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Encyclopedia > Islamic invasion of India
History of the Indian Subcontinent
Stone Age 70,000–7000 BC
Mehrgarh Culture 7000–3300 BC
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BC
Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BC
Vedic Civilization 1500–500 BC
Kuru Dynasty 1200–316 BC
Maha Janapadas 700–300 BC
Magadha Empire 684–26 BC
- Shishunaga Dynasty - 684–424 BC
- Nanda Dynasty - 424–321BC
- Maurya Dynasty - 321–184 BC
- Sunga Dynasty - 184–73 BC
Middle Kingdoms 232 BC–1279
- Satavahana Kingdom - 230 BC–199
- Indo-Greeks (Yavanas) - 180 BC–10
- Indo-Scythians (Sakas) - 110–10 BC
- Kushan Empire - 1–375
- Indo-Parthians (Pahlavas) - 20–100
- Gupta Empire - 240–550
- Pallava Kingdom - 275–901
- Chalukya Dynasty - 543–1200
- Pandyan Kingdom - 560–1365
- Harsha's Empire - 606–648
- Chola Empire - 848–1279
Early Islamic Empires 979–1596
- Ghaznavid Empire - 979–1160
- Delhi Sultanate - 1210–1526
- Deccan Sultanates - 1490–1596
Hoysala Empire 1040–1346
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1565
Mughal Era 1526–1707
Maratha Empire 1674–1761
Colonial Era 1757–1947
Modern India 1947 onwards
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The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the sub-continent, one must also note that the sub-continent was never immune from invasions from the North West. Like other settled agricultural societies - India has been periodically attacked by less civilized barbarian tribes all through its long history. In that sense, the Muslim invasions were not exceptional or unique. What does make the Muslim invasions different is that unlike their predecessors who assimilated into the prevalent social system - Muslim conquerors retained their Islamic identity and created new legal and administrative systems that challenged and usually superceded the existing systems of social conduct and ethics. They also introduced new cultural mores that in some ways were very different from the existing cultural codes. While these were a source of friction and conflict, it should also be noted that there were also Muslim rulers who in much of their secular practice absorbed or accommodated local traditions. This article is about the History of South Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... The Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1500 BCE) was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and Northern India. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Vedic Civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... Mahajanapadas (महाजनपद) literally means Great kingdoms (from Sanskrit Maha = great, Janapada = foothold of tribe = country). ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period... Nanda dynasty is said to be established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Ashoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Greco-Indian Kingdom) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic kings[1], often in conflict with each other. ... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... The Pahlavas are a people mentionned in ancient Indian texts like the Manu Smriti, various Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Brhatsamhita etc. ... The Gupta Empire in 400 CE (not including vassal states) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesi... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... // The Mughal Empire Main article: Mughal Empire India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and who failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... In 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Goa. ... On August 15, 1947, India became an independent Dominion within the British Commonwealth. ... // Introduction The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the... The history of South India begins with the Sangam age, from 200 BC to 300 AD. It is called so after the sangam literature. ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ;Urdu: سندھ) is one of the provinces of Pakistan. ... Bengal had been quite distant and cut off (by the rivers, especially the Ganga and the Brahmaputra) from the mainland of India for ages. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... Ancient India represents an ancient civilization, geographically located in the Indian sub-continent and many other neighboring regions. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... The chronology of Indian mathematics spans from the Indus Valley civilization (3300-1500 BC) and Vedic civilization (1500-500 BC) to modern India (21st century AD). ... Science and technology in ancient India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games. ... Rajputs (anonymous, c. ...


The first incursion by the new Muslim successor states of the Persian empire occurred around 664 CE during the Umayyad Caliphate, led by Mohalib towards Multan in Southern Punjab; in modern day Pakistan. Mohalib expeditions were not aimed at conquest, though they penetrated as far as the capital of the Maili and returned with wealth and prisoners of war. The Common Era (CE or C.E.), sometimes known as the Current Era or Christian Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 (the traditional birthdate of Jesus) to the present. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Mohalib Bin Aby-Suffra was an Arab general during the Umayyad caliphate, who made some of the first exploratory Islamic raids into South Asia in 664 CE, penetrating to Multan in the Punjab in present day Pakistan, and returning with many prisoners of war. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


It took several centuries for Islam to spread to parts of India and is a topic of intense debate. Some quarters hold that Hindus were forcibly converted to Islam by laws favoring Muslims Citizens, and threat of naked force; the "Conversion by the Sword Theory." Others hold that this occurred by inter-marriage, conversions, economic integration, to escape caste structures or at the hand of Sufi preachers. The disputers of the "Conversion by the Sword Theory" point to the presence of the strong Muslim communities found in Southern India, modern day Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Western Burma, Indonesia and Philippines coupled with the distinctively lack of equivalent Muslim communities around the heartland of historical Muslim Empires in the Indian Sub-Continent as refutation to the Conversion by Sword Theory. As pointed out by Amartya Sen and others, the majority of conversions took place directly from Buddhism to Islam or amongst certain mercantile communities and specific categories of skilled artisans.[citation needed]


Historian Will Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization (1972) "The Mohammadan conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precarious thing, whose delicate complex of order and liberty, culture and peace may at any time be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within." William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ...


The number of people killed is estimated based on the Muslim chronicles and demographic calculations. K.S. Lal estimated in his book The Growth of Muslim Population in India that between 1000 CE and 1500 CE, the population of Hindus decreased by 80 million. The legacy of Muslim conquest of South Asia is a hotly debated issue even today.


But not all invaders left after looting. Some fought on to win kingdoms and stayed to create new ruling dynasties. The practices of these new rulers and their subsequent heirs (some of whom were borne of Hindu wives) varied considerably. While some were uniformly hated, others developed a popular following. According to the memoirs of Ibn Batuta (the 14th C. Tunisian traveler who left extensive records of his travels in India) one of the previous sultans had been especially brutal and was deeply hated by Delhi's population. His memoirs also indicate that Muslims from the Arab world, from Persia and Turkey were often favored with important posts at the royal courts suggesting that locals may have played a somewhat subordinate role in the Delhi administration. S.A.A. Rizvi (The Wonder That Was India - II), however points to Muhammad bin Tughlaq as not only encouraging locals but promoting artisan groups such as cooks, barbers and gardeners to high administrative posts. In his reign, it is likely that conversions to Islam took place as a means of seeking greater social mobility and improved social standing.

