FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Islamic conquest of South Asia
History of the Indian Subcontinent
Mehrgarh Culture 7000-3300 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization 3300-1700 BCE
Cemetery H Culture 1700-1300 BCE
Vedic Civilization 1700-500 BCE
Kuru Dynasty 1200-316 BCE
Maha Janapadas 700-321 BCE
Middle Kingdoms 600 BCE - 1279 CE
Mauryan Empire 321-184 BCE
Gupta Empire 240-550 CE
Chola Empire 848-1279 CE
Islamic Sultanates 979-1596
Hoysala Empire 1040-1346
Delhi Sultanate 1210-1526
Vijayanagara Empire 1336-1565
Mughal Era 1526-1707
Maratha Empire 1674-1761
Colonial Era 1757-1947
Republic of India 1947 onwards
History of India
History of Pakistan
History of Bangladesh
History of Nepal
History of Bhutan
History of Sri Lanka

The Islamic conquest of South Asia took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the seventh to the twelfth centuries. The first incursion by the new muslim successor states of the Persian empire occured around 664 CE during the Umayyad Caliphate, led by Mohalib towards Multan in Southern Punjab; in modern day Pakistan. Mohalib expeditions were not aimed at conquest, though they penetrated as far as the capital of the Maili and returned with wealth and prisoners of war. This article is about the History of South Asia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Taj-Mahal-thumbnail. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) // Events Circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia. ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Unification of the first Ancient Egyptian state, marking the beginning of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. ... The Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BCE-1700 BCE) was an ancient civilization thriving along the lower Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and Gujarat (western India). ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Unification of the first Ancient Egyptian state, marking the beginning of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. ... (18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC - other centuries) (1690s BC - 1680s BC - 1670s BC - 1660s BC - 1650s BC - 1640s BC - 1630s BC - 1620s BC - 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1700 - 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilisation around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... (18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC - other centuries) (1690s BC - 1680s BC - 1670s BC - 1660s BC - 1650s BC - 1640s BC - 1630s BC - 1620s BC - 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1700 - 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests... (Redirected from 1300 BCE) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and Trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens dies after a reign... The Vedic Civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ... (18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC - other centuries) (1690s BC - 1680s BC - 1670s BC - 1660s BC - 1650s BC - 1640s BC - 1630s BC - 1620s BC - 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1700 - 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... (Redirected from 1200 BCE) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313... Mahajanapadas (महाजनपद) literally means Great kingdoms (from Sanskrit Maha = great, Janapada = foothold of tribe = country). ... ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC 322 BC - 321 BC - 320 BC 319 BC 318... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC 322 BC - 321 BC - 320 BC 319 BC 318... (Redirected from 184 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC 185 BC - 184 BC... Gupta empire and vassal states at its greatest extent (330-454) The Gupta Empire was an Indian empire ruled by the Gupta dynasty in ancient India from around 320 to 550 CE. // Origins The origins of the Guptas are shrouded in obscurity. ... For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... Events End of the Eastern Wei Dynasty and beginning of the Northern Qi Dynasty in northern China. ... Overview of the Chola Empire (9th-13th Centuries) Areas under direct control of the Chola Empire, 1030 AD. The Chola Empire rose to power in the 9th century in the Tamil speaking districts of Southern India. ... Events The Borobudur is completed. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in India. ... Events: The Tynwald, the parliament of the Isle of Man, is founded. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Events March War of Independence of Western Xia occurred. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Tsuchimikado, emperor of Japan Emperor Juntoku ascends to the throne of Japan Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor excommunicated by Pope Innocent III for invading southern Italy in 1210 Gottfried von Strassburg writes his epic poem Tristan about 1210 Beginning of Delhi Sultanate Births... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ... // The Mughal empire Main article: Mughal empire India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and who failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. ... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Act of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Goa. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The History of India can be traced in fragments to as far back as 700,000 years ago. ... The History of Pakistan for times preceding 1947 overlaps with that of the history of India, Afghanistan, and Iran. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least 9,000 years. ... The history of Bhutan: // Prehistory Archeological finds suggest the mountain valleys of Bhutan have been inhabited for several thousand years. ... The History of Sri Lanka is usually taken to begin in the 6th century BCE, when the Indo-Aryan people migrated into the island from India. ... The history of South India begins with the Sangam age, from 200 BC to 300 AD. It is called so after the sangam literature. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... Bengal had been quite distant and cut off (by the rivers, especially the Ganga and the Brahmaputra) from the mainland of India for ages. ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... // Indus valley civilization The Indus valley civilization, the first known permanent and predominantly urban settlement that flourished between 2800 BC to 1800 BC boasted of an advanced and thriving economic system. ... Components Indian Army Indian Air Force Indian Navy Indian Coast Guard Indian Paramilitary Forces Strategic Nuclear Command History Military History of India British Indian Army Indian National Army Ranks Air Force ranks and insignia of India Army ranks and insignia of India Naval ranks and insignia of India Related Info... ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Overview Events The Roman-Persian Wars end. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Events September, Synod of Whitby Births Deaths Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 until the present. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Mohalib Bin Aby-Suffra was an Arab general during the Umayyad caliphate, who made some of the first exploratory Islamic raids into South Asia in 664 CE, penetrating to Multan in the Punjab in present day Pakistan, and returning with many prisoners of war. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (Meaning: Land of five Rivers) (also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Maili is a census-designated place located in Honolulu County, Hawaii. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


It took several centuries for Islam to spread to parts of India and is a topic of intense debate. Some quarters hold that Hindus were forcibly converted to Islam by laws favoring Muslims Citizens, and threat of naked force; the "Conversion by the Sword Theory." Others hold that this occurred by inter-marriage, conversions, economic integration, to escape caste structures or at the hand of Sufi preachers. The disputers of the "Conversion by the Sword Theory" point to the precensce of the strong Muslim communities found in Southern India, modern day Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Western Burma, Indonesia and Phillipines coupled with the distinctively lack of equivalent muslim communities around the heartland of historical Muslim Empires in the Indian Sub-Continent as refutation to the Conversion by Sword Theory.


