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Encyclopedia > Islamic art
The Taj Mahal, Agra. Shah Jahan's 1648 memorial to wife Mumtaz Mahal, would, in 1983, be cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage."
The Taj Mahal, Agra. Shah Jahan's 1648 memorial to wife Mumtaz Mahal, would, in 1983, be cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage."[1]

Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations.[2] It includes fields as varied as architecture, calligraphy, painting, and ceramics, among others. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... “Painter” redirects here. ... Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ...


Islamic art presents a certain stylistic unity, owing to the mobility of artists, merchants, rulers, and the works themselves. The use of a common Arabic script throughout the Islamic world, and the particular value placed upon calligraphy, assisted in reinforcing this unity of style. Nevertheless, the great differences in form and ornament between countries and eras has led many to speak of the “arts of Islam” rather than the more singular form of the phrase, “Islamic art.”[citation needed] Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ...

Contents

Overview

Art history
series
Prehistoric art
Ancient art history
Western art history
Eastern art history
Islamic art history
Western painting
History of painting

Islamic art is not, properly speaking, an art pertaining to religion only. The term "Islamic" refers not only to the religion, but to the rich and varied Islamic culture as well. Islamic art frequently adopts secular elements and elements that are frowned upon, if not forbidden, by some Islamic theologians.[3] This article is an overview of the history of art worldwide. ... In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. ... Arts of the ancient world refers to the many types of art that were in the cultures of ancient societies, such as those of ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome // The earliest figurine the Venus of Tan-Tan discovered to date originated somewhere between 500,000 and 300... Also see articles: History of painting, Western painting Clio, muse of heroic poetry and history, by Pierre Mignard, 17th century. ... Eastern art history, devoted to the arts of the Far East includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


According to the Encarta "Islamic art is developed from many sources: Roman, Early Christian, and Byzantine styles were taken over in early Islamic architecture; the influence of Sassanian art—the architecture and decorative art of pre-Islamic Persia was of paramount significance; Central Asian styles were brought in with various nomadic incursions; and Chinese influences had an important effect on Islamic painting, pottery, and textiles."[4] Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


There are repeating elements in Islamic art, such as the use of geometrical floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as the arabesque. The arabesque in Islamic art is often used to symbolize the transcendent, indivisible and infinite nature of Allah.[5] Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


It is a common myth that human or animal depiction is forbidden altogether in Islamic art. In fact, human portrayals can be found in all eras of Islamic art. Rather, human representation for the purpose of worship is considered idolatry and is duly forbidden in Islamic law, known as Sharia law. There are also many depictions of Muhammad, Islam's chief prophet, in historical Islamic art.[6][7] The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... Depictions of Muhammad, founder of the Islamic faith, are often contentious. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...


Architecture

Main article: Islamic Architecture

Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic art is architecture, particularly that of the mosque (four-iwan and hypostyle).[8] Through the edifices, the effect of varying cultures within Islamic civilization can be illustrated. The North African and Spanish Islamic architecture, for example, has Roman-Byzantine elements, as seen in the Alhambra palace at Granada, or in the Great Mosque of Cordoba. The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Interior of the Mezquita The Mezquita (Spanish for mosque, from the Arabic مسجد Masjid), is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Córdoba, Spain that was at one time the second largest mosque in the world. ...


The role of domes in Islamic architecture has been considerable. Domes have been used in Islamic architecture for centuries. The earliest surviving dome is part of the Dome of the Rock mosque, built in 691 CE. Another prominent dome was added to the Taj Mahal, constructed in the 17th century with the Taj Mahal. And as late as the 19th century, Islamic domes were incorporated into Western architecture.[9][10] The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: , translit. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ...


Calligraphy

Part of a series on
Islam
For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...

Allah · Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam reveres the One and Only God, known as Allah (الله) in Arabic. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage The Five Pillars of Islam (أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ...

History & Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shi'a Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia
Kalam · Tasawwuf (Sufism) The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shi'a

Culture & Society
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Animals · Art
Calendar · Children · Demographics
Festivals · Mosques · Philosophy
Politics · Science · Women Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...

Islam & other religions
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Christianity · Jainism
Judaism · Sikhism

See also
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... This box:      Islamophobia is a criticized[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam Portal  v  d  e 

Main article: Arabic calligraphy

Calligraphic design is omnipresent in Islamic art, and is usually expressed in a mix of Qur'anic verses and historical proclamations. Two of the main scripts involved are the symbolic kufic and naskh scripts, which can be found adorning and enhancing the visual appeal of the walls and domes of buildings, the sides of minbars, and so on.[5] Illuminated scripts, coinage, and other "minor art" pieces such as ewers and incense holders are also often decorated with calligraphy. The stylized signature of Sultan Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Surah Al-Baqarah written in Kufic form. ... Naskh - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Minbar in the Ortaköy mosque in Istanbul. ... Ewer (reverse, middle) as cult instrument, in this coin celebrating the pietas of the Roman Emperor Herennius Etruscus. ...


Pile carpet

No Islamic artistic concept has become better known outside its original home than the pile carpet, more commonly referred to as the Oriental carpet (oriental rug). Their versatility is utilized in everyday Islamic and Muslim life, from floor coverings to architectural enrichment, from cushions to bolsters to bags and sacks of all shapes and sizes, and to religious objects (such as a prayer rug, which would provide a clean place to pray). Carpet weaving is a rich and deeply embedded tradition is Islamic societies, and the practice is seen in cities as well as in rural communities and nomadic encampments. In older times, special establishments and workshops were in existence that functioned directly under court patronage in Islamic lands. [11] An authentic oriental rug is a handmade carpet that is either knotted with pile or woven without pile. ...


