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Encyclopedia > Islamic denominations
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Islam

History of Islam Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of Allah)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and generally recognised as the worlds second-largest religion. ... Image File history File links I made this. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ...

Beliefs and practices

Oneness of God
Profession of Faith
PrayerFasting
PilgrimageCharity This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Tawhīd (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy Allah (Arabic allāhu الله) is traditionally used by Muslims as the Arabic word for Singular God (not Gods personal name, but the equivalent of the Hebrew word El as opposed to YHWH). Both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars often... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Salat (also known as salah, solat, solah and several other spellings) (Arabic: صلاة, Quranic Arabic: صلوة) refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Hajj or Haj (Arabic: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah) in Islam. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ...

Major figures

Muhammad
AliAbu Bakr
Companions of Muhammad
Household of Muhammad
Prophets of Islam This list is poorly defined, permanently incomplete, or has become unverifiable or an indiscriminate list or repository of loosely associated topics. ... Muhammad (c. ... This person is among the Sahaba of Muhammad . ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... In the Islamic religion, the Sahaba (or Asahaaba,الصحابه; both forms are plural--the singular is Sahaabi, which is Arabic for friend, or companion) are the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... This is an Arabic phrase literally translated as People of the House, or family. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ...

Texts & Laws

Qur'anHadithSharia
JurisprudenceTheology
Biographies of Muhammad // Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... This article is not about the group of British engineering companies called Sira; see Sira (group of British companies). ...

Branches of Islam

SunniShi'aSufi
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jamaah. ... It has been suggested that Misconceptions about the Shia be merged into this article or section. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a mystic tradition of Islam based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as it is gradually revealed to the heart and mind of the Sufi (one who practices Sufism). ...

Sociopolitical aspects

Islamic studies
ArtArchitecture
SciencePhilosophy
CitiesCalendar
Religious leaders
Women in Islam
Political IslamJihad
Liberal Islam
Muslim holidays
Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. ... Islamic architecture is the entire range of architecture that has evolved from Islam as a social, cultural, political and religious phenomenon. ... Islamic science is science in the context of traditional religious ideas of Islam, including its ethics and philosophy. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between faith, reason or philosophy, and the religious teachings of Islam. ... // This is a list of cities that various groups regard as holy. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called Hijri calendar, Arabic التقويم الهجري) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days. ... Islamic religious leaders are persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, perform a prominent role within their community or nation. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... Friday is an important day in the life of a Muslim and it is believed that any devotional acts done on this day gain a higher reward. ...

See also

Vocabulary of Islam
Index of articles on Islam The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islam and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of Allah)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and generally recognised as the worlds second-largest religion. ... A sect is a small religious or political group that has branched off from a larger established group. ...


This page attempts to record and summarize these various beliefs.

Contents


Major Branches

Enlarge

Sunni

Main article: Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam - the Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama'ah. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jamaah. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


According to Sunni thought, Muhammad died without appointing a successor to lead the Muslim community. After an initial period of confusion, a group of his most prominent companions gathered and elected Abu Bakr, the Prophet's close friend and father-in-law, as the first Caliph. Muhammad (c. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Sunnis initially believed that the position of Caliph should be democratically chosen, but after the first four Rightly Guided Calliphs the position turned into a hereditary dynastic rule. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, there has never been another Caliph. Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Urdu: خلفأے راشدین, khalifa-e-rashidoon) refers to the first four caliphs in the Sunni tradition of Islam who are seen as being model leaders. ... // A dynasty is a succession of rulers who are members of the same family for generations. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Shi'a

Main article: Shi'a Islam

Shi'a Islam is the second largest denomination of Islam. It has been suggested that Misconceptions about the Shia be merged into this article or section. ...


Shi'a Muslims believe that Ali was appointed by Muhammad to be the direct successor and leader of the Muslims. They regard him as the first Imam, which continued as a hereditary position. The largest group of Shi'a Muslims believe in a total of 12 Imams. The Shi'a Hadiths include the sayings of the Imams. This person is among the Sahaba of Muhammad . ... Muhammad (c. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia (Arabic اثنا عشرية) are members of the group of Shia Islam who believe in twelve Imams. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ...