Historian Will Durant wrote in The Story of Civilization (1972) that the Muslim conquest of India was "probably the bloodiest story in history." The number of people killed is estimated based on the Muslim chronicles and demographic calculations. K.S. Lal estimated in his book The Growth of Muslim Population in India that between 1000 CE and 1500 CE, the population of Hindus decreased by 80 million. The legacy of Islamic conquest of South Asia is a hotly debated issue even today. William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885—November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher and writer. ...

Contents


Muhammad bin Qasim

Main article: Muhammad bin Qasim

Islam in India existed in communities along the Arab trade routes in Sindh, Ceylon and Southern India. In 711, the Umayyad Caliph in Damascus sent an expedition to Baluchistan (an arid region on the Iranian Plateau in Southwest Asia, presently split between Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan) and Sindh (presently a province of Pakistan bordering on Baluchistan, Punjab, and Rajasthan, India). The nature of the expedition was punitive, and in response to raids carried out by pirates on Arab shipping, operating around Daibul. The allegation was made that The King of Sindh, Raja Dahir was the patron of these pirates. The expedition was led by a 20-year-old Syrian chieftain named Muhammad bin Qasim (for whom Karachi's second port is named). The expedition went as far North as Multan, then called the "City of Gold," that contained the extremely large Hindu temple Sun Mandir housing over six thousand people. Bin Qasim invaded the sub-continent at the orders of Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef, the governor of Iraq. Qasim's armies defeated Raja Dahir at what is now Hyderabad in Sindh in 712. He then proceeded to subdue the lands from Karachi to Multan with a small force of only six thousand Syrian tribesmen, therby establishing the dominion of the Umayyad Caliphate from Lisbon in Portugal to the Indus Valley. Qasim was later recalled to Baghdad, and Muslim rule in South Asia shrank to Sindh and southern Punjab. Muhammad bin Qasim (c. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Sindh (Sind) سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ... See also: phone number 711. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria. ... Baluchistan (or Balochistan), also known as Greater Baluchistan is an arid region of south Asia, presently split between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... The Iranian plateau is major geologic formation in the Middle East and the southern Eurasian Plate. ... Sindh (Sind) سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ... Rajasthan (राजस्थान) is the largest state,area wise, in India. ... Muhammad bin Qasim (c. ... Karachi (كراچى) is the largest city of Pakistan and the capital of the province of Sindh. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... Neasden Temple, london The Neasden Temple in London is an example of a Hindu Temple. ... Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef (661 - June in Taif, 714 in Wasit, Iraq) (Arabic: الحجاج بن يوسف also known as Al Hajjaj bin Yousef Al saqafe) was an important Arab administrator during the Umayyad caliphate. ... Hyderabad located in Sindh province of Pakistan (also formerly known as Neroon Kot). ... Sindh (Sind) سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ... Events Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. ... Karachi (كراچى) is the largest city of Pakistan and the capital of the province of Sindh. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ... District Lisbon Mayor   - Party Carmona Rodrigues PSD Area 84. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Sindh (Sind) سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ...


This region had been under considerable flux as Greco-Indo kingdoms, the Persian Empire and Central Asian nations vied for control prior to the arrival of the Islamic influence. Coastal trade and the presence of a colony in Sindh permitted significant cultural exchange and the introduction of Islamic teachers into the subcontinent. Considerable conversions took place, especially amongst the Buddhist majority. Multan became a center of the Ismaili sect of Islam, which still has many adherents in Sindh today. This region under generous patronage of the arts provided a conduit for arab scholars to absorb and expand on indian sciences and pass them onwards to the West. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Ismaili (Arabic الإسماعيليون, Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmâiliyân) branch of Islam is the second largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ...


But in many regions North of Multan, several non-Muslim groups (largely Buddhists and Hindus, as well as followers of folk religions further North) remained numerous. From this period through the year 1000, the conquered area was divided into two parts: the northern region comprising the Punjab remained under the control of Hindu rajas, while the Southern area came under Muslim control and comprised Baluchistan, Sindh, and Multan. A Hindu (archaic Hindoo), as per modern definition is an adherent of philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, the predominant religious, philosophical and cultural system of India (Bharat), Nepal, and the island of Bali. ... // Events World Population 300 million. ... Baluchistan (or Balochistan), also known as Greater Baluchistan is an arid region of south Asia, presently split between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... Sindh (Sind) سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, Muhajirs and various other groups. ... Multan (ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, and capital of Multan District. ...


Qasim demolished many temples, shattered "idolatorous" artwork and killing many people in his battles. After the violence, he attempted to establish law and order in the newly-conquered territory through the imposition of Islamic Shariah laws. He also sought control through systematic persecution of Hindus. He wrote an account of such experiences: The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...