Contents


Impact of Islam and Muslims in India

Expansion of trade

It was in the expansion of trade where Islam's impact was the greatest. One of the most significant aspects of the Muslim period in world history was the emergence of Islamic Sharia courts capable of imposing a common commercial and legal system that extended from Morocco in the West to Mongolia in the North East and Indonesia in the South East. Though southern India was already in trade with Arabs/Muslims but it was norther India, which found new opportunities. As the Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms of Asia were subjugated by Islam, and as Islam spread through Africa - it became a highly centralizing force that facilitated in the creation of a common legal system that allowed letters of credit issued in say Egypt or Tunisia to be honoured in India or Indonesia. As the old contractual obligations in society were weakened, Islam became the new binding force of these newly conquered societies. And in order to cement their rule, Muslim rulers initially promoted a system in which there was a revolving door between the clergy, the administrative nobility and the mercantile classes. Ibn Batuta is a classic example of this phenomenon. He served as an Imam in Delhi, as a judicial official in the Maldives, and as an envoy and trader in the Malabar. There was never a contradiction in any of his positions because each of these roles complemented the other. Islam created a compact under which political power, law and religion became fused in a manner so as to safeguard the interests of the mercantile class. This led world trade to expand to the maximum extent possible in the medieval world. Sher Shah Suri took inintiatives in improvement of trade by abolishing all taxes which hindered progress of free trade. He built large network of roads and constructed Grand Trunk Road (1540-1544), which connected Calcutta to Kabul.


Spread of technology

With the growth of international trade also came the spread of manufacturing technology and a more advanced urban culture. Local inventions and regional technologies became more easily globalized. This was of profound importance to those parts of the world that had lagged in terms of technological development. On the other hand, for a nation like India which had had a rich intellectual tradition of its own, and was already a relatively advanced civilization, this may have been of lesser import. Nevertheless, no country has a lock on technology, and to the extent that the arrival of Islam was concomitant with the adoption of new technologies it helped India too. Although there is considerable debate amongst historians as to how much technology was actually brought into India by Muslim invaders, there is one (albeit controversial) school of thought that argues that inventions like the water-wheel for irrigation were imported during the Muslim period. In some other cases, the evidence is much clearer. The use of ceramic tiles in construction was inspired by architectural traditions prevalent in Iraq, Iran, and in Central Asia. Rajasthan's blue pottery was an adaptation of Chinese pottery which was imported in large quantities by the Mughal rulers. There is also the example of Sultan Abidin (1420-70) sending Kashmiri artisans to Samarqand to learn book-binding and paper making.


Early Muslim Communities

Several reasons existed for the desire of the rising Islamic Empire to gain a foothold in Makran and Sind; ranging from the participation of armies from Sindh fighting alongside the Persians in battles such as Nehawand, Salasal, Qadisia and Makran, pirate raids on Arab shipping to the granting of refuge to rebel chiefs. The Muslim conquests represent a century of rapid Arab and Islamic expansion that took place from the death of Mohammed in 632 to the Battle of Tours in 732, during which time a vast Muslim empire and area of influence would come to stretch from India, across the Middle East... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... Sindh (Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Nahavand (Kurdish: Nehawend); also transliterated Nahavend, Nahawand, Nehavand, Nihavand or Nehavend; formerly called Laodicea (Greek: Λαοδικεια; Arabic Ladhiqiyya), also transliterated Laodiceia and Laodikeia, Laodicea in Media, Laodicea in Persis, Antiochia in Persis, Antiochia of Chosroes (Greek: Αντιόχεια του Χοσρόη), Antiochia in Media (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Μηδίας), Nemavand and Niphaunda – is a town in Hamadan Province in Iran. ... The Jat Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. ... The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (in Arabic: معارك القادسيّة, alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between the Arab Muslim army and the Sāsānian Persian army during the first period of Islamic expansion which resulted in the Islamic conquest of Iran. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ...


The Punjab and Sind region had also been historically under considerable flux as Central Asian Kingdoms, the Persian Empire, Buddhist Kingdoms and Rajput Kingdoms vied for control prior to the arrival of the Muslim influence. Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Sindh (Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Rajputs (anonymous, c. ...


Islam in India existed in communities along the Arab trade routes in Sindh, Ceylon and Southern India. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ;Urdu: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ...


Muhammad bin Qasim

Main article: Muhammad bin Qasim

In 711, the Umayyad Caliph in Damascus sent two failed expeditions to Balochistan (an arid region on the Iranian Plateau in Southwest Asia, presently split between Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan) and Sindh. Muhammad bin Qasim (Arabic محمد بن قاسم ) (c. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic: ‎ translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. ... Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, in 1980. ... The Iranian plateau is major geologic formation in the Middle East and the southern Eurasian Plate. ... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ;Urdu: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ...


The nature of the expeditions was punitive, and in response to raids carried out by pirates on Arab shipping, operating around Daibul. The allegation was made that the King of Sindh, Raja Dahir was the patron of these pirates. The third expedition was led by a 20-year-old Syrian chieftain named Muhammad bin Qasim. The expedition went as far North as Multan, then called the "City of Gold," that contained the extremely large Hindu temple Sun Mandir. Raja Dahir was the brahmin ruler of Deol State situated in Sindh and parts of Punjab during the beggining of what would come to be known as the Islamic conquest of South Asia under the banner of Muhammad bin Qasim for the Umayyad Caliphate. ... Muhammad bin Qasim (Arabic محمد بن قاسم ) (c. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... Neasden Temple, london The Neasden Temple in London is an example of a Hindu Temple. ...


