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Encyclopedia > Islamic calendar
Calendars
v  d  e
Common use Astro · Gregorian · Islamic · ISO · Julian
Calendar Types
Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar

Selected usage Armenian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Chinese · Coptic · Ethiopian · Germanic · Hebrew · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Korean · Malayalam · Maya · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Tamil · Thai (LunarSolar) · Tibetan · Turkish · Vietnamese· Yoruba · Zoroastrian
Calendar Types
Original Julian · Runic

Part of a series on
Islam
A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The ISO week date system is a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard. ... The Revised Julian calendar is a calendar that was considered for adoption by the Eastern Orthodox churches at a synod in Istanbul in May 1923. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar in many cultures that is oriented at the moon phase. ... The Baháí calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Baháí Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. ... The Bengali calendar (Bengali: ) is a traditional solar calendar used in Bangladesh and the states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura in eastern India. ... The Berber calendar is the annual calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. ... Bikram Samwat (Bikram Sambat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत, abbreviated B.S.) is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Javanese calendar is a calendar used by the Javanese people. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sideral calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President. ... The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: , ) calendar is a solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ... The Tamil Calendar is followed by the Tamil speaking state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore & Sri Lanka. ... The Thai lunar calendar or Patitin Chantarakati (Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ) was replaced by the Patitin Suriyakati (ปฎิทินสุริยคติ) Thai solar calendar in AD 1888 2431 BE for most purposes, but the Chantarakati still determines most Buddhist feast or holy days, as well as a day for the famous Loy Krathong festival. ... The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (สุริยคติ), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Runic calendar - Norwegian - carved wood. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...

Allah · Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam reveres the One and Only God, known as Allah (الله) in Arabic. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

History & Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shi'a Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia
Kalam · Tasawwuf (Sufism) The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shi'a

Culture & Society
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Animals · Art
Calendar · Children · Demographics
Festivals · Mosques · Philosophy
Politics · Science · Women Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...

Islam & other religions
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Christianity · Jainism
Judaism · Sikhism

See also
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam Portal  v  d  e 

The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days. It is a lunar calendar having 12 lunar months in a year of about 354 days. Because this lunar year is about 11 days shorter than the solar year, Islamic holy days, although celebrated on fixed dates in their own calendar, usually shift 11 days earlier each successive solar year, such as a year of the Gregorian calendar. Islamic years are also called Hijra years because the first year was the year during which the Hijra occurred— Muhammad's emigration from Mecca to Medina. Thus each numbered year is designated either H or AH, the latter being the initials of the Latin anno Hegirae (in the year of the Hijra).[1] Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A lunar calendar is a calendar in many cultures that is oriented at the moon phase. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... In chronology, an epoch (or epochal date, or epochal event) means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


The current Islamic Year is 1428 AH.

Contents

Pre-Islamic calendar

The Arabian predecessor to the Islamic calendar was a lunisolar calendar which used lunar months, but was also synchronized with the seasons by the insertion of an additional, intercalary month, when required. Whether the intercalary month (nasi) was added in the spring like that of the Hebrew calendar or in autumn is debated. It is assumed that the intercalary month was added between the twelfth month (the month of the pre-Islamic Hajj) and the first month (Muharram) of this pre-Islamic year[citation needed]. The two Rabi' months denote grazing and the modern Meccan rainy season (only slightly less arid than normal), which would promote the growth of grasses for grazing, occurs during autumn. These imply a pre-Islamic year beginning near the autumnal equinox. However, the rainy season after which these months are named may have been different when the names originated (before Muhammad's time) or the calendar may have been imported from another region which did have such a rainy season. On the other hand, the Qur'an forbids the intercalary month (releasing the calendar from the seasons) by Sura 9, verse 36 (believed to have been revealed about the end of Muhammad's lifetime), which implies a pre-Islamic year beginning near the vernal equinox because that is when the modern lunar year began during his last year. A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... Intercalation is the insertioffn of an extra day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The autumnal equinox (or fall equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical autumn. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Surat at-Tawba (the Repentance) is the 9th sura of the Quran, with 129 ayat according to mainstream Muslims and 127 ayat according to Quran Alone Muslims. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ...