O my cousin; I received your life inspiring letter. I was much pleased and overjoyed when it reached me. The events were recounted in an excellent and beautiful style, and I learnt that the ways and rules you follow are conformable to the Law. Except that you give protection to all, great and small alike, and make no difference between enemy and friend. God says, 'Give no quarter to Infidels, but cut their throats." "Then know that this is the command of the great God. You should not be too ready to grant protection, because it will prolong your work. After this, give no quarter to any enemy except to those who are of rank. This is a worthy resolve, and want of dignity will not be imputed to you. Peace be with you. [1]

Native populations of conquered territories under Qasim underwent a great deal of hardship and struggle for their refusal to convert to Islam. Taxes known as Jizya were imposed upon non-Muslims replacing other taxes under the dhimmi status of non-muslim subjects to Islamic rulers. Substantial religious conversions are also reported to have occured in this period, while all sources agree to widespread bloodshed during the period of the conquests, traditional historical narrative indicates a period of tolerance in the aftermath, however the nature of these conversion and all future conversions are currently hotly debated by proponents of theory of conversion by the sword and those against it. See above. In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax imposed on non-Muslim adult males. ... A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Islamic religion. ...


[**Note: There also exists an allegation against Raja Dahir for atrocities against the buddhist populace and subsequent relief.**]


Subsequent to Qasim's recall the Caliphates control in Sindh was extremely weak under governors only nominally acknowledging Arab control and sharing power and peacefully coexisting with local Hindu, Jain and Buddhist rulers. Ismaili missionaries found a receptive audience among both the Sunni and non-muslim populations. In 985 a group around Multan declared themselves an independent Ismaili Fatimid State. A Hindu (archaic Hindoo), as per modern definition is an adherent of philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, the predominant religious, philosophical and cultural system of India (Bharat), Nepal, and the island of Bali. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


Ghaznavid Period

Main article: Mahmud of Ghazni

Ghazni was a city-state founded in 962 founded Alptigin, once a slave then a Governor of Khorasan eventually divested of power in political intrigues. Under his son-in-law Subuktigin, Ghazni found itself in conflict with the Shahi Raja Jaipal. When Subuktigin died and his son Mahmud ascended the throne in 998, Mahmud was engaged in the North with the Qarakhanid Empire when the Shahi Raja renewed hostilities. Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Alptigin was the grandfather of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; Xorasan or Xurasan in Kurdish; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ...


In the early 11th century Mahmud of Ghazni launched 17 expeditions into India. In 1001, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi defeated King Jeebal of Kabulistan and marched further into Peshawar and in 1005 made it the center for his forces. From this strategic location Mahmud was able to capture the Punjab in 1007. In 1010, Mahmud captured what is today the Ghowr Province (Ghor) and by 1011 had annexed Baluchistan. Tanseer fell in 1014, Kashmir was captured in 1015, and Qanouch fell in 1017. After defeating Tarnochalpal in 1021, Mahmud formally annexed Punjab. Mahmud of Ghazni sacked Multan twice, destroying the Sun Mandir. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Events Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary is named the first King of Hungary by Pope Silvester II. Canonisation of Edward the Martyr, king of England. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... Peshāwar (پیشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pai-khawar in Pashto. ... Events Malcolm II succeeds Kenneth III as king of Scotland. ... Events Aethelred buys two years of peace with the Danes for 36,000 pounds of silver. ... Ghowr (sometimes spelled Ghor) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ...


[**Note: Sun Mandir also known as Somnath. Was also alleggedly serving the purpose of a war-room for the opposition.] The Somnath Temple in the Prabhas Kshetra in Saurashtra, on the western coast of Gujarat, India is one of the twelve Jyotirlings (golden lingas) symbols of the God Shiva. ...


The Ghaznavid Jihads were intially directed against the Fatimids in on-going struggle of the Abassid Caliphate elsewhere. However, once this aim was accomplished he moved onto richness of the loot of wealthy temples and monastaries. By 1027, Mahmud had captured most of Northern India and obtained formal recognition of Ghazni's sovreignity from the Abbasid Khalifah, al-Qadir Billah.


Mahmud had already had relationships with the leadership in Balkh through marriage, and its local emir, Abu Nasr Mohammad, offered his services to the sultan and his daughter to Mahmud's son, Muhammad. After Nasr’s death Mahmud brought Balkh under his leadership. This alliance greatly helped him during his expeditions into Northern India. Today Balkh is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ...


Ghaznavid rule in North India lasted over 175 years, from 1010 to 1187. It was during this period that Lahore assumed considerable importance as the eastern-most bastion of Muslim power and an outpost for further advance toward the riches of the east. Apart from being the second capital, and later the only capital, of the Ghaznavid kingdom, Lahore had great military and strategic significance: whoever controlled it could look forward to sweeping the whole of East Punjab to Panipat and Delhi. Events The Ly Dynasty in Vietnam is established (or 1009). ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Panipat is a historic as well as an ancient city in the Panipat District in Haryana state, India, The city has a population of 216,000. ... This article deals with the metropolis of Delhi. ...