Sufi

Main article: Sufism

An umbrella term for the ascetic and mystical movements within Islam, Sufism is the school of esoteric Islamic philosophy, based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as a definite goal to attain. Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a mystic tradition of Islam based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as it is gradually revealed to the heart and mind of the Sufi (one who practices Sufism). ...


Sunni schools of thought

Main article: Madhhab

Madhhab is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence, or fiqh, within Sunni Islam. Each of the Ashaab had a unique school of jurisprudence, but these schools were gradually consolidated or discarded so that there are currently four recognized schools Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jamaah. ...


Hanafi

Main article: Hanafi

Founded by Imam Abu Hanifa, Hanafi is considered to be the school most open to modern ideas. It is predominant among Sunni Muslims in northern Egypt and the Indian subcontinent. Hanafi (Arabic: حنفى ) is one of the four schools (madhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Imam Abu Hanifa Númān ibn Thābit(699 - 765) was an important Islamic scholar and jurist and is considered the founder of the Hanafi school of fiqh. ...


Hanbali

Main article: Hanbali

Hanbali is considered to be the most conservative of the four schools. The school was started by the students of Imam Ahmad, whose name was Ahmad bin Hanbal (d. 855). Hanbali jurisprudence is predominant among Muslims in the Arabian Peninsula Hambali is the nom de guerre of Indonesian terrorist Riduan Isamuddin. ...


Maliki

Main article: Maliki

The Maliki school derives from the work of Imam Malik. Maliki is practiced in North Africa and West Africa. It is the second-largest of the four schools, followed by approximately 25% of Muslims. The Maliki madhab (Arabic مالكي) is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr (714 - 796) was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh in the Sunni sect of Islam. ...


Shafi'i

Main article: Shafi'i

Shafi'i was founded by Imam Shafi'i. It is practiced throughout the Ummah, but is most prevalent in Egypt, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines, and is the school of thought officially followed by the government of Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia. It is followed by approximately 15% of Muslims world-wide. The Shafi`i madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Imam Shafi (767 - 820) was an Islamic scholar who is considered the founder of the Shafii school of jurisprudence (fiqh). ... Umma (Arabic: ) is an Arabic word meaning community or nation. ...


Shi'a Sects

Jafari

Main article: Twelvers

Twelvers are members of the group of Shi'a Islam who believe in twelve Imams. They are the largest Shi'a school of thought (80%), predominant in Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Bahrain. Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia (Arabic اثنا عشرية) are members of the group of Shia Islam who believe in twelve Imams. ... It has been suggested that Misconceptions about the Shia be merged into this article or section. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


Ismailiyah

Main article: Ismaili

The Ismailis and Twelvers both accept the same initial Imams from the descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and therefore share much of their early history. However, a dispute arose on the succession of the Sixth Imam, Ja'far as-Sadiq. The Ismailis became those who accepted Ja'far's eldest son Ismail as the next Imam, whereas the Twelvers accepted a younger son, Musa al-Kazim. The Ismaili (Arabic الإسماعيليون, Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmâiliyân) branch of Islam is the second largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام , Persian: امام ) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Muhammad (c. ... Fatima Zahra also called Fatemeh Al Zahraa or Az-Zahra (Arabic: ) was the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadija. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام , Persian: امام ) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... Ismail bin Jafar was the eldest son of the sixth Shia Imam, Jafar as-Sadiq. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام , Persian: امام ) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Imam Musa al Kazim (November 10, 745 - September 4, 799) was the seventh Shia Imam (he is not accepted by the Ismailis as the seventh Imam). ...


Zaiddiyah

Main article: Zaiddiyah

Zaiddiyahs separated from the Twelver and Ismaili sects of Shi'a Islam over a disagreement as to who the fifth Imam was. Twelvers and Ismailis believe it was Muhammad al-Baqir, while Zaidis hold that it was his half-brother, Zayd ibn Ali. Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, Zaydiyah, or in the West Fivers) Al-Zaidis and Zaidis are the descendants of Zayd ibn Ali. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Muhammad al-Baqir Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ... Zayd ibn Ali (d. ...


