Events Births Emperor Ichijo of Japan Humbert I of Savoy Avicenna Godiva, Countess of Mercia Deaths Categories: 980 ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Aḍud al-Dawla (Arabic: عضد الدولة ) or Azod od-Dowleh Fana Khusraw (September 24, 936, Isfahan - March 26, 983) was an emir of the Buwayhid dynasty in Iran and Iraq. ... The Liber pantegni (παντεχνη [encompassing] all [medical] arts) is a medieval medical text compiled by Constantinus Africanus in ca. ... Constantine examines patients urine. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ...


Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), regarded as the father of modern surgery,[8] contributed greatly to the discipline of medical surgery with his Kitab al-Tasrif ("Book of Concessions"), a 30-volume medical encyclopedia published in 1000, which was later translated to Latin and used in European medical schools for centuries. He invented numerous surgical instruments and described them in his al-Tasrif. Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Al-Tasrif was an influential medieval treatise on medicine. ... Cyclopedia redirects here. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ... A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access or viewing it. ...


Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), a Mu'tazili philosopher and doctor in the early 11th century, was another influential figure. He is regarded as the father of modern medicine,[9] and one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history. His medical encyclopedia, The Canon of Medicine (c. 1020), remained a standard textbook in Europe for centuries, up until the renewal of the Muslim tradition of scientific medicine. He also wrote The Book of Healing (actually a more general encyclopedia of science and philosophy), which became another popular textbook in Europe. Among other things, Avicenna's contributions to medicine include the introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology,[10] the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases, the introduction of experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials,[11] randomized controlled trials,[12][13] efficacy tests,[14][15] and clinical pharmacology,[16] the first descriptions on bacteria and viral organisms,[17] the distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy, the contagious nature of phthisis and tuberculosis, the distribution of diseases by water and soil, and the first careful descriptions of skin troubles, sexually transmitted diseases, perversions, and nervous ailments,[4] as well the use of ice to treat fevers, and the separation of medicine from pharmacology, which was important to the development of the pharmaceutical sciences.[18] (c. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... The Book of Healing (in Arabic, Kitab ash-Shifa) is a scientific encyclopedia written by the great Iranian peoples Muslim polymath AbÅ« AlÄ« ibn SÄ«nā (Avicenna) from Afshana, near Bukhara in Central Asia (now Uzbekistan), in the 1000s. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ... Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired amount of a desired effect. ... Clinical pharmacology is studying pharmacology in relation to clinical science. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum. ... Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration and other symptoms. ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Soil is a complex mixture of materials, principally ground up rock and water. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... Pervert redirects here. ... The Human Nervous System. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... This article is about water ice. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... The pharmaceutical sciences are a group of interdisciplinary areas of study involved with the design, action, delivery, disposition, and use of drugs. ...


Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī's Kitab-al-Saidana was an extensive medical encyclopedia which synthesized Islamic medicine with Indian medicine. His medical investigations included one of the earliest descriptions on Siamese twins.[19] (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... A painting of Chang and Eng Bunker, circa 1836 Siamese twins redirects here. ...


Medical ethics

Main article: Bimaristan

One of the features in medieval Muslim hospitals that distinguished them from their contemporaries was their higher standards of medical ethics. Hospitals in the Islamic world treated patients of all religions, ethnicities, and backgrounds, while the hospitals themselves often employed staff from Christian, Jewish and other minority backgrounds. Muslim doctors and physicians were expected to have obligations towards their patients, regardless of their wealth or backgrounds. The ethical standards of Muslim physicians was first laid down in the 9th century by Ishaq bin Ali Rahawi, who wrote the Adab al-Tabib (Conduct of a Physician), the first treatise dedicated to medical ethics. He regarded physicians as "guardians of souls and bodies", and wrote twenty chapters on various topics related to medical ethics, including:[20] Bimaristan is a Middle and New Persian (بیمارستان bīmārestān) word meaning hospital, with Bimar- meaning sick and -stan as location and place. ... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ...

On a professional level, Razi (Rhazes) introduced many practical, progressive, medical and psychological ideas in the 10th century. He attacked charlatans and fake doctors who roamed the cities and countryside selling their nostrums and 'cures'. At the same time, he warned that even highly educated doctors did not have the answers to all medical problems and could not cure all sicknesses or heal every disease, which was humanly speaking impossible. To become more useful in their services and truer to their calling, Razi advised practitioners to keep up with advanced knowledge by continually studying medical books and exposing themselves to new information. He made a distinction between curable and incurable diseases. Pertaining to the latter, he commented that in the case of advanced cases of cancer and leprosy the physician should not be blamed when he could not cure them. To add a humorous note, Razi felt great pity for physicians who took care for the well being of princes, nobility, and women, because they did not obey the doctor's orders to restrict their diet or get medical treatment, thus making it most difficult being their physician. He also wrote the following on medical ethics: For other uses, see Doctor. ... A Visitor, in United Kingdom law and history, is an overseer of an autonomous ecclesiastical or eleemosynary institution (i. ... Look up remedy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about virtue. ... A profession is an occupation, vocation or career where specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science is applied. ... To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely, hence an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person. ... Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... Look up Charlatan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Patent medicine is the term given to various medical compounds sold under a variety of names and labels, though they were for the most part actually trademarked medicines, not patented. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... For other meanings, see Prince (disambiguation). ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ...

"The doctor's aim is to do good, even to our enemies, so much more to our friends, and my profession forbids us to do harm to our kindred, as it is instituted for the benefit and welfare of the human race, and God imposed on physicians the oath not to compose mortiferous remedies."[20]

Peer review

The first documented description of a peer review process is found in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishaq bin Ali al-Rahwi (854–931) of al-Raha, Syria, who describes the first medical peer review process. His work, as well as later Arabic medical manuals, state that a visiting physician must always make duplicate notes of a patient's condition on every visit. When the patient was cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local medical council of other physicians, who would review the practising physician's notes to decide whether his/her performance have met the required standards of medical care. If their reviews were negative, the practicing physician could face a lawsuit from a maltreated patient.[21] Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Look up Review in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that civil trial be merged into this article or section. ...