Months

Islamic Calendar

  1. Muharram
  2. Safar
  3. Rabi' al-awwal
  4. Rabi' al-thani
  5. Jumada al-awwal
  6. Jumada al-thani
  7. Rajab
  8. Sha'aban
  9. Ramadan
  10. Shawwal
  11. Dhu al-Qi'dah
  12. Dhu al-Hijjah


The Islamic months are named as follows:[2] Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Safar (صفر) is the second month in the Islamic calendar. ... Rabi al-awwal ( ربيع الأول ) is the third month in the Islamic calendar. ... Rabi’ al-thani ( ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني ) is the fourth month in the Islamic Calender. ... Jumada al-awwal ( جمادى الأول )is the fifth month in the Islamic calendar. ... Jumada al-thani ( جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني ) is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar. ... Rajab (Arabic: ) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. ... Shaaban (Arabic: شعبان ) is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: ) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. ... Shawwal is the tenth month on the Islamic calendar. ... Dhu al-Qidah ( ذو القعدة ) is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. ... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ...

  1. Muharram محرّم (long form: Muarram ul aram)
  2. Safar صفر (long form: afar ul Muzaffar)
  3. Rabi' al-awwal (Rabī' I) ربيع الأول
  4. Rabi' al-thani (or Rabī' al Thānī, or Rabī' al-Akhir) (Rabī' II) ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني
  5. Jumada al-awwal (Jumādā I) جمادى الأول
  6. Jumada al-thani (or Jumādā al-akhir) (Jumādā II) جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني
  7. Rajab رجب (long form: Rajab al Murajab)
  8. Sha'aban شعبان (long form: Sha'abān ul Moazam)
  9. Ramadan رمضان (or Ramzān, long form: Ramaān ul Mubarak)
  10. Shawwal شوّال (long form: Shawwal ul Mukarram)
  11. Dhu al-Qi'dah ذو القعدة
  12. Dhu al-Hijjah ذو الحجة

Of all the months in the Islamic calendar, Ramaān is the most venerated. Between dawn and sunset, Muslims are supposed to abstain from eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse in accordance with the Ramaān holiday that lasts throughout the entire month of the same name. Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Safar (صفر) is the second month in the Islamic calendar. ... Rabi al-awwal ( ربيع الأول ) is the third month in the Islamic calendar. ... Rabi’ al-thani ( ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني ) is the fourth month in the Islamic Calender. ... Jumada al-awwal ( جمادى الأول )is the fifth month in the Islamic calendar. ... Jumada al-thani ( جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني ) is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar. ... Rajab (Arabic: ) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. ... Shaaban (Arabic: شعبان ) is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: ) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. ... Shawwal is the tenth month on the Islamic calendar. ... Dhu al-Qidah ( ذو القعدة ) is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. ... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: ) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sawm of Ramadan. ...


Days of the week

The Islamic week is derived from the Jewish week, as was the medieval Christian week, all of which have numbered weekdays in common. The "first day" of the Islamic week corresponds with Sunday of the planetary week. The Islamic and Jewish weekdays begin at sunset, whereas the medieval Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight.[3] Muslims gather for worship at a mosque at noon on "gathering day", which corresponds to the sixth day of the Jewish and medieval Christian weeks, and to Friday of the planetary week. The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...

  1. yaum al-ahad يوم الأحد (first day - Sunday) (Urdu, Itwaar اتوار) (Persian: Yek-Shanbeh یکشنبه)
  2. yaum al-ithnayn يوم الإثنين (second day - Monday) (Urdu, Pîr پير) (Persian: Do-Shanbeh, دوشنبه)
  3. yaum ath-thulaathaa' يوم الثُّلَاثاء (third day - Tuesday) (Urdu, Mangl منگل) (Persian: Seh-Shanbeh, سه شنبه)
  4. yaum al-arbia`aa' يوم الأَرْبِعاء (fourth day - Wednesday) (Urdu, Budh بدھ) (Persian: Chahar-Shanbeh, چهارشنبه)
  5. yaum al-khamis يوم الخَمِيس (fifth day - Thursday) (Urdu, Jumahraat جمعرات) (Persian: Panj-Shanbeh, پنجشنبه)
  6. yaum al-jumu`a يوم الجُمُعَة (gathering day - Friday) (Urdu, Jumah جمعہ) (Persian: Jom'eh, جمعه or Adineh آدينه)
  7. yaum as-sabt يوم السَّبْت (sabbath day - Saturday) (Urdu, Hafta ہفتہ) (Persian: Shanbeh, شنبه)

Urdu ( , , trans. ...

Annulling intercalation

In the ninth year after the Hijra, as documented in the Qur'an (9:36-37), Allah revealed the prohibition of the intercalary month. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Intercalation is the insertioffn of an extra day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ...

The number of months with Allah has been twelve months by Allah's ordinance since the day He created the heavens and the earth. Of these four are known as forbidden [to fight in]; That is the straight usage, so do not wrong yourselves therein, and fight those who go astray. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.

Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to Unbelief: The Unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year, of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful. The evil of their course seems pleasing to them. But Allah guideth not those who reject Faith.

This prohibition was repeated by Muhammad during the last sermon on Mount Arafat which was delivered during the Farewell Pilgrimage to Mecca on 9 Dhu al-Hijja 10 AH: The Farewell Sermon, also known as the Prophets final sermon, is a famous sermon by Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, delivered before his death, on the ninth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 A.H. (632 CE), at the end of his first & final pilgrimage. ... Mount Arafah, is a granite hill east of Mecca. ... This is a sub-article to Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca and the Succession to Muhammad. ...

O People, intercalation is an addition to unbelief, through it [God, Allah] leads the unbelievers astray: they make it permissible one year and forbid it [at their mere convenience] the next one to elude the timing of what God forbade, so that they make permissible that which Allah forbade [fighting in the forbidden months], and forbid that which Allah has made permissible [fighting in other months]. And [now, this year] time has turned the way it was the day God created Heavens and Earth [The intercalary months since the creation of Heavens and Earth have all canceled out (summed up to whole years)]. The year is twelve months, four of them are forbidden, three successive: Dhu al-Qi'dah and Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram; and the Rajab of Mudar which is between Jumada and Shaban.[4]

The three successive forbidden months mentioned by Muhammad (months in which battling is forbidden) are Dhu al-Qi'dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, and Muharram, thus excluding an intercalary month before Muharram. The single forbidden month is Rajab. These months were considered forbidden both within the new Islamic calendar and within the old pagan Meccan calendar, although whether they maintained their "forbidden" status after the conquest of Mecca has been disputed among Islamic scholars. Dhu al-Qidah ( ذو القعدة ) is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. ... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Rajab (Arabic: ) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


Numbering the years

According to Islamic tradition, Abraha, governor of Yemen, then a province of the Christian Kingdom of Aksum (Ethiopia), attempted to destroy the Kaaba with an army which included several elephants. Although the raid was unsuccessful, because it was customary to name a year after a major event which occurred during it, that year became known as the Year of the Elephant, which was also the year that Muhammad was born. (See surat al-Fil.) Although most Muslims equate it with the Western year 570, a minority equate it with 571. Later years were numbered from the Year of the Elephant, whether for the years of the pre-Islamic lunisolar calendar, the lunisolar calendar used by Muhammad before he forbade the intercalary month, or the first few years of the lunar calendar thus created. In 638 (AH 17), the second Caliph Umar began numbering the years of the Islamic calendar from the year of the Hijra, which was postdated AH 1. The first day of the first month (1 Muharram) of that proleptic Islamic year, that is, after the removal of all intercalary months between the Hijra and Muhammad's prohibition of them nine years later, corresponded to July 16, 622 (the actual emigration took place in September).[1] The first surviving attested use of the Hijri calendar is on a papyrus from Egypt in 22 AH, PERF 558. Abraha (died 570) was a governor of the territories in Arabia for the Axumite Kingdom, and later king of modern Yemen. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum, Geez አክሱም), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... The Year of the Elephant (عام الفيل `Âm al-Fîl) is estimated at 570 CE. According to early Islamic historians such as Ibn Ishaq, the Ethiopian governor of Yemen, Abraha, had built a great church in Sanaa intended to lure the Arabs away from the Kaaba. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... al-Fil is also the name of a sura by the unsuccessful would-be prophet Musaylimah. ... Occident redirects here. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... PERF 558 is the oldest surviving Arabic papyrus, and the oldest dated Arabic inscription from the Islamic era, dating from 22 AH (AD 642) and found in Heracleopolis in Egypt. ...


Observation of Hilal, date calculations, and nonuniform dates among regions

There is at least one recorded incident in the first Islamic century[5] where Muslims in Medina and al-Sham fasted independently upon their respective observations of the lunar crescent (Hilal). This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The traditional Arabic term Bilad al-Sham (Arabic: بلاد الشام , also transliterated bilad-ush-sham etc. ...


Each month has either 29 or 30 days, but usually in no discernible order. Traditionally, the first day of each month was the day (beginning at sunset) of the first sighting of the lunar crescent (the hilāl) shortly after sunset. If the hilāl was not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month, either because clouds blocked its view or because the western sky was still too bright when the moon set, then the day that began at that sunset was the 30th. Such a sighting had to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders. Determining the most likely day that the hilāl could be observed was a motivation for Muslim interest in astronomy, which put Islam in the forefront of that science for many centuries. Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hilāl (هلال) is an Arabic word that means crescent or new moon. It is an Islamic symbol, used by the Red Crescent societies and elsewhere. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...