Alawi

Main article: Alawite

The Alawi are classified under Twelver Shi'a Islam, but differ in a special regard for Ali as a Manifestation of God. Alawites are considered a secretive group, and do not accept converts or openly publish their texts. They are prominent in Syria. The Alawites are a Middle Eastern religious group prominent in Syria. ... This person is among the Sahaba of Muhammad . ...


Alevi

Main article: Alevi

Alevis are sometimes categorized as part of Twelver Shi'a Islam, and sometimes as its own religious tradition. They have many Sufi characteristics and express belief in the Qur'an and the Shi'a Imams, but reject polygamy and accept religious traditions predating Islam, like Turkish Shamanism. They are significant in East-Central Turkey. Alevis are adherents of a branch of Islam, related to Shia Islam and practised mainly in (majority Sunni) Turkey, among both Turks, Zazas, and Kurds. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ...


Kharijite Sects

Main article: Kharijite

Kharijite is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which reject the Caliphate of Ali as invalid. They first emerged in the late 7th century, concentrated in today's southern Iraq, and are distinct from Sunni or Shi'a. Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... This person is among the Sahaba of Muhammad . ...


Ibadi

Main article: Ibadi

The only surviving Kharijite sect is the Ibadi, which is concentrated principally in Oman, being formed there less than 50 years after the death of Muhammad. They believe that non-Ibadi Muslims are unbelievers, and follow a line of caliphs that goes from Abu Bakr, to Umar, to Uthman, to Ali, then to Abdullah ibn Wahb al-Rasibi. Specific beliefs include: friendship and unity with the practicing true believers, dis-asssociation and hostility towards unbelievers and sinners, and reservation towards those whose status is unclear. Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. ...


Sufri

Main article: Sufri

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Azraqi

Main article: Azraqi

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Kalam Schools

Main article: Kalam

Kalam is one of the 'religious sciences' of Islam. In Arabic the word means "speech" or "discourse", and refers to the Islamic tradition of seeking theological principles through dialectic. The term is usually translated as 'theology'. Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


Ash'ari

Main article: Ash'ari

Ash'ari is a school of early Muslim philosophy founded in the tenth century. It was instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islam and laid the groundwork to "shut the door of ijtihad" centuries later in the Ottoman Empire. The Asharite view was that comprehension of unique nature and characteristics of God were beyond human capability. The Ashari (Arabic الأشعرية al-ash`aryah) is a school of early Muslim philosophy named after its founder, the theologian Abu lHasan al-Ashari (d. ... Early Muslim philosophy can be starkly divided into four clear sets of influences: First, the life of Muhammad or sira which generated both the Quran (revelation) and hadith (his daily utterances and discourses on social and legal matters), during which philosophy was defined by acceptance or rejection of his... Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد) is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources, the Quran and the Sunnah. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40...


Jabriyya

Main article: Jabriyya

Maturidi

Main article: Maturidi

A Maturidi is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi's theology, which is a close variant of the Ash'ari school. Points which differ are the nature of belief and the place of human reason. The Maturidis state that belief (iman) does not increase nor decrease but remains static; it is piety (taqwa) which increases and decreases. The Ash'aris say that belief does in fact increase and decrease. The Maturidis say that the unaided human mind is able to find out that some of the more major sins such as alcohol or murder are evil without the help of revelation. The Ash'aris say that the unaided human mind is unable to know if something is good or evil, lawful or unlawful, without divine revelation. In Islam, one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidis theology, which is a close variant of Ashari school of thought. ... Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmud Abu Mansur al-Samarqandi al-Maturidi al-Hanafi (d. ...