Scientific method

Like in other fields of science, Muslim physicians and doctors developed the first scientific methods for the field of medicine. This included the introduction of experimentation, quantification, experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, dissection, animal testing,[18] human experimentation and postmortem autopsy by Muslim physicians, whilst hospitals in the Islamic world featured the first drug tests, drug purity regulations, and competency tests for doctors.[5] In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... Dissected rat showing major organs. ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... Human experimentation involves medical experiments performed on human beings. ... Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ... For the episode of the American television series The Office, see Drug Testing. A drug test is commonly a technical examination of urine, blood, sweat, or oral fluid samples to determine the presence or absence of specified drugs or their metabolized traces. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... In education, certification, counseling, the military, and many other fields, a test or an exam (short for examination) is a tool or technique intended to measure students expression of knowledge, skills and/or abilities. ...


In the 9th century, al-Kindi (Alkindus), in De Gradibus, demonstrated the application of mathematics to medicine, particularly in the field of pharmacology. This includes the development of a mathematical scale to quantify the strength of drugs, and a system that would allow a doctor to determine in advance the most critical days of a patient's illness, based on the phases of the Moon.[22] For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... De gradibus was a book published by the Arab scientist Al-Kindi(c. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... Medical conditions are used to describe a patients conditions in a hospital. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...


In the 10th century, Razi (Rhazes) introduced controlled experiment and clinical observation into the field of medicine, and rejected medical theories unverified by experimentation.[23] The first known medical experiment was carried out by Razi in order to find the most hygienic place to build a hospital. He hung pieces of meat in places throughout 10th century Baghdad and observed where the meat decomposed least quickly, and that was where he built the hospital. In his Comprehensive Book of Medicine, Razi recorded clinical cases of his own experience and provided very useful recordings of various diseases. In his Doubts about Galen, Razi was also the first to prove both Galen's theory of humorism and Aristotle's theory of classical elements false using experimentation.[24] He also introduced urinalysis and stool tests.[25] Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... A scientific control augments integrity in experiments by isolating variables as dictated by the scientific method in order to make a conclusion about such variables. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... This article is about the medical term. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... This article is about humors in Greco-Roman medicine. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni/Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) Water (水) Air / Wind (風) Fire (火) Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Chinese (Wu Xing) . Modern Many ancient philosophies used a set of archetypal classical elements to explain... A urinalysis (or UA) is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. ... Fecal occult blood is a term for blood present in the feces that is not visibly apparent. ...


Avicenna (Ibn Sina) is considered the father of modern medicine,[9] for his introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology,[10] the introduction of experimental medicine and clinical trials,[11] the experimental use and testing of drugs, and a precise guide for practical experimentation in the process of discovering and proving the effectiveness of medical substances,[23] in his medical encyclopedia, The Canon of Medicine (c. 1020), which was the first book dealing with experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, randomized controlled trials,[12][13] and efficacy tests,[14][15] and it laid out the following rules and principles for testing the effectiveness of new drugs and medications, which still form the basis of clinical pharmacology[16] and modern clinical trials:[11] (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... For the episode of the American television series The Office, see Drug Testing. A drug test is commonly a technical examination of urine, blood, sweat, or oral fluid samples to determine the presence or absence of specified drugs or their metabolized traces. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ... Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired amount of a desired effect. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Clinical pharmacology is studying pharmacology in relation to clinical science. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ...

  1. "The drug must be free from any extraneous accidental quality."
  2. "It must be used on a simple, not a composite, disease."
  3. "The drug must be tested with two contrary types of diseases, because sometimes a drug cures one disease by Its essential qualities and another by its accidental ones."
  4. "The quality of the drug must correspond to the strength of the disease. For example, there are some drugs whose heat is less than the coldness of certain diseases, so that they would have no effect on them."
  5. "The time of action must be observed, so that essence and accident are not confused."
  6. "The effect of the drug must be seen to occur constantly or in many cases, for if this did not happen, it was an accidental effect."
  7. "The experimentation must be done with the human body, for testing a drug on a lion or a horse might not prove anything about its effect on man."

The first physicians known to have performed human autopsies and postmortem dissections were Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar),[26] Saladin's physician Ibn Jumay, Abd-el-latif,[27] and Ibn al-Nafis.[28] For the former Death Metal band called Autopsy, see Autopsy (band). ... Dissected rat showing major organs. ... Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, Abumeron, ibn-Zohr) (1090? - 1162) was an Arab (Spanish-born) physician. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... Abdallatif, Abd-el-latif or Abd-Ul-Latif (1162-1231), a celebrated physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of the East, was born at Baghdad. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ...


Legacy

George Sarton, the father of the history of science, wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science:[4] George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ...

"Through their medical investigations they not merely widened the horizons of medicine, but enlarged humanistic concepts generally. [...] Thus it can hardly have been accidental that those researches should have led them that were inevitably beyond the reach of Greek masters. If it is regarded as symbolic that the most spectacular achievement of the mid-twentieth century is atomic fission and the nuclear bomb, likewise it would not seem fortuitous that the early Muslim's medical endeavor should have led to a discovery that was quite as revolutionary though possibly more beneficent."

"A philosophy of self-centredness, under whatever disguise, would be both incomprehensible and reprehensible to the Muslim mind. That mind was incapable of viewing man, whether in health or sickness as isolated from God, from fellow men, and from the world around him. It was probably inevitable that the Muslims should have discovered that disease need not be born within the patient himself but may reach from outside, in other words, that they should have been the first to establish clearly the existence of contagion." This article is about the medical term. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ...