Others

From the eighth to the eighteenth centuries, the use of glazed ceramics was prevalent in Islamic art, usually assuming the form of pottery.[12] Although the art of sculpture was hardly practiced at all, work in metal and ivory was often developed to a high degree of technical accomplishment. It is also necessary to mention the importance of painting, and particularly of the illumination of both sacred and secular texts. Composite body, painted, and glazed bottle. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ...


History of Islamic art

The Beginnings of Islamic art

Before the Dynasties

The period of rapid expansion of the Islamic era forms a reasonably accurate beginning for the label of Islamic art. Early geographical boundaries the Islamic culture were in present-day Syria. It is quite difficult to distinguish the earliest Islamic objects from their predecessors in Persian or Sassanid art and Byzantine art. There was, notably, a significant production of unglazed ceramics, witnessed by a famous small bowl preserved in the Louvre, whose inscription assures its attribution to the Islamic period. Vegetal motifs were the most important in these early productions. Sassanid art is the term commonly used to describe the various artistic products of the Sassanid Empire of Persia from about the 3rd century until its fall of Ctesiphon in 640. ... The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... This article is about the museum. ...


Influences from the Sassanian artistic tradition include the image of the king as warrior and the lion as symbolic of nobility and virility. The Bedouin tribal tradition represented the geographically "native" artistic hegemony. A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western...


Byzantine influence from the Christian west was not received without reluctance. Coinage and metalwork were imported and used for trade with the Byzantines.


Ummayyad Art

Mosaics from the riwaq (portico) of the Great Mosque of Damascus.
Mosaics from the riwaq (portico) of the Great Mosque of Damascus.

Religious and civic architecture were developed under the Umayyads, when new concepts and new plans were put into practice. Thus, the “Arab plan,” with court and hypostyle prayer hall, truly became a functional type with the construction of the Umayyad Mosque, or the Great Mosque of Damascus (completed in 715 by caliph Al-Walid I)[13] on top of the ancient temple of Jupiter and in place of the basilica of St. John the Baptist, the most sacred site in the city. This building served as a point of reference for builders (and for art historians) for the birth of the Arab plan, as Byzantine Christian. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 674 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) en: Damascus, Syria - Umayyad Mosque: a detail of mosaics at the western side of the courtyard. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 674 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) en: Damascus, Syria - Umayyad Mosque: a detail of mosaics at the western side of the courtyard. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ...


The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is one of the most important buildings in all of Islamic architecture, marked by a strong Byzantine influence (mosaic against a gold background, and a central plan that recalls that of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre), but already bearing purely Islamic elements, such as the great epigraphic frieze. The desert palaces in Jordan and Syria (for example, Mshatta, Qasr Amra, and Khirbat al-Mafjar) served the caliphs as living quarters, reception halls, and baths, and were decorated to promote an image of royal luxury. The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: , translit. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Greek: Ναός της Αναστάσεως, Naos tis Anastaseos; Georgian: აგდგომის ტადზარი Agdgomis Tadzari; Armenian: Surp Harutyun) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... Mshatta Facade Installed in the south wing of the Pergamon Museum, is a permanent exhibition of the Museum für Islamische Kunst dedicated to the art of Islamic peoples from the eighth to the nineteenth centuries; On of the attractions is the so called Mshatta facade. ... Qasr Amra (Arabic: قصر عمرة) is the best-known of the desert castles located in present-day eastern Jordan. ...


Work in ceramic was still somewhat primitive (unglazed) during this period. Some metal objects have survived from this time, but it remains rather difficult to distinguish these objects from those of the pre-Islamic period.


'Abd al-Malik introduced standard coinage that featured Arabic inscriptions. The quick development of a localized coinage around the time of the Dome of the Rock's construction demonstrates the reorientation of Umayyad acculturation. This period saw the genesis of a particularly Islamic art. The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: , translit. ...


In this period, Umayyad artists and artisans did not invent a new vocabulary, but began to prefer those received from Mediterranean and Iranian late antiquity, which they adapted to their own artistic conceptions. For example, the mosaics in the Great Mosque of Damascus are based on Byzantine models, but replace the figurative elements with images of trees and cities. The desert palaces also bear witness to these influences. By combining the various traditions that they had inherited, and by readapting motifs and architectural elements, artists created little by little a typically Muslim art, particularly discernible in the aesthetic of the arabesque, which appears both on monuments and in illuminated Qur'ān. Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Abbasid art

Luster-ware bowl from Susa, 9th century, today in the Louvre.
Luster-ware bowl from Susa, 9th century, today in the Louvre.

The Abbasid dynasty (750 A.D.- 1258[14]) witnessed the movement of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, and then from Baghdad to Samarra. The shift to Baghdad influenced politics, culture, and art. Art historian Robert Hillenbrand (1999) likens the movement to the foundation of an "Islamic Rome", because the meeting of Eastern influences from Iranian, Eurasian steppe, Chinese, and Indian sources created a new paradigm for Islamic art. Classical forms inherited from Byzantine Europe and Greco-Roman sources were discarded in favor of those drawn from the new Islamic hub. Even the design of the city of Baghdad placed it in the "navel of the world," as 9th-century historian al-Ya'qubi wrote.[15] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 690 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1288 × 1120 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 690 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1288 × 1120 pixel, file size: 1. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... Look up AD in Wiktionary, the free dictionary AD or ad may stand for: ad or advertisement, see advertising ad- prefix Administrative domain Air Defence Andorra, ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code Anno Domini (In the Year of [Our] Lord). This year is A.D. 2005. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The ancient city of Baghdad cannot be excavated, as it lies beneath the modern city. However, Samarra has been well studied, and is known for its extensive cultivation of the art of stucco. Motifs known from the stucco at Samarra permit the dating of structures built elsewhere, and are furthermore found on portable objects, particular in wood, from Egypt through to Iran. Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ...