Murjite

Main article: Murjite

Mu'tazili

Main article: Mu'tazili

Mu'tazili theology originated in the 8th century in al-Basrah when Wasil ibn Ata left the teaching lessons of al-Hasan al-Basri after a theological dispute. He and his followers expanded on the logic and rationalism of Greek philosophy, seeking to combine them with Islamic doctrines and show that the two were inherently compatible. The Mu'tazili debated philosophical questions such as whether the Qur'an was created or eternal, whether evil was created by God, the issue of predestination versus free will, whether God's attributes in the Qur'an were to be interpreted allegorically or literally, and whether sinning believers would have eternal punishment in hell. Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Location of Basra Basra (also known as Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes called Busra, Busrah, and early on Bassorah; Arabic: البصرة, Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of about 1,377,000 in 2003. ... Wasil ibn Ata (700 - 748) was a Muslim theologian, and by some accounts is considered the founder of the Mutazilite school of Islamic thought. ... Hasan Ul-Basri [Abu Saud ul-Hasan ibn Abi-l-Hasan Vassar ul-Basri], (642 - 728 or 737), Arabian theologian, was born at Medina. ... Classical (or early) Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Evil is a term describing that which is regarded as morally bad, intrinsically corrupt, wantonly destructive, inhumane, or wicked. ... Michelangelos depiction of God in the painting Creation of the Sun and Moon in the Sistine Chapel) This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and derived henotheistic forms. ... Predestination is a religious idea, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... Free will is the philosophical doctrine that holds that our choices are ultimately up to ourselves. ... Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) Hell is, according to many religious beliefs, a place or a state of painful suffering. ...


Qd'riyyah

Main article: Qd'riyyah

Other sects

The followers of these sects consider themselves to be Muslim, but are not recognized as such by the mainstream.


Zikri

Main article: Zikri

Zikri is based around the teachings of Syed Mohammad Jaunpuri, a 15th century Mahdi claimant. In religious practice, the Zikris differ greatly from mainstream Muslims, and there is debate about whether to call them Sunni, Sufi, or a sect of their own. Zikris perform five times daily prayers called Zikr in which sacred verses are recited, as compared to the orthodox practice of Salah. Most Zikris live in Balochistan, but a large number also live in Karachi, interior Sindh and Iran. Zikri is a small Islamic sect that is concentrated in Balochistan. ... Another historical claimant of the title of Mahdi was born in northeastern India, in a town called Jaunpur (now in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Mahdi (Arabic: مهدي, also transliterated as: Mehdi or Mihdi; translated as: Guided One), in Islamic eschatology, is the prophesied redeemer of Islam, who will change the world into a perfect Islamic society before Yaum al-Qiyamah (literally Day of the Resurrection). The exact nature of the Mahdi differs between Sunni... Arabic. ... Salah (also known as salat, solat, solah and several other spellings) (Arabic: صلاة, Quranic Arabic: صلوة) refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Karachi (كراچى) is the largest city in Pakistan and the capital of the province of Sindh. ... It has been suggested that Sovira be merged into this article or section. ...


Ahmadiyyah

Main article: Ahmadi

Ahmadi Muslims are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who claimed to be the promised Messiah, and Mahdi at end of the nineteenth century. The followers are divided into two groups, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, the former believing that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was a non-law bearing Prophet, and the latter believing that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was only a revivalist. Ahmadi Muslims (Urdu: Ahmadiyya), are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ... Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (مرزا غلام احمد) (February 13, 1835–May 26, 1908) is the founder of the Ahmadiyya religious movement. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ anointed one, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew Arabic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ... The Mahdi (Arabic: مهدي, also transliterated as: Mehdi or Mihdi; translated as: Guided One), in Islamic eschatology, is the prophesied redeemer of Islam, who will change the world into a perfect Islamic society before Yaum al-Qiyamah (literally Day of the Resurrection). The exact nature of the Mahdi differs between Sunni... The Ahmadiyya/ Qadyani Community (Arabic: الجماعة الأحمدية; transliterated: ; sometimes called the Qadiani community, after the locality of Qadian, India) is based on the Ahmadiyya movement founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadyani of Qadian (born 1839/40). ... The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat-i-Islam (not to be confused with the Ahmadiyya Muslim Association), formed as a result of an ideological differences between the Ahmadiyya Community after the demise Maulawi Nur ud-Din in 1914, the first Khalifa of its founder, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ...