"One of the most famous exponents of Muslim universalism and an eminent figure in Islamic learning was Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna (981-1037). For a thousand years he has retained his original renown as one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history. His most important medical works are the Qanun (Canon) and a treatise on Cardiac drugs. The 'Qanun fi-l-Tibb' is an immense encyclopedia of medicine. It contains some of the most illuminating thoughts pertaining to distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy; contagious nature of phthisis; distribution of diseases by water and soil; careful description of skin troubles; of sexual diseases and perversions; of nervous ailments." Universalism refers to any concept or doctrine that applies to all persons and/or all things for all times and in all situations. ... (c. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum. ... Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration and other symptoms. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... Pervert redirects here. ... The Human Nervous System. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ...

"We have reason to believe that when, during the crusades, Europe at last began to establish hospitals, they were inspired by the Arabs of near East.... The first hospital in Paris, Les Quinze-vingt, was founded by Louis IX after his return from the crusade 1254-1260." For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Louis IX of France, as painted by El Greco in the 16th Century. ...

Fields

An Arabic manuscript, dated 1200 CE, titled Anatomy of the Eye, authored by al-Mutadibih.
An Arabic manuscript, dated 1200 CE, titled Anatomy of the Eye, authored by al-Mutadibih.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...

Anatomy and physiology

In anatomy and physiology, the first physician to refute Galen's theory of humorism was Razi (Rhazes) in his Doubts about Galen in the 10th century. He criticized Galen's theory that the body possessed four separate "humors" (liquid substances), whose balance are the key to health and a natural body-temperature. Razi was the first to prove this theory wrong using an experimental method. He carried out an experiment which would upset this system by inserting a liquid with a different temperature into the body resulting in an increase or decrease of bodily heat, which resembled the temperature of that particular fluid. Razi noted particularly that a warm drink would heat up the body to a degree much higher than its own natural temperature, thus the drink would trigger a response from the body, rather than transferring only its own warmth or coldness to it. This line of criticism was the first comprehensive experimental refutation of Galen's theory of humours and Aristotle's theory of the four classical elements on which it was grounded. Razi's own chemical experiments suggested other qualities of matter, such as "oiliness" and "sulfurousness", or inflammability and salinity, which were not readily explained by the traditional fire, water, earth and air division of elements.[24] Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... This article is about humors in Greco-Roman medicine. ... Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni/Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) Water (水) Air / Wind (風) Fire (火) Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Chinese (Wu Xing) . Modern Many ancient philosophies used a set of archetypal classical elements to explain... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... A symbol for inflammable chemicals Inflammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ...


The contributions of Avicenna to physiology include the introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology in The Canon of Medicine (c. 1020).[10] The contributions of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) to anatomy and physiology include his correct explanation of the process of sight and visual perception for the first time in his Book of Optics, published in 1021.[18] Other innovations introduced by Muslim physicians to the field of physiology by this time include the use of animal testing.[18] (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... // Events Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, sixth Fatimid Caliph of Egypt disappears on a trip to al-Muqattam hills. ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ...


Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) (1091-1161) was the first physician known to have made human postmortem dissections and autopsies. He proved that the skin disease scabies was caused by a parasite, a discovery which upset the theory of humorism supported by Hippocrates and Galen. The removal of the parasite from the patient's body did not involve purging, bleeding, or any other traditional treatments associated with the four humours.[26] Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, Abumeron, ibn-Zohr) (1090? - 1162) was an Arab (Spanish-born) physician. ... Dissected rat showing major organs. ... For the former Death Metal band called Autopsy, see Autopsy (band). ... This is a list of diseases of the skin. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... This article is about humors in Greco-Roman medicine. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... Bulimia nervosa, an eating disorder more commonly known as bulimia, is a psychological condition in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by intentionally doing one or more of the following in order to compensate for the intake of the food and prevent weight gain: vomiting inappropriate use... For other uses, see Bleeding (disambiguation). ...


In the 12th century, Saladin's physician Ibn Jumay was also one the first to undertake human postmortem dissections, and he made an explicit appeal for other physicians to do so as well. During a famine in Egypt in 1200, Abd-el-latif observed and examined a large number of skeletons, and he discovered that Galen was incorrect regarding the formation of the bones of the lower jaw and sacrum.[27] Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... Abdallatif, Abd-el-latif or Abd-Ul-Latif (1162-1231), a celebrated physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of the East, was born at Baghdad. ... Look up Examination in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Human jaw front view Human jaw left view Human jaw top view The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming, or near the entrance to, the mouth. ... For the record label, see Sacrum Torch. ...


In 1242, Ibn al-Nafis was the first to describe human blood circulation and pulmonary circulation,[28] for which he is considered the father of the theory of circulation.[29] This discovery would be rediscovered, or perhaps merely demonstrated, by William Harvey in 1628, who was previously credited for this discovery in Western history. Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... William Harvey William Harvey (April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) was an English medical doctor, who is credited with being the first to correctly describe, in exact detail, the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. ...


The Arab physician Ibn al-Lubudi (1210-1267), also from Damascus, wrote the Collection of discussions relative to fifty psychological and medical questions, in which he rejects the theory of four humours supported by Galen and Hippocrates, discovers that the body and its preservation depend exclusively upon blood, rejects Galen's idea that women can produce sperm, and discovers that the movement of arteries are not dependant upon the movement of the heart, that the heart is the first organ to form in a fetus' body (rather than the brain as claimed by Hippocrates), and that the bones forming the skull can grow into tumors. He also advises that in cases of extreme fever, a patient should not be released from hospital.[30] For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... This article is about humors in Greco-Roman medicine. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... For other uses, see Sperm (disambiguation). ... Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ...