Abbasid architecture in Iraq as exemplified in the palace of Ukhaidir (c.775-6) demonstrated the "despotic and the pleasure-loving character of the dynasty" in its grand size but cramped living quarters[16].


Samarra witnessed the "coming of age" of Islamic art. Polychrome painted stucco allowed for experimentation in new styles of moulding and carving. The Great Mosque of Samarra, once the largest in the world, was built for the new capital. Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... The Great Mosque of Samarra is a mosque located in the Iraqi city of Samarra and was built in the 9th century. ...


Other major mosques build in the Abbasid Dynasty include the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Abu Dalaf in Iraq, the great mosque in Tunis, and the great mosque in Kairouan. Ibn Tulun Mosque is located in Cairo, Egypt. ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ...


The Abbasid period also coincided with two major innovations in the ceramic arts: the invention of faience, and of metallic lusterware. Hadithic prohibition of the use of golden or silver pottery led to the development of metallic lusterware, which was made by mixing sulphur and metallic oxides to ochre and vinegar, painted onto an already glazed vessel and then fired a second time. It was expensive, and difficult to manage the second round through the kiln, but the need to replace fine Chinese pottery led to the development of this technique.[17]. Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed earthenware on a delicate pale buff body. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Lusterware is a type of pottery or porcelain with a metallic sheen that gives the effect of iridescence, produced by metallic oxides and an overglaze finish This style was popular with and likely invented by Persian potters in the 9th century. ...


Though the common perception of Abbasid artistic production focuses largely on pottery, the greatest development of the Abbasid period was in textiles. Government-run workshops known as tiraz produced silks bearing the name of the monarch, allowing for aristocrats to demonstrate their loyalty to the ruler. Other silks were pictorial. The utility of silk-ware in wall decor, entrance adornment, and room separation were not as important as their cash value along the "silk route." The Silk Road (Traditional Chinese: 絲綢之路; Simplified Chinese: 丝绸之路; pinyin: sī chóu zhī lù) was an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel, and connecting Changan, China with Antioch, Syria, as well as other...


Calligraphy began to be used in surface decoration on pottery during this period. Illuminated Qur'ans gained attention, letter-forms now more complex and stylized to the point of slowing down the recognition of the words themselves[18]. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


The medieval period (9th-15th centuries)

Beginning in the 9th century, Abbasid sovereignty was contested in the provinces furthest removed from the Iraqi center. The creation of a Shi'a dynasty, that of the north African Fatimids, followed by the Umayyads in Spain, gave force to this opposition, as well as small dynasties and autonomous governors in Iran. Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ...


Spain and the Maghreb

Pyxis of al-Mughira, Madinat al-Zahra, 968, today in the Louvre.
Pyxis of al-Mughira, Madinat al-Zahra, 968, today in the Louvre.

The first Islamic dynasty to establish itself in Spain (or al-Andalus) was that of the Spanish Umayyads. As their name indicates, they were descended from the great Umayyads of Syria. After their fall, the Spanish Umayyads were replaced by various autonomous kingdoms, the taifas (1031-91), but the artistic production from this period does not differ significantly from that of the Umayyads. At the end of the 11th centuy, two Berber tribes, the Almoravids and the Almohads, captured the head of the Maghreb and Spain, successively, bringing Magrhebi influences into art. A series of military victories by Christian monarchs had reduced Islamic Spain by the end of the 14th century to the city of Granada, ruled by the Nasirid dynasty, who managed to maintain their hold until 1492. Hiya you alright? Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 395 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (950 × 1440 pixel, file size: 977 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was shot by Marie-Lan Nguyen (user:Jastrow) and placed in the Public Domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 395 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (950 × 1440 pixel, file size: 977 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was shot by Marie-Lan Nguyen (user:Jastrow) and placed in the Public Domain. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Almohad Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, IN WRONG MAP The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ...


In the Maghreb, the Marinids carried on the Almhoad flame after 1196. Outside of their capital, Fez, they participated in many military expeditions, both in Spain and in Tunisia, whence they were unable to dislodge the Hafsids, a small but solidly implanted dynasty. Marinid power declined throughout the 15th century, and they were finally replaced by the Sharifs in 1549. The Hafsids finally succumbed to the Ottoman Turks in 1574. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Marinid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, this map its wrong! The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin (also Benī Merīn, which is the source of the Spanish name). ... Bab Bou Jeloud, gate to the Old Medina of Fes Leather dyeing vats in Fes For specific travel tips, see the entry on Fez at http://wikitravel. ... Hafsid dynasty in Ifriqiya (1229-1574) Significant Rulers: Abu Zakariyya Yahya I. (1229-1249) Muhammad I. al-Mustansir (1249-1277) Yahya II. al-Watiq (1277-1279) Ibrahim I. (1279-1283) Ibn Abi Umara (1283-1284) Abu Hafs Umar I. (1284-1295) Abu Bakr II. (1318-1346) Ishaq II. (1350-1369... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


al-Andalus was a great cultural center of the Middle Ages. Besides the great universities, which taught philosophies and sciences yet unknown in Christendom (such as those of Averroes), the territory was an equally vital center for art. One thinks immediately, in architecture, of the Great Mosque of Cordoba, but other, smaller, monuments should not be forgotten, such as the Bab Mardum in Toledo, or the caliphal city of Medina Azahara. In the later period one finds notably the palace of the Alhambra, in Granada. Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Interior of the Mezquita The Mezquita (Spanish for mosque, from the Arabic مسجد Masjid), was at one time the second largest mosque in the world in Córdoba, Spain and is now a Roman Catholic cathedral. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Image:Mezquita de Madinat al=Zahra. ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ...