Moorish Science

Main article: Moorish Science Temple of America

This faith was founded by Timothy Drew in 1913 in the United States. Its main tenet is that African Americans were descended from the Moors and thus were originally Islamic. Its followers claim it to be a sect of Islam but it also has almost equal influences in Buddhism, Christianity, Freemasonry, Gnosticism and Taoism. They have their own version of Qur'an, known as the "Circle Seven Koran". The Moorish Science Temple of America is a religion founded in the early 20th century claiming to be a sect of Islam, but having equal influences in Buddhism, Christianity, Freemasonry, Gnosticism and Taoism. ... The Moorish Science Temple of America is a religion founded in the early 20th century claiming to be a sect of Islam, but having equal influences in Buddhism, Christianity, Freemasonry, Gnosticism and Taoism. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. // Origins of the name The name derives from the old tribe of the Mauri and their kingdom, Mauretania. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found from Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Gnosticism is a historical term for various mystical initiatory religions, sects and knowledge schools which were most active in the first few centuries of the common era, around the Mediterranean and extending into central Asia. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Nation of Islam

Main article: Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam was founded by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with a declared aim of "resurrecting" the spiritual, mental, social and economic condition of the black man and woman of America and the world. The expressed teachings of the Nation of Islam have been subject to many changes, with at one point believing Fard to be God incarnate, being re-named the Muslim American Society, having a major division, and then a reconciliation. It is viewed by almost all Muslims as a heretical cult. The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and socio-political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with a declared aim of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social and economic condition of the black man and woman of America and the world. ... The NOIs acknowledged photograph of Wallace Fard Muhammad Wallace Fard Muhammad (1877-93? – after 1934) was a preacher and founder of the black nationalist movement the Nation of Islam (NOI), establishing its first mosque in Detroit. ...


Submitters

Main article: United Submitters International

Dr. Rashad Khalifa founded this faith. It is regarded by most Muslims as heretical based on the belief that Rashad Khalifa was the consolidating and purifying Messenger of the Covenant prophesied in the Bible and Qur'an. The main group seems to attend the Tucson, Arizona mosque founded by Khalifa. They follow a Qur'an alone rule, and reject Hadith. The United Submitters International is a minor Islamic group, founded by Rashad Khalifa. ... Rashad Khalifa, 1989 Rashad Khalifa (November 19, 1935 - January 31, 1990) was an Egyptian Muslim who moved to the United States in 1959 where he studied biochemistry and later became a citizen. ... The Bible (Hebrew תנ״ך [tanakh], Greek η Βίβλος [he biblos] ) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible of Judaism or the combination of the Old Testament and New Testament of Christianity... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Nickname: The Old Pueblo Motto: Official website: http://www. ... Quran alone Muslims or Quranic Muslims are those Muslims who reject hadith, sunnah and abrogation of Quranic verses, or recorded Islamic traditions, and follow the Quran, Islams sacred text, without any further additions. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ...


Other movements within sects

Salafism

Main article: Salafi

Salafis preach a purified Islamic monotheism, or tawhid, and gained significant teachings from Ibn Taymiya, a 14th century Syrian scholar. Salafism is in general opposed to Sufism and Shi'a Islam, which they regard as heresies. Salafi theology advocates a puritanical and legalistic stance in matters of faith and religious practice. They see their role as a movement to restore Islam from what they perceive to be innovations, superstitions, deviances, heresies and idolatries. Note: A Salafi (Arabic سلفي lit. ... Monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Tawhid (توحيد), meaning declaring God one, is the Islamic concept of monotheism. ... Abu al-Abbas Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Abd al-Salaam ibn Abdullah ibn Taymiya al-Harrani (Arabic: أبو عباس تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني) (January 22, 1263 – 1328), was an Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف tasÌ£awwuf) is a mystic tradition of Islam based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as it is gradually revealed to the heart and mind of the Sufi (one who practices Sufism). ... It has been suggested that Misconceptions about the Shia be merged into this article or section. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of Allah)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and generally recognised as the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Wahhabism

Main article: Wahhabism

Salafism was revived by the 18th-century teacher Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab in Arabia, and was instrumental in the rise of the House of Saud to power. Wahhabism is a puritanical and legalistic Islamic movement under the Sunni umbrella, and is the dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia. In addition to the Qur'an and hadith, it also accepts various commentaries including Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's Kitab al-Tawhid ("Book of Monotheism"), and the works of the earlier scholar Ibn Taymiyya. They are often associated with the Hanbali maddhab. Wahhabism (Arabic: الوهابية, Wahabism, Wahabbism) is a Sunni fundamentalist Islamic movement, named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... Note: A Salafi (Arabic سلفي lit. ... Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab al-Tamimi (1703 C.E. – 1792 C.E.) (Arabic:محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمى) was an Arab theologian born in the Najd, in present-day Saudi Arabia and the most famous scholar of the movement within Islam known as the Wahhabi movement. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... The House of Saud is the royal family of Saudi Arabia. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Abu al-Abbas Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Abd al-Salaam ibn Abdullah ibn Taymiya al-Harrani, was a jurist, reformer, preacher, scholar, exegete of Islam. ... Hambali is the nom de guerre of Indonesian terrorist Riduan Isamuddin. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ...