In the 15th century, the Tashrih al-badan (Anatomy of the body) written by Mansur ibn Ilyas contained comprehensive diagrams of the body's structural, nervous and circulatory systems.[31] Manṣūr ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Yūsuf Ibn Ilyās ( ) was a late 14th century physician from Shiraz, Timurid Persia. ... The Human Nervous System. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ...


Bacteriology, microbiology, pathology

Muslim physicians were responsible for the discovery of infectious disease and the immune system and the introduction of bacteriology, microbiology and pathology.[18] Their discovery of contagious disease in particular is considered revolutionary and is one of the most important discoveries in medicine.[4] Early ideas on contagion can be traced back to several hadiths attributed to Muhammad in the 7th century, who is said to have understood the contagious nature of leprosy, mange, and sexually transmitted disease.[32] These early ideas on contagion arose from the generally sympathetic attitude of Muslim physicians towards lepers (who were often seen in a negative light in other ancient and medieval societies) which can be traced back through hadiths attributed to Muhammad and to the following advice given in the Qur'an:[33] This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... The term contagion may refer to: Disease Virus Pandemic The Star Trek:The Next Generation episode Contagion The transmission of financial crises across countries (e. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... Mange (from Middle English manjeue, from Old French manjue, from mangier, meaning to eat)[1] is a parasitic infestation of the skin of animals. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

"There is no fault in the blind, and there is no fault in the lame, and there is no fault in the sick."

The theory of contagious disease, however, was not fully understood until the time of Avicenna in the 11th century. By then, the pathology of contagion had been fully understood, and as a result, hospitals were created with separate wards for specific illnesses, so that people with contagious diseases could be kept away from other patients who do not have any contagious diseases.[34] (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ...


In order to find the most hygienic place to build a hospital, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) carried out an experiment where he hung pieces of meat in places throughout 10th century Baghdad and observed where the meat decomposed least quickly. Razi also wrote the Comprehensive Book of Medicine in the 9th century. The Large Comprehensive was the most sought after of all his compositions, in which Razi recorded clinical cases of his own experience and provided very useful recordings of various diseases, as well as the discovery of measles and smallpox. The Large Comprehensive also criticized the views of Galen, after Razi had observed many clinical cases which did not follow Galen's descriptions of fevers. For example, he stated that Galen's descriptions of urinary ailments were inaccurate as he had only seen three cases, while Razi had studied hundreds of such cases in hospitals of Baghdad and Rayy.[35] The Comprehensive Book of Medicine, especially with its introduction of measles and smallpox, was very influential in Europe. For other uses, see Razi. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Ray, also spelled Rayy or Rages (&#1585;&#1740; in Persian) is the most historic city in the province of Tehran, Iran. ...


In The Canon of Medicine (1020), Avicenna discovered the contagious nature of infectious diseases such as phthisis and tuberculosis, the distribution of diseases by water and soil, and the existence of sexually transmitted diseases,[4] stated that bodily secretion is contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before being infected,[36] gave the first descriptions on bacteria and viral organisms (though he did not view them as primary causes of disease),[17] and introduced quarantine as a means of limiting the spread of contagious diseases.[11] A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Soil is a complex mixture of materials, principally ground up rock and water. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


When the Black Death bubonic plague reached al-Andalus in the 14th century, Ibn Khatima discovered that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms which enter the human body. Another 14th century Andalusian physician, Ibn al-Khatib (1313-1374), wrote a treatise called On the Plague, in which he stated:[36] This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ...

"The existence of contagion is established by experience, investigation, the evidence of the senses and trustworthy reports. These facts constitute a sound argument. The fact of infection becomes clear to the investigator who notices how he who establishes contact with the aftlicted gets the disease, whereas he who is not in contact remains safe, and how transmission is affected through garments, vessels and earrings."

Ophthalmology

Of all the branches of Islamic medicine, ophthalmology was one of the foremost. The specialized instruments used in their operations ran into scores. Innovations such as the “injection syringe”, a hollow needle, invented by Ammar ibn Ali of Mosul, which was used for the extraction by suction of soft cataracts were quite common. The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... An injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. ... A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Cataract is also used to mean a waterfall or where the flow of a river changes dramatically. ...


Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) made important contributions to ophthalmology, with the first correct explanations of the process of sight and visual perception in his Book of Optics (1021).[18] (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen...


Pediatrics

Razi is considered the father of pediatrics for writing The Diseases of Children, the first book to deal with pediatrics as an independant field of medicine.[11] Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ...


Pharmaceutical sciences

Al-Kindi was a renowned 9th century Arab doctor who wrote many books on the subject of medicine. His most important work in the field was De Gradibus, in which he demonstrated the application of mathematics to medicine, particularly in the field of pharmacology. This includes the development of a mathematical scale to quantify the strength of drugs, and a system that would allow a doctor to determine in advance the most critical days of a patient's illness, based on the phases of the Moon.[22] For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... De gradibus was a book published by the Arab scientist Al-Kindi(c. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... This article is about Earths moon. ...


In his Comprehensive Book of Medicine, Razi (Rhazes) recorded clinical cases of his own experience and provided very useful recordings of various diseases. The Comprehensive Book of Medicine, with its introduction of measles and smallpox, was very influential in Europe. Razi also carried out an experiment in order to find the most hygienic place to build a hospital. He hung pieces of meat in places throughout 10th century Baghdad and observed where the meat decomposed least quickly, and that was where he built his hospital. Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


In the 10th century, Abu al-Mansur al-Muwaffak mentions for the first time some chemical facts to distinguish certain medicines.[37] Abu Mansur Muwaffak ibn Ali al-Harawi was a 10th century Persian physician. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ...