Bin Qasim invaded the sub-continent at the orders of Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef, the governor of Iraq. Qasim's armies defeated Raja Dahir at what is now Hyderabad in Sindh in 712. He then proceeded to subdue the lands from Karachi to Multan with an initial force of only six thousand Syrian tribesmen; thereby establishing the dominion of the Umayyad Caliphate from Lisbon in Portugal to the Indus Valley. Qasim's stay was brief as he was soon recalled to Baghdad, and the Caliphates rule in South Asia shrank to Sindh and Southern Punjab. Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef (661 - June in Taif, 714 in Wasit, Iraq) (Arabic: الحجاج بن يوسف also known as Al Hajjaj bin Yousef Al saqafe) was an important Arab administrator during the Umayyad caliphate. ... Raja Dahir was the brahmin ruler of Deol State situated in Sindh and parts of Punjab during the beggining of what would come to be known as the Islamic conquest of South Asia under the banner of Muhammad bin Qasim for the Umayyad Caliphate. ... Hyderabad located in Sindh province of Pakistan (also formerly known as Neroon Kot). ... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ;Urdu: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ... Karachi (Urdu: كراچى, Sindhi: ڪراچي) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city in Pakistan. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... District or region Lisbon Mayor   - Party Carmona Rodrigues PSD Area 84. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ translit: , Kurdish: Bexda, from Persian Baagh-daad or Bag-Da-Du meaning “Garden of God” [1]) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ;Urdu: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ...


Communities in the North-West

Subsequent to Qasim's recall the Caliphates control in Sindh was extremely weak under governors who only nominally acknowledging Arab control and shared power to coexisting with local Hindu, Jain and Buddhist rulers. Ismaili missionaries found a receptive audience among both the Sunni and non-Muslim populations here. In 985 a group around Multan declared themselves an independent Ismaili Fatimid State. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The IsmāīlÄ« (Arabic: الإسماعيليون; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmailiyan) branch of Islam is the second largest Shīˤa community after the Twelvers (Ithnāˤashariyya), who are dominant in Iran. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ...


Coastal trade and the presence of a colony in Sindh permitted significant cultural exchange and the introduction of Muslim teachers into the subcontinent. Considerable conversions took place, especially amongst the Buddhist majority. Multan became a center of the Ismaili sect of Islam, which still has many adherents in Sindh today. This region under generous patronage of the arts provided a conduit for Arab scholars to absorb and expand on Indian sciences and pass them onwards to the West. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... The Ismāīlī (Arabic: الإسماعيليون; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmailiyan) branch of Islam is the second largest Shīˤa community after the Twelvers (Ithnāˤashariyya), who are dominant in Iran. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...


North of Multan non-Muslim groups remained numerous. From this period, the conquered area was divided into two parts: the Northern region comprising the Punjab remained under the control of Hindu Rajas, while the Southern coastal areas comprising of Balochistan, Sindh, and Multan came under Muslim control. The province of Balochistan (or Baluchistan) in Pakistan contains most of historical Balochistan and is named after the Baloch. ... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ;Urdu: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ...


Ghaznavid Period

Main article: Mahmud of Ghazni

Under Sabuktigin, Ghazni found itself in conflict with the Shahi Raja Jayapala. When Sabuktigin died and his son Mahmud ascended the throne in 998, Ghazni was engaged in the North with the Qarakhanids when the Shahi Raja renewed hostilities. Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin (ca 942 - August 997) was the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire and dynasty in todays Afghanistan. ... Minaret, July 2001 Ghazni is a city in central Afghanistan, situated on a plateau at 7280 feet above sea level. ... Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... Jayapala Shahi Son of Asatapala, succeeded the last Brahmin Hindu Shahi Bhima and thus began the start of the Janjua Shahi phase. ... The Muslim, Turkic Kara-Khanid Khanate is not to be confused with the Sinitic, Khitan Kara-Khitan Khanate. ...


In the early 11th century Mahmud of Ghazni launched 17 expeditions into the Indian sub-continent. In 1001, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi defeated Raja Jayapala of the Hindu Shahi Dynasty of Gandhara and marched further into Peshawar and in 1005 made it the center for his forces. Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... Jayapala Shahi Son of Asatapala, succeeded the last Brahmin Hindu Shahi Bhima and thus began the start of the Janjua Shahi phase. ... Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient Mahajanapada in eastern Afghanistan and the north-western province of Pakistan. ... Peshāwar (Urdu:پیشاور) is the provincial capital of Pakistans North-West Frontier Province. ...


The Ghaznavid conquests were initially directed against the Ismaili Fatimids in on-going struggle of the Abbassid Caliphate elsewhere. However, once this aim was accomplished he moved onto richness of the loot of wealthy temples and monasteries. By 1027, Mahmud had captured most of Northern India and obtained formal recognition of Ghazni's sovereignty from the Abbassid Khalifah, al-Qadir Billah. The IsmāīlÄ« (Arabic: الإسماعيليون; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmailiyan) branch of Islam is the second largest Shīˤa community after the Twelvers (Ithnāˤashariyya), who are dominant in Iran. ... The Fatimids or Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Ismaili Shiite dynasty that ruled much of North Africa from A.D. 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Al-Qadir (d. ...


Ghaznavid rule in North India lasted over 175 years, from 1010 to 1187. It was during this period that Lahore assumed considerable importance apart from being the second capital, and later the only capital, of the Ghaznavid Empire. Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is a major city of Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ...


At the end of his reign, Mahmud's empire extended from Kurdistan in the west to Samarkand in the Northeast, and from the Caspian Sea to the Yamuna. Although his raids carried his forces across Northern and Western India, only Punjab came under his permanent rule; Kashmir, the Doab, Rajasthan, and Gujarat remained under the control of the local Rajput dynasties. Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds)[1] (old: : Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarí) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited traditionally predominantly by the Kurds. ... , Colour photograph of a Madrasa taken in Samarkand ca. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... The Triveni Sangam, or the intersection of Yamuna River and Ganges River. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... A Doab, meaning two waters in Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ... Rajasthan (Hindi: राजस्थान) is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Gujarat (Gujarati: , , IPA ; also spelled Gujrat and sometimes Gujarath. ... Rajputs (anonymous, c. ...


