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Encyclopedia > Islamic architecture
The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne.
The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne.

Islamic architecture has encompassed a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures within the sphere of Islamic culture. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 1412 KB) Selimiye Mosque, Dome File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Islamic architecture Turkey Selimiye Mosque Ottoman architecture Portal:Turkey/Photo archive Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 1412 KB) Selimiye Mosque, Dome File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Islamic architecture Turkey Selimiye Mosque Ottoman architecture Portal:Turkey/Photo archive Metadata This file contains... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... Islam ▶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, the worlds second-largest religion, and said by some sources to be the fastest growing religion in some parts of the world. ...


The principle architectural types of Islamic architecture are; the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabularly of Islamic architecture is derived and used for buildings of lesser importance such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture.[1] The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Fountain is also the name of an artwork by Marcel Duchamp An ornamental lit fountain photographed at night for about 6 seconds. ...

Contents

History

In 630C.E. Muhammad's army reconquered the city of Mecca from the Banu Quraish tribe. The holy sanctuary of Ka'ba was rebuilt and re-dedicated to Islam, the reconstruction being carried out before Muhammad's death in 632C.E. by a shipwrecked Abyssinian carpenter in his native style. This sanctuary was amongst the first major works of Islamic architecture. The walls were decorated with paintings of Jesus, Mary, Abraham, prophets, angels and trees. Later doctrines of Islam dating from the eighth century and originating from the Hadith, forbade the use of such icons in architecture, specifically those of humans and animals.[1] Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... “BCE” redirects here. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Banu Quraish was the dominant tribe of Mecca. ... The Kaaba or Kaabah, is a building located inside the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... This article needs cleanup. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the 7th century, Muslim armies invaded and conquered a huge expanse of land. Once the Muslims had taken control of a region, their first need was for somewhere to worship - a mosque. The simple layout provided elements that were to be incorporated into all mosques and the early Muslims put up simple buildings based on the model of the Prophet's house or adapted existing buildings, such as churches for their own use. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...


Influences and styles

The Dome of the Rock is a key example of Islamic architecture
Arabic Calligraphy on large pishtaq of the Taj Mahal
Arabic Calligraphy on large pishtaq of the Taj Mahal

A specifically recognisable Islamic architectural style developed soon after the time of the Prophet Muhammad, developing from Roman, Egyptian, Byzantine, and Persian/Sassanid models. An early example may be identified as early as 691 AD with the completion of the Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhrah) in Jerusalem. It featured interior vaulted spaces, a circular dome, and the use of stylized repeating decorative patterns (arabesque). ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (533x800, 168 KB) Dome of the rock in Jerusalem. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (533x800, 168 KB) Dome of the rock in Jerusalem. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: , translit. ... Image File history File links TajCalligraphy3. ... Image File history File links TajCalligraphy3. ... The stylized signature of Sultan Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: , translit. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ...


The Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq, completed in 847 AD, combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base above which a huge spiraling minaret was constructed. The Great Mosque of Samarra is a mosque located in the Iraqi city of Samarra and was built in the 9th century. ... In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a flat ceiling which is supported by columns, as in the Hall of Columns at Karnak. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Hagia Sophia in Istanbul also influenced Islamic architecture. When the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines, they converted the basilica to a mosque (now a museum) and incorporated Byzantine architectural elements into their own work (e.g. domes). The Hagia Sophia also served as model for many of the Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque. Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... St. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... St Peters Basilica, Rome A dome is a common structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. ... The Suleiman Mosque The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is a grand mosque in Istanbul. ... The Rüstem Pasha Mosque is an Ottoman mosque located in Hasircilar Carsisi (Strawmat Weavers Market) in Eminonu, Istanbul. ...


Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture have always been ordered repetition, radiating structures, and rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility, especially for mosques and palaces. Other significant features employed as motifs include columns, piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes.[2] The role of domes in Islamic architecture has been considerable. Its usage spans centuries, first appearing in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock mosque, and recurring even up until the 17th century with the Taj Mahal. And as late as the 19th century, Islamic domes had been incorporated into Western architecture.[3][4]
In art, a motif is a repeated idea, pattern, image, or theme. ... A fractal is a geometric object which can be divided into parts, each of which is similar to the original object. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: , translit. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ...


Persian architecture

Main article: Persian architecture

One of the first civilizations that Islam came into contact with during and after its birth was that of Persia. The eastern banks of the Tigris and Euphrates was where the capital of the Persian empire lay during the 7th century. Hence the proximity often led early Islamic architects to not just borrow, but adopt the traditions and ways of the fallen Persian empire. The Baháí House of Worship by Fariborz Sahba, also known as the Lotus Temple. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1033 KB) Summary Masjed-e-shah in Esfahan seen from the Balcony of Ali Qapu Palace. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1033 KB) Summary Masjed-e-shah in Esfahan seen from the Balcony of Ali Qapu Palace. ... Shah Mosque is a mosque in Isfahan,Iran standing in soyth side of Naghsh-i Jahan square. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... Persia redirects here. ...


Islamic architecture borrows heavily from Persian architecture and in many ways can be called an extension and further evolution of Persian architecture.


Many cities such as Baghdad, for example, were based on precedents such as Firouzabad in Persia. In fact, it is now known that the two designers who were hired by al-Mansur to plan the city's design were Naubakht (نوبخت), a former Persian Zoroastrian, and Mashallah (ماشاء‌الله), a former Jew from Khorasan, Iran. Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Firouzabad. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... pooperson he was the first bisexual man to have a heshe baby This article is abliph Al Mansur of Baghdad. ... Nobakht Ahvazi (also spelled Naubakht in many a literature) and his sons were Astronomers from Ahvaz in Persia. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... For other uses, see Mashallah (disambiguation). ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ...