Avicenna's contribution to the pharmaceutical sciences include the introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification into pharmacology and the study of physiology in The Canon of Medicine (c. 1020).[10] the introduction of experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials,[11] randomized controlled trials,[12][13] efficacy tests,[14][15] and clinical pharmacology,[16] and the first careful descriptions of skin troubles, sexually transmitted diseases, perversions, and nervous ailments,[4] as well the use of ice to treat fevers, and the separation of medicine from pharmacology, which was important to the development of the pharmaceutical sciences.[18] (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... The pharmaceutical sciences are a group of interdisciplinary areas of study involved with the design, action, delivery, disposition, and use of drugs. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ... Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired amount of a desired effect. ... Clinical pharmacology is studying pharmacology in relation to clinical science. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... Pervert redirects here. ... The Human Nervous System. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... This article is about water ice. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... The pharmaceutical sciences are a group of interdisciplinary areas of study involved with the design, action, delivery, disposition, and use of drugs. ...


Pharmacy

The advances made in the Middle East by Muslim chemists in botany and chemistry led Muslim physicians to substantially develop pharmacology. Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) (865-915), for instance, acted to promote the medical uses of chemical compounds. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) (936-1013) pioneered the preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation. His Liber servitoris is of particular interest, as it provides the reader with recipes and explains how to prepare the `simples’ from which were compounded the complex drugs then generally used. Sabur Ibn Sahl (d 869), was, however, the first physician to initiate pharmacopoedia, describing a large variety of drugs and remedies for ailments. Al-Biruni (973-1050) wrote one of the most valuable Islamic works on pharmacology entitled Kitab al-Saydalah (The Book of Drugs), where he gave detailed knowledge of the properties of drugs and outlined the role of pharmacy and the functions and duties of the pharmacist. Ibn Sina (Avicenna), too, described no less than 700 preparations, their properties, mode of action and their indications. He devoted in fact a whole volume to simple drugs in The Canon of Medicine. Of great impact were also the works by al-Maridini of Baghdad and Cairo, and Ibn al-Wafid (1008-1074), both of which were printed in Latin more than fifty times, appearing as De Medicinis universalibus et particularibus by `Mesue' the younger, and the Medicamentis simplicibus by `Abenguefit'. Peter of Abano (1250-1316) translated and added a supplement to the work of al-Maridini under the title De Veneris. Al-Muwaffaq’s contributions in the field are also pioneering. Living in the 10th century, he wrote The foundations of the true properties of Remedies, amongst others describing arsenious oxide, and being acquainted with silicic acid. He made clear distinction between sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, and drew attention to the poisonous nature of copper compounds, especially copper vitriol, and also lead compounds. For the story, he also mentions the distillation of sea-water for drinking.[38] Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, surgeon, and scientist. ... Sublimation has three separate meanings: Sublimation (physics), the change from solid to gas without passing the liquid state Sublimation (psychology), the transformation of emotions Dye sublimation, the transference of printed images to a synthetic substrate by the application of heat Category: ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Ibn Sahl - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Yuhanna ibn Masawaih, also written Ibn Masawaih, Masawaiyh, and in latin Mesue, Masuya, Mesue Major, Msuya, and Mesue the Elder was an Assyrian physician [1] from the Academy of Gundishapur. ... Pietro dAbano (1250?&#8209;1316), also known as Petrus de Apono or Aponensis, was an Italian physician, philosopher, and astrologer. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Silicic acid is a general name for a family of chemical compounds of silicon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the general formula [SiOx(OH)4-2x]n. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Flash point Not flammable Related Compounds Other cations Lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate, caesium carbonate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Potassium carbonate is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in alcohol), which forms... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sulfuric acid. ... This article is about the metal. ... Bottle for Distilled water in the Real Farmacia in Madrid. ...


Surgery

Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), regarded as the father of modern surgery,[8] contributed greatly to the discipline of medical surgery with his Kitab al-Tasrif (Book of Concessions or The Method of Medicine), a 30-volume medical encyclopedia published in 1000, which was later translated to Latin and used in European medical schools for centuries. His influential al-Tasrif introduced his famous collection of over 200 surgical instruments. Many of these instruments were never used before by any previous surgeons. Hamidan, for example, listed at least twenty six innovative surgical instruments that Abulcasis introduced. The surgical instruments he invented include the first instruments unique to women,[18] as well as the surgical uses of catgut and forceps, the ligature, surgical needle, scalpel, curette, retractor, surgical spoon, sound, surgical hook, surgical rod, and specula,[39] bone saw,[40] and plaster.[41] Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Al-Tasrif was an influential medieval treatise on medicine. ... Cyclopedia redirects here. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ... A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access or viewing it. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... Plastic forceps are intended to be disposable Forceps are a handheld, hinged instrument used for grasping and holding objects. ... In medicine, a ligature is a device, similar to a tourniquet, usually of thread or string, tied around a limb, blood vessel or similar to restrict blood flow. ... For other uses, see Suture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scalpel (disambiguation). ... Noun A spoon-shaped surgical instrument for cleaning a diseased surface. ... Retracting and exposing instruments that are used to hold back or retract organs or tissue to gain exposure to the operative site. ... For other uses, see Spoon (disambiguation). ... In medicine, sounds are instruments for probing and dilating passages within the body, the best-known of example of which are urethral sounds. ... Look up Hook in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rod may mean: Rod (geometry), a straight and slender stick; a wand; a cylinder; hence, any slender bar Rod cell, a cell found in the retina that is sensitive to light/dark (black/white) Rod (unit), an Imperial unit of length, also known as the pole or perch Rod (cryptozoology... Two varieties of 19th-century speculums. ... Portable saw A saw is a tool for cutting wood or other material, consisting of a serrated blade (a blade with the cutting edge dentated or toothed) and worked either by hand or by steam, water, electric or other power. ... This article is about the building material. ...


Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) made important advances in eye surgery, as he studied and correctly explained the process of sight and visual perception for the first time in his Book of Optics, published in 1021.[18] Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili is also notable for inventing the injection syringe. (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... Eye surgery in the middle ages. ... Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... // Events Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, sixth Fatimid Caliph of Egypt disappears on a trip to al-Muqattam hills. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... An injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. ... A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can...


Other innovations

Other medical innovations first introduced by Muslim physicians include the discovery of the immune system, the introduction of microbiology, the use of animal testing, and the combination of medicine with other sciences (including agriculture, botany, chemistry, and pharmacology),[18] as well as the first drugstores in Baghdad (754), the distinction between medicine and pharmacy in the 12th century, and the discovery of at least 2,000 medicinal substances.[42] Other medical advances came in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacy.[31] A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Pharmacy (from the Greek &#966;&#940;&#961;&#956;&#945;&#954;&#959;&#957; = drug) is the profession of compounding and dispensing medication. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ...


Aromatherapy

Steam distillation

Steam distillation was invented by Avicenna in the early 11th century for the purpose of producing essential oils.[43] Laboratory set-up for steam distillation Steam distillation is a special type of distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ...


Essential oil

Essential oils were first produced by Avicenna in the early 11th century, using steam distillation, giving rise to aromatherapy. As a result, he is regarded as a pioneer of aromatherapy.[43] An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Laboratory set-up for steam distillation Steam distillation is a special type of distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds. ... It has been suggested that Aromatherapy Candles be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Aromatherapy Candles be merged into this article or section. ...


Psychology

Razi (Rhazes), the father of pediatrics, made significant advances in psychiatry and wrote the earliest texts on psychotherapy, presenting definitions, symptoms, and treatments for problems related to mental health and mental illness. He also used mercurial compounds as topical antiseptics.

no copyright File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... no copyright File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ...

Mental health and mental illness

Islam stressed the need for individual understanding of their mental health. Those afflicted with a mental illness were thought to be possessed by jinn (genies), supernatural spirits that can be either good or bad. The Qur'an mentions the idea of the spirit or soul constantly, preaching the idea that only though radical change of one’s conception of the universe can one move closer to God. Unlike the Jewish conception of mental illness as sin, the Islamic viewpoint interpreted mental illness as a sign of supernatural intervention that was not necessarily malignant. Changes in the psyche could be either good or bad – the Sufi movement of Islam, for instance, teaches spirituality though near-mysticism, using song, dance, and narcotics to induce an altered mental state and a closer connection of God. This new attitude towards the mind, freeing mental illness from implications of wrongdoing, paved the way for a more scientific examination of the causes and symptoms of mental illness. The first such advances were made by Islamic scholars. Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... For other uses, see Genie (disambiguation). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic &#1578;&#1589;&#1608;&#1601; tas&#803;awwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ...


The Persian physician Razi (Rhazes) wrote the landmark texts El-Mansuri and Al-Hawi in the 10th century, which presented definitions, symptoms, and treatments for many illness related to mental health and mental illness. He also ran the psychiatric ward of a Baghdad hospital. Such institutions could not exist in Europe at the time because of fear of demonic possessions. In the centuries to come, Islam would eventually serve as a critical waystation of knowledge for Renaissance Europe, through the Latin translations of many scientific Islamic texts. Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ...


Psychotherapy and psychiatry

In psychology, the Persian physician Razi (Rhazes) was the first to study psychotherapy and made significant advances in psychiatry in his landmark texts El-Mansuri and Al-Hawi in the 10th century, which presented definitions, symptoms, and treatments for problems related to mental health and mental illness. He also ran the psychiatric ward of a Baghdad hospital. Such institutions could not exist in Europe at the time because of fear of demonic possessions. Psychological science redirects here. ... Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of mental illness. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Demonic possession, in supernatural belief systems, is a form of spiritual possession whereby certain malevolent extra-dimensional entities, demons, gain control over a mortal persons body, which is then used for an evil or destructive purpose. ...


Psychophysics and experimental psychology

Ibn al-Haytham is considered the founder of psychophysics and experimental psychology,[44] for his pioneering work on the psychology of visual perception in the Book of Optics.[45] In Book III of the Book of Optics, Ibn al-Haytham was the first scientist to argue that vision occurs in the brain, rather than the eyes. He pointed out that personal experience has an affect on what people see and how they see, and that vision and perception are subjective. He explained possible errors in vision in detail, and as an example, describes how a small child with less experience may have more difficulty interpreting what he/she sees. He also gives an example of an adult that can make mistakes in vision because of how one's experience suggests that he/she is seeing one thing, when he/she is really seeing something else.[45] (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... This article is about the profession. ...


Ibn al-Haytham was also the first to combine physics and psychology to form psychophysics, and his investigations and experiments on psychology and visual perception included sensation, variations in sensitivity, sensation of touch, perception of colours, perception of darkness, the psychological explanation of the moon illusion, and binocular vision.[44] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ... See: Sensitivity (electronics) Sensitivity (human) Sensitivity (tests) For sensitivity in finance, see beta coefficient This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Darkness is the absence of light. ... The Moon illusion is an optical illusion in which the Moon appears larger near the horizon than it does while higher up in the sky. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ...


Along with al-Kindi and Ibn al-Haytham, al-Biruni was also a pioneer of experimental psychology, as he was the first to empirically describe the concept of reaction time:[46] For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Reaction time, in humans, is the elapsed time between the receiving of stimuli and the subsequent reaction. ...

"Not only is every sensation attended by a corresponding change localized in the sense-organ, which demands a certain time, but also, between the stimulation of the organ and consciousness of the perception an interval of time must elapse, corresponding to the transmission of stimulus for some distance along the nerves."