Many techniques were employed in the manufacture of objects. Ivory was used extensively for the manufacture of boxes and caskets. The pyxis of al-Mughira is a masterwork of the genre. In metalwork, large sculptures in the round, normally rather scarce in the Islamic world, served as elaborate receptacles for water or as fountain spouts. A great number of textiles, most notably silks, were exported: many are found in the church treasuries of Christendom, where they served as covering for saints’ ossuaries. From the periods of Maghrebi rule one may also note a taste for painted and sculpted woodwork.


The art of north Africa is not as well studied. The Almoravid and Almohad dynasties are characterized by a tendency toward austerity, for example in mosques with bare walls. Nevertheless, luxury arts continued to be produced in great quantity. The Marinid and Hafsid dynasties developed an important, but poorly understood, architecture, and a significant amount of painted and sculpted woodwork.


Egypt and Syria

Detail of the "Baptistère de Saint-Louis," 13th-14th century, Mamluk, today in the Louvre.
Detail of the "Baptistère de Saint-Louis," 13th-14th century, Mamluk, today in the Louvre.

The Fatimid dynasty, which reigned in Egypt between 909 and 1171, was one of the few Shi'a dynasties in the Islamic world. Their greatest accomplishment was the foundation of the city of Cairo in 969. The dynasty gave birth to an important religious architecture and a rich tradition in the art of the object, produced in a wide array of materials: crystal, luster ceramics and ceramics painted under the glaze, metalwork, opaque glass, etc. Many artisans were Coptic Christians, who constituted the majority under the particularly tolerant reign of the Fatimids. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 846 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bassin dit Baptistère de Saint-Louis Syrie ou Egypte, fin du XIIIe-début du XIVe siècle. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 846 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bassin dit Baptistère de Saint-Louis Syrie ou Egypte, fin du XIIIe-début du XIVe siècle. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... This article is for the year 909. ... Events Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Religions Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism Scriptures Bible Languages Mari, Coptic, Arabic, English, French, German A Copt (Coptic: , literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. ...


At the same time in Syria, the atabegs (Arab governors of Seljuq princes) assumed power. Quite independent, they capitalized on conflicts between the Turkish princes, and in large part supported the installation of the Frankish crusaders. In 1171, Saladin seized Fatimid Egypt, and installed the transitory Ayyubid dynasty on the throne. This period is not terribly notable for architecture, but the production of luxury objects continued apace. Ceramics and metalwork of a high quality were produced without interruption, and enameled glass became another important craft. Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Events Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: , Turkish: ) (c. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ...


In 1250 the Mamluks seized control of Egypt from the Ayyubids, and by 1261 had managed to assert themselves in Syria as well. The Mamluks were not, strictly speaking, a dynasty, as they did not maintain a patrilineal mode of succession; in fact, Mamluks were freed Turkish slaves, who (in theory) passed the power to others of like station. This mode of government persevered for three centuries, until 1517, and gave rise to abundant architectural projects (many thousands of buildings were constructed during this period), while patronage of luxury arts favored primarily enameled glass and metalwork. The Baptistery of Saint Louis, one of the most famous Islamic objects, dates to this period. // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), Turkish: Kölemen, owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who was converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


Iran and Central Asia

The Mausoleum of the Samanids, Bukhara, Uzbekistan, ca. 914-43.
The Mausoleum of the Samanids, Bukhara, Uzbekistan, ca. 914-43.

In Iran and the north of India, the Tahirids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, and Ghurids struggled for power in the 10th century, and art was a vital element of this competition. Great cities were built, such as Nishapur and Ghazni, and the construction of the Great Mosque of Isfahan (which would continue, in fits and starts, over several centuries) was initiated. Funerary architecture was also cultivated, while potters developed quite individual styles: kaleidoscopic ornament on a yellow ground; or marbled decorations created by allowing colored glazes to run; or painting with multiple layers of slip under the glaze. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... Free-blown, wheel-cut carafes. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ...


The Seljuqs, nomads of Turkic origin from present-day Mongolia, appeared on the stage of Islamic history toward the end of the 10th century. They seized Baghdad in 1048, before dying out in 1194 in Iran, although the production of “Seljuq” works continued through the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century under the auspices of smaller, independent sovereigns and patrons. During their time, the center of culture, politics and art production shifted from Damascus and Baghdad to Merv, Nishapur, Rayy, and Isfahan, all in Iran [19]. This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Events The city of Oslo is founded by Harald Hardråde of Norway. ... Events November 20 - Palermo falls to Henry VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire December 25 - Henry VI is crowned king of Sicily. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Merw, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Ray, also spelled Rayy or Rages (ری in Persian) is the most historic city in the province of Tehran, Iran. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ...


The visual arts flourished in this period [20]. The second half of the twelfth century witnessed expansion of figural decoration, as seen in the Bobrinski Bucket. Figural decorations were also seen in surface decoration of "narrative scenes (such as the Shahnama of Firdausi), pictures of coutiers, animals, zodiacal themes and images from the princely cycle featuring hunting, banqueting, music-making, and similar forms of entertainment. Long benedictory inscriptions in Arabic and Persian became a usual sight in the portable arts. Sculpture in stucco, ceramic and metal now [took] on a new importance." [21] The Bobrinksi Bucket is a 12th century bronze bucket originally manufactured for a merchant in 1163 out of bronze with copper and silver inlaid decorations. ...