Persian-style mosques are characterized by their tapered brick pillars, large arcades, and arches supported each by several pillars. In South Asia, elements of Hindu architecture were employed, but were later superseded by Persian designs.[5]
For other uses, see Arcade. ...


Moorish architecture

The interior view of the Mezquita
The interior view of the Mezquita
Main article: Moorish architecture

Construction of the Great Mosque at Cordoba beginning in 785 AD marks the beginning of Islamic architecture in the Iberian peninsula and North Africa (see Moors). The mosque is noted for its striking interior arches. Moorish architecture reached its peak with the construction of the Alhambra, the magnificent palace/fortress of Granada, with its open and breezy interior spaces adorned in red, blue, and gold. The walls are decorated with stylize foliage motifs, Arabic inscriptions, and arabesque design work, with walls covered in glazed tile. Moorish architecture has its roots deeply established in the Arab tradition of architecture and design established during the era of the first Caliphate of the Ummayyads in the Levant circa 660AD with its capital Damascus having very well preserved examples of fine ArabIslamic design and geometrics, including the Carmen which is the typical Damascene house, Opening on the inside with a fountain as the Houses' center piece Image File history File links Mosque_of_Cordoba_Spain. ... Image File history File links Mosque_of_Cordoba_Spain. ... Interior of the Mezquita The Mezquita (Spanish for mosque, from the Arabic مسجد Masjid), was at one time the second largest mosque in the world in Córdoba, Spain and is now a Roman Catholic cathedral. ... Interior of the Mezquita, Cordoba Moorish architecture is a term used to describe the Islamic architecture of North Africa and parts of Spain and Portugal where the Moors were dominant from 711C.E. to 1492C.E.. The best surviving examples are La Mezquita in Cordoba and the Alhambra palace[1... Interior of the Mezquita The Mezquita (Spanish for mosque, from the Arabic مسجد Masjid), was at one time the second largest mosque in the world in Córdoba, Spain and is now a Roman Catholic cathedral. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see moor. ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... “Foliage” redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, porcelain, metal or even glass. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Umayyad dynasty (Arabic,بنو أمية ) (Banu Umayyah), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of Muawiyah I, was the first dynasty of the Muslim Caliphate, 661–750. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... For other uses, see Carmen (disambiguation). ...

Main articles: Mudéjar and Moorish Revival

Even after the completion of the Reconquista, Islamic influence had a lasting impact on the architecture of Spain. In particular, medieval Spaniards used the Mudéjar style, an imitation of Islamic design. One of the best examples of the Moors' lasting impact is the Alcázar of Seville. Teruel: Tower of the Cathedral, one of ten Mudéjar monuments of Aragón that comprise the World Heritage Site The Courtyard of the Dolls in the Alcázar of Seville Tower of the Santa maría church in Calatayud Las Ventas, Madrids Neo-Mudéjar bullfighting ring Mud... Arc de Triomf, Barcelona, 1888. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Sagrada Família church, by Gaudí Spanish architecture refers to architecture carried out during any era in what is now modern-day Spain, and by Spanish architects worldwide. ... Teruel: Tower of the Cathedral, one of ten Mudéjar monuments of Aragón that comprise the World Heritage Site The Courtyard of the Dolls in the Alcázar of Seville Tower of the Santa maría church in Calatayud Las Ventas, Madrids Neo-Mudéjar bullfighting ring Mud... King Pedros Palace in the Alcázar from the Patio de la Monteria The Alcázar of Seville (Spanish Reales Alcázares de Sevilla or Royal Alcázars of Seville) is a royal palace in Seville, Spain. ...


Turkistan (Timurid) architecture

Registan is the ensemble of three madrasahs, in Samarkand.
Registan is the ensemble of three madrasahs, in Samarkand.

Timurid architecture is the pinnacle of Islamic art in Central Asia. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by Timur and his successors in Samarkand and Herat helped to disseminate the influence of the Ilkhanid school of art in India, thus giving rise to the celebrated Moghol school of architecture. Timurid architecture started with the sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi in present-day Kazakhstan and culminated in Timur's mausoleum Gur-e Amir in Samarkand. The style is largely derived from Persian architecture. Axial symmetry is a characteristic of all major Timurid structures, notably the Shah-e Zendah in Samarkand and the mosque of Gowhar Shad in Meshed. Double domes of various shapes abound, and the outsides are perfused with brilliant colors.
Image File history File links Registan. ... Image File history File links Registan. ... Categories: Central Asia geography stubs | Buildings and structures in Uzbekistan ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids (Chaghatay/Persian: - TÄ«mÅ«rÄ«yān), self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran and modern Afghanistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Marie Bashkirtseff, In the Studio, 1881, Dnipropetrovsk State Art Museum, Dnipropetrovsk. ... Moghol is a Mongolian language spoken in Afghanistan by a few people around Herat. ... A view of the Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi in Turkestan, Kazakhstan. ... Timurs mausoleum Gur-e Amir at Samarkand Gur-e Amir is the mausoleum of the Asian conqueror Timur in Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... The Baháí House of Worship by Fariborz Sahba, also known as the Lotus Temple. ... In quantum field theory, chiral symmetry is a possible symmetry of the Lagrangian under which the left-handed and right-handed parts of Dirac fields transform independently. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Imam Reza Shrine Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ...