By the end of his reign, Mahmud's empire extended from Kurdistan in the west to Samarkand in the Northeast, and from the Caspian Sea to the Yamuna. Although his raids carried his forces across Northern and Western India, only Punjab came under his permanent rule; Kashmir, the Doab, Rajasthan, and Gujarat remained under the control of the local Rajput dynasties. The wealth brought back to Ghazni was enormous. Contemporary historians (e.g. Abolfazl Beyhaghi and Ferdowsi) give glowing descriptions of the magnificence of the capital and the conqueror's munificent support of literature. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Colour photograph of Ulugh Beg Madrasa taken in Samarkand ca. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea between Asia and Europe (European Russia). ... Confluence of Yamuna River and Tons River Yamuna (sometimes called Jamuna) is a major river of northern India, with a total length of around 1370 km. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... A Doab, meaning two waters is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ... Gujarat (Gu: , Hi: ; , IPA ; also spelled Gujrat and sometimes (incorrectly) Gujarath) contained many of the former Princely states of India, and is the second-most industrialized state in the Republic of India after Maharashtra. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Abolfazl Beyhaghi (995-1077; Abd ul-Fazl Mohammad Ibn Hossein Beyhaği) was an Iranian historian and author. ... Statue of Ferdowsi in Tehran Ferdowsi Mausoleum in Tus Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ...


In 1030, Mahmud fell gravely ill and died at age 59. He had been a gifted military commander, and during his rule, universities were founded to study various subjects such as mathematics, religion, the humanities, and medicine&. Islam was the main religion of his kingdom and the Perso-Afghan dialect Dari was made the official language. Events July 29 - Battle of Stiklestad in Norway. ... The term Dari derives from Fârsi-e Darbâri which means Persian of the (royal) courts. It developed at the royal courts of the Samanids (980 AD) in Central Asia and became the major language of Persia. ...


As with the Turkic invaders of three centuries ago, Mahmud's armies looted temples in Varanasi, Mathura, Ujjain, Maheshwar, Jwalamukhi, and Dwarka, however they did not seek to impose Islam on all their new subjects. Infact Mahmud was quite pragmatic and he even utlized uncoverted hindu generals and troops in his expeditions. His main target remained the Shiites and Buyid Iran. There is considerable evidence from writings of Al-Biruni, Sogidan, Uighur and Manichean texts that the Buddhists, Hindus and Jains were accepted as People of the Book and references to Buddha as Burxan or a prophet can be found. After the initial destruction and pillage the buddhists, jains and hindus were granted protected subject status as dhimmis. Varanasi Varanasi (Benares) in 1922. ... Mathura (मथुरा) is a city in India, located approximately 50 km north of Agra, and south of Delhi. ... Ujjain (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Maheshwar is a town in Khargone district of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India. ... Dwarka is a city in Gujarat, India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Dhimmi, or Zimmi (Arabic ذمي), as defined in classical Islamic legal and political literature, is a person living in a Muslim state who is a member of an officially tolerated non-Islamic religion. ...


Muhammed Ghuri

Main article: Muhammed Ghuri

Muhammad Ghori was a Turkic-Afghan conqueror from the region of Ghor in Afghanistan. Before 1160, the Ghaznavid Empire covered an area running from central Afghanistan east to the Punjab, with capitals at Ghazni on the banks of Ghazni river in present-day Afghanistan, and at Lahore in present-day Pakistan. In 1160, the Ghorids conquered Ghazni from the Ghaznevids, and in 1173 Muhammad was made governor of Ghazni. He raided eastwards into the remaining Ghaznevid territory, and invaded Gujarat in the 1180's but was rebuffed by Gujarat's Solanki rulers. In 1186 and 1187 he conquered Lahore in alliance with a local hindu ruler, ending the Ghaznevid empire and bringing the last of Ghaznevid territory under his control, and seemed to be the first muslim ruler seriously interested in expanding his domain in the sub-continent, and like his predecessor Mahmud initially started off against the Ismaili Shiite kingdom that had regained independence during the Nizari conflicts, and then onto booty and power. Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a Persian conqueror and sultan between 1171 and 1206. ... Muhammad of Ghor or Muhammad Ghori (originally named Muizz-ad-din) (1162 - 1206) was a Persian conqueror and sultan between 1171 and 1206. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... The Ismaili (Arabic الإسماعيليون, Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmâiliyân) branch of Islam is the second largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ... A sub-sect of the Sevener Shia Muslim Ismaili sect. ...


In 1191, he invaded the territory of Prithviraj III of Ajmer, who ruled much of present-day Rajasthan and Haryana, but was defeated at Tarain by Govinda-Raja of Delhi, Prithviraj's vassal. The following year, Muhammad assembled 120,000 horsemen and once again invaded the Kingdom of Ajmer. Muhammad's army met Prithviraj's army again at Tarain, and this time Muhammad won; Govinda-Raja was slain, Prithviraj captured and Muhammad advanced onto Delhi. Within a year, Muhammad controlled Northern Rajasthan and Northern Ganges-Yamuna Doab. After these victories in India, and Muhammad's establishment of a capital in Delhi, Multan was also incorporated into his empire. Muhammad then returned east to Ghazni to deal with the threat on his eastern frontiers from the Turks and Mongols, whiles his armies continued to advance through Northern India, raiding as far east as Bengal. Prithviraj III (c. ... Haryana (हरयाणा) is a state in north India. ... This article deals with the metropolis of Delhi. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla (Bengali), is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Muhammad returned to Lahore after 1200 to deal with a revolt of the Ghakkar tribe in the Punjab. He suppressed the revolt, but was killed during a Ghakkar raid on his camp on the Jhelum River in 1206. Upon his death his most capable general, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, took control of Muhammad's Indian conquests and declared himself the first Sultan of Delhi. the material of this page is written by a a hindu and naturally is full of lies. ...