Pharmaceutical treatments

Persian physician Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), considered the father of modern medicine, introduced systematic experimentation and quantification into physiology, discovered the contagious nature of diseases, and described many medical treatments, including anesthetics and medical and therapeutic drugs, in The Canon of Medicine.
Persian physician Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), considered the father of modern medicine, introduced systematic experimentation and quantification into physiology, discovered the contagious nature of diseases, and described many medical treatments, including anesthetics and medical and therapeutic drugs, in The Canon of Medicine.

Image File history File links Avicenna_Persian_Physician. ... Image File history File links Avicenna_Persian_Physician. ... (c. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek αν- an- “without” + αἲσθησις aisthesis “sensation”) has traditionally meant the condition of having the feeling of pain and other sensations blocked. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ...

Anesthesia

Modern anesthesia was developed by Muslim anesthesiologists. They were the first to utilize oral as well as inhalant anesthetics. In Islamic Spain, Abu al-Qasim and Ibn Zuhr, among other Muslim surgeons, performed hundreds of surgeries under inhalant anesthesia with the use of narcotic-soaked sponges which were placed over the face. Muslim physicians also introduced the anesthetic value of opium derivatives during the Middle Ages. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) wrote about its medical uses in his works, which later incluenced the works of Paracelsus.[47] Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... An anesthesiologist (American English), or anaesthetist (British English), also anaesthesiologist, is a medical doctor trained to administer anesthesia and manage the medical care of patients before, during, and after surgery. ... Inhalational anaesthetics are gases or vapours possessing anaesthetic qualities. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, Abumeron, ibn-Zohr) (1090? - 1162) was an Arab (Spanish-born) physician. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... 19th century Heroin bottle This article is about the drug classification. ... For other uses, see Sponge (disambiguation). ... This article is about the drug. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Presumed portrait of Paracelsus, attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys. ...


Antiseptics

Razi (10th century) used mercurial compounds as topical antiseptics. From the 10th century, Muslim physicians and surgeons were applying purified alcohol to wounds as an antiseptic agent. Surgeons in Islamic Spain utilized special methods for maintaining antisepsis prior to and during surgery. They also originated specific protocols for maintaining hygiene during the post-operative period. Their success rate was so high that dignitaries throughout Europe came to Córdoba, Spain, to be treated at what was comparably the "Mayo Clinic" of the Middle Ages.[47] Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Main campus in downtown Rochester, Minnesota. ...


Medical and therapeutic drugs

Razi, Avicenna, al-Kindi, Ibn Rushd, Abu al-Qasim, Ibn Zuhr, Ibn Baytar, Ibn al-Jazzar, Ibn Juljul, Ibn al-Quff, Ibn an-Nafs, al-Biruni, Ibn Sahl and hundreds of other Muslim physicians developed drug therapy and medicinal drugs for the treatment of specific symptoms and diseases. The word "drug" is derived from Arabic[citation needed]. Their use of practical experience and careful observation was extensive.[47] Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, Abumeron, ibn-Zohr) (1090? - 1162) was an Arab (Spanish-born) physician. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... Ibn Sahl - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ...


Chemotherapeutical drugs were first developed in the Muslim world. Muslim physicians used a variety of specific substances to destroy microbes. They applied sulfur topically specifically to kill the scabies mite.[47] Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Look up mite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Medicinal alcohol

Numerous Muslim chemists produced medicinal-grade alcohol through distillation as early as the 10th century and manufactured on a large scale the first distillation devices for use in chemistry. They used alcohol as a solvent and antiseptic.[47] A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ...


Plaster

In 1000, Abu al-Qasim (Abucasis), the father of modern surgery, invented the modern plaster, which is still used in hospitals throughout the world.[41] Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... This article is about the building material. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ...


Smallpox vaccines

The medical procedure of inoculation was practiced in the medieval Islamic world, and was later followed by the first smallpox vaccine in the form of cowpox, invented in Turkey in the early 18th century.[40] Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Smallpox vaccine being administered. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ...


Tracheotomy

The surgical procedure of tracheotomy was invented by Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in the 12th century.[48] Completed tracheotomy: 1 - Vocal cords 2 - Thyroid cartilage 3 - Cricoid cartilage 4 - Tracheal cartilages 5 - Balloon cuff A tracheotomy is a procedure performed by paramedics, emergency physicians and surgeons in order to secure an airway. ... Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, Abumeron, ibn-Zohr) (1090? - 1162) was an Arab (Spanish-born) physician. ...


Surgical instruments

Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), the father of modern surgery, performed surgeries under inhalant anesthesia, and invented the plaster and many surgical instruments.

Image File history File links Albucasis. ... Image File history File links Albucasis. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... An aerosol metered-dose inhaler (MDI) used for administration of asthma medication. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... This article is about the building material. ... A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access or viewing it. ...

Catgut

Abu al-Qasim's use of catgut for internal stitching is still practised in modern surgery. The catgut appears to be the only natural substance capable of dissolving and is acceptable by the body. Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ...


Forceps

In the Al-Tasrif (1000), Abu al-Qasim invented the forceps for extracting a dead fetus, as illustrated in the Al-Tasrif.[49] Al-Tasrif was an influential medieval treatise on medicine. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... Plastic forceps are intended to be disposable Forceps are a handheld, hinged instrument used for grasping and holding objects. ... Al-Tasrif was an influential medieval treatise on medicine. ...


Injection syringe

The Iraqi surgeon Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili invented the first injection syringe in the 9th century using a hollow glass tube and suction to extract and remove cataracts from patients' eyes. Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... An injection is a method of putting liquid into the body with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. ... A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can... This article is about the material. ... Suction is the creation of a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. ... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ...