Ottoman Turkish architecture

Main article: Ottoman architecture
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul

The most numerous and largest of mosques exist in Turkey, which obtained influence from Byzantine, Persian and Syrian-Arab designs. Turkish architects implemented their own style of cupola domes.[5] The architecture of the Turkish Ottoman Empire forms a distinctive whole, especially the great mosques by and in the style of Sinan, like the mid-16th century Suleiman Mosque. For almost 500 years Byzantine architecture such as the church of Hagia Sophia served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Cupola of St Peters Basilica, Rome In architecture, a cupola consists of a dome-shaped ornamental structure located on top of a larger roof or dome, often used as a lookout or to admit light and provide ventilation. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For other uses, see Sinan (disambiguation). ... The Suleiman Mosque The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) is a grand mosque in Istanbul. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ...

Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575. Edirne, Turkey.
Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575. Edirne, Turkey.

The Ottomans achieved the highest level architecture in the Islamic lands hence or since. They mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes, and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as light and shadow. Islamic religious architecture which until then consisted of simple buildings with extensive decorations, was transformed by the Ottomans through a dynamic architectural vocabulary of vaults, domes, semidomes and columns. The mosque was transformed from being a cramped and dark chamber with arabesque-covered walls into a sanctuary of esthetic and technical balance, refined elegance and a hint of heavenly transcendence. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 592 pixel, file size: 158 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 592 pixel, file size: 158 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Year 1575 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Lierne vault of the Liebfrauenkirche, Mühlacker 1482. ...


Fatimid architecture

In architecture, the Fatimids followed Tulunid techniques and used similar materials, but also developed those of their own. In Cairo, their first congregational mosque was al-Azhar mosque ("the splendid") founded along with the city (969–973), which, together with its adjacent institution of higher learning (al-Azhar University), became the spiritual center for Ismaili Shia. The Mosque of al-Hakim (r. 996–1013), an important example of Fatimid architecture and architectural decoration, played a critical role in Fatimid ceremonial and procession, which emphasized the religious and political role of the Fatimid caliph. Besides elaborate funerary monuments, other surviving Fatimid structures include the Mosque of al-Aqmar (1125) as well as the monumental gates for Cairo's city walls commissioned by the powerful Fatimid emir and vizier Badr al-Jamali (r. 1073–1094). The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Tulunids were the first independent dynasty in Islamic Egypt (868-905). ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University is connected to the mosque in Cairo named to honor Fatima Az-Zahraa, the daughter of Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid Dynasty claimed descent. ... Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble Azhar), is a premier Egyptian institution of higher learning, world-renowned for its position as a center of Islamic scholarship and education. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Separation barrier. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... al-Malik al-Afdal ibn Badr al-Jamali Shahanshah (1066 – December 11, 1121) (Arabic: الأفضل شاهنشاه بن بدر الجمالي) was a vizier of the Fatimid caliphs of Egypt. ...


Al-Hakim Mosque (990-1012) was renovated by Dr. Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin (head of Dawoodi Bohra community) and Al-Jame-al-Aqmar built in 1125 in Cairo, Egypt features with its Fatimi philosophy and symbolism and bring its architecture vividly to life. Al-Hakim Mosque is one of the largest Fatimid mosques in Cairo. ... Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin // The 52nd Vicegerent Of The Fatimid Imam His Holiness Dr. Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin is the 52nd Dai al-Mutlaq of the largest group of Mustali Ismailis, the Dawoodi Bohras. ... Dawoodi Bohras are the main branch of the Bohras (a Mustali subsect of Ismaili Shia Muslims) based primarily in India and Pakistan. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ...

Emir Qurqumas complex.
Emir Qurqumas complex.
Sultan Hassan Mosque.

Image File history File linksMetadata Baybars_Mosque. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Baybars_Mosque. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1486x1709, 522 KB) Hassan_Mosque, cairo, egypt Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1486x1709, 522 KB) Hassan_Mosque, cairo, egypt Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

Mamluk architecture

The reign of the Mamluks (1250-1517 AD) marked a breathtaking flowering of Islamic art which is most visible in old Cairo. Their piety was reflected in the great religious complexes and beautiful works of art they commissioned. This religious zeal made them generous patrons of architecture and art. Trade and agriculture flourished under Mamluk rule, and Cairo, their capital, became one of the wealthiest cities in the Near East and the center of artistic and intellectual activity. This made Cairo, in the words of Ibn Khaldun, "the center of the universe and the garden of the world." The Mamluk utilized chiaroscuro and dappled light effects in their buildings. The majestic domes, courtyards, and soaring minarets that spread across old Cairo is a good demonstration. Mamluk history is divided into two periods based on different dynastic lines: the Bahri Mamluks (1250–1382) of Qipchaq Turkic origin from southern Russia, named after the location of their barracks on the Nile and the Burji Mamluks (1382–1517) of Caucasian Circassian origin, who were quartered in the citadel. The Bahri reign defined the art and architecture of the entire Mamluk period. Mamluk decorative arts—especially enameled and gilded glass, inlaid metalwork, woodwork, and textiles—were prized around the Mediterranean as well as in Europe, where they had a profound impact on local production. The influence of Mamluk glassware on the Venetian glass industry is only one such example. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... “Zealot” redirects here. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Center of the Universe was a television series on CBS which ran from October 27, 2004, until February 16, 2005. ... The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultanate المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... The Burji dynasty ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517. ...