Popular patronage expanded because of a growing economy and new urban wealth. Inscriptions in architecture tended to focus more on the patrons of the piece. For example, sultans, viziers or lower ranking officials would receive often mention in inscriptions on mosques. Meanwhile, growth in mass market production and sale of art made it more commonplace and accessible to merchants and professionals [22]. Because of increased production, many relics have survived from the Seljuk era and can be easily dated. In contrast, the dating of earlier works is more ambigious. It is, therefore, easy to mistake Seljuk art as new developments rather than inheritance from classical Iranian and Turkic sources. [23]


Under the Seljuqs the “Iranian plan” of mosque construction appears for the first time. Lodging places called khans, or caravanserai, for travellers and their animals, or caravansarais, generally displayed utilitarian rather than ornamental architecture, with rubble masonry, strong fortifications, and minimal comfort [24]. Another important architectural trend to arise in the Seljuk era is the development of mausolea including the tomb tower such as the Gunbad-i-qabus (circa 1006-7) (showcasing a Zoroastrian motif) and the domed square, an example of which is the tomb of the Samanids in the city of Bukhara (circa 943) [25]. A caravanserai (also spelt caravansarai, caravansary Persian كاروانسرا, Turkish: kervansaray), means home or shelter for caravans (caravan meaning a group or convoy of soldiers, traders or pilgrims engaged in long distance travel). ... Ismail Samani mausoleum in Bukhara. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ...


Innovations in the ceramic arts that date to this period include the production of minai ware and the manufacture of vessels, not out of clay, but out of a silicon paste (“frit-ware”), while metalworkers began to encrust bronze with precious metals. Across the Seljuk era, from Iran to Iraq, a unification of book painting can be seen. These paintings have animalistic figures that convey strong symbolic meaning of fidelity, treachery, and courage [26].


In the 13th century the Mongols, under the leadership of Genghis Khan, swept through the Islamic world. Upon the death of Genghis Khan, his empire was divided among his sons and many dynasties were thus formed: the Yuan in China, the Ilkhanids in Iran, and the Golden Horde in northern Iran and southern Russia. For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... This article is about the person. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ...


The Ilkhanids
Iskandar at the talking tree, from an Ilkhanid Shahnameh, ca. 1330-1340, Smithsonian.
Iskandar at the talking tree, from an Ilkhanid Shahnameh, ca. 1330-1340, Smithsonian.

A rich civilization developed under these “little khans,” who were originally subservient to the Yuan emperor, but rapidly became independent. Architectural activity intensified as the Mongols became sedentary, and retained traces of their nomadic origins, such as the north-south orientation of the buildings. At the same time a process of “iranisation” took place, and construction according to previously established types, such as the “Iranian plan” mosques, was resumed. The tomb of Öljeitü in Soltaniyeh is one of the greatest and most impressive monuments in Iran, despite many later depredations. The art of the Persian book was also born under this dynasty, and was encouraged by aristocratic patronage of large manuscripts such as the Jami al-tawarikh by Rashid al-Din. New techniques in ceramics appeared, such as the lajvardina (a variation on luster-ware), and Chinese influence is perceptible in all arts. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 436 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 618 pixel, file size: 183 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: from Smithsonian Iskandar (Alexander the Great) at the Talking Tree from a manuscript of the Shahnama (Book of Kings) by Firdawsi circa 1330-1340 Il... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 436 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 618 pixel, file size: 183 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: from Smithsonian Iskandar (Alexander the Great) at the Talking Tree from a manuscript of the Shahnama (Book of Kings) by Firdawsi circa 1330-1340 Il... Öljeitü (1280 - December 16, 1316, in Soltaniyeh, near Kazvin), was the eight Ilkhanate ruler in Iran, resigned from 1304 to 1316. ... The Soltaniyeh Domes structure and its 6 minarets are being restored by Irans ICHO. Soltaniyeh (Persian: ) situated in the Zanjan Province of Iran, some 240 km to the north-west from Tehran, used to be the capital of Ilkhanid rulers of Persia in the 14th century. ... Safavid era Miniature painting kept at Shah Abbas Hotel in Isfahan. ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ...


The Golden Horde and the Timurids
Construction of the fort at Kharnaq, Al-Hira, painting by Behzād, 1494-45, British Museum.
Construction of the fort at Kharnaq, Al-Hira, painting by Behzād, 1494-45, British Museum.

The early arts of the nomads of the Golden Horde are poorly understood. Research is only beginning, and evidence for town planning and architecture has been discovered. There was also a significant production of works in gold, which often show a strong Chinese influence. Much of this work is preserved today in the Hermitage. Download high resolution version (1576x2112, 363 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1576x2112, 363 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A manuscript from the 15th century describing the constructing of Al-Khornaq castle In Al-Hira,The Lakhmids capital city Al Hīra (Arabic,الحيرة) was an ancient city located south of al-Kufah in south-central Iraq. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ...


The beginning of the third great period of medieval Iranian art, that of the Timurids , was marked by the invasion of a third group of nomads, under the direction of Timur. During the 15th century this dynasty gave rise to a golden age in Persian manuscript painting, including renowned painters such as Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād, but also a multitude of workshops and patrons. Iranian architecture and city planning also reached an apogee, in particular with the monuments of Samarkand, and are marked by extensive use of exterior ceramic tiles and muqarnas vaulting within. Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids (Chaghatay/Persian: - TÄ«mÅ«rÄ«yān), self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran and modern Afghanistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder... The construction of fort Khavarnaq, c. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Muqarnas (مقرنس) is a traditional Islamic and Persian architectural style of decoration. ...