Ligature

In the Al-Tasrif (1000), Abu al-Qasim introduced the use of ligature for the arteries in lieu of cauterization. Al-Tasrif was an influential medieval treatise on medicine. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... In medicine, a ligature is a device, similar to a tourniquet, usually of thread or string, tied around a limb, blood vessel or similar to restrict blood flow. ... Cauterization is a medical term describing the burning of the body to remove or close a part of it. ...


Surgical needle

The surgical needle was invented and described by Abu al-Qasim in his Al-Tasrif (1000).[48] For other uses, see Suture (disambiguation). ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... Al-Tasrif was an influential medieval treatise on medicine. ...


Other instruments

Other surgical instruments invented by Abu al-Qasim and first described in his Al-Tasrif (1000) include the scalpel, curette, retractor, surgical spoon, sound, surgical hook, surgical rod, and specula,[39] as well as the bone saw.[40] Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... Al-Tasrif was an influential medieval treatise on medicine. ... For other uses, see Scalpel (disambiguation). ... Noun A spoon-shaped surgical instrument for cleaning a diseased surface. ... Retracting and exposing instruments that are used to hold back or retract organs or tissue to gain exposure to the operative site. ... For other uses, see Spoon (disambiguation). ... In medicine, sounds are instruments for probing and dilating passages within the body, the best-known of example of which are urethral sounds. ... Look up Hook in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rod may mean: Rod (geometry), a straight and slender stick; a wand; a cylinder; hence, any slender bar Rod cell, a cell found in the retina that is sensitive to light/dark (black/white) Rod (unit), an Imperial unit of length, also known as the pole or perch Rod (cryptozoology... Two varieties of 19th-century speculums. ... Portable saw A saw is a tool for cutting wood or other material, consisting of a serrated blade (a blade with the cutting edge dentated or toothed) and worked either by hand or by steam, water, electric or other power. ...


See also

Islamic studies
v  d  e
Islamic Art

ArtArchitectureCalligraphyLiteratureMusicPoetryPottery Medical encyclopedia of Islam and Iran is a series of reference books being prepared in the Islamic Republic of Iran Academy of Medical Sciences. ... Bimaristan is a Middle and New Persian (بیمارستان bīmārestān) word meaning hospital, with Bimar- meaning sick and -stan as location and place. ... Unaani (in Arabic, Hindustani, Persian, Pashtu, Urdu etc) means Greek. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ...

Islamic Philosophy

PhilosophyEarly PhilosophyModern PhilosophyTheology
HistoriographySociologyEarly Sociology
Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ...

Islamic Science

Islamic ScienceTimeline of Islamic ScienceIslamic Golden Age
Alchemy & ChemistryAstronomyMathematicsMedicineOphthalmology
In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ...

Islamic Technology

Muslim Inventions • Agricultural Revolution • Timeline of Islamic Technology A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ...

Other Fields

EconomicsHistoryJurisprudenceMysticismSufi Studies Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Sufi studies: a particular branch of comparative studies that uses a. ...

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The U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the U.S. federal government, is the worlds largest medical research library. ... George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... Look up Cf. ... The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, also known simply as the PG, is the largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. // The paper began publication on July 29, 1786, with the encouragement of Hugh Henry Brackenridge as a four-page weekly, initially called The Gazette. ... Thomson Gale is a part of the Thomson Learning division of the Thomson Corporation, and is based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit. ... The Johns Hopkins University Press is a publishing house and division of Johns Hopkins University that engages in academic publishing. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Hasanuddin University (Indonesian: Universitas Hasanuddin) is a public university in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. ... Oliver Leaman is a Professor of Philosophy and Zantker Professor of Judaic Studies. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The Hutchinson Encyclopedia is an English-language general encyclopedia. ... The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science is a three-volume encyclopedia covering the history of Arabic contributions to science, mathematics and technology which had a tremendous influence on the rise of the European Renaissance. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Look up Cf. ... The University of Texas Press is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin. ... Ashgate is an area in North-East Derbyshire, west of Chesterfield. ... Thomson Gale is a part of the Thomson Learning division of the Thomson Corporation, and is based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit. ... The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science is a three-volume encyclopedia covering the history of Arabic contributions to science, mathematics and technology which had a tremendous influence on the rise of the European Renaissance. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA) is the largest Muslim medical organization in North America. ... Look up Cf. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam is a book by Muhammad Iqbal on Islamic philosophy, which was published in 1930. ... Look up Cf. ...

Further reading

  • Browne, Edward G. (2002). Islamic Medicine. Goodword Books. ISBN 81-87570-19-9. 
  • Dols, Michael W. (1984). Medieval Islamic Medicine: Ibn Ridwan's Treatise "On the Prevention of Bodily Ills in Egypt", Comparative Studies of Health Systems and Medical Care. University of California Press. ISBN 0520048369. 
  • Pormann, Peter E.; Emilie Savage-Smith (2007). Medieval Islamic Medicine. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748620664. 
  • Porter, Roy (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521002524. 
  • Ullmann, Manfred (1978). Islamic Medicine, Islamic Surveys. ISBN 0852243251. 

Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne (1862–1926) born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. ...

External links


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WHAT 1S ISLAMIC MEDICINE? (1840 words)
Therefore Islamic medicine cannot be limited to any branch of the healing arts which does not have the answer, or at least the potential to have the answer, to all illnesses.
Modern medicine is very quick to accept the request of young females for permanent sterilization, then it goes to painstaking lengths to restore fertility in the very same young females who later discover that their initial decision was wrong and that they do not want to be sterile.
Modern medicine claims to be doing its best to prevent the development or the spread of disease,it does not at all discourage and may actually, directly or indirectly, encourage certain socio- sexual behavior and attitudes which have proven to lead to the development and spread of disease.
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