The reign of Baybars's ally and successor, Qala’un (r. 1280–90), initiated the patronage of public and pious foundations that included madrasas, mausolea, minarets, and hospitals. Such endowed complexes not only ensured the survival of the patron's wealth but also perpetuated his name, both of which were endangered by legal problems relating to inheritance and confiscation of family fortunes. Besides Qala’un's complex, other important commissions by Bahri Mamluk sultans include those of al-Nasir Muhammad (1295–1304) as well as the immense and splendid complex of Hasan (begun 1356). The Mamluk al-Nasir Muhammad (الناصر محمد) (Muhammad, the Victorious, born 1285, died 1341) was sultan of Egypt from December 1293, with two interruptions to his death in 1341. ...


The Burji Mamluk sultans followed the artistic traditions established by their Bahri predecessors. Mamluk textiles and carpets were prized in international trade. In architecture, endowed public and pious foundations continued to be favored. Major commissions in the early Burji period in Egypt included the complexes built by Barquq (r. 1382–99), Faraj (r. 1399–1412), Mu’ayyad Shaykh (r. 1412–21), and Barsbay (r. 1422–38). International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ...


In the eastern Mediterranean provinces, the lucrative trade in textiles between Iran and Europe helped revive the economy. Also significant was the commercial activity of pilgrims en route to Mecca and Medina. Large warehouses, such as the Khan al-Qadi (1441), were erected to satisfy the surge in trade. Other public foundations in the region included the mosques of Aqbugha al-Utrush (Aleppo, 1399–1410) and Sabun (Damascus, 1464) as well as the Madrasa Jaqmaqiyya (Damascus, 1421).


In the second half of the fifteenth century, the arts thrived under the patronage of Qa’itbay (r. 1468–96), the greatest of the later Mamluk sultans. During his reign, the shrines of Mecca and Medina were extensively restored. Major cities were endowed with commercial buildings, religious foundations, and bridges. In Cairo, the complex of Qa’itbay in the Northern Cemetery (1472–74) is the best known and admired structure of this period. Building continued under the last Mamluk sultan, Qansuh al-Ghawri (r. 1501–17), who commissioned his own complex (1503–5); however, construction methods reflected the finances of the state. Though the Mamluk realm was soon incorporated into the Ottoman empire (1517), Mamluk visual culture continued to inspire Ottoman and other Islamic artistic traditions. Visual culture is a field of study within cultural studies focusing on aspects of culture that rely on visual images. ...


Mughal architecture

Main article: Mughal architecture
Further information: Indian architecture and Indo-Islamic architecture
The Badshahi Masjid, literally the 'Royal Mosque', was built in 1674 by Aurangzeb. It is one of Lahore's best known landmarks, and epitomizes the beauty and grandeur of the Mughal era.
The Taj Mahal in Agra, built by Shah Jahan as a mausoleum for his wife, represents the pinnacle of Mughal Islamic architecture in India and is one of the most recognisable buildings in the world.
The Taj Mahal in Agra, built by Shah Jahan as a mausoleum for his wife, represents the pinnacle of Mughal Islamic architecture in India and is one of the most recognisable buildings in the world.

Another distinctive sub-style is the architecture of the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century and a fusion of Arabic, Persian and Hindu elements. The Mughal emperor Akbar constructed the royal city of Fatehpur Sikri, located 26 miles west of Agra, in the late 1500s. Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Lotus Mahal at Hampi is a example of Indo-Islamic architecture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2270x1514, 427 KB) Summary A 4 Megapixel picture of Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2270x1514, 427 KB) Summary A 4 Megapixel picture of Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Masjid (بادشاەى مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second largest city in Pakistan. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1015 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Taj Mahal Author: Amal Mongia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1015 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Taj Mahal Author: Amal Mongia. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Persia redirects here. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Mughal Empire was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent between the mid-16th century and the end of the 17th century. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The most famous example of Mughal architecture is the Taj Mahal, the "teardrop on eternity," completed in 1648 by the emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died while giving birth to their 14th child. The extensive use of precious and semiprecious stones as inlay and the vast quantity of white marble required nearly bankrupted the empire. The Taj Mahal is completely symmetric other than the sarcophagus of Shah Jahan which is placed off center in the crypt room below the main floor. This symmetry extended to the building of an entire mirror mosque in red sandstone to complement the Mecca-facing mosque place to the west of the main structure. Another structure built that showed great depth of mughal influence was the Shalimar Gardens. Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... Shahabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... For red sandstone see: Old Red Sandstone New Red Sandstone This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Shalimar Gardens, sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, Pakistan. ...