Syria, Iraq, and Anatolia

Tile from the Kubadabad Palace, Lake Beysehir, Turkey, 1236. Karatay Museum, Konya.
Tile from the Kubadabad Palace, Lake Beysehir, Turkey, 1236. Karatay Museum, Konya.

The Seljuq Turks pushed beyond Iran into Anatolia, winning a victory over the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Manzikert (1071), and setting up a sultanate independent of the Iranian branch of the dynasty. Their power seems largely to have waned following the Mongol invasions in 1243, but coins were struck under their name until 1304. Architecture and objects synthesized various styles, both Iranian and Syrian, sometimes rendering precise attributions difficult. The art of woodworking was cultivated, and at least one illustrated manuscript dates to this period. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Tile (1236) depicting a peacock from Kubadabad Palace Kubadabad Palace or Kubad Abad Palace (Turkish: Kubadabad Sarayı) refers to the agglomeration of constructions built as summer residences during the reign of the Seljuk Sultan of Anatolia Alaeddin Keykubad I (1220-1236), for the sultan and his suite, on the southwestern... BeyÅŸehir is a town and a district of Konya Province of Turkey. ... Konya (Ottoman Turkish: ; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Events 20 July - Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ...


Caravanserais dotting the major trade routes across the region, placed at intervals of a day's travel. The construction of these caravanserai improved in scale, fortification, and replicability. Also, they began to contain central mosques. Khan (sometimes spelled as xan, han) is a title meaning ruler in Mongolian and Turkish. ...


The Turkmens, nomads who settled in the area of Lake Van, are rather poorly understood. Nevertheless they were responsible for a number of mosques, such as the Blue Mosque in Tabriz, and they had a decisive influence after the fall of the Anatolian Seljuqs. In fact, starting in the 13th century, Anatolia was dominated by small Turkmen dynasties, which progressively chipped away at Byzantine territory. Little by little a major dynasty emerged, that of the Ottomans, who, after 1450, are referred to as the “first Ottomans.” Patronage was exercised primarily in architecture, where cupolas were deployed in an attempt to created unified spaces. The ceramic arts of this period may also be seen as the forerunners of Ottoman art, in particular the “Milet” ceramics and the first blue-and-white Anatolian works. Lake Van Landsat photo A number of sources report that Lake Van shelters a monster (Monster of Lake Van-Van Gölü Canavarı), and a 4-meter high statue has been erected to its honor. ... Masjed -i Kabud Goy Masjed (in Persian Masjed-i Kabud) also known as the blue mosque is a famous historic mosque in Tabriz, Iran. ... Tabriz (Persian and Azari: تبریز; Armenian: Ô¹Õ¡Õ¾Ö€Õ«Õ¦) is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ...


Islamic book painting witnessed its first golden age in the thirteenth century, mostly from Syria and Iraq. Influence from Byzantine visual vocabulary (blue and gold coloring, angelic and victorious motifs, symbology of drapery) combined with Mongoloid facial types in 12th-century book frontispieces. In architecture, a frontispiece constitutes the elements that frame and decorate the main, or front, door to a building; especially when the main entrance is the chief face of the building, rather than being kept behind columns or a portico. ...


Earlier coinage necessarily featured Arabic epigrahs, but as Ayyubid society became more cosmopolitan and multiethnic, coingage began to feature asrological, figural (featuring a variety of Greek, Seleucid, Byzantine, Sasanian, and comtemporary Turkish rulers' busts), and animal images.


Hillenbrand suggests that the medieval Islamic texts called Maqamat, copied and illustrated by Yahya b. Mahmud al-Wasiti were some of the earliest "coffee table books." They were among the first texts to hold up a mirror to daily life in Islamic art, portraying humorous stories and showing little to no inheritance of pictorial tradition.[27] In music, a maqam [sic] (plural maqamat) is a technique of improvisation that defines the pitches, patterns, and development of a piece of music. ... Coffee table book on coffee table A coffee table book is a hardcover book that rests on a coffee table or similar surface in an area where guests sit and are entertained, thus inspiring conversation or alleviating boredom. ...


India

Archway from the Qutb complex, Delhi, India, constructed by successive rulers under the Delhi Sultanate.
Archway from the Qutb complex, Delhi, India, constructed by successive rulers under the Delhi Sultanate.

India, conquered by the Ghaznavids and Ghurids in the 9th century, did not become autonomous until 1206, when the Muizzi, or slave-kings, seized power, marking the birth of the Delhi Sultanate. Later other competing sultanates were founded in Bengal, Kashmir, Gujarat, Jaunpur, Malwa, and in the north Deccan (the Bahmanids). They separated themselves little by little from Persian traditions, giving birth to an original approach to architecture and urbanism, marked in particular by interaction with Hindu art. Study of the production of objects has hardly begun, but a lively art of manuscript illumination is known. The period of the sultanates ended with the arrival of the Mughals, who progressively seized their territories. The Taj Mahal was made by Shah Jahan a muslim king. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 631 KB) Qutb complex. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 631 KB) Qutb complex. ... A map of the Qutb complex. ... Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... The Jaunpur sultanate was an independent kingdom of Northern India during the period from 1394 CE to 1479 CE, whose rulers ruled from Jaunpur of present day Uttar Pradesh. ... “Malwa” redirects here. ... Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... The Bahmani Sultanate was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707...


The Three Empires

Ottomans

Ceramic tile produced in Iznik, Turkey, second half of 16th century, kept in the Louvre.
Ceramic tile produced in Iznik, Turkey, second half of 16th century, kept in the Louvre.