The Delhi Sultanate

Main article: Delhi Sultanate

Muhammad's successors established the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, while the Mamluk Dynasty in 1211 (however, the Delhi Sultanate is traditionally held to have been founded in 1206) seized the reins of empire. Mamluk means "slave" and referred to the Turkic slave soldiers who became rulers. The territory under control of the Muslim rulers in Delhi expanded rapidly. By mid-century, Bengal and much of central India was under the Delhi Sultanate. Several Turko-Afghan dynasties ruled from Delhi: the Mamluk (1211–1290), the Khalji (1290–1320), the Tughlaq (1320–1413), the Sayyid (1414–51), and the Lodhi (1451–1526). Muslim Kings extended their domains into Southern India, Kingdom of Vijayanagar resisted until falling to the Deccan Sultanate in 1565. Although some kingdoms remained independent of Delhi in the Deccan and in Gujarat, Malwa (central India), and Bengal, almost all of the area in present-day Pakistan came under the rule of Delhi. The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes, Mamlukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ... The Khilji or Khalji were a dynasty of Indian rulers. ... The Tughlaq Dynasty of north India started in 1321 CE in Delhi when Ghazi Tughlaq assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. ... Sayyid (Arabic: سيد also rendered as syed, seyyed, sayyed, saiyed, or sayed) is an honorific title often given to descendants of Muhammad through his grandsons, Hussein and Hasan, the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib (who was Muhammads younger cousin and... THE LODHI DYNASTY / TRIBE THE LODHI DYNASTY The Afghan Lodhi dynasty ruled over the Delhi Sultanate and included the prominent ruler Ibrahim Lodi. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ...


The Sultans of Delhi enjoyed cordial, if superficial, relations with Muslim rulers in the Near East but owed them no allegiance. They based their laws on the Quran and the sharia and permitted non-Muslim subjects to practice their religion only if they paid the jizya (head tax). They ruled from urban centers, while military camps and trading posts provided the nuclei for towns that sprang up in the countryside.


Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Sultanate was its temporary success in insulating the subcontinent from the potential devastation of the Mongol invasion from Central Asia in the 13th century, which nonetheless led to the capture of Afghanistan and western Pakistan by the Mongols (see the Ilkhanate Dynasty). The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance, The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion left lasting monuments in architecture, music, literature, and religion. In addition it is surmised that the language of Urdu (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Dehli Sultanate period as a result of the mingling of Sanskritic Hindi and the Persian, Turkish, Arabic favored by the Muslim invaders of India. Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family which developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in South Asia during the time of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ...


The Sultanate suffered from the sacking of Delhi in 1398 by Timur (Tamerlane) but revived briefly under the Lodhis before it was conquered by the Mughals in 1526, who ruled from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Alauddin Khilji

Main article: Alauddin Khilji

Other invasions from Central Asia followed his on a regular basis, such as that of Muhammad Khilji, who burned Nalanda's a major Buddhist library. The rulers of these territories became known as the Mughals and their empire as the Mughal Empire. Alauddin Khilji also Ala-Ud-Din Khilji; Ala-ud-Din Muhammad Khilji Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316 AD) (nephew of Jalaluddin Khilji) came to power after killing his uncle and the then Sultan of Khilji Dynasty Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji in 1296 AD. 1297 AD : Alauddin Khilji set off to conquer Gujarat. ... Muhammad Khilji (12th century CE) was one of the military generals of Qutab-ud-din. ... Nalanda is a historical place in central Bihar, India, 90km south-east of the state capital of Patna. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Extent of Mughal empire in the late 1600s: the Mughals ruled all but the southern tip of the subcontinent. ...


The Khilji Dynasty is not affiliated politically with the Mughal Dynasty, which started in the 1500s under Babur.


The Mughal Empire

Main article: Mughal Empire Extent of Mughal empire in the late 1600s: the Mughals ruled all but the southern tip of the subcontinent. ...


India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. Outside developments also played a role in shaping events. The circumnavigation of Africa by the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498 allowed Europeans to challenge Arab control of the trading routes between Europe and Asia. In Central Asia and Afghanistan, shifts in power pushed Babur of Ferghana (in present-day Uzbekistan) southward, first to Kabul and then to India. The dynasty he founded endured for more than three centuries. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. ... Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama Vasco da Gama (IPA: /; born c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Zahir-ud-din Mohammad Babur February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530, (also spelled ), emperor and founder of the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (34°32′N 69°10′E, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ...


Babur

Main article: Babur

Claiming descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, Babur combined strength and courage with a love of beauty, and military ability with cultivation. He concentrated on gaining control of Northwestern India, doing so in 1526 by defeating the last Lodhi Sultan at the First battle of Panipat, a town north of Delhi. Babur then turned to the tasks of persuading his Central Asian followers to stay on in India and of overcoming other contenders for power, mainly the Rajputs and the Afghans. He succeeded in both tasks but died shortly thereafter in 1530. The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in premodern history and was the precursor to the British Indian Empire. Zahir-ud-din Mohammad Babur February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530, (also spelled ), emperor and founder of the Mughal dynasty of India. ... For the German pop band, see Dschinghis Khan (help· info) (c. ... Reconstruction of Timur from exhumation of his tomb. ... The first battle of Panipat took place in northern India, and marked the beginning of the Mogul Empire. ... This article deals with the metropolis of Delhi. ... The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power and the greatest empire in history. ...