Sino-Islamic architecture

Main article: Chinese mosques
Image:TongxinAHG.jpg
The Great Mosque of Tongxin, Ningxia
The Niujie Mosque in Beijing
The Niujie Mosque in Beijing
Turpan mosque
Turpan mosque

The first Chinese mosque was established in the 7th century during the Tang Dynasty in Xi'an. The Great Mosque of Xi'an, whose current buildings date from the Ming Dynasty, does not replicate many of the features often associated with traditional mosques. Instead, it follows traditional Chinese architecture. Some Chinese mosques in parts of western China were more likely to incorporate minarets and domes while eastern Chinese mosques were more likely to look like pagodas.[6] The Great Mosque of Xian, one of Chinas largest mosques Dongsi Mosque [1] Great Mosque, Huhhot [2] Great Mosque, Tianjin [3] Great Mosque, Xian [4] Huaisheng Mosque in Guangzhou [5] Huajue Mosque in Xian Id Kah Mosque in Kashgar [6] Najiahu Mosque in Yinchuan Nanguan Mosque... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1520x2288, 671 KB) Chinese-style minaret of the Great Mosque (Xian, China) Author: Miguel A. Monjas Date: 07/23, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Mosque Islam in China Great Mosque of Xian Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1520x2288, 671 KB) Chinese-style minaret of the Great Mosque (Xian, China) Author: Miguel A. Monjas Date: 07/23, 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Mosque Islam in China Great Mosque of Xian Metadata This file... The Great Mosque of Xian, one of Chinas largest mosques The Great Mosque of Xian (Chinese: 西安大清真寺), located near the Drum Tower (Gu Lou) on Huajue Lane of Xian, Shaanxi province, China, is one of the oldest and most renowned mosques in the country. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Niujie_Mosques02. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Niujie_Mosques02. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (866x499, 71 KB) Photo I took while in Kashgar on a geology expedition in 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (866x499, 71 KB) Photo I took while in Kashgar on a geology expedition in 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Id Kah mosque is a mosque located in Kashgar, Xinjiang, in the western Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 382 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: El minarete Emin: fue construido en el año 1777. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 382 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: El minarete Emin: fue construido en el año 1777. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... “Xian” redirects here. ... The Great Mosque of Xian, one of Chinas largest mosques The Great Mosque of Xian (Chinese: 西安大清真寺), located near the Drum Tower (Gu Lou) on Huajue Lane of Xian, Shaanxi province, China, is one of the oldest and most renowned mosques in the country. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, China, built in 1165 AD. Chinese architecture refers to a style of architecture that has taken shape in Asia over the centuries. ... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ...


An important feature in Chinese architecture is its emphasis on symmetry, which connotes a sense of grandeur; this applies to everything from palaces to mosques. One notable exception is in the design of gardens, which tends to be as asymmetrical as possible. Like Chinese scroll paintings, the principle underlying the garden's composition is to create enduring flow; to let the patron wander and enjoy the garden without prescription, as in nature herself. Sphere symmetry group o. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Chinese buildings may be built with either red or grey bricks, but wooden structures are the most common; these are more capable of withstanding earthquakes, but are vulnerable to fire. The roof of a typical Chinese building is curved; there are strict classifications of gable types, comparable with the classical orders of European columns. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Most mosques have certain aspects in common with each other however as with other regions Chinese Islamic architecture reflects the local architecture in its style. China is renowned for its beautiful mosques, which resemble temples. However in western China the mosques resemble those of the Middle East, with tall, slender minarets, curvy arches and dome shaped roofs. In northwest China where the Chinese Hui have built their mosques, there is a combination of eastern and western styles. The mosques have flared Buddhist style roofs set in walled courtyards entered through archways with miniature domes and minarets (see Beytullah Mosque).[7] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Look up Hui in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... External links Minarets, at the Encylopedia of the Orient Minaret Photo Gallery Categories: Stub | Mosques | Architectural elements ...


Afro-Islamic architecture

The Great Mosque of Djenné in Mali is a great example of Sudano-Sahelian architectural style.
The Great Mosque of Djenné in Mali is a great example of Sudano-Sahelian architectural style.
Main article: African architecture

The Islamic conquest of North Africa saw Islamic architecture develop in the region, including such famous structures as the Cairo Citadel. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 248 KB)used with the permission of Andy Gilham of www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 248 KB)used with the permission of Andy Gilham of www. ... The Great Mosques signature trio of minarets overlooks the central market of Djenné. The Great Mosque of Djenné is the largest mud brick building in the world and is considered by many architects to be the greatest achievement of the Sudano-Sahelian architectural style, albeit with definite Islamic influences. ... The Sudano-Sahelian is an architectural style common in the Sahel. ... The architecture of Africa, like other aspects of the culture of Africa, is hugely diverse. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Mohammed in 632 CE. By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia, had invaded Armenia, and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. ... The Saladin Citadel of Cairo (Arabic: قلعة صلاح الدين) is one of the most popular tourist attractions of Cairo. ...


Islamic merchants played a vital role in the Western Sahel region since the Kingdom of Ghana. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Ghana Empire (existed c. ...


At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city, surrounded by a great enclosure. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri), one centered on Friday prayer. [8] The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting.[9] Sahelian architecture initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné. Koumbi Saleh was the capital of the Ghana Empire. ... Abu Abdullah al-Bakri (1014–1094) (Arabic: أبو عبد الله البكري) was a Spanish-Arab geographer and historian. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sudano-Sahelian is an architectural style common in the Sahel. ... Great Mosque of Djenné The location of Djenné within Mali Djenné (also Dienné or Jenne) is a city on the Bani River in southern Mali with a population of about 12,000 (in 1987). ... Timbuktu (Archaic English: Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, Mali. ... Sankoré Madrasah, The University of Sankoré, or Sankore Masjid is one of three ancient centers of learning located in Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa. ... Timbuktu (Archaic English: Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, Mali. ... The Great Mosques signature trio of minarets overlooks the central market of Djenné. The Great Mosque of Djenné is the largest mud brick building in the world and is considered by many architects to be the greatest achievement of the Sudano-Sahelian architectural style, albeit with definite Islamic influences. ...