The Ottoman Empire, whose origins lie in the 14th century, continued in existence until shortly after World War I. This impressive longevity, combined with an immense territory (stretching from Anatolia to Tunisia), led naturally to a vital and distinctive art, including plentiful architecture, mass production of ceramics (most notably Iznik ware), an important jeweler’s art, Turkish paper marbling Ebru, Turkish carpets as well as tapestries and an exceptional art of manuscript illumination, with multiple influences Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 631 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1210 × 1150 pixel, file size: 1,021 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Panneau de revêtement aux fleurs. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 631 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1210 × 1150 pixel, file size: 1,021 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Panneau de revêtement aux fleurs. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Ebru is: a Turkish name for Paper marbling a Turkish womans name; e. ... Turkish carpets come in distinct styles, from different regions of Turkey. ...


The standard plan of Ottoman architecture was inspired in part by the example of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople/Istanbul, Ilkhanid works like Oljeitu Tomb and earlier Seljuks of Rum and Anatolian Beylik monumental buildings and their own original innovations. The most famous of Ottoman architects was (and remains) Sinan, who lived for approximately one hundred years and designed several hundreds of buildings, of which two of the more important are Süleymaniye Camii in Istanbul and Selimiye Camii in Edirne. Apprentaces of Sinan later built the famous Blue Mosque in Istanbul and the Taj Mahal in India. Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Öljeitü, Muslim name Mohammad Khudabanda (1280 - December 16, 1316, in Soltaniyeh, near Kazvin), was the eighth Ilkhanate ruler in Iran, reigned from 1304 to 1316. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... For other uses, see Sinan (disambiguation). ... The Suleiman Mosque The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is a grand mosque in Istanbul. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (in Turkish Sultanahmet Camii, in English commonly called the Blue Mosque) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1453 to 1923. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ...


Masterpieces of Ottoman manuscript illumination include the two “books of festivals,” one dating from the end of the 16th century, and the other from the era of Sultan Murad III. These books contain numerous illustrations and exhibit a strong Safavid influence; thus they may have been inspired by books captured in the course of the Ottoman-Safavid wars of the 16th century. Murad III Murad III (July 4, 1546 – January 15, 1595) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ) were an Iranian Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[1] and Kurdish[2] origins which ruled Iran from 1501/1502 to 1722. ...


The Ottomans are also known for their development of a bright red pigment, “Iznik red,” in ceramics.


Mughals

Girl with parrot, scene from the Tuti-Nâma-Manuscript, 1585, Chester Beatty Library.
Girl with parrot, scene from the Tuti-Nâma-Manuscript, 1585, Chester Beatty Library.

The Mughal reign in India lasted from 1526 until 1828, when the English seized the country and created their protectorate. Architecture was accorded a place of honor within Mughal art, with the development of a distinctive plan and the creation of the Taj Mahal. The arts of jewelry and the carving of hard stones, such as jade, were also cultivated; the series of hard stone daggers in the form of horses’ heads is particularly impressive. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 456 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 1652 pixel, file size: 224 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 456 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 1652 pixel, file size: 224 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ...


The Mughals also gave rise to a magnificent art of manuscript illumination, in which a strong European influence may be perceived, both through the utilization of perspective and the use of European engravings as models. Nevertheless a strong Persian influence remains, as Persian painters founded the Mughal art of the book under the reign of Humayun. This latter had taken refuge among the Safavids after being temporarily dethroned, and upon his return brought with him certain Persian painters. The influence of Hindu art may also be perceived, particularly in provincial production (the so-called “sub-imperial” paintings). Mughal painting, a particular style of Indian painting, generally confined to illustrations on the book and done in miniatures, and which emerged, developed and took shape during the period of the Mughal Empire 16th -19th centuries). ... A cube in two-point perspective. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


Also of note is the invention of “bidri,” a technique of metalwork in which silver motifs are set against a black background.


Safavids and Qajars

Iwan, Shah Mosque, Isfahan.
Iwan, Shah Mosque, Isfahan.

The Iranian Safavids, a dynasty stretching from 1501 to 1786, is distinguished from the Mughal and Ottoman Empires in part through the Shi'a faith of its shahs. Ceramic arts are marked by the strong influence of Chinese porcelain, executed in blue and white. Architecture flourished, attaining a high point with the building program of Shah Abbas in Isfahan, which included numerous gardens, palaces (such as Ali Qapu), an immense bazaar, and a large imperial mosque. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 260 KB) Beschreibung Friday Mosque in Isfahan, lokated at the place Meidan-e-Imam. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 260 KB) Beschreibung Friday Mosque in Isfahan, lokated at the place Meidan-e-Imam. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ) were an Iranian Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[1] and Kurdish[2] origins which ruled Iran from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... 1501 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Shāh ‘Abbās I or Shāh ‘Abbās, The Great (Persian: ) born on (January 27, 1571 - January 19, 1629) was Shah of Iran, and the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty of the Persian Empire. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Ali Qapu (the Sublime Gate) is a grand palace in Isfahan, Iran. ... Shah Mosque is a mosque in Isfahan,Iran standing in soyth side of Naghsh-i Jahan square. ...