In 1030, Mahmud fell gravely ill and died at age 59. He had been a gifted military commander, and during his rule, universities were founded to study various subjects such as mathematics, religion, the humanities, and medicine. Sunni Islam was the main religion of his kingdom and the Perso-Afghan dialect Dari was made the official language. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... The word Dari refers to the language that is popularly known as Persian. ...


As with the Turkic invaders of three centuries ago, Mahmud's armies looted temples in Varanasi, Mathura, Ujjain, Maheshwar, Jwalamukhi, and Dwarka. Mahmud was quite pragmatic and he even utilized unconverted Hindu generals and troops in his expeditions. His main target remained the Shiites and Buyid Iran. There is considerable evidence from writings of Al-Biruni, Sogidan, Uyghur and Manichean texts that the Buddhists, Hindus and Jains were accepted as People of the Book and references to Buddha as Burxan or a prophet can be found. After the initial destruction and pillage Buddhists, Jains and Hindus were granted protected subject status as dhimmis. Kashi redirects here. ... Mathura (मथुरा) is a city in India, located approximately 50 km north of Agra, and south of Delhi. ... Ujjain (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Maheshwar is a town in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India. ... Gopura of Dwarakadhish Temple Dwarka is a city in Gujarat, India. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... The Buyid confederation existed within the Islamic empire from 945 to 1055. ... Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ... Sogdiana (Sug`ud,Sug`diyona -Uzbek, Sughd - Tajik, Sugdiane, Old Persian Sughuda, Persian:سغد, Chinese: Kang-Kü) ancient civilization of Iranian peoples, then was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ... The Uyghur (Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Uighur Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; Pinyin: Wéiwúěr; Turkish: Uygur) are a Turkic people, forming one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A dhimmi (also zimmi, Arabic: ‎, plural: اهل الذمۃ, ahl al-dhimma) is a free (i. ...


Muhammed Ghuri

Main article: Muhammed Ghuri

Muhammad Ghori was a Turkic-Afghan conqueror from the region of Ghor in Afghanistan. Before 1160, the Ghaznavid Empire covered an area running from central Afghanistan east to the Punjab, with capitals at Ghazni on the banks of Ghazni river in present-day Afghanistan, and at Lahore in present-day Pakistan. In 1160, the Ghorids conquered Ghazni from the Ghaznevids, and in 1173 Muhammad was made governor of Ghazni. He raided eastwards into the remaining Ghaznevid territory, and invaded Gujarat in the 1180s but was rebuffed by Gujarat's Solanki rulers. In 1186 and 1187 he conquered Lahore in alliance with a local hindu ruler, ending the Ghaznevid empire and bringing the last of Ghaznevid territory under his control, and seemed to be the first Muslim ruler seriously interested in expanding his domain in the sub-continent, and like his predecessor Mahmud initially started off against the Ismaili Shiite kingdom that had regained independence during the Nizari conflicts, and then onto booty and power. Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a Persian conqueror and sultan between 1171 and 1206. ... Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a Persian conqueror and sultan between 1171 and 1206. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Ismāīlī (Arabic: الإسماعيليون; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmailiyan) branch of Islam is the second largest Shīˤa community after the Twelvers (Ithnāˤashariyya), who are dominant in Iran. ... A sub-sect of the Sevener Shia Muslim Ismaili sect. ...


In 1191, he invaded the territory of Prithviraj III of Ajmer, who ruled much of present-day Rajasthan and Haryana, but was defeated at Tarain by Govinda-Raja of Delhi, Prithviraj's vassal. The following year, Muhammad assembled 120,000 horsemen and once again invaded the Kingdom of Ajmer. Muhammad's army met Prithviraj's army again at Tarain, and this time Muhammad won; Govinda-Raja was slain, Prithviraj captured and Muhammad advanced onto Delhi. Within a year, Muhammad controlled Northern Rajasthan and Northern Ganges-Yamuna Doab. After these victories in India, and Muhammad's establishment of a capital in Delhi, Multan was also incorporated into his empire. Muhammad then returned east to Ghazni to deal with the threat on his eastern frontiers from the Turks and Mongols, whiles his armies continued to advance through Northern India, raiding as far east as Bengal. Stamp issued in honour of Prithviraj Chauhan Prithviraj III (c. ... Haryana (Hindi: ) is a state in north India. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Territory of Delhi be merged into this article or section. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Muhammad returned to Lahore after 1200 to deal with a revolt of the Ghakkar tribe in the Punjab. He suppressed the revolt, but was killed during a Ghakkar raid on his camp on the Jhelum River in 1206. Upon his death his most capable general, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, took control of Muhammad's Indian conquests and declared himself the first Sultan of Delhi. Namal College is located in Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ...


The Delhi Sultanate

Main article: Delhi Sultanate

Muhammad's successors established the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, while the Mamluk Dynasty in 1211 (however, the Delhi Sultanate is traditionally held to have been founded in 1206) seized the reins of the empire. Mamluk means "slave" and referred to the Turkic slave soldiers who became rulers. The territory under control of the Muslim rulers in Delhi expanded rapidly. By mid-century, Bengal and much of central India was under the Delhi Sultanate. Several Turko-Afghan dynasties ruled from Delhi: the Mamluk (1211–1290), the Khalji (1290–1320), the Tughlaq (1320–1413), the Sayyid (1414–51), and the Lodhi (1451–1526). Muslim Kings extended their domains into Southern India, Kingdom of Vijayanagar resisted until falling to the Deccan Sultanate in 1565. Certain kingdoms remained independent of Delhi such as the larger kingoms of Rajasthan, parts of the Deccan, Gujarat, Malwa (central India), and Bengal, nevertheless all of the area in present-day Pakistan came under the rule of Delhi. The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, from 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid during the Middle Ages. ... The Khilji or Khalji were a dynasty of Indian rulers. ... The Tughlaq Dynasty of north India started in 1321 CE in Delhi when Ghazi Tughlaq assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. ... Sayyid (Arabic: ‎ ) (plu. ... Lodhi (also sometimes Lodi) is a Pashtun tribe, most likely a sub-group of the larger Ghilzai of Afghanistan and Pakistan who were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today Pakistan and India. ... Rajasthan (Hindi: राजस्थान) is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