Contemporary architecture

Image File history File links King_Faisal_Masque_Islamabad. ... Image File history File links King_Faisal_Masque_Islamabad. ... Faisal Mosque, Islamabad King Faisal Mosque (Shah Faisal Masjid مسجد فیصل شاه in Urdu) is a large mosque located in Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ...

Interpretation

Common interpretations of Islamic architecture include the following: The concept of Allah's infinite power is evoked by designs with repeating themes which suggest infinity. Human and animal forms are rarely depicted in decorative art as Allah's work is considered to be matchless. Foliage is a frequent motif but typically stylized or simplified for the same reason. Arabic Calligraphy is used to enhance the interior of a building by providing quotations from the Qur'an. Islamic architecture has been called the "architecture of the veil" because the beauty lies in the inner spaces (courtyards and rooms) which are not visible from the outside (street view). Furthermore, the use of grandiose forms such as large domes, towering minarets, and large courtyards are intended to convey power.
Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ... The stylized signature of Sultan Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Architecture of mosques and buildings in Muslim countries

Main article: mosque

The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...

Forms

the interior of the Mezquita in Córdoba, Spain.
the interior of the Mezquita in Córdoba, Spain.
Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca, Morocco. 210m high. A floor with room for 25,000 worshippers.
Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca, Morocco. 210m high. A floor with room for 25,000 worshippers.

Many forms of Islamic architecture have evolved in different regions of the Islamic world. Notable Islamic architectural types include the early Abbasid buildings, T-type mosques, and the central-dome mosques of Anatolia. The oil-wealth of the 20th century drove a great deal of mosque construction using designs from leading modern architects. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x668, 153 KB) dome of Mezquita, Córdoba ; from w:de:Bild:Cordoba moschee innen5. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x668, 153 KB) dome of Mezquita, Córdoba ; from w:de:Bild:Cordoba moschee innen5. ... Interior of the Mezquita The Mezquita (Spanish for mosque, from the Arabic مسجد Masjid), was at one time the second largest mosque in the world in Córdoba, Spain and is now a Roman Catholic cathedral. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 2117 KB) Date: December, 2005 Location: Hassan II Mosque, Casablanca, Morocco, Africa Author: Rosino on Flickr Source: 82664690 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Casablanca Hassan... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 2117 KB) Date: December, 2005 Location: Hassan II Mosque, Casablanca, Morocco, Africa Author: Rosino on Flickr Source: 82664690 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Casablanca Hassan... Hassan II Mosque Hassan II Mosque Interior From the inside The Hassan II Mosque (Arabic مسجد الحسن الثاني, French Mosquée Hassan II) is a mosque located in Casablanca, Morocco. ... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Buick GNX remains the most popular model in the T-Type lineup. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


Arab-plan or hypostyle mosques are the earliest type of mosques, pioneered under the Umayyad Dynasty. These mosques are square or rectangular in plan with an enclosed courtyard and a covered prayer hall. Historically, because of the warm Mediterranean and Middle Eastern climates, the courtyard served to accommodate the large number of worshipers during Friday prayers. Most early hypostyle mosques have flat roofs on top of prayer halls, necessitating the use of numerous columns and supports.[10] One of the most notable hypostyle mosques is the Mezquita in Córdoba, Spain, as the building is supported by over 850 columns.[11] Frequently, hypostyle mosques have outer arcades so that visitors can enjoy some shade. Arab-plan mosques were constructed mostly under the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties; subsequently, however, the simplicity of the Arab plan limited the opportunities for further development, and as a result, these mosques gradually fell out of popularity.[10] The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... For other uses, see Column (disambiguation). ... The word support has several specialized meanings: In mathematics, see support (mathematics). ... Interior of the Mezquita The Mezquita (Spanish for mosque, from the Arabic مسجد Masjid), was at one time the second largest mosque in the world in Córdoba, Spain and is now a Roman Catholic cathedral. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Arcade. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


The Ottomans introduced central dome mosques in the 15th century and have a large dome centered over the prayer hall. In addition to having one large dome at the center, there are often smaller domes that exist off-center over the prayer hall or throughout the rest of the mosque, where prayer is not performed.[12] This style was heavily influenced by the Byzantine religious architecture with its use of large central domes.[10] The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


Iwan

the iwan entrance to the Taj Mahal in Agra
the iwan entrance to the Taj Mahal in Agra

An iwan (Persian ايوان derived from Pahlavi word Bān meaning house) is defined as a vaulted hall or space, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open. Image File history File links TajEntryArch. ... Image File history File links TajEntryArch. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ...


Iwans were a trademark of the Sassanid architecture of Persia, later finding their way into Islamic architecture. This transition reached its peak during the Seljuki era when iwans became established as a fundamental design unit in Islamic architecture. Typically, iwans open on to a central courtyard, and have been used in both public and residential architecture. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of...


Iwan mosques are most notable for their domed chambers and iwans, which are vaulted spaces open out on one end. In iwan mosques, one or more iwans face a central courtyard that serves as the prayer hall. The style represents a borrowing from pre-Islamic Iranian architecture and has been used almost exclusively for mosques in Iran. Many iwan mosques are converted Zoroastrian fire temples where the courtyard was used to house the sacred fire.[10] Today, iwan mosques are no longer built.[12] An Iwan is a large, vaulted chamber with a monumental arched opening on one side. ... Jahiliyyah or jahalia (Arabic: جاهلية) is an Islamic concept of ignorance of divine guidance or the state of ignorance of the guidance from God[1] referring to the condition Arabs found themselves in pre-Islamic Arabian society prior to the revelation of the Quran. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...