The art of manuscript illumination also achieved new heights, in particular in the Shah Tahmasp Shahnameh, an immense copy of Ferdowsi’s poem containing more than 250 paintings. In the 17th century a new type of painting develops, based around the album (muhaqqa). The albums were the creations of conoisseurs who bound together single sheets containing paintings, drawings, or calligraphy by various artists, sometimes excised from earlier books, and other times created as independent works. The paintings of Reza Abbasi figure largely in this new art of the book. Tahmasp is the name of two Safavid shahs of Persia: Tahmasp I (1514 – 1576) Tahmasp II (c. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Reza Abbasi, in full Aqa Reza Reza-e abbasi, sometimes known as Reza (1565 - 1635) was the most renowned Persian painter and calligrapher of the Isfahan school, which flourished during the Safavid period under the patronage of Shah Abbas I. Princely Youth and Dervish by Reza Abbasi, ca. ...


After the fall of the Safavids, the Qajars, a Turkmen tribe established from centuries on the banks of the Caspian Sea, assumed power. Qajar art displays an increasing European influence, as in the large oil paintings portraying the Qajar shahs. Steelwork also assumed a new importance. Like the Ottomans, the Qajar dynasty survived until the First World War. The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


Painting gallery

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 458 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2064 pixel, file size: 348 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 374 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1256 × 2012 pixel, file size: 236 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 604 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2024 × 2009 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabic literature Yahya... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 659 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2024 × 1841 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arabic literature Women...

3 dimensional art

Notes

  1. ^ Taj Mahal (English). World Heritage List. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved on September 28, 2007.
  2. ^ Marilyn Jenkins-Madina, Richard Ettinghausen, Oleg Grabar, Islamic Art and Architecture 650-1250, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300088698, p.3
  3. ^ Davies, Penelope J.E. Denny, Walter B. Hofrichter, Frima Fox. Jacobs, Joseph. Roberts, Ann M. Simon, David L. Janson's History of Art, Prentice Hall; 2007, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Seventh Edition, ISBN 0131934554 pg. 277
  4. ^ MSN Encarta: Islamic Art and Architecture
  5. ^ a b Madden (1975), pp.423-430
  6. ^ The Arab Contribution to Islamic Art: From the Seventh to the Fifteenth Centuries, Wijdan Ali, American Univ in Cairo Press, December 10 1999, ISBN 9774244761
  7. ^ From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of the Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th Century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art, Wijdan Ali, EJOS (Electronic Journal of Oriental Studies), volume IV, issue 7, p. 1-24, 2001
  8. ^ "Islam", The New Encyclopedia Britannica (2005)
  9. ^ O. Grabar (2006), p.87
  10. ^ Ettinghausen (2003), p.87
  11. ^ Davies, Penelope J.E. Denny, Walter B. Hofrichter, Frima Fox. Jacobs, Joseph. Roberts, Ann M. Simon, David L. Janson's History of Art, Prentice Hall; 2007, Upper Saddle, New Jersey. Seventh Edition, ISBN 0131934554 pg. 298
  12. ^ Mason (1995), p.1
  13. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978050020305
  14. ^ Gruber, World of Art
  15. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978050020305 p.40
  16. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978050020305
  17. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978050020305, p. 54
  18. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978050020305, p. 58
  19. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978050020305 p.89
  20. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978050020305 p.88
  21. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978050020305 p.90
  22. ^ Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978050020305 p.91
  23. ^ Hillenbrand, Chapter 4
  24. ^ Hillenbrand, p.109
  25. ^ Hillenbrand, p.100.
  26. ^ Hillenbrand, p.100
  27. ^ Hillenbrand, p.128-131

Ali was born in Amman, Jordan where she currently resides. ... Ali was born in Amman, Jordan where she currently resides. ...

References

Books and journals

  • Ettinghausen, Richard; Oleg Grabar, Marilyn Jenkins-Madina (2003). Islamic Art and Architecture 650-1250, 2nd, Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300088694. 
  • Madden, Edward H. (1975). "Some Characteristics of Islamic Art". Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 33 (4). 
  • Mason, Robert B. (1995). "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture XII. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9004103147. 
  • Ali, Wijdan (2001). "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of the Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th Century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art". EJOS 4 (7). 

Encyclopedias Richard Ettinghausen (1906, Frankfurt am Main, Germany - 1979, Princeton, New Jersey) was a historian of Islamic art and chief curator of the Freer Gallery. ...

  • The New Encyclopedia Britannica. (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica, Incorporated; Rev Ed edition. ISBN 978-1593392369. 

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Islamic art
Islamic studies
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Islamic Art

ArtArchitectureCalligraphyLiteratureMusicPoetryPottery Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... The Festival of Muslim Cultures, a national celebration of Muslim cultures, begins in January 2006 and continues into July 2007. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ...

Islamic Philosophy

PhilosophyEarly PhilosophyModern PhilosophyTheology
HistoriographySociologyEarly Sociology
Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ...

Islamic Science

Islamic ScienceTimeline of Islamic ScienceIslamic Golden Age
Alchemy & ChemistryAstronomyMathematicsMedicineOphthalmology
In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... Umar Naeem SUCKS. In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ...

Islamic Technology

Muslim Inventions • Agricultural Revolution • Timeline of Islamic Technology A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ...

Other Fields

EconomicsHistoryJurisprudenceMysticismSufi Studies Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Sufi studies: a particular branch of comparative studies that uses a. ...

External links

The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Islamic art collection at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, LACMA (1717 words)
Islamic art is perhaps the most accessible manifestation of a complex civilization that often seems enigmatic to outsiders.
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Of course, not all works of Islamic art were sponsored by the court; in fact, the majority of objects and manuscripts in museum collections originated elsewhere.
"The Word" on Islamic Art - Art History (552 words)
Islamic art is art created specifically in the context of the Muslim religion as well as secular art created in lands under Islamic rule or influence.
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The exaltation of the calligrapher is not surprising given the importance of calligraphy in Islamic art.
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