Deobandi

Main article: Deobandi

Deobandi are Muslims of South Asia and Afghanistan who follow the fiqh of Imam Abu Hanifa. The Taliban are reputed to follow the teachings of the Deoband school, although a strict and simplistic version of the school's teachings. The Deobandi are Muslims of South Asia and Afghanistan who follow the fiqh (tradition of jurisprudence) of Imam Abu Hanifa. ... Composite satellite image of South Asia Map of South Asia. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Hanafi is one of the four schools (madhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ...


Liberals

Main article: Liberal movements within Islam

Liberal and progressive movements have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. Liberal Muslims believe in greater autonomy of the individual in interpretation of scripture, a critical examination of religious texts, gender equality, and a modern view of culture, tradition, and other ritualistic practices in Islam. Since the 19th century, Muslim progressives have produced a considerable body of liberal thought within Islam (in Arabic: الإسلام الاجتهادي or interpretation-based Islam; also الإسلام التقدمي or progressive Islam). These have in common a religious outlook which depends mainly on ijtihad or re-interpretations of scriptures. ... Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد) is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources, the Quran and the Sunnah. ...


Islamism

Main article: Islamism

Islamism is a term that refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various fundamentalist views, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but a political system governing the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. The religious views of Islamist organizations vary. The most prominent group is probably Al-Qaeda, which is believed to be responsible for the September 11, 2001 attacks. Other groups include the Muslim Brotherhood, the largest opposition party in Egypt, and Hezbollah in Lebanon. Although violence is often employed by some organizations as a means to an end, not all Islamist movements are violent. Islamism refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various religious views of Muslim fundamentalists, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but also a political system that should govern the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Huge plume of smoke and fire seen on the North Tower (the first tower to be hit). ... The Muslim Brotherhood or The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title جماعة الإخوان المسلمين jamāat al-ikhwān al-muslimÄ«n, The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood) is the name of several Islamist organizations in the Middle East. ... The Hezbollah flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God, for other designations or alternative spellings, see name part of this article) is a Shia Islamist group in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight the Israeli occupation in southern Lebanon. ...


Tablighi Jama'at

Main article: Tablighi_Jamaat

Originating in India in the Mewat province, Tablighi Jama'at aims to bring spiritual awakening to the world Muslims. It was Mawlana Muhammad Ilyas who laid the spiritual foundation of the Movement. // Roots of Tabligh Movement Originating in India in the Mewat province, Tablighi Jamaat aims to bring spiritual awakening to the world Muslims. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... Mawlana Muhammad Ilyas is the founder of the Tablighi Jamaat of South Asian subcontinent. ...


Related Faiths

The followers of these religions do not consider themselves to be Muslim, but have a strong connection to the religion of Islam.


Yazidi

Main article: Yazidi

The Yazidi are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion whose followers are sometimes called "devil worshippers" by mainstream Muslims. This is because they sometimes refer to their god as "Shatan". They are primarily ethnic Kurds, and most Yazidis live near Mosul, Iraq. Yazidi theology is complex, and in fact its a closely guarded secret. They are crypto-pagans. They venerate a great leader they call Sheik Adi, a supreme creator, and another deity called "Melek Taus", variably translated as 'King Peacock' or 'The Peacock Angel'. Like the Druze and other crypto-pagan groups, they have suffered persecution from the dominant Muslims, and have, as a result, taken up islamic and arabic practices as a cover for their pagan religion. Malak Ta’us The Yazidi or Yezidi (Kurdish: Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... MosÅ«l (36°22′ N 43°07′ E Arabic: al-Mawsil), Kurdish: Mûsil, or Nineveh (Syriac: ܢܝܢܘܐ) is a city in northern Iraq/Central Assyria. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Melek Taus (The Peacock Angel, Arabic ملاك طاووس) is the Yazidis name for the central figure of their faith. ...