Sahn

A simple Sahn, with a howz in the middle. Notice flanking domed arcade.

Almost every mosque and traditionally all houses and buildings in areas of the Arab World contain a courtyard known as a sahn (Arabic صحن), which are surrounded on all sides by rooms and sometimes an arcade. Sahns usually feature a centrally positioned pool known as a howz. Image File history File links Sahn_sample. ... Image File history File links Sahn_sample. ... A small howz in a mosque in Tehran shaped in the traditional form of two sqaures rotated 45 degrees. ... For other uses, see Arcade. ... “Arab States” redirects here. ... A simple Sahn, with a Howz in the middle. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... A small howz in a mosque in Tehran shaped in the traditional form of two sqaures rotated 45 degrees. ...


If a sahn is in a mosque, it is used for performing ablutions. If a sahn is in a traditional house or private courtyard, it is used for aesthetics and to cool the summer heat.


Gardens

Main article: Islamic Gardens

The Qur'an uses the garden as an analogy for paradise and Islam came to have a significant influence on garden design. The Quran has many references to gardens and the garden is used as an earthly analogue for the life in paradise which is promised to believers. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Garden design is the art and process of designing the layout and planting of domestic gardens and landscapes. ...

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (501x669, 75 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mosque Qolsharif mosque ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (501x669, 75 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mosque Qolsharif mosque ... The mosque at night The Qolşärif mosque (also spelled Qol Sherif, Kul Sharif) located in Kazan is the largest mosque in Russia and, reputedly, in Europe. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ...

Arabesque

Main article: Arabesque

An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques and Muslim homes and buildings, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants, shapes and sometimes animals (specifically birds). The choice of which geometric forms are to be used and how they are to be formatted is based upon the Islamic view of the world. To Muslims, these forms, taken together, constitute an infinite pattern that extends beyond the visible material world. To many in the Islamic world, they in fact symbolize the infinite, and therefore uncentralized, nature of the creation of the one God (Allah). Furthermore, the Islamic Arabesque artist conveys a definite spirituality without the iconography of Christian art. Arabesque is used in mosques and building around the Muslim world, and it is a way of decorating using beautiful, embellishing and repetitive Islamic art instead of using pictures of humans and animals (which is forbidden Haram in Islam). Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ... This article covers the word as used in Islamic urban planning. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Calligraphy

Main article: Islamic calligraphy

Arabic calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art (the Arabesque) on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ...


Instead of recalling something related to the reality of the spoken word, calligraphy for the Muslim is a visible expression of spiritual concepts. Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated form of Islamic art because it provides a link between the languages of the Muslims with the religion of Islam. The holy book of Islam, al-Qur'ān, has played a vital role in the development of the Arabic language, and by extension, calligraphy in the Arabic alphabet. Proverbs and complete passages from the Qur'an are still active sources for Islamic calligraphy. Spoken word is a form of music or artistic performance in which lyrics, poetry, or stories are spoken rather than sung. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Elements of Islamic style

Islamic architecture may be identified with the following design elements, which were inherited from the first mosque built by Muhammad in Medina, as well as from other pre-Islamic features adapted from churches, temples and synagogues. Byzantine architecture had a great influence on early Islamic architecture with its characteristic round arches, vaults and domes. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...

  • Large courtyards often merged with a central prayer hall (originally a feature of the Masjid al-Nabawi).
  • Minarets or towers (these were originally used as torch-lit watchtowers, as seen in the Great Mosque of Damascus; hence the derivation of the word from the Arabic nur, meaning "light").
  • A four-iwan plan, with three subordinate halls and one principal one that faces toward Mecca
  • Mihrab or prayer niche on an inside wall indicating the direction to Mecca. This may have been derived from previous uses of niches for the setting of the torah scrolls in Jewish synagogues or the haikal of Coptic churches.
  • Iwans to intermediate between different sections.
  • The use of geometric shapes and repetitive art (arabesque).
  • The use of decorative Islamic calligraphy instead of pictures which were haram (forbidden) in mosque architecture. Note that in secular architecture, human and animal representation was indeed present.
  • The use of bright color.
  • Focus both on the interior space of a building and the exterior[citation needed]

Masjid al-Nabawi or Mosque of the Prophet is the second holiest mosque in the Islamic world. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque, is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. ... An Iwan is a large, vaulted chamber with a monumental arched opening on one side. ... Mihrab (in Persian مهراب or محراب, in Arabic ألمحراب pl. ... Florentine Renaissance painter Filippo Lippi placed his Madonna of the 1440s within a simulated shell-headed niche The niche in classical architecture is an exedra or an apse that has been reduced in size, retaining the half-dome heading usual for an apse. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... Cupola of St Peters Basilica, Rome In architecture, a cupola consists of a dome-shaped ornamental structure located on top of a larger roof or dome, often used as a lookout or to admit light and provide ventilation. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Shortcut: WP:LI Welcome to the Wikipedia image gallery. ... This article covers the word as used in Islamic urban planning. ... The worlds highest fountain: King Fahds Fountain in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Three traditional fountain features: a low jet, a pair of raised basins, and sculpture with a water theme, here hippocamps (Villa Borghese, Rome) A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ritual purification. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ...