Babur was followed by his great-grandson, Shah Jahan (r. 1628–58), builder of the Taj Mahal and other magnificent buildings. Two other towering figures of the Mughal era were Akbar (r. 1556–1605) and Aurangzeb (r. 1658–1707). Both rulers expanded the empire greatly and were able administrators. However, Akbar was known for his religious tolerance and administrative genius while Aurangzeb was a pious Muslim and fierce advocate of more orthodox Islam. Ghiyasuddin Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... The Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a monument located in Agra in India, constructed between 1631 and 1653 by a workforce of more than twenty thousand. ... This topic is considered to be an essential subject on Wikipedia. ... Aurangzeb (from Persian, اورنگزیب meaning befitting the throne),(November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707, also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ...


Aurangzeb

Main article: Aurangzeb

While some rulers were zealous in their spread of Islam, others were relatively liberal. Moghul emperor Akbar was relatively liberal and established a new religion, Din E Elahi, which included beliefs from different religions. He abolished the jizya for some time. In contrast, his great-grandson Aurangazeb was more zealous and, generally, during his term non-muslims suffered. He reimposed the jizya, and it is historically recorded that under his rule a large number of natives were put to death. Aurangzeb (from Persian, اورنگزیب meaning befitting the throne),(November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707, also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... This topic is considered to be an essential subject on Wikipedia. ... Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir (November 3, 1618 - March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ...


In the century-and-a-half that followed the death of Aurangzeb, effective Muslim control weakened. Succession to imperial and even provincial power, which had often become hereditary, was subject to intrigue and force. The mansabdari system gave way to the zamindari system, in which high-ranking officials took on the appearance of hereditary landed aristocracy with powers of collecting rents. As Delhi's control waned, other contenders for power emerged and clashed, thus preparing the way for the eventual British takeover. The Zamindari System is a kind of feudal system, introduced by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ...


Ahmad Shah Abdali

Decay of the Mughal power saw a series of invasions by the Persian adventurer, Nadir Shah, but no occupation per se. Following his death (something his Royal Guardsman Abdali might have contributed to), Ahmed Shah Abdali - a Pathan - decided to try his luck closer to home. The fertile Punjab was the nearest and easiest prey. A long and brutal occupation of the Punjab - reviled by Sikhs, Hindus and Punjabi Muslims - lasted till the rise of the Sikh Empire. Tomb of Nadir Shah, a popular tourist attraction in Mashhad Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan) (October 22, 1688 - June, 1747) ruled as shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Afsharid dynasty. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... The Sikh Empire could be defined as early as beginning as early as 1707, starting from the death of Aurangzeb and the downfall of the Mughal Empire. ...

Main article: Ahmad Shah Abdali

See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ...

Iconoclasm

Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ...

Nalanda

Main article: Nalanda

In 1193, the Nalanda University complex was destroyed by Turkish Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khalji; this event is seen as the final milestone in the decline and near extinction of Buddhism in India. He also burned Nalanda's a major Buddhist library and Vikramshila University, as well as numerous Bhuddhist monasteries in India. When the Tibetan translator, Chag Lotsawa Dharmasvamin (Chag Lo-tsa-ba, 1197 - 1264), visited northern India in 1235, Nalanda was damaged, looted, and largely deserted, but still standing and functioning with seventy students. Mahabodhi, Sompura, Vajrasan and other important monastaries were found to be untouched. The Ghuri ravages only afflicted those monastaries that lay in the direct of their advance and were fortified in the manner of defensive forts. Remains at Nalanda Nalanda is a historical place in central Bihar, India, 90 km south-east of the state capital of Patna. ... Events Saladin dies, and the lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Bakhtiyar Khalji, also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyaru l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji, was a Khilji, a Muslim Turk, who was head of the armies that conquered much of northeastern India. ... Buddhism was initially established in India and it flourished there during the early phases of its history. ... Vikramshila University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India, along with Nalanda University. ...


By the end of the 12th century, following the Islamic conquest of the Buddhist stronghold in Bihar, Buddhism declined as survivors retreated to Nepal, Sikkim and Tibet or escaped to the South of the sub-continent. Hinduism and Jainism survived because they did not have large centers of worship and devotion based around heavily fortified monastaries. Furthermore, many buddhist also converted for social mobility from their status as lower castes in the hindu view. Under the tutelage of various scholars fleeing the ravages of the Mongols, and with a historically extensive familiarity with buddhists in Central Asia many impoverished peasants in East Bengal converted.


Vijayanagara

Main article: Vijayanagara

The city flourished between the 14th century and 16th century, during the height of the Vijayanagar Empire. During this time, it was often in conflict with the kingdoms which rose in the Northern Deccan, and which are often collectively termed the Deccan Sultanates. In 1565, the empire's armies suffered a massive and catastrophic defeat at by an alliance of the Sultanates, and the capital was taken. The victorious armies then razed, depopulated and destroyed the city over several months. The empire continued in slow decline, but the original capital was not reoccupied or rebuilt. Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar, meaning the city of victory), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagara empire in the Southern part of India. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ...