This traditional practice is still followed in a few parts of the world, like India, Pakistan and Jordan. However, in most Muslim countries astronomical rules are followed which allow the calendar to be determined in advance, which is not the case using the traditional method. Malaysia, Indonesia, and a few others begin each month at sunset on the first day that the moon sets after the sun (moonset after sunset). In Egypt, the month begins at sunset on the first day that the moon sets at least five minutes after the sun.


The moon sets progressively later than the sun for locations further west, thus western Muslim countries are more likely to celebrate some holy day one day earlier than eastern Muslim countries.


Umm al-Qura calendar

The official Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia used a substantially different astronomical method until recent years [1]. Before AH 1420 (before April 18, 1999), if the moon's age at sunset in Riyad was at least 12 hours, then the day ending at that sunset was the first day of the month. This often caused the Saudis to celebrate holy days one or even two days before other predominantly Muslim countries, including the dates for the Hajj, which can only be dated using Saudi dates because it is performed in Mecca. During one memorable year during the AH 1380s (the 1970s), different Muslim countries ended the fast of Ramadan on each of four successive days. The celebrations became more uniform beginning in AH 1420. For AH 1420-22, if moonset occurred after sunset at Mecca, then the day beginning at that sunset was the first day of a Saudi month, essentially the same rule used by Malaysia, Indonesia, and others (except for the location from which the hilal was observed). Since the beginning of AH 1423 (March 16, 2002), the rule has been clarified a little by requiring the geocentric conjunction of the sun and moon to occur before sunset, in addition to requiring moonset to occur after sunset at Mecca. This ensures that the moon has moved past the sun by sunset, even though the sky may still be too bright immediately before moonset to actually see the crescent. Strictly speaking, the Umm al-Qura calendar is intended for civil purposes only. Their makers are well aware of the fact that the first visual sighting of the lunar crescent (hilāl) can occur up to two days after the date calculated in the Umm al-Qura calendar. Since AH 1419 (1998/99) several official hilāl sighting committees have been set up by the government of Saudi Arabia to determine the first visual sighting of the lunar crescent at the begin of each lunar month. Nevertheless, the religious authorities of Saudi Arabia also allow the testimony of less experienced observers and thus often announce the sighting of the lunar crescent on a date when none of the official committees could see the lunar crescent. Umm al-Qura as an Arabic language term signifies the center of villages in Arabic. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Riyadh (Ar-Riyad, Arabic:رياض) is the capital of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, located in the Nejd region. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


This is particularly the case for the most important dates on the Islamic calendar - the beginning and end of Ramadan (the month of the fast) and the beginning of Dhu al-Hijja (the month of the annual pilgrimage to Makkah). If a Muslim male resident (two in the case of the end of Ramadan) sees the new moon on the 29th day of the preceding month, and if this sighting is accepted by the religious authorities, then the new month is judged to have arrived, even though the official Umm al-Qura calendar calls for a 30th day before the new month begins. This can change the actual beginning and/or end of the fast (in the case of Ramadan) or the timing of the pilgrimage to Makkah (in the case of Dhu al-Hijja). This happens occasionally, with the most recent occurrences being in AH 1427 (2006-2007), when the beginning of the months of both Ramadan and Dhu al-Hijja occurred a day earlier than called for in the official Umm al-Qura calendar.


Recently,[6] the Islamic Society of North America, the Fiqh Council of North America and the European Council for Fatwa and Research have announced that they too in future will follow the Umm al-Qura calendar for regulating the Islamic days of observance. The Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), based in Plainfield, Indiana, USA, is an umbrella group that describes itself as the largest Muslim organization in North America. ... The Fiqh Council of North America is an association of Muslims who interpret Islamic law within the United States. ... A Dublin-based private foundation, founded in London at 29-30 March 1997 on the initiative of the Federation of Islamic Organisations in Europe, the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) is a largely self-selected body, composed by islamic clerics and scholars, presided by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, and...


Tabular Islamic calendar

There exists a variation of the Islamic calendar known as the tabular Islamic calendar in which months are worked out by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculation. It has a 30-year cycle with 11 leap years of 355 days and 19 years of 354 days. In the long term, it is accurate to one day in about 2500 years. It also deviates up to about 1 or 2 days in the short term. Tabular Islamic calendar - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Tabular Islamic calendar - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Kuwaiti algorithm

Main article: Kuwaiti algorithm

Microsoft uses the "Kuwaiti algorithm" to convert Gregorian dates to the Islamic ones. Microsoft claims that it is based on a statistical analysis of historical data from Kuwait[7] but it is in fact a variant of the tabular Islamic calendar.[8] Microsoft uses the Kuwaiti algorithm to convert between dates in the Western standard Gregorian calendar and dates in the Hijri or Islamic calendar. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Microsoft uses the Kuwaiti algorithm to convert between dates in the Western standard Gregorian calendar and dates in the Hijri or Islamic calendar. ... Tabular Islamic calendar - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Notable dates

Main article: Muslim holidays

Important dates in the Islamic (Hijri) year are: Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ...