The Sultans of Delhi enjoyed cordial, if superficial, relations with Muslim rulers in the Near East but owed them no allegiance. They based their laws on the Quran and the sharia and permitted non-Muslim subjects to practice their religion only if they paid the jizya (head tax). They ruled from urban centers, while military camps and trading posts provided the nuclei for towns that sprang up in the countryside.


Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Sultanate was its temporary success in insulating the subcontinent from the potential devastation of the Mongol invasion from Central Asia in the 13th century, which nonetheless led to the capture of Afghanistan and western Pakistan by the Mongols (see the Ilkhanate Dynasty). The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance, The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion left lasting monuments in architecture, music, literature, and religion. In addition it is surmised that the language of Urdu (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Dehli Sultanate period as a result of the mingling of Sanskritic Hindi and the Persian, Turkish, Arabic favored by the Muslim invaders of India. Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ...


The Sultanate suffered from the sacking of Delhi in 1398 by Timur (Tamerlane) but revived briefly under the Lodhis before it was conquered by the Mughals in 1526, who ruled from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Alauddin Khilji

Main article: Alauddin Khilji

Other invasions from Central Asia followed his on a regular basis, such as that of Muhammad Khilji, who burned Nalanda, a major Buddhist library. The rulers of these territories became known as the Mughals and their empire as the Mughal Empire. Alauddin Khilji also Ala-Ud-Din Khilji; Ala-ud-Din Muhammad Khilji Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316 AD) (nephew of Jalaluddin Khilji) came to power after killing his uncle and the then Sultan of Khilji Dynasty Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji in 1296 AD. 1297 AD : Alauddin Khilji set off to conquer Gujarat. ... Muhammad Khilji (12th century CE) was one of the military generals of Qutab-ud-din. ... Nalanda is a historical place in central Bihar, India, 90km south-east of the state capital of Patna. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ...


The Khilji Dynasty is not affiliated politically with the Mughal Dynasty, which started in the 1500s under Babur.


The Mughal Empire

Main article: Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ...


India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. Outside developments also played a role in shaping events. The circumnavigation of Africa by the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498 allowed Europeans to challenge Arab control of the trading routes between Europe and Asia. In Central Asia and Afghanistan, shifts in power pushed Babur of Ferghana (in present-day Uzbekistan) southward, first to Kabul and then to India. The dynasty he founded endured for more than three centuries. Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama (IPA: ; born c. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia (Russian: Средняя Азия/Srednyaya Azia for Middle Asia or Центральная Азия/Tsentralnaya Azia for Central Asia; in Turkic languages Orta Asya; in Persian آسياى مرکزی; (Urdu: وسطى ايشيا)Wasti Asia; Standard Mandarin Chinese... Zahiruddin Babur, or Zahir-ud-din Mohammad Babur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Persian: ظﮩیرالدین محمد بابر, also spelled ) was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ...


Babur

Main article: Babur

Claiming descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, Babur combined strength and courage with a love of beauty, and military ability with cultivation. He concentrated on gaining control of Northwestern India, doing so in 1526 by defeating the last Lodhi Sultan at the First battle of Panipat, a town north of Delhi. Babur then turned to the tasks of persuading his Central Asian followers to stay on in India and of overcoming other contenders for power, mainly the Rajputs and the Afghans. He succeeded in both tasks but died shortly thereafter in 1530. The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in premodern history and was the precursor to the British Indian Empire. Zahiruddin Babur, or Zahir-ud-din Mohammad Babur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Persian: ظﮩیرالدین محمد بابر, also spelled ) was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... , (c. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Timur (Chagatai: تیمور, iron, actually TimÅ«r GurkānÄ«, Persian: تيمور گوركانى, Gurkān being the Persianized form of the original Mongolian word kürügän, son-in-law) - also known as Timur-e Lang, Persian: تیمور لنگ, which translates to Timur the Lame, as he was lame... The first battle of Panipat took place in northern India, and marked the beginning of the Mogul Empire. ... It has been suggested that National Capital Territory of Delhi be merged into this article or section. ... A Rajput (possibly from Sanskrit rāja-putra, son of a king) is a member of a prominent caste who live throughout northern and central India, primarily in the northwestern state of Rajasthan. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Babur was followed by his great-grandson, Shah Jahan (r. 1628–58), builder of the Taj Mahal and other magnificent buildings. Two other towering figures of the Mughal era were Akbar (r. 1556–1605) and Aurangzeb (r. 1658–1707). Both rulers expanded the empire greatly and were able administrators. However, Akbar was known for his religious tolerance and administrative genius while Aurangzeb was a pious Muslim and fierce advocate of more orthodox Islam. Shahbuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... The Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (Hindi: , Persian, Urdu: ), is a monument located in Agra in India, constructed between 1631 and 1654 by a workforce of 20,000. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (Persian: جلال الدین محمد اکبر), (alternative spellings include Jellaladin, Celalettin) also known as Akbar the Great (Akbār-e-Azam) (October 15, 1542 – October 27, 1605) was the son of Humayun whom he succeeded to become ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1556 until 1605. ... Aurangzeb (borrowed from early Persian, اورنگ‌زیب Awrang throne and Zayb beauty, ornament),(November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707, also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ...