Somnath

Main article: Somnath

The first temple of Somnath is said to have existed before the beginning of the Christian era. The second temple, built by the Maitraka kings of Vallabhi in Gujarat, replaced the first one on the same site around 649. In 725 Junayad, the Arab governor of Sind, sent his armies to destroy the second temple. The Pratihara king Nagabhata II constructed the third temple in 815, a large structure of red sandstone. Mahmud of Ghazni attacked this temple in 1026, looted its gems and precious stones, massacred the worshippers and burned it. It was then that the famous Shivalinga of the temple was entirely destroyed. The fourth temple was built by the Paramara King Bhoj of Malwa and the Solanki king Bhima of Gujarat (Anhilwara) between 1026 and 1042. The temple was razed in 1297 when the Sultanate of Delhi conquered Gujarat, and again in 1394. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb destroyed the temple again in 1706. The Somnath Temple in the Prabhas Kshetra in Saurashtra, on the western coast of Gujarat, India is one of the twelve Jyotirlings (golden lingas) symbols of the God Shiva. ... The Maitraka dynasty ruled Gujarat in western India from the c. ... Vallabhi (modern Vala) is an ancient city located in Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. ... Events July 5 - Martin I becomes pope Arabs conquer Cyprus Reccaswinth succeeds his father Chindaswinth as king of the Visigoths. ... Events Births Deaths Wihtred, king of Kent Categories: 725 ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... The Pratiharas, also called the Gurjara-Pratiharas were an Indian dynasty who ruled kingdoms in Rajasthan and northern India from the sixth to the eleventh centuries. ... Nagabhata II (805-833) succeeded Vatsraja as king of The Pratiharas, also called the Gurjara-Pratiharas. ... Events An iconoclastic synod is held. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Events Archbishop Ariberto crowns Conrad II King of Italy in Milan. ... The Paramara or Parmar were a prominent Rajput clan of medieval India. ... Bhoj was a great philosopher king and polymath of medieval India. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... Patan is a city in Gujarat state of western India. ... Events Archbishop Ariberto crowns Conrad II King of Italy in Milan. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... The Delhi Sultanate, or Sulthanath-e-Hind/Sulthanath-e-Dilli refers to the various dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Aurangzeb (from Persian, اورنگزیب meaning befitting the throne),(November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707, also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and...


Historical Views

French historian Alain Danielou wrote in his book Histoire de l'Inde: Alain Daniélou, born at Neuilly-sur-Seine (Paris) October, 4th 1907, died 1994 in Switzerland, was a French historian and Indologist. ...

From the moment when the Muslims arrive in India, the history of India does not have any more great interest. It is long and monotonous series of murder, massacres, spoilations, destruction.

French Historian Gustave Le Bon wrote in his book Les Civilisations de L'Inde: Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist and sociologist. ...

There does not exist a history of ancient India. Their books contain no historical data whatever, except for a few religious books in which historical information is buried under a heap of parables and folk-lore, and their buildings and other monuments also do nothing to fill the void for the oldest among them do not go beyond the third century B.C. To discover facts about India of the ancient times is as difficult a task as the discovery of the island of Atlantis, which, according to Plato, was destroyed due to the changes of the earth... The historical phase of India began with the Muslim invasion. Muslims were India's first historians.

Historian Will Durant wrote his book The Story of Civilization: William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885—November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher and writer. ... The Story of Civilization by Will and Ariel Durant is an 11 volume set of books. ...

The Mohammadan conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precarious thing, whose delicate complex of order and liberty, culture and peace may at any time be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within.

Hindu sage Padmanabha described in his KanhaDade Prabandha in 1456 AD the story of the Islamic invasion of Gujarat of 1298 AD:

The conquering army burnt villages, devastated the land, plundered people’s wealth, took Brahmins and children and women of all classes captive, flogged with thongs of raw hide, carried a moving prison with it, and converted the prisoners into obsequious slaves.

Tarikh-i-Yamini of Utbi the sultan's secretary wrote in the 11th century: A Brahmin (ब्राह्मण) (pronunciation is Brahmana) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ...

The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously at Thanesar that the stream was discoloured, notwithstanding its purity, and people were unable to drink it. The Sultan returned with plunder which is impossible to count.

Cultural Influence

Note: The divide and rule policies, two-nation theory and subsequent partition of India in the wake of Independence from the British Empire has polarized the sub-continental psyche making objective assesment hard in comparison to the other numerous of the settled agricultural societies of India from the North West. Islamic rule differed from these others in the level of assimilation and syncretism that occurred. The retained their identity and introduced legal and administrative systems that superseded existing systems of social conduct and ethics. While this was a source of friction it resulted in aa unique experience resulting in a muslim community strongly Islamic in character while at the same time markedly distinctive and unique among its peers. The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power and the greatest empire in history. ...


Islamic traditions blended with language, dress, cuisine, architecture, social customs and values of the natives to give rise to much of present day Indian culture.


Islamic rule saw a greated urbanization of India and the rise of many cities and their urban cultures. The biggest impact was upon trade resulting from a common commercial and legal system extending from Morocco to Indonesia. This change of emphasis on mercantilism and trade from the more strongly centralized governance systems further clashed with the agricultural based traditional economy and also provided fuel for social and political tensions.