Druze

Main article: Druze

The Druze are a small distinct community whose religion resembles Islam, with aspects of Greek philosophy. Many muslims consider them to be muslims, but Druze do not consider themselves to be Islamic. The religion developed in the 11th century around the figure of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, a Caliph who claimed to be God. The Druze keep the tenets of their Faith secret, and very few details are known. They neither accept converts nor recognize conversion from their religion to another. They are located primarily in the Levant. The Druze (Arabic: duruzī درزي, pl. ... Classical (or early) Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Hakim bi-Amr Allah (literally: Ruler by Gods Command), known as the Mad Caliph, was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Bábism

Main article: Bábí

In 1844 a young man from Shiraz, Iran proclaimed to be the Mahdi and took on the title of "The Báb". The religion he began officially broke away from Islam, and gained a significant following in Iran. His followers were called heretics by the state, and in 1850 the Báb was publicly executed. The room where The Báb declared His mission on May 23, 1844 in His house in Shiraz. ... Shirāz is Irans city of poets, as some of Persian poetrys giants are buried here. ... The Mahdi (Arabic: مهدي, also transliterated as: Mehdi or Mihdi; translated as: Guided One), in Islamic eschatology, is the prophesied redeemer of Islam, who will change the world into a perfect Islamic society before Yaum al-Qiyamah (literally Day of the Resurrection). The exact nature of the Mahdi differs between Sunni... Shrine of the Báb at night from above in Haifa, Israel. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of Allah)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and generally recognised as the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Bahá'í

Main article: Bahá'í Faith

Following the death of the Báb the majority of Bábís turned to Bahá'u'lláh, a respected leader of that community, eventually calling themselves Bahá'ís. Bahá'ís believe that the Bábí and Islamic prophecies of the end times and the return of the Mahdi and Jesus were fulfilled. Bábís believe Bahá'u'lláh to be a Manifestation of God, a messenger on par with Muhammad. It is sometimes categorized as a sect of Islam, which is denied by its adherents and the Muslim mainstream. Bahá'ís are persecuted as apostates in some Islamic countries, especially Iran. Seat of the Universal House of Justice, governing body of the Baháís in Haifa Israel The Baháí Faith is an emerging global religion founded by Baháulláh, a 19th century Persian exile. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Mírzá Husayn-Alí (Persian: میرزا حسینعلی) (b: 1817 - d: 1892), who later took the title of Baháulláh (بهاءالله The Glory of God in Arabic) was the founder and prophet of the Baháí Faith. ... The Mahdi (Arabic: مهدي, also transliterated as: Mehdi or Mihdi; translated as: Guided One), in Islamic eschatology, is the prophesied redeemer of Islam, who will change the world into a perfect Islamic society before Yaum al-Qiyamah (literally Day of the Resurrection). The exact nature of the Mahdi differs between Sunni... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth; for other uses, see Jesus (disambiguation). ... The Baháí Faith refers to what are commonly called Prophets as Manifestations of God, or simply Manifestations (mazhar). ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... Apostasy (Greek απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is the formal renunciation of ones religion. ...


Five Percenters

Main article: The Nation of Gods and Earths

A branch of the Nation of Islam, this group formed in Harlem, New York in the 1960s. Their beliefs focus on bringing justice to African-American youth, and they believe God is black. They have little relation to mainstream Islam, except that they use the expression Allahu Akbar. The Five Percenter Universal Flag (Sun, Moon, and Star). ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and socio-political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with a declared aim of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social and economic condition of the black man and woman of America and the world. ... This article is about the Harlem neighborhood in New York City. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black), is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article is about Islamic religious phrase God is most great. For other usages, see Allahu Akbar (disambiguation). ...


See also

Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of Allah)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and generally recognised as the worlds second-largest religion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pan-Islamism. ... Pan-Islamism is the loose unification of all Islamic countries and peoples. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...

External links


 
 

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