Aurangzeb

Main article: Aurangzeb

While some rulers were zealous in their spread of Islam, others were relatively liberal. Moghul emperor Akbar was relatively liberal and established a new religion, Din E Elahi, which included beliefs from different religions. He abolished the jizya for some time. In contrast, his great-grandson Aurangazeb was more zealous and, generally, during his term non-Muslims suffered. He reimposed the jizya, and it is historically recorded that under his rule a large number of natives were put to death. Aurangzeb (borrowed from early Persian, اورنگ‌زیب Awrang throne and Zayb beauty, ornament),(November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707, also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (Persian: جلال الدین محمد اکبر), (alternative spellings include Jellaladin, Celalettin) also known as Akbar the Great (Akbār-e-Azam) (October 15, 1542 – October 27, 1605) was the son of Humayun whom he succeeded to become ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1556 until 1605. ... Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir (November 3, 1618 - March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ...


In the century-and-a-half that followed the death of Aurangzeb, effective Muslim control weakened. Succession to imperial and even provincial power, which had often become hereditary, was subject to intrigue and force. The mansabdari system gave way to the zamindari system, in which high-ranking officials took on the appearance of hereditary landed aristocracy with powers of collecting rents. As Delhi's control waned, other contenders for power emerged and clashed, thus preparing the way for the eventual British takeover. Mansabdar was the generic term for the military -type grading of all imperial officials of the Mughal empire. ... The Zamindari System is a kind of feudal system, introduced by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ...


Ahmad Shah Abdali

Main article: Ahmad Shah Abdali

Decay of the Mughal power saw a series of invasions by the Persian adventurer, Nadir Shah, but no occupation per se. Following his death (something his Royal Guardsman Abdali might have contributed to), Ahmed Shah Abdali - a Pathan - decided to try his luck closer to home. The fertile Punjab was the nearest and easiest prey. A long and brutal occupation of the Punjab - reviled by Sikhs, Hindus and Punjabi Muslims - lasted till the rise of the Sikh Empire. See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 2, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Afsharid dynasty. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... The Sikh Empire (from 1801-1849) was formed on the foundations of the Sikh Confederacy by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. ...


Iconoclasm

Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ...

Nalanda

Main article: Nalanda

In 1193, the Nalanda University complex was destroyed by Turkish Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khalji; this event is seen as the final milestone in the decline and near extinction of Buddhism in India. He also burned Nalanda's a major Buddhist library and Vikramshila University, as well as numerous Bhuddhist monasteries in India. When the Tibetan translator, Chag Lotsawa Dharmasvamin (Chag Lo-tsa-ba, 1197 - 1264), visited northern India in 1235, Nalanda was damaged, looted, and largely deserted, but still standing and functioning with seventy students. Mahabodhi, Sompura, Vajrasan and other important monastaries were found to be untouched. The Ghuri ravages only afflicted those monastaries that lay in the direct of their advance and were fortified in the manner of defensive forts. Remains at Nalanda Nalanda is a historical place in central Bihar, India, 90 km south-east of the state capital of Patna. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Bakhtiyar Khalji, also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyaru l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji, was a Khilji, a Muslim Turk, who was head of the armies that conquered much of northeastern India. ... Buddhism was initially established in India and it flourished there during the early phases of its history. ... Vikramshila University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India, along with Nalanda University. ...


By the end of the 12th century, following the Muslim conquest of the Buddhist stronghold in Bihar, Buddhism declined as survivors retreated to Nepal, Sikkim and Tibet or escaped to the South of the sub-continent. Hinduism and Jainism survived because they did not have large centers of worship and devotion based around heavily fortified monastaries. Furthermore, many buddhist also converted for social mobility from their status as lower castes in the hindu view. Under the tutelage of various scholars fleeing the ravages of the Mongols, and with a historically extensive familiarity with buddhists in Central Asia many impoverished peasants in East Bengal converted.

Sri Krishna Temple in Hampi
Sri Krishna Temple in Hampi

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1360 KB) Summary I clicked this picture from my legally bought digital camera, on the trip to Hampi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1360 KB) Summary I clicked this picture from my legally bought digital camera, on the trip to Hampi. ...

Vijayanagara

Main article: Vijayanagara

The city flourished between the 14th century and 16th century, during the height of the Vijayanagar Empire. During this time, it was often in conflict with the kingdoms which rose in the Northern Deccan, and which are often collectively termed the Deccan Sultanates. The period saw brutalities from both sides. In 1366, Bukka I captured the Muslim region of Mudkal and slaughtered all but one inhabitant. The lone survivor of this carnage is supposed to have taken the news to Mohammad Shah, the Sultan of the Bahamani sultanate. In response the sultan ravaged the hindus (Reference: Lonely Planet INDIA, 2005). In 1565, the empire's armies suffered a massive and catastrophic defeat at by an alliance of the Sultanates, and the capital was taken. The victorious armies then razed, depopulated and destroyed the city over several months. The empire continued in slow decline, but the original capital was not reoccupied or rebuilt. Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar, meaning the city of victory), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagara empire in the Southern part of India. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... The Bahmani Sultanate was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India. ...


Somanath

Main article: Somnath

The first temple of Somnath existed before the beginning of the Christian era. The Somnath Temple in the Prabhas Kshetra in Saurashtra, on the western coast of Gujarat, India is one of the twelve Jyotirlings (golden lingas) symbols of the God Shiva. ...


The second temple, built by the Maitraka kings of Vallabhi in Gujarat, replaced the first one on the same site around 649. In 725 Junayad, the Arab governor of Sind, sent his armies to destroy the second temple. The Maitraka dynasty ruled Gujarat in western India from the c. ... Vallabhi (modern Vala) is an ancient city located in Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ...

Somanath from the beach
Somanath from the beach

The Pratihara king Nagabhata II constructed the third temple in 815, a large structure of red sandstone. Mahmud of Ghazni attacked this temple in 1026, looted its gems and precious stones, massacred the worshippers and burned it. It was then that the famous Shivalinga of the temple was entirely destroyed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 624 KB) Summary Timeless residence of Lord Somnath from beach Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 624 KB) Summary Timeless residence of Lord Somnath from beach Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Pratiharas (Pariharas in Hindi), were an Indian dynasty who ruled kingdoms in Gurjar region of Rajasthan and northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. ... Nagabhata II (805-833) succeeded Vatsraja as king of The Pratiharas, also called the Gurjara-Pratiharas. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ...