Differences between Islamic architecture and Persian architecture

Like this of other nations that became part of the Islamic realm, Persian Architecture is not to be confused with Islamic Architecture and refers broadly to architectural styles across the Islamic world. Islamic architecture, therefore, does not directly include reference to Persian styles prior to the rise of Islam. Persian architecture, like other nations', predates Islamic architecture and can be correctly understood as an important influence on overall Islamic architecture as well as a branch of Islamic architecture since the introduction of Islam in Persia. Islamic architecture can be classified according to chronology, geography, and building typology. Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Islamic architecture

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... The Lotus Mahal at Hampi is a example of Indo-Islamic architecture. ... Arc de Triomf, Barcelona, 1888. ... A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... The Aga Khan Award for Architecture, established and funded by Aga Khan IV to recognize architectural excellence and community improvement -- including restoration efforts. ... A Hispano-Moresque jar The Hispano-Moresque ware is a term referring to an Islamic pottery style created in Andalusia. ... // The Historic Cities Support Programme (HCSP) of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC) promotes the conservation and re-use of buildings and public spaces in historic cities of the Muslim World. ... Ebba Koch is an architectural historian, an art historian, and a cultural historian; presently she is a professor at the Institute of Art History in Vienna, Austria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // 250 years 1000 years - The last 250 years (fine grid) is detailed above 8000 years - The last 1000 years (fine grid) is detailed above Voorthuis - Timelines Categories: | | ... Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Neolithic architecture is the architecture of the Neolithic period. ... For at least ten thousand years, the Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world which developed a vast array of structures known as Ancient Egyptian architecture. ... Coptic architecture is the architecture of the Copts, who form the majority of Christians in Egypt. ... Dravidian architecture, as unique and spectacular as any Greek, Roman or Egyptian architecture, spans many thousands of years. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... The Tigris-Euphrates plain lacked minerals and trees. ... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... Mesoamerican architecture is the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, traditions which are best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, defined as building executed to an aesthetically considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... A wall in the fortress of Ollantaytambo Inca architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America. ... Sassanid architecture. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... Stupa at Swayambhunath Newari architecture is the architecture developed by Newars. ... Buddhist religious architecture developed in the Indian subcontinent in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism: stupas and viharas. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Interior of San Zanipolo, Venice, photo Giovanni dallOrto. ... Categories: Buildings and structures stubs ... Vijayanagar Raya Gopura Belur, Karnataka The Vijayanagara Architecture of the period (1336 - 1565CE) was a unique building idiom evolved by the imperial Vijayanagar Empire that ruled the whole of South India from their regal capital at Vijayanagara on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in Karnataka, India. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... Château de Ferrières 1855 Mentmore Towers English Neo-Renaissance of the 1850s. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Copplestone, p.149
  2. ^ Tonna (1990), pp.182-197
  3. ^ Grabar, O. (2006) p.87
  4. ^ Ettinghausen (2003), p.87
  5. ^ a b "Islam", The New Encyclopedia Britannica (2005)
  6. ^ Cowen, Jill S.. "Muslims in China: The Mosque", Saudi Aramco World, July/August 1985, pp. 30-35. Retrieved on 2006-04-08. 
  7. ^ Saudi Aramco World, July/August 1985 , page 3035
  8. ^ Historical Society of Ghana. Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, The Society, 1957, pp81
  9. ^ Davidson, Basil. The Lost Cities of Africa. Boston: Little Brown, 1959, pp86
  10. ^ a b c d Hillenbrand, R "Masdjid. I. In the central Islamic lands". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  11. ^ Religious Architecture and Islamic Cultures. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved on 2006-04-09.
  12. ^ a b Vocabulary of Islamic Architecture. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved on 2006-04-09.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Clifford Edmund Bosworth (born December 29, 1928, Sheffield, United Kingdom) is a British historian and orientalist, specializing in Arabic studies. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Ettinghausen, Richard and Grabar, Oleg. (1987) The Art and Architecture of Islam: 650 - 1250, Penguin, USA
  • Pourjafar, M.Reza and Taghvaee, Ali A. (January-June 2006) Indo-Iranian Socio-Cultural Relations at Past, Present and Future Vol. 1 in -Web Journal on Cultural Patrimony (Fabio Maniscalco ed.)
  • Copplestone, Trewin. (ed). (1963). World architecture - An illustrated history. Hamlyn, London.
  • Hillenbrand, R "Masdjid. I. In the central Islamic lands". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  • Creswell, K. A. C. (1958) A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Clifford Edmund Bosworth (born December 29, 1928, Sheffield, United Kingdom) is a British historian and orientalist, specializing in Arabic studies. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Professor Sir Keppel Archibald Cameron Creswell (13 September 1879 – 8 April 1974) was an English architectural historian who wrote some of the seminal works on Islamic architecture in Egypt. ...

External links

Islamic studies
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Islamic Art

ArtArchitectureCalligraphyLiteratureMusicPoetryPottery Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ...

Islamic Philosophy

PhilosophyEarly PhilosophyModern PhilosophyTheology
HistoriographySociologyEarly Sociology
Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ...

Islamic Science

Islamic ScienceTimeline of Islamic ScienceIslamic Golden Age
Alchemy & ChemistryAstronomyMathematicsMedicineOphthalmology
In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... Umar Naeem SUCKS. In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ...

Islamic Technology

Muslim Inventions • Timeline of Islamic Technology A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... This timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world covers the development of science and technology in the Islamic world. ...

Other Fields

EconomicsEconomyHistoryJurisprudenceMysticismSufi Studies Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Sufi studies: a particular branch of comparative studies that uses a. ...


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