The Muslim New Year is a cultural event which some Muslims partake on the first day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic Calendar. ... This article refers to the Islamic remembrance. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... A Mawlid is a traditional celebration in the Islamic world of the birth date of a Muslim saint. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Isra is an Arabic word referring to what Muslims regard as Muhammads miraculous night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem - specifically, to the site of Masjid al-Aqsa - alluded to in Surat Al-Isra 1: سبحان الذي أسرى ب&#1593... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Laylat al-Qadr (Arabic: لیلة القدر) (also known as Shab-e-Qadr), literally the Night of Decree or Night of Measures, is the anniversary of two [] very important dates in Islam that occurred in the month of Ramadan. ... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiá¹­r), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah. ...

Current correlations

For a very rough conversion, multiply the Islamic year number by 0.97, and then add 622 to get the Gregorian year number. An Islamic year will be entirely within a Gregorian year of the same number in the year 20874. The Islamic calendar year of 1429 will occur entirely within the Gregorian calendar year of 2008. Such years occur once every 33 or 34 Islamic years (32 or 33 Gregorian years). More are listed here:

Islamic year within Gregorian year
Islamic Gregorian Difference
1228 1813 585
1261 1845 584
1295 1878 583
1329 1911 582
1362 1943 581
1396 1976 580
1429 2008 579
1463 2041 578
1496 2073 577
1530 2106 576
1564 2139 575

Uses

The Islamic calendar has been used primarily for religious purposes, and has sometimes been used for official purposes as well. Because of its nature as a purely lunar calendar, however, it cannot be used for agricultural purposes and historically Islamic communities have used other calendars for this purpose: the Egyptian calendar was formerly widespread in Islamic countries, and the Iranian calendar and the 1789 Ottoman calendar (a modified Julian calendar) were also used for agriculture in their countrues. These local solar calendars have receded in importance with the near-universal adoption of the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes. Saudi Arabia is currently the only Islamic country to use the Islamic calendar as the calendar of daily government business.[9] A lunar calendar is a calendar in many cultures that is oriented at the moon phase. ... The ancient civil Egyptian Calendar, known as the Annus Vagus or Wandering Year, had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. ... The Iranian calendar (Persian: ) also known as Persian calendar or the Jalāli Calendar is a solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan. ...


See also

The Javanese calendar is a calendar used by the Javanese people. ... The Iranian calendar (Persian: ) also known as Persian calendar or the Jalāli Calendar is a solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Watt, W. Montgomery "Hidjra". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  2. ^ B. van Dalen; R.S. Humphreys; A.K.S Lambton, et al. "Tarikh". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  3. ^ Trawicky (2000) p. 232
  4. ^ Sahih Muslim
  5. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  6. ^ Ramadan and Eid announcement by the Fiqh Council of North America (revised)
  7. ^ Hijri Dates in SQL Server 2000
  8. ^ The "Kuwaiti Algorithm" (Robert van Gent)
  9. ^ Glassé, Cyril (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam, pp. 98-99. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0759101906.

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Clifford Edmund Bosworth (born December 29, 1928, Sheffield, United Kingdom) is a British historian and orientalist, specializing in Arabic studies. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Clifford Edmund Bosworth (born December 29, 1928, Sheffield, United Kingdom) is a British historian and orientalist, specializing in Arabic studies. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Sunan al-Tirmidhi is one of the six most authentic canonical hadith collections of the Sunnis, collected by al-Tirmidhi. ...

External links

Date converters


  Results from FactBites:
 
IslamiCity.com - The Islamic Calendar (781 words)
The Islamic calendar (or Hijri calendar) is a lunar calendar.
The Islamic calendar is the official calendar in countries around the Gulf, especially Saudi Arabia.
The Islamic calendar is based on visibility of the crescent Moon.
History & info - the Islamic calendar (758 words)
The Islamic calendar (or Hijri calendar) is a purely lunar calendar.
The calendar is based on the Qur'an (Sura IX, 36-37) and its proper observance is a sacred duty for Muslims.
However, calendars are printed for planning purposes, but such calendars are based on estimates of the visibility of the lunar crescent, and the actual month may start a day earlier or later than predicted in the printed calendar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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