A related development to the shifting economic was the establishment of Karkhanas, or small factories and the import and dissemination of technology through India and the rest of the world. The use of ceramic tiles in was adopted from architectural traditions of Iraq, Iran, and Central Asia. Rajasthan's blue pottery was an local variation of imported Chinese pottery. There is also the example of Sultan Abidin (1420-70) sending Kashmiri artisans to Samarqand to learn book-binding and paper making. Khurja and Siwan became renowned for pottery, Moradabad for brass ware, Mirzapur for carpets, Firozabad for glass wares, Farrukhabad for printing, Sahranpur and Nagina for wood-carving, Bidar and Lucknow for bidriware, Srinagar for papier-mache, Benaras for jewelry and textiles, and so on. On the flip-side encouraging such growth also resulted in higher taxes on the peasantry.


Numerous Indian scientific and mathematical advances and the Hindu-Arabic numerals were spread to the rest of the world [2] and much of the scholarly work and advances in the sciences of the age under Islamic nations across the globe were imported by the liberal patronage of Arts and Sciences by the rulers. The languages brought by Islam were modified by contact with local languages leading to the creation of several new languages, such as Urdu, which uses the modified Arabic script, but with more Persian words. The influences of these languages exist in several dialects in India today. Hindu-Arabic numerals also known as Arabic Numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers around the world. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing in the Arabic language. ...


Islamic and Mughal architecture and art is widely noticeable in India, examples being the Taj Mahal and Qutub Minar. The Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a monument located in Agra in India, constructed between 1631 and 1653 by a workforce of more than twenty thousand. ... The Qutub Minar and surrounding ruins. ...


References

  1. ^  ECIT Indian History Resources. URL accessed on December 5, 2005.
  2. ^  History of India syllabus. URL accessed on December 5, 2005.

The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Al-Biladhuri: Kitãb Futûh Al-Buldãn, translated into English by F.C. Murgotte, New York, 1924. See Goel's "Hindu Temples" for a list of 80 Muslim historians writing on the invasions.
  • Sita Ram Goel: Hindu Temples - What Happened to Them 2 vols. ISBN 8185990492 Vol.1; Vol.2
  • Sita Ram Goel: The Story of Islamic Imperialism in India [3]
  • Will Durant. The Story of Civilization, Vol. I, Our Oriental Heritage, New York, 1972.
  • Elliot and Dowson: The History of India as told by its own Historians, New Delhi reprint, 1990.
  • Koenraad Elst: Negationism in India - Concealing the record of Islam [4], [5]
  • François Gautier: Rewriting Indian History Chapter 4, Chapter 5, doc-format
  • K.S. Lal: The Legacy of Muslim Rule in India [6]
  • K.S. Lal. Indian Muslims - Who are they. [7]
  • K.S. Lal: The Growth of Muslim Population in India, Voice of India, New Delhi
  • Majumdar, R. C. (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Volume VI, The Delhi Sultanate, Bombay, 1960; Volume VII, The Mughal Empire, Bombay, 1973.
  • Misra, Ram Gopal, Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders up to AD 1206, Meerut City, 1983.
  • Arun Shourie: Eminent Historians: Their Technology, Their Line, Their Fraud. New Delhi, 1998.

Sita Ram Goel (सीता राम गोयल) (1921 - 2003), author and publisher, is an important figure amongst late 20th century Hindu thinkers. ... Hindu Temples - What Happened to Them is a book in two volumes by Sita Ram Goel, Arun Shourie, Harsh Narain, Jay Dubashi and Ram Swarup. ... William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885—November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher and writer. ... The History of India as told by its own Historians is book in eight volumes by H.M. Elliot and J. Dowson. ... K.S. Lal is a controversial Indian historian. ... Arun Shourie at a press conference Arun Shourie (born 1941) is a journalist and politician. ...

See also

The History of India can be traced in fragments to as far back as 700,000 years ago. ... This article is in need of attention. ... // The Mughal empire Main article: Mughal empire India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and who failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. ... Extent of Mughal empire in the late 1600s: the Mughals ruled all but the southern tip of the subcontinent. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in India. ... Buddhism was initially established in India and it flourished there during the early phases of its history. ... // The Islamic Conquest In 637, five years after the death of Muhammad (Sualallah-u-Alaihi Wasallam), Arab Muslims shattered the might of the Iranian Sassanians at the Battles of al-Qādisiyyah and Nahawand. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Islamic Conquest of Iberia (711—718) commenced when the Moors (mostly Berbers with some Yemenis) invaded Visigothic Christian Iberia in the year 711 CE. Under their Berber leader, Tariq ibn-Ziyad, they landed at Gibraltar on April 30 and proceeded to bring most of the Iberian Peninsula under Islamic... This article is about historical Crusades . ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Islam (9025 words)
Their greatest independent project was the conquest of Sicily, 827-878, which remained in Islâm until the arrival of the Normans.
This was useful against the Norman conquest of Sicily but ultimately, by 1091, the Normans succeeded, ending the history of Islamic Sicily that had begun with the Aghlabids.
South of this, the broad area between the rivers came to be called the Nahrain, the "Two Rivers," or the Jazîra, the "Island." Today, the northern part lies in Turkey and the southern part in Syria.
NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus (6791 words)
Central Asia and the South Caucasus are important because their orientation will greatly affect the power and national security planning of large neighboring or interested states (principally, the United States, Russia, China, Iran, Turkey, India, and Pakistan).
Several panelists suggested considering the implications for Central Asia and the South Caucasus of a Russia in which power is significantly devolved to its borderlands, or that is even fragmented politically.
Central Asia and the South Caucasus are political concepts that refer to clusters of countries tied together by interdependencies resulting from political, economic, transport infrastructure, market linkages, and cultural factors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m