The fourth temple was built by the Paramara King Bhoj of Malwa and the Solanki king Bhima of Gujarat (Anhilwara) between 1026 and 1042. The temple was razed in 1297 when the Sultanate of Delhi conquered Gujarat, and again in 1394. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb destroyed the temple again in 1706. The Paramara or Parmar were a prominent Rajput clan of medieval India. ... Bhoj was a great philosopher king and polymath of medieval India. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... Patan is a city in Gujarat state of western India. ... The Delhi Sultanate, or Sulthanath-e-Hind/Sulthanath-e-Dilli refers to the various dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Aurangzeb (borrowed from early Persian, اورنگ‌زیب Awrang throne and Zayb beauty, ornament),(November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707, also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ...


Views of Historians

French historian Alain Danielou wrote in his book Histoire de l'Inde: Alain Daniélou, born at Neuilly-sur-Seine (Paris) October, 4th 1907, died 1994 in Switzerland, was a French historian and Indologist. ...

From the moment when the Muslims arrive in India, the history of India does not have any more great interest. It is long and monotonous series of murder, massacres, spoilations, destruction.

French Historian Gustave Le Bon wrote in his book Les Civilisations de L'Inde: Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist. ...

There does not exist a history of ancient India. Their books contain no historical data whatever, except for a few religious books in which historical information is buried under a heap of parables and folk-lore, and their buildings and other monuments also do nothing to fill the void for the oldest among them do not go beyond the third century B.C. To discover facts about India of the ancient times is as difficult a task as the discovery of the island of Atlantis, which, according to Plato, was destroyed due to the changes of the earth... The historical phase of India began with the Muslim invasion. Muslims were India's first historians.

Historian Will Durant wrote his book The Story of Civilization: William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... The Story of Civilization by Will and Ariel Durant is an 11 volume set of books. ...

The Mohammadan conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precarious thing, whose delicate complex of order and liberty, culture and peace may at any time be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within.

N.S. Mehta, in Islam and the Indian Civilization

Islam had brought to India a luminous torch which rescued humanity from darkness at a time when old civilizations were on the decline and lofty moral ideals had got reduced to empty intellectual concepts. As in other lands, so in India too, the conquests of Islam were more widespread in the world of thought than in the world of politics. Today, also, the Muslim World is a spiritual brotherhood which is held together by community of faith in the Oneness of God and human equality. Unfortunately, the history of Islam in this country remained tied up for centuries with that of government with the result that a veil was cast over its true spirit, and its fruits and blessings were hidden from the popular eye.


Sir William Digby in 'Prosperous India: A Revelation,' p. 30.

England's industrial supremacy owes its origin to the vast hoards of Bengal and the Karnatik being made available for her use....Before Plassey was fought and won, and before the stream of treasure began to flow to England, the industries of our country were at a very low ebb.

Quotes from Historical Accounts

Hindu sage Padmanabha described in his KanhaDade Prabandha in 1456 AD the story of the Muslim invasion of Gujarat of 1298 AD:

The conquering army burnt villages, devastated the land, plundered people’s wealth, took Brahmins and children and women of all classes captive, flogged with thongs of raw hide, carried a moving prison with it, and converted the prisoners into obsequious slaves.

Tarikh-i-Yamini of Utbi the sultan's secretary wrote in the 11th century: This page deals with the Hindu varna. ...

The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously at Thanesar that the stream was discoloured, notwithstanding its purity, and people were unable to drink it. The Sultan returned with plunder which is impossible to count.

First Mughal emperor Babar wrote in his autobiography Tuzk-e-Babri

Hindustan is a country which has few pleasures to recommend it.... Indians have no idea of the charms of friendly society, of frankly mixing together, or of familiar intercourse.... They have no horses, no good grapes, or musk melons, no good fruits, no ice or cold water, no good food or bread in their bazaars, no bath or colleges, no candles, no torches, not a candle stick

Views of Non-Historians

Jawahar Lal Nehru, wrote in his book Discovery of India, 1946 page 218

The impact of the invaders from the north-west and of Islam on India had been considerable. It had pointed out and shone up the abuses that had crept into Hindu society - the petrification of caste, untouchability, exclusiveness carried to fantastic lengths.

M. K. Gandhi said about the spread of Islam in the 7th century Arabia: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ...

...I became more than ever convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the prophet, the scrupulous regard for his pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and his own mission. These, and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every trouble. YOUNG INDIA, 1924

Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya, Presidential Address to the Fifty-fifth Session of the Indian Congress, Jaipur, 1948

(The Muslims had) enriched our culture, strengthened our administration, and brought near distant parts of the country... It (the Muslim Period) touched deeply the social life and the literature of the land.

Renowned Arabist[1] De Lacy O'Leary: The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

History makes it clear however, that the legend of fanatical Muslim, sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever repeated. ISLAM AT CROSSROADS, London, 1923, p. 8

Cultural Influence

The divide and rule policies, two-nation theory and subsequent partition of India in the wake of Independence from the British Empire has polarized the sub-continental psyche making objective assesment hard in comparison to the other numerous of the settled agricultural societies of India from the North West. Muslim rule differed from these others in the level of assimilation and syncretism that occurred. The retained their identity and introduced legal and administrative systems that superseded existing systems of social conduct and ethics. While this was a source of friction it resulted in a unique experience resulting in a Muslim community strongly Islamic in character while at the same time markedly distinctive and unique among its peers. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


The impact of Islam on Indian culture has been inestimable. It permanently influenced the development of all areas of human endeavour - language, dress, cuisine, all the art forms, architecture and urban design, and social customs and values. Conversely, the languages of the Muslim invaders were modified by contact with local languages, to Urdu, which uses the Arabic script, and the more colloquial Hindustani, which uses the Devnagri script. Both are major Indian languages today.


Muslim rule saw a greater urbanization of India and the rise of many cities and their urban cultures. The biggest impact was upon trade resulting from a common commercial and legal system extending from Morocco to Indonesia. This change of emphasis on mercantilism and trade from the more strongly centralized governance systems further clashed with the agricultural based traditional economy and also provided fuel for social and political tensions.


A related development to the shifting economic was the establishment of Karkhanas, or small factories and the import and dissemination of technology through India and the rest of the world. The use of ceramic tiles in was adopted from architectural traditions of Iraq, Iran, and Central Asia. Rajasthan's blue pottery was a local variation of imported Chinese pottery. There is also the example of Sultan Abidin (1420-70) sending Kashmiri artisans to Samarqand to learn book-binding and paper making. Khurja and Siwan became renowned for pottery, Moradabad for brass ware, Mirzapur for carpets, Firozabad for glass wares, Farrukhabad for printing, Sahranpur and Nagina for wood-carving, Bidar and Lucknow for bidriware, Srinagar for papier-mache, Benaras for jewelry and textiles, and so on. On the flip-side encouraging such growth also resulted in higher taxes on the peasantry.


Numerous Indian scientific and mathematical advances and the Hindu-Arabic numerals were spread to the rest of the world [2] and much of the scholarly work and advances in the sciences of the age under Muslim nations across the globe were imported by the liberal patronage of Arts and Sciences by the rulers. The languages brought by Islam were modified by contact with local languages leading to the creation of several new languages, such as Urdu, which uses the modified Arabic script, but with more Persian words. The influences of these languages exist in several dialects in India today. Hindu-Arabic numerals also known as Arabic Numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers around the world. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing in the Arabic language. ...


Islamic and Mughal architecture and art is widely noticeable in India, examples being the Taj Mahal and Qutub Minar. The Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (Hindi: , Persian, Urdu: ), is a monument located in Agra in India, constructed between 1631 and 1654 by a workforce of 20,000. ... At 72. ...


References

  1.   ECIT Indian History Resources. Retrieved on December 5, 2005.
  2.   History of India syllabus. Retrieved on December 5, 2005.
  3.   About DeLacy O'Leary. Retrieved on April 10, 2006.

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Al-Biladhuri: Kitãb Futûh Al-Buldãn, translated into English by F.C. Murgotte, New York, 1924. See Goel's "Hindu Temples" for a list of 80 Muslim historians writing on the invasions.
  • Sita Ram Goel: Hindu Temples - What Happened to Them 2 vols. ISBN 8185990492 Vol.1; Vol.2
  • Sita Ram Goel: The Story of Islamic Imperialism in India [3]
  • Will Durant. The Story of Civilization, Vol. I, Our Oriental Heritage, New York, 1972.
  • Elliot and Dowson: The History of India as told by its own Historians, New Delhi reprint, 1990.
  • Koenraad Elst: Negationism in India - Concealing the record of Islam [4], [5]
  • François Gautier: Rewriting Indian History Chapter 4, Chapter 5, doc-format
  • K.S. Lal: The Legacy of Muslim Rule in India [6]
  • K.S. Lal. Indian Muslims - Who are they. [7]
  • K.S. Lal: The Growth of Muslim Population in India, Voice of India, New Delhi
  • Majumdar, R. C. (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Volume VI, The Delhi Sultanate, Bombay, 1960; Volume VII, The Mughal Empire, Bombay, 1973.
  • Misra, Ram Gopal, Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders up to AD 1206, Meerut City, 1983.
  • Arun Shourie: Eminent Historians: Their Technology, Their Line, Their Fraud. New Delhi, 1998.

Sita Ram Goel (सीता राम गोयल) (1921 - 2003), author and publisher, is an important figure amongst late 20th century Hindu thinkers. ... Hindu Temples - What Happened to Them is a book in two volumes by Sita Ram Goel, Arun Shourie, Harsh Narain, Jay Dubashi and Ram Swarup. ... William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... The History of India as told by its own Historians is book in eight volumes by H.M. Elliot and J. Dowson. ... K.S. Lal is a controversial Indian historian. ... Arun Shourie at a press conference Arun Shourie (born 1941) is a prominent journalist, author and politician. ...

See also

The history of India can be traced in fragments to as far back as 9,500 years ago. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // The Mughal Empire Main article: Mughal Empire India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and who failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. ... The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... Buddhism was initially established in India and it flourished there during the early phases of its history. ... // Islamic conquest The Age of the Caliphs In 637, five years after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, Arab Muslims shattered the might of the Iranian Sassanians at the Battles of al-Qādisiyyah and Nahavand. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Islamic conquest of Iberia (711–718) commenced when the Moors invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711 CE. Under the authority of the caliph at Damascus, and led by the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, they landed at Gibraltar on April 30 and worked their... This article is about historical Crusades . ... The Reconquista (Reconquest) refers to the process for which the Christian Kingdoms of northern Hispania, defeated and conquered the southern Muslim and moorish states of the Iberian Peninsula, existing since the Arab invasion of 711. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5341 words)
India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and failed to create a common body of laws or institutions.
The lone survivor of this carnage is supposed to have taken the news to Mohammad Shah, the Sultan of the Bahamani sultanate.
Islamic and Mughal architecture and art is widely noticeable in India, examples being the Taj Mahal and Qutub Minar.
Islamic empires in India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1245 words)
Both the Qur'an and sharia (Islamic law) provided the basis for enforcing Islamic administration over the independent Hindu rulers, but the sultanate made only fitful progress in the beginning, when many campaigns were undertaken for plunder and temporary reduction of fortresses.
Although agriculture in North India improved as a result of new canal construction and irrigation methods, including what came to be known as the Persian wheel, prolonged political instability and parasitic methods of tax collection brutalized the peasantry.
Taj Mahal which became the icon of India, was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan during 1630 and